WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonplanar wideband power

  1. A 4-9 GHz 10 W wideband power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中子; 陈晓娟; 姚小江; 袁婷婷; 刘新宇; 李滨

    2009-01-01

    A 4-9 GHz wideband high power amplifier is designed and fabricated, which has demonstrated saturated output power of 10 W covering 6-8 GHz band, and above 6 W over the other band. This PA module uses a bal-ance configuration, and presents power gain of 7.3 ± 0.9 dB over the whole 4-9 GHz band and 39% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 8 GHz. Both the input and output VSWR are also excellent, which are bellow -10 dB.

  2. Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    performance in complex scenarios. Among these scenarios are ground penetrating radar and forward-looking radar for landmine and improvised explosive...Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) by Traian Dogaru ARL-TN-0548 June 2013...2013 Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Traian Dogaru Sensors and Electron

  3. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  4. Wideband Array Signal Detection Algorithm Based on Power Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the requirement of real-time signal detection in the passive surveillance system, a wideband array signal detection algorithm is proposed based on the concept of power focusing. By making use of the phase difference of the signal received by a uniform linear array, the algorithm makes the power of the received signal focused in the Direction Of Arrival (DOA with improved cascade FFT. Subsequently, the probability density function of the output noise at each angle is derived. Furthermore, a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR test statistic and the corresponding detection threshold are constructed. The theoretical probability of detection is also derived for different false alarm rate and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient, and the detection process is independent of the prior information. Meanwhile, the results can act as the initial value for other algorithms with higher precision. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves good performance for weak signal detection.

  5. Low-Power Wideband Digital Spectrometer for Planetary Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a wideband digital spectrometer to support space-born measurements of planetary atmospheric composition. The spectrometer...

  6. Wavelet network based predistortion method for wideband RF power amplifiers exhibiting memory effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhe; SONG Zhi-huan; HE Jia-ming

    2007-01-01

    RF power amplifiers (PAs) are usually considered as memoryless devices in most existing predistortion techniques.Nevertheless, in wideband communication systems, PA memory effects can no longer be ignored and memoryless predistortion cannot linearize PAs effectively. After analyzing PA memory effects, a novel predistortion method based on wavelet networks (WNs) is proposed to linearize wideband RF power amplifiers. A complex wavelet network with tapped delay lines is applied to construct the predistorter and then a complex backpropagation algorithm is developed to train the predistorter parameters. The simulation results show that compared with the previously published feed-forward neural network predistortion method, the proposed method provides faster convergence rate and better performance in reducing out-of-band spectral regrowth.

  7. Power-Efficient Ultra-Wideband Waveform Design Considering Radio Channel Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a power-efficient maskconstrained ultra-wideband (UWB waveform design with radio channel effects taken into consideration. Based on a finite impulse response (FIR filter, we develop a convex optimization model with respect to the autocorrelation of the filter coefficients to optimize the transmitted signal power spectrum, subject to a regulatory emission mask. To improve power efficiency, effects of transmitter radio frequency (RF components are included in the optimization of the transmitter-output waveform, and radio propagation effects are considered for obtaining the most efficient waveform at the receiver. Optimum coefficients of the FIR filter are obtained through spectral factorization of their autocorrelations. Simulation results show that the proposed method is able to maximize the transmitted UWB signal power under mask constraints set by regulatory authorities, while mitigating the power loss caused by channel attenuations.

  8. Metode RF Filter untuk Perbaikan Kinerja Received Total Wideband Power pada Sistem UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    adi surya antara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular communication system with multiple network operators operate on a co-located area (heterogeneus network causing effect of radio frequency interference. RTWP (received total wideband power value emerges as indicator radio frequency interference on UMTS system, which is primary contribution of degraded QoS cellular communication system. RF filter butterworth circuit two half section resulted as optimal design to reach the goal compare to the other circuit section. By implemented RF filter has showed improvement indicator perform RTWP on UMTS network operator.

  9. Compact and Wideband Parallel-Strip 180° Hybrid Coupler with Arbitrary Power Division Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a class of wideband 180° hybrid (rat race couplers implemented by parallel-strip line. By replacing the 270° arm of a conventional 180° hybrid coupler by a 90° arm with phase inverter, the bandwidth of the coupler is greatly enhanced and the total circuit size is reduced by almost half. Simple design formulas relating the characteristic impedance of the arms and power division ration are derived. To demonstrate the concept, four couplers with different power division ratios of 1, 2, 4, and 8 were designed, fabricated, and tested. S-parameters of the coupler are simulated and measured with good agreement. All working prototypes operate more than 112% impedance bandwidth with more than 25 dB port-to-port isolation and less than 5° absolute phase imbalance. The proposed 180° hybrid couplers can be employed as a wideband in-phase/differential power divider/combiner, which are essential for many RF and microwave subsystem designs.

  10. A low-power high-speed ultra-wideband pulse radio transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Tang; Culurciello, E

    2009-10-01

    We present a low-power high-speed ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter with a wireless transmission test platform. The system is specifically designed for low-power high-speed wireless implantable biosensors. The integrated transmitter consists of a compact pulse generator and a modulator. The circuit is fabricated in the 0.5-mum silicon-on-sapphire process and occupies 420 mum times 420 mum silicon area. The transmitter is capable of generating pulses with 1-ns width and the pulse rate can be controlled between 90 MHz and 270 MHz. We built a demonstration/testing system for the transmitter. The transmitter achieves a 14-Mb/s data rate. With 50% duty cycle data, the power consumption of the chip is between 10 mW and 21 mW when the transmission distance is from 3.2 to 4 m. The core circuit size is 70 mum times 130 mum.

  11. Wideband Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a bit-interleaved coded wideband impulse-modulated system for power line communications. Impulse modulation is combined with direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA to obtain a form of orthogonal modulation and to multiplex the users. We focus on the receiver signal processing algorithms and derive a maximum likelihood frequency-domain detector that takes into account the presence of impulse noise as well as the intercode interference (ICI and the multiple-access interference (MAI that are generated by the frequency-selective power line channel. To reduce complexity, we propose several simplified frequency-domain receiver algorithms with different complexity and performance. We address the problem of the practical estimation of the channel frequency response as well as the estimation of the correlation of the ICI-MAI-plus-noise that is needed in the detection metric. To improve the estimators performance, a simple hard feedback from the channel decoder is also used. Simulation results show that the scheme provides robust performance as a result of spreading the symbol energy both in frequency (through the wideband pulse and in time (through the spreading code and the bit-interleaved convolutional code.

  12. A Wideband Digital Predistorter for a Doherty Power Amplifier Using a Direct Learning Memory Effect Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kenichi; Matsunaga, Naoko; Yamauchi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Ryoji; Miyazaki, Moriyasu; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a digital predistorter with a wideband memory effect compensator for a Doherty power amplifier (PA). A simple memory-predistortion model, which consists of a look-up-table (LUT) and an adaptive filter equalizing memory effects, and a new memory effect estimation algorithm using a direct-learning architecture are proposed. The proposed estimation algorithm has an advantage that a transfer function of a feedback circuit does not affect the learning process. The predistorter is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP). The transmitter has achieved distortion level of -50.8dBr at signal bandwidth away from the carrier, and PA module efficiency of 24% with output power of 43dBm at 2595MHz under a 20MHz-bandwidth orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal using laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) FETs.

  13. Wideband resonator arrays for electromagnetic energy harvesting and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavikia, Babak; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of wideband Ground-backed Complementary Split-Ring Resonator (WG-CSRR) arrays with significant power conversion efficiency and bandwidth enhancement in comparison to the technology used in current electromagnetic energy harvesting systems. Through numerical full-wave analysis, we demonstrated the correlation between the topology of the WG-CSRR patch and the electric current distribution over the patch at different frequencies. A comparative study of power harvesting efficiency and frequency bandwidth through numerical analysis was presented where an array of WG-CSRRs is compared to an array of G-CSRRs and an array of microstrip patch antennas. A significant improvement in bandwidth is achieved in comparison to the G-CSRR array reported in earlier work.

  14. Study on the Generation of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊亚军; 刘国治; 刘小龙; 宋晓欣; 刘锋; 石磊

    2003-01-01

    The experimental study of ultra-wideband (UWB) technology, its generation and on-line measurement are presented. An experimental repetitive UWB system is designed, manufactured, and tested. High-pressure spark gap switch and its components, as well as oil spark gap switch are studied experimentally on the system. Experimental results indicate that the system operates at a 200 pps repetitive rate with a stable performance. 100 MW peak power UWB pulses are obtained on the system. Fast-time response capacitive divider is designed and fabricated, allowing for an accurate measurement of the high power UWB signal. The main issues related to the design of the switch and the UWB signal online measurement are discussed.

  15. A Fuzzy Logic Based Power Control for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravichandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Resource management is one of the most important engineering issues in 3G systems where multiple traffic classes are supported each being characterized by its required Quality of Service (QoS parameters. Call Admission Control (CAC is one of the resource management functions, which regulates network access to ensure QoS provisioning. Efficient CAC is necessary for the QoS provisioning in WCDMA environment. The effective functioning of WCDMA systems is influenced by the power control utility. Approach: In this study, we propose to design a fuzzy logic based power control for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Networks. This proposed technique is aimed at multiple services like voice, video and data for multiclass users. The fuzzy logic technique is used to estimate the optimal admissible users group inclusive of optimum transmitting power level. This technique reduces the interference level and call rejection rate. Results: By simulation results, we demonstrate that the proposed technique achieve reduced energy consumption for a cell with increased throughput. Conclusion: The proposed technique minimizes the power consumption and call rejection rate.

  16. Development of a high power wideband polarizer for electron cyclotron current drive system in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio, E-mail: saigusa@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Oyama, Gaku; Matsubara, Fumiaki; Takii, Keita; Sai, Takuma [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new wideband polarizer for JT-60SA ECCD system. • The wideband polarizer is optimized for dual frequency gyrotrons (110 and 138 GHz) in JT-60SA. • The wideband polarization properties were verified at cold tests. • The preliminary high power tests have been carried out at 0.25 MW, 3 s at 110 GHz. - Abstract: A wideband polarizer consisting of a polarization twister and a circular polarizer has been developed for an electron cyclotron current driving system in JT-60SA, where the output frequencies of a dual frequency gyrotron for JT-60SA are 110 and 138 GHz. The groove depths are optimized for the dual frequencies by numerical simulations using a FDTD method and cold test results. The polarization properties of a mock-up polarizer are measured at the dual frequencies in cold tests. The cold test results suggest that all practical polarizations for ECCD experiments can be achieved at the dual frequencies. The prototype polarization twister has been tested up to 0.25 MW during 3 s at the frequency of 110 GHz.

  17. Fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband noise radar with steerable power spectrum and colorless base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jianbin; Wei, Li; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Lixian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2014-03-10

    A fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar was achieved, which consists of a chaotic UWB noise source based on optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), a fiber-distributed transmission link, a colorless base station (BS), and a cross-correlation processing module. Due to a polarization modulation based microwave photonic filter and an electrical UWB pass-band filter embedded in the feedback loop of the OEO, the power spectrum of chaotic UWB signal could be shaped and notch-filtered to avoid the spectrum-overlay-induced interference to the narrow band signals. Meanwhile, the wavelength-reusing could be implemented in the BS by means of the distributed polarization modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion. The experimental comparison for range finding was carried out as the chaotic UWB signal was notch-filtered at 5.2 GHz and 7.8 GHz or not. Measured results indicate that space resolution with cm-level could be realized after 3-km fiber transmission thanks to the excellent self-correlation property of the UWB noise signal provided by the OEO. The performance deterioration of the radar raised by the energy loss of the notch-filtered noise signal was negligible.

  18. Impact of Noise Power Uncertainty on the Performance of Wideband Spectrum Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tascioglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the impact of noise uncertainty on the performance of a wideband spectrum segmentation technique. We define metrics to quantify the degradation due to noise uncertainty and evaluate the performance using simulations. Our simulation results show that the noise uncertainty has detrimental effects especially for low SNR users.

  19. A wideband LC-VCO with small VCO gain variation and adaptive power control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bin; Fan Xiangning; Wang Zhigong

    2012-01-01

    A wideband LC tank voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) is proposed.To solve the impacts ofwideband operation on VCO gain (Kvco) variation and start-up constraint,a binary-weighted varactor array and a binary-weighted negative resistance array all with optimal unit values are designed.Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process,the proposed VCO shows a frequency tuning range from 1.9 to 3.1 GHz,with a current consumption varying accordingly from 14.2 to 4 mA from a 1.8 V supply.With the proposed Kvco suppression technique,the Kvco varies from 50 to 60 MHz/V in the entire frequency range.The measured phase noise is -117 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset from a 3 GHz carrier.

  20. Evidence for a Nonplanar Amplituhedron

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the the nonplanar sector of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  1. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  2. A batch-fabricated electret-biased wideband MEMS vibration energy harvester with frequency-up conversion behavior powering a UHF wireless sensor node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; O'Riordan, E.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Blokhina, E.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a batch-fabricated, low-frequency and wideband MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH), which implements corona-charged vertical electrets and nonlinear elastic stoppers. A numeric model is used to perform parametric study, where we observe a wideband bi-modality resulting from nonlinearity. The nonlinear stoppers improve the bandwidth and induce a frequency-up feature at low frequencies. When the e-VEH works with a bias of 45 V, the power reaches a maximum value of 6.6 μW at 428 Hz and 2.0 g rms, and is above 1 μW at 50 Hz. When the frequency drops below 60 Hz, a ‘frequency-up’ conversion behavior is observed with peaks of power at 34 Hz and 52 Hz. The  -3 dB bandwidth is more than 60% of its central frequency, both including and excluding the hysteresis introduced by the nonlinear stoppers. We also perform experiments with wideband Gaussian noise. The device is eventually tested with an RF data transmission setup, where a communication node with an internal temperature sensor is powered. Every 2 min, a data transmission at 868 MHz is performed by the sensor node supplied by the e-VEH, and received at a distance of up to 15 m.

  3. Wideband high efficiency CMOS envelope amplifiers for 4G LTE handset envelope tracking RF power amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Fourth generation cellular networks offer performance similar to cable modems while allowing wide mobility. Although the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in fourth generation increases its spectral efficiency but it also increases the peak-to-average power ratio of the transmitted signal. If a conventional power amplifier is used to transmit a high peak-to-average power ratio signal, then to meet the stringent linearity requirements, it will be operating 6 to 10 dB back-off f...

  4. Spectrally Matched Wideband Metamaterial Emitters for High Power and Efficient Thermophotovoltaic Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system is a promising energy conversion device that generates the electric power from short wave infrared (SWIR) thermal radiation....

  5. Ultra-Wideband Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Namgoong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of ultra-wideband (UWB technology to low-cost short-range communications presents unique challenges to the communications engineer. The impact of the US FCC's regulations and the characteristics of the low-power UWB propagation channels are explored, and their effects on UWB hardware design are illustrated. This tutorial introduction includes references to more detailed explorations of the subject.

  6. Low-Power Ultra-Wideband Radio and Radar Chip Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Research LC (PRLC), Virginia Tech (VT), and the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) propose to develop an ultra-low power radio/radar based on a CMOS...

  7. Active Harmonic Load–Pull With Realistic Wideband Communications Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, M.; Pelk, M.J.; Buisman, K.; Neo, W.C.E.; Spirito, M.; De Vreede, L.C.N.

    2008-01-01

    A new wideband open-loop active harmonic load–pull measurement approach is presented. The proposed method is based on wideband data-acquisition and wideband signal-injection of the incident and device generated power waves at the frequencies of interest. The system provides full, user defined, in-ba

  8. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  9. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswaran Uthirajoo

    Full Text Available For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC power amplifier (PA is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR and error vector magnitude (EVM specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  10. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  11. Wideband Modeling of Power Transformers Using Commercial sFRA Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Gustavsen, B.; Arana Aristi, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure to characterize an admittance matrix over a wide frequency band, for the purpose of black-box modeling of power transformers. Unlike previous approaches, our setup is based on a commercial sweep frequency response analysis (sFRA) measurement instrument which is...

  12. Wideband radial power combiner/divider fed by a mode transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Larry W. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor); Kelley, Daniel (Inventor); Khan, Abdur R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A radial power combiner/divider capable of a higher order (for example, N=24) of power combining/dividing and a 15% bandwidth (31 to 36 GHz). The radial power combiner/divider generally comprises an axially-oriented mode transducer coupled to a radial base. The mode transducer transduces circular TE01 waveguide into rectangular TE10 waveguide, and the unique radial base combines/divides a plurality of peripheral rectangular waveguide ports into a single circular TE01 waveguide end of the transducer. The radial base incorporates full-height waveguides that are stepped down to reduced-height waveguides to form a stepped-impedance configuration, thereby reducing the height of the waveguides inside the base and increasing the order N of combining/dividing. The reduced-height waveguides in the base converge radially to a matching post at the bottom center of the radial base which matches the reduced height rectangular waveguides into the circular waveguide that feeds the mode transducer.

  13. Wideband dynamic microwave frequency identification system using a low-power ultracompact silicon photonic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Maurizio; Wang, Xu; Li, Ming; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2016-09-01

    Photonic-based instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) of unknown microwave signals offers improved flexibility and frequency range as compared with electronic solutions. However, no photonic platform has ever demonstrated the key capability to perform dynamic IFM, as required in real-world applications. In addition, all demonstrations to date employ bulky components or need high optical power for operation. Here we demonstrate an integrated photonic IFM system that can identify frequency-varying signals in a dynamic manner, without any need for fast measurement instrumentation. The system is based on a fully linear, ultracompact system based on a waveguide Bragg grating on silicon, only 65-μm long and operating up to ~30 GHz with carrier power below 10 mW, significantly outperforming present technologies. These results open a solid path towards identification of dynamically changing signals over tens of GHz bandwidths using a practical, low-cost on-chip implementation for applications from broadband communications to biomedical, astronomy and more.

  14. Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers as high-power and wideband, gapless sources for spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röben, Benjamin; Lü, Xiang; Hempel, Martin; Biermann, Klaus; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T

    2017-07-10

    Terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are powerful radiation sources for high-resolution and high-sensitivity spectroscopy with a discrete spectrum between 2 and 5 THz as well as a continuous coverage of several GHz. However, for many applications, a radiation source with a continuous coverage of a substantially larger frequency range is required. We employed a multi-mode THz QCL operated with a fast ramped injection current, which leads to a collective tuning of equally-spaced Fabry-Pérot laser modes exceeding their separation. A continuous coverage over 72 GHz at about 4.7 THz was achieved. We demonstrate that the QCL is superior to conventional sources used in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio as well as the dynamic range by one to two orders of magnitude. Our results pave the way for versatile THz spectroscopic systems with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity across a wide frequency range.

  15. A low power wide-band CMOS PLL frequency synthesizer for portable hybrid GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shimao; Yu Yunfeng; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin Ming, E-mail: xiaoshimao@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The design consideration and implementation of a CMOS frequency synthesizer for the portable hybrid global navigation satellite system are presented. The large tuning range is achieved by tuning curve compensation using an improved VCO resonant tank, which reduces the power consumption and obtains better phase noise performance. The circuit is validated by simulations and fabricated in a standard 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS process. Close-loop phase noise measured is lower than -95 dBc at 200 kHz offset while the measured tuning range is 21.5% from 1.47 to 1.83 GHz. The proposed synthesizer including source coupled logic prescaler consumes 6.2 mA current from 1.8 V supply. The whole silicon required is only 0.53 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A 130 nm CMOS low-power SAR ADC for wide-band communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghao, Bian; Jun, Yan; Yin, Shi; Ling, Sun

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a low power 9-bit 80 MS/s SAR ADC with comparator-sharing technique in 130 nm CMOS process. Compared to the conventional SAR ADC, the sampling phase is removed to reach the full efficiency of the comparator. Thus the conversion rate increases by about 20% and its sampling time is relaxed. The design does not use any static components to achieve a widely scalable conversion rate with a constant FOM. The floorplan of the capacitor network is custom-designed to suppress the gain mismatch between the two DACs. The ‘set-and-down’ switching procedure and a novel binary-search error compensation scheme are utilized to further speed up the SA bit-cycling operation. A very fast logic controller is proposed with a delay time of only 90 ps. At 1.2 V supply and 80 MS/s the ADC achieves an SNDR of 51.4 dB and consumes 1.86 mW, resulting in an FOM of 76.6 fJ/conversion-step. The ADC core occupies an active area of only 0.089 mm2.

  17. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  18. On the perspectives of wide-band gap power devices in electronic-based power conversion for renewable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos Araujo, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    The high breakdown field from WBG materials allows the construction of unipolar devices with very low specific chip resistance mainly characterized by very low conduction and switching losses, even at high blocking voltages. Suitable concepts for SiC and GaN range from traditional FET structures driven by a MOS interface or a PN-Junction, bipolar devices and even high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT). A detailed revision of the literature will be performed in this work with the objective of providing a broad overview of possible approaches, along with inherent advantages and limitations. In addition to this, a benchmarking of several SiC-based devices technologies rated for 1200 V and 1700 V will be performed against their state-of-the-art Silicon-counterparts. Concerning the application of wide band gap devices in renewable energy systems, a significant cost reduction potential can be obtained due to smaller expenditure with magnetic filters and cooling, alongside higher efficiency levels. These aspects will be discussed in details in order to identify constraints and bottlenecks at application level with special focus on photovoltaic and wind power systems.

  19. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...... softening effect. In linear operation (without magnets) the harvester generates a RMS power of 141 μW/g2 at 588 Hz with a relative bandwidth of 3.8% over a 100 kΩ load resistor. When operated with one magnet ideally positioned opposite the cantilever, a RMS power of 265 μW/g2 is generated at 270 Hz...

  20. Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    SATCOM (WGS), previously reported as Wideband Gapfiller Satellites, is a constellation of the Department of Defense’s highest capacity communication...has two International Partnerships. In exchange for access to a portion of the WGS constellation , Australia is providing funds for WGS-6 while Canada...48 UNCLASSIFIED 6 Executive Summary Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS), previously reported as Wideband Gapfiller Satellites, is a constellation of the

  1. Wideband FM demodulation by injection-locked division of frequency deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visweswaran, A.; Long, J.R.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    A novel and useful wideband FM demodulator operating across an 8 GHz IF bandwidth for application in low-power, wideband heterodyne receivers. The demodulator includes an n-stage ring oscillator that is injection locked to a wideband input signal. Locking to the input frequency, it divides the FM de

  2. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  3. Structural mechanisms of nonplanar hemes in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to assess the occurrence of nonplanar distortions of hemes and other tetrapyrroles in proteins and to determine the biological function of these distortions. Recently, these distortions were found by us to be conserved among proteins belonging to a functional class. Conservation of the conformation of the heme indicates a possible functional role. Researchers have suggested possible mechanisms by which heme distortions might influence biological properties; however, no heme distortion has yet been shown conclusively to participate in a structural mechanism of hemoprotein function. The specific aims of the proposed work are: (1) to characterize and quantify the distortions of the hemes in all of the more than 300 hemoprotein X-ray crystal structures in terms of displacements along the lowest-frequency normal coordinates, (2) to determine the structural features of the protein component that generate and control these nonplanar distortions by using spectroscopic studies and molecular-mechanics calculations for the native proteins, their mutants and heme-peptide fragments, and model porphyrins, (3) to determine spectroscopic markers for the various types of distortion, and, finally, (4) to discover the functional significance of the nonplanar distortions by correlating function with porphyrin conformation for proteins and model porphyrins.

  4. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...

  5. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  6. Higher Loop Nonplanar Anomalous Dimensions from Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Robert de Mello; Messamah, Ilies

    2013-01-01

    In this article we study the action of the one loop dilatation operator on operators with a classical dimension of order N. These operators belong to the su(2) sector and are constructed using two complex fields Y and Z. For these operators non-planar diagrams contribute already at the leading order in N and the planar and large N limits are distinct. The action of the one loop and the two loop dilatation operator reduces to a set of decoupled oscillators and factorizes into an action on the Z fields and an action on the Y fields. Direct computation has shown that the action on the Y fields is the same at one and two loops. In this article, using the su(2) symmetry algebra as well as structural features of field theory, we give compelling evidence that the factor in the dilatation operator that acts on the Ys is given by the one loop expression, at any loop order.

  7. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  8. Discrete differential geometry: the nonplanar quadrilateral mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Carole J; Marsland, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a discrete differential geometry defined on nonplanar quadrilateral meshes. Physical models on discrete nonflat spaces are of inherent interest, as well as being used in applications such as computation for electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, and image analysis. However, the majority of analysis has focused on triangulated meshes. We consider two approaches: discretizing the tensor calculus, and a discrete mesh version of differential forms. While these two approaches are equivalent in the continuum, we show that this is not true in the discrete case. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct mesh versions of the Levi-Civita connection (and hence the tensorial covariant derivative and the associated covariant exterior derivative), the torsion, and the curvature. We show how discrete analogs of the usual vector integral theorems are constructed in such a way that the appropriate conservation laws hold exactly on the mesh, rather than only as approximations to the continuum limit. We demonstrate the success of our method by constructing a mesh version of classical electromagnetism and discuss how our formalism could be used to deal with other physical models, such as fluids.

  9. Ultra-Wideband Radio Frequency Identification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nekoogar, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-Wideband Radio Frequency Identification Systems describes the essentials of radio frequency identification systems as well as their target markets. The authors provide a study of commercially available RFID systems and characterizes their performance in terms of read range and reliability in the presence of conductive and dielectric materials. The capabilities and limitations of some commercial RFID systems are reported followed by comprehensive discussions of the advantages and challenges of using ultra-wideband technology for tag/reader communications. The book presents practical aspects of UWB RFID system such as: pulse generation, remote powering, tag and reader antenna design, as well as special applications of  UWB RFIDs in a simple and easy-to-understand language.

  10. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  11. Transverse modes of a diode-laser pumped monolithic unidirectional non-planar ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keying Wu(吴克瑛); Suhui Yang(杨苏辉); Guanghui Wei(魏光辉)

    2003-01-01

    Diode-laser pumped monolithic single-frequency non-planar ring laser has the advantages of compactness,reliability and high efficiency. But when the pump power is high enough, the thermal effect will be seriousand the high-order transverse modes will appear. Therefore the single-mode output power is limited. Inthis paper, the mechanism of generating the high-order transverse modes in the monolithic unidirectionalnon-planar ring cavity is analyzed using ray tracing method. The calculated results are in agreement withthe experiments.

  12. Wideband amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Hollister, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model

  13. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  14. Bit-interleaved coded modulation in the wideband regime

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Alfonso; Caire, Giuseppe; Willems, Frans

    2007-01-01

    The wideband regime of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) in Gaussian channels is studied. The Taylor expansion of the coded modulation capacity for generic signal constellations at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived and used to determine the corresponding expansion for the BICM capacity. Simple formulas for the minimum energy per bit and the wideband slope are given. BICM is found to be suboptimal in the sense that its minimum energy per bit can be larger than the corresponding value for coded modulation schemes. The minimum energy per bit using standard Gray mapping on M-PAM or M^2-QAM is given by a simple formula and shown to approach -0.34 dB as M increases. Using the low SNR expansion, a general trade-off between power and bandwidth in the wideband regime is used to show how a power loss can be traded off against a bandwidth gain.

  15. Wideband Antenna for HPM Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkan Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of microwave pulses of gigawatt power level have a lot of constraints. A receiving antenna is a starting and core point of the measurement system. Waveguide based and dipole antennas have a limited wide bands, while the use of commercially available wideband antennas is restricted by their maximum peak power acceptances. The design of the wide band antenna with the small effective area was proposed. The characteristics of prototype were obtained in numerical simulations with ANSYS HFSS software and by calibration tests in the frequency band of 1–13 GHz. It has the effective area about the 1 mm2 in X-band and square-law dependence on the wavelength in a wide band. The cross polarization rate is more than 60 dB at the centre position and not less than 30 dB within the range of ±5° in azimuth and elevation angle. The wide beam radiation pattern forces a user to discriminate reflected signals. This antenna could greatly simplify the measurement system, replacing a set of narrow band antennas that connected to several recording channels.

  16. Laser-diode-pumped 1319-nm monolithic non-planar ring single-frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang(王青); Chunqing Gao(高春清); Yan Zhao(赵严); Suhui Yang(杨苏辉); Guanghui Wei(魏光辉); Dongmei Hong(洪冬梅)

    2003-01-01

    Single-frequency 1319-nm laser was obtained by using a laser-diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG crystalwith a non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO). When the NPRO laser was pumped by an 800-μm fiber coupledlaser diode, the output power of the single-frequency 1319-nm laser was 220 mW, and the slope efficiencywas 16%. With a 100-μm fiber coupled diode laser pumped, 99-mW single-frequency 1319-nm laser wasobtained with a slope efficiency of 29%.

  17. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  18. Wideband Lithium Niobate FBAR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Baron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filters based on film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs are widely used for mobile phone applications, but they can also address wideband aerospace requirements. These devices need high electromechanical coupling coefficients to achieve large band pass filters. The piezoelectric material LiNbO3 complies with such specifications and is compatible with standard fabrication processes. In this work, simple metal—LiNbO3—metal structures have been developed to fabricate single FBAR elements directly connected to each other on a single chip. A fabrication process based on LiNbO3/silicon Au-Au bonding and LiNbO3 lapping/polishing has been developed and is proposed in this paper. Electrical measurements of these FBAR filters are proposed and commented exhibiting filters with 8% of fractional bandwidth and 3.3 dB of insertion losses. Electrical measurements show possibilities to obtain 14% of fractional bandwidth. These devices have been packaged, allowing for power handling, thermal, and ferroelectric tests, corresponding to spatial conditions.

  19. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p2=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  20. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p2=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  1. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-04-16

    The absence of a pole at p/sup 2/=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  2. Ultra-Wideband Transceivers for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisenzahn Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB radio offers low power consumption, low power spectral density, high immunity against interference, and other benefits, not only for consumer electronics, but also for medical devices. A cochlear implant (CI is an electronic hearing apparatus, requiring a wireless link through human tissue. In this paper we propose an UWB link for a data rate of Mbps and a propagation distance up to 500 mm. Transmitters with step recovery diode and transistor pulse generators are proposed. Two types of antennas and their filter characteristics in the UWB spectrum will be discussed. An ultra-low-power back tunnel diode receiver prototype is described and compared with conventional detector receivers.

  3. Study of nonplanarity of peptide bond using theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarengan, P; Kolandaivel, P

    2005-08-01

    The conformational dependence of nonplanarity of the peptide bond of formylglycinamide has been studied using ab initio and density functional theory methods. Hartree-Fock self-consistent field theory (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) of ab initio and B3LYP level of theory of dft method have been used employing 6-31++G** basis set. The MP2 method predicts better results than HF and B3LYP levels of theory for conformational stability dependence of nonplanarity. Systematic dependence of planarity deviation has been observed in MP2 theory. The chemical hardness values successfully predict the conformational region, but fail to obey maximum hardness principle. It is concluded that the most reliable dft method could not successfully predict the planarity of peptide bond in comparison with electron correlated method of ab initio method.

  4. Application of Random Ferns for non-planar object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastov, Alexey; Konovalenko, Ivan; Grigoryev, Anton

    2015-12-01

    The real time object detection task is considered as a part of a project devoted to development of autonomous ground robot. This problem has been successfully solved with Random Ferns algorithm, which belongs to keypoint-based method and uses fast machine learning algorithms for keypoint matching step. As objects in the real world are not always planar, in this article we describe experiments of applying this algorithm for non-planar objects. Also we introduce a method for fast detection of a special class of non-planar objects | those which can be decomposed into planar parts (e.g. faces of a box). This decomposition needs one detector for each side, which may significantly affect speed of detection. Proposed approach copes with it by omitting repeated steps for each detector and organizing special queue of detectors. It makes the algorithm three times faster than naive one.

  5. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  6. Dynamics of rotationally fissioned asteroids: non-planar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, L. A. G.; Scheeres, D. J.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-10-01

    The rotational fission of asteroids has been studied previously with simplified models restricted to planar motion. However, the observed physical configuration of contact binaries leads one to conclude that most of them are not in a planar configuration and hence would not be restricted to planar motion once they undergo rotational fission. This motivated a study of the evolution of initially non-planar binaries created by fission. Using a two-ellipsoid model, we performed simulations taking only gravitational interactions between components into account. We simulate 91 different initial inclinations of the equator of the secondary body for 19 different mass ratios. After disruption, the binary system dynamics are chaotic, as predicted from theory. Starting the system in a non-planar configuration leads to a larger energy and enhanced coupling between the rotation state of the smaller fissioned body and the evolving orbital system, and enables re-impact to occur. This leads to differences with previous planar studies, with collisions and secondary spin fission occurring for all mass ratios with inclinations θ0 ≥ 40o, and mimics a Lidov-Kozai mechanism. Out of 1729 studied cases, we found that ˜14 per cent result in secondary fission, ˜25 per cent result in collisions and ˜6 per cent have lifetimes longer than 200 yr. In Jacobson & Scheeres stable binaries only formed in cases with mass ratios q system should start in a non-planar configuration.

  7. Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jaberi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.

  8. A generalized Beraha conjecture for non-planar graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke, E-mail: jesper.jacobsen@ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Salas, Jesús, E-mail: jsalas@math.uc3m.es [Grupo de Modelización, Simulación Numérica y Matemática Industrial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Grupo de Teorías de Campos y Física Estadística, Instituto Gregorio Millán, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Unidad Asociada al IEM–CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-21

    We study the partition function Z{sub G(nk,k)}(Q,v) of the Q-state Potts model on the family of (non-planar) generalized Petersen graphs G(nk,k). We study its zeros in the plane (Q,v) for 1⩽k⩽7. We also consider two specializations of Z{sub G(nk,k)}, namely the chromatic polynomial P{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−1), and the flow polynomial Φ{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−Q). In these two cases, we study their zeros in the complex Q-plane for 1⩽k⩽7. We pay special attention to the accumulation loci of the corresponding zeros when n→∞. We observe that the Berker–Kadanoff phase that is present in two-dimensional Potts models, also exists for non-planar recursive graphs. Their qualitative features are the same; but the main difference is that the role played by the Beraha numbers for planar graphs is now played by the non-negative integers for non-planar graphs. At these integer values of Q, there are massive eigenvalue cancellations, in the same way as the eigenvalue cancellations that happen at the Beraha numbers for planar graphs.

  9. Ultra-wideband Radar Methods and Techniques of Medical Sensing and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, C N; Chang, J T; Romero, C E; Watson, J; Pearce, F J; Levin, N

    2005-10-07

    Ultra-wideband radar holds great promise for a variety of medical applications. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using ultra-wideband sensors for detection of internal injuries, monitoring of respiratory and cardiac functions, and continuous non-contact imaging of the human body. Sensors are low-power, portable, and do not require physical contact with the patient. They are ideal for use by emergency responders to make rapid diagnosis and triage decisions. In the hospital, vital signs monitoring and imaging application could improve patient outcomes. In this paper we present an overview of ultra-wideband radar technology, discuss key design tradeoffs, and give examples of ongoing research in applying ultra-wideband technology to the medical field.

  10. Physisorbed Films on Planar and Nonplanar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the case of multilayer liquid films on planar surfaces, we found that the widely used Frenkel-Halsey -Hill theory is the leading term of a many-body expansion of the more general Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii theory in the nonretardation limit. While the FHH theory is a good approximation in the thin film region, retardation has been shown to be important at thickness d >=q 100 A. A universal behavior of the retardation has also been found. Submonolayer He film on weak-binding substrate surfaces have been found to have unexpected and exciting new features. The weak binding of the substrate potential supports only low density monolayer He films so that the monolayer He solid can be eliminated. Meanwhile, the z -wise delocalization of He atoms reduces the He-He interaction and the lateral binding. It is possible that the 2D liquid film will be eliminated as well and a quasi-2D bose gas is expected. A further possibility is that no He monolayer film at all will be present on a weak-binding substrate. The possibility of using the fractal geometry to describe (global) surface roughness has been investigated. A power-law relation between the coverage and thickness is found on a fractally rough surface, with its exponent determined by the surface fractal dimension. A new and interesting phenomenon has been found: the adsorbed film "defractalizes" the substrate surface; this is observable by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Adsorption inside a cylindrical pore and near an oblique corner have also been discussed.

  11. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  12. Integrable system on phase space with nonplanar metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, E I

    2001-01-01

    The problem on the integrability of the evolution system on the phase spaces with the nonplanar metrics is studied. It is shown that in the case, when the phase space is a sphere, the system Hamiltonians are generated under the action of the Poisson operators on the variations of the phase space geodesic lines and the problem on the evolution system integrability is reduced to the task on the integrability of the repers motion equations on the phase space. The bihamiltonian representation of the evaluation systems is connected with the differential-geometric properties of the phase space

  13. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...

  14. Three Specialized Innovations for FAST Wideband Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Yu, Xinying; Duan, Ran; Hao, Jie; Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    The National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) will soon finish the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz.To take advantage of its giant aperture, all relevant cutting-edge technology should be applied to FAST to ensure that it achieves the best possible overall performance. The wideband receiver that is currently under development can not only be directly applied to FAST, but also used for other Chinese radio telescopes, such as the Shanghai 65-meter telescope and the Xinjiang 110-meter telescope, to ensure that these telescopes are among the best in the world. Recently, rapid development related to this wideband receiver has been underway. In this paper, we will introduce three key aspects of the FAST wideband receiver project. First is the use of a high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC). With the cooperation of Hao Jie’s team from the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CASIA), we have developed 3-Gsps,12-bit ADCs, which have not been used previously in astronomy, and we expect to realize the 3-GHz bandwidth in a single step by covering the entire bandwidth via interleaving or a complex fast Fourier transform (FFT).Second is the front-end analog signal integrated circuit board. We wish to achieve a series of amplification, attenuation, and mixing filtering operations on a single small board, thereby achieving digital control of the bandpass behavior both flexibly and highly-efficiently. This design will not only greatly reduce the required cost and power but will also make the best use of the digital-system’s flexibility. Third is optimization of the FFT: the existing FFT is not very efficient; therefore, we will optimize the FFT for large-scale operation. For this purpose, we intend to cascade two FFTs. Another

  15. Ultra wideband wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thotahewa, Kasun Maduranga Silva; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN).  The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability.  The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority.  Readers will also benefit from this book’s feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals.   • Describes hardware platform development for IR-UWB based WBAN communication; • Discusses power efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol design for IR-UWB based WBAN applications; • Includes feasibility analy...

  16. A Low Power Dissipation Wide-Band CMOS Frequency Synthesizer for a Dual-Band GPS Receiver%一种用于双波段GPS接收机的低功耗宽带CMOS频率合成器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海珑; 任彤; 林敏; 陈方雄; 石寅; 代伐

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a wide tuning range CMOS frequency synthesizer for a dual-band GPS receiver,which has been fabricated in a standard 0.18μm RF CMOS process. With a high Q on-chip inductor, the wide-band VCO shows a tuning range from 2 to 3.6GHz to cover 2.45 and 3.14GHz in case of process corner or temperature variation,with a current consumption varying accordingly from 0.8 to 0.4mA,from a 1.8V supply voltage. Measurement results show that the whole frequency synthesizer consumes very low power of 5.6mW working at L1 band with in-band phase noise less than -82dBc/Hz and out-of-band phase noise about-ll2dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from a 3.142GHz carrier.The performance of the frequency synthesizer meets the requirements of GPS applications very well.%提出了一种用于双波段GPS接收机的宽带CMOS频率合成器.该GPS接收机芯片已经在标准O.18μm射频CMOS工艺线上流片成功,并通过整体功能测试.其中压控振荡器可调振荡频率的覆盖范围设计为2~3.6GHz,覆盖了L1,L2波段的两倍频的频率点.并留有足够的裕量以确保在工艺角和温度变化较大时能覆盖所需频率.芯片测试结果显示,该频率综合器在L1波段正常工作时的功耗仅为5.6mW,此时的带内相位噪声小于-82dBc/Hz,带外相位噪声在距离3.142G载波1M频偏处约为-112dBc/Hz,这些指标很好地满足了GPS接收芯片的性能要求.

  17. Capacity of Sparse Wideband Channels with Partial Channel Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, Gautham; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the ergodic capacity of wideband multipath channels with limited feedback. Our work builds on recent results that have established the possibility of significant capacity gains in the wideband/low-SNR regime when there is perfect channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. Furthermore, the perfect CSI benchmark gain can be obtained with the feedback of just one bit per channel coefficient. However, the input signals used in these methods are peaky, that is, they have a large peak-to-average power ratios. Signal peakiness is related to channel coherence and many recent measurement campaigns show that, in contrast to previous assumptions, wideband channels exhibit a sparse multipath structure that naturally leads to coherence in time and frequency. In this work, we first show that even an instantaneous power constraint is sufficient to achieve the benchmark gain when perfect CSI is available at the receiver. In the more realistic non-coherent setting, we study the performance of a tra...

  18. Thermal Studies on the SPS Wideband Transverse Feedback Kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Roggen, Toon; Hofle, Wolfgang; Montesinos, Eric; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    As part of the SPS wideband transverse feedback system in the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, a wideband kicker design is being proposed. Vertical beam instabilities due to intensity dependent effects (electron cloud instability (ECI) and transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI)) are potentially suppressed by using a feedback system driving such a kicker system. One of the options for a kicker is a one meter long slotted-coaxial kicker, providing a substantial vertical kick strength (10ˉ5 –10ˉ4 eV.s/m) over a bandwidth ranging from nearly DC to 1 GHz. The necessary kick strength requires a total power of 4 kW. This note describes thermal studies that assisted in the material choice of the feedthroughs of the slotted-coaxial kicker and guided the design choices.

  19. 3.1~10.6 GHz低功耗超宽带低噪声放大器%A 3.1-10.6 GHz Low Power Ultra-Wideband Low Noise Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞义; 张万荣; 丁春宝; 陈昌麟; 胡瑞心; 卓汇涵; 江之韵; 白杨; 陈亮

    2014-01-01

    采用TSMC 0.18μm CMOS工艺库,设计并验证了一种应用于3.1~10.6 GHz频段的超宽带低噪声放大器.该放大器分为两级:采用跨导增强技术的共栅结构作为输入级,实现了输入阻抗匹配,提高了增益并降低了噪声;第二级是放大输出级,由两个共源放大管和源跟随器缓冲管构成,并采用两级电流复用配置将它们连接在一起,不但对信号进行了二次放大,降低了功耗,而且实现了输出匹配.仿真结果表明,在3.1~10.6 GHz频带范围内,放大器增益为14.8 dB,增益平坦度为±0.6 dB,噪声系数介于2.9~4.5 dB,输入和输出的回波损耗均优于-11 dB,1 dB压缩点为-20.8 dBm,在1.8V电压下,静态功耗仅为8.99 mW.%Based on the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process library,a 3.1-10.6 GHz low power ultra-wideband low noise amplifier was designed.The amplifier consisted of two stages.At the input stage of a common-gate structure,a kind of transconductance enhancement technique was used to achieve good input match,high gain and low noise.The second stage was amplification output.It consisted of two common source amplification transistor and source follower buffering transistor which were connected through the current reuse configuration.The signal was magnified two times,therefore the power consumption was reduced,and the output match was obtained.The simulation results showed that over the range of 3.1-10.6 GHz,the power gain was 14.8 dB,the gain flatness was ±0.6 dB,the noise figure was from 2.9 dB to 4.5 dB,the input and output match loss were both below-11 dB,the 1 dB compress point was-20.8 dBm.With the supply voltage of 1.8 V,the static power consumption was only 8.99 mW.

  20. A wideband sensitive holographic photopolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingju Huang; Sulian Wang; Airong Wang; Qiaoxia Gong; Fuxi Gan

    2005-01-01

    A novel wideband sensitive dry holographic photopolymer sensitized by rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) is fabricated, the holographic storage characteristics of which are investigated under different exposure wavelengths. The result shows that the sensitive spectral band exceeds 200 nm in visible light range, the maximum diffraction efficiency under different exposure wavelengths is more than 40% and decreases with the decrease of exposure wavelength, the exposure sensitivity is not change with the exposure wavelength.This photopolymer is appropriate for wavelength multiplexing or multi-wavelength recording in digital holographic storage.

  1. Wideband unbalanced waveguide power dividers and combiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2016-05-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to waveguide dividers and waveguide combiners for application in radar systems, wireless communications, etc. Waveguide dividers-combiners can be manufactured in accordance with custom dimensions, as well as in accordance with waveguide standards such that the input and output ports are of a defined dimension and have a common impedance. Various embodiments are presented which can incorporate one or more septum(s), one or more pairs of septums, an iris, an input matching region, a notch located on the input waveguide arm, waveguide arms having stepped transformer regions, etc. The various divider configurations presented herein can be utilized in high fractional bandwidth applications, e.g., a fractional bandwidth of about 30%, and RF applications in the Ka frequency band (e.g., 26.5-40 GHz).

  2. Application of Mellin Transform in Wideband Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the features of the wideband underwater acoustic signals, an algorithm for the wideband ambiguity function is put forward based on Mellin transform. The wideband acoustic signal processing using the fast Mellin transform is also explored. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm has not only high computation efficiency but also good concentration in wideband ambiguity domain. It suits for the wideband underwater acoustic signal processing.

  3. Exact solution of planar and nonplanar weak shock wave problem in gasdynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L.P. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Technology, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Ram, S.D., E-mail: sram.rs.apm@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Technology, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, D.B. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Technology, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > An exact solution is derived for a problem of weak shock wave in adiabatic gas dynamics. > The density ahead of the shock is taken as a power of the position from the origin of the shock wave. > For a planar and non-planar motion, the total energy carried by the wave varies with respect to time. > The solution obtained for the planer, and cylindrically symmetric flow is new one. > The results obtained are also presented graphically for different Mach numbers. - Abstract: In the present paper, an analytical approach is used to determine a new exact solution of the problem of one dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of planer and non-planer weak shock waves in an inviscid ideal fluid. Here it is assumed that the density ahead of the shock front varies according to the power law of the distance from the source of disturbance. The solution of the problem is presented in the form of a power in the distance and the time.

  4. The Wideband Slope of Interference Channels: The Infinite Bandwidth Case

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Minqi

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that minimum received energy per bit in the interference channel is $-1.59dB$ as if there were no interference. Thus, the best way to mitigate interference is to operate the interference channel in the low power regime, that is in the limit of infinite bandwidth. However, when the bandwidth is large, but finite, minimum received energy per bit alone does not characterize performance. Verdu introduced the wideband slope $\\mathcal{S}_{0}$ to characterize the performance in this regime. We show that a wideband slope of ${\\mathcal{S}_{0}}/{\\mathcal{S}_{0,{no interference}}}=1/2$ is achievable. This result is similar to recent results on degrees of freedom in the high SNR regime, and we use a type of interference alignment using delays to obtain the result. We also show that in many cases the wideband slope is upper bounded by ${\\mathcal{S}_{0}}/{\\mathcal{S}_{0,{no interference}}}\\leq 1/2}$ for large number of users $K$.

  5. Effect of superthermal electrons on dust-acoustic Gardner solitons in nonplanar geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deb Kumar Ghosh; Yday Narayan Ghosh; Prasanta Chatterjee; C S Wong

    2013-04-01

    The properties of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless three-component dusty plasma, whose constituents are negatively charged cold dust fluid, superthermal/non-Maxwellian electrons (represented by kappa distribution) and Boltzmann distributed ions, are investigated by deriving the modified Gardner (MG) equation. The well-known reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the MG equation. The basic features of nonplanar DA Gardner solitons (GSs) are discussed. It is seen that the properties of nonplanar DAGSs (positive and negative) significantly differ as the value of spectral index changes.

  6. Multihop Diversity in Wideband OFDM Systems: The Impact of Spatial Reuse and Frequency Selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Oyman, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to establish which practical routing schemes for wireless networks are most suitable for wideband systems in the power-limited regime, which is, for example, a practically relevant mode of operation for the analysis of ultrawideband (UWB) mesh networks. For this purpose, we study the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency (known as the power-bandwidth tradeoff) in a wideband linear multihop network in which transmissions employ orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and are affected by quasi-static, frequency-selective fading. Considering open-loop (fixed-rate) and closed-loop (rate-adaptive) multihop relaying techniques, we characterize the impact of routing with spatial reuse on the statistical properties of the end-to-end conditional mutual information (conditioned on the specific values of the channel fading parameters and therefore treated as a random variable) and on the energy and spectral efficiency measures of the wideband regime. Ou...

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 6-9 GHz ultra-wideband CMOS PA for China's ultra-wideband standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhendong, Gao; Zhiqiang, Li; Haiying, Zhang

    2010-09-01

    A 6-9 GHz ultra-wideband CMOS power amplifier (PA) for the high frequency band of China's UWB standard is proposed. Compared with the conventional band-pass filter wideband input matching methodology, the number of inductors is saved by the resistive feedback complementary amplifying topology presented. The output impendence matching network utilized is very simple but efficient at the cost of only one inductor. The measured S22 far exceeds that of similar work. The PA is designed and fabricated with TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M RF CMOS technology. The implemented PA achieves a power gain of 10 dB with a ripple of 0.6 dB, and S11 < -10 dB over 6-9 GHz, S22 < -35 dB over 4-10 GHz. The measured output power at the 1 dB compression point is over 3.5 dBm from 6 to 9 GHz. The PA dissipates a total power of 21 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The chip size is 1.1 × 0.8 mm2.

  8. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikookar, Homayoun; Prasad, Ramjee

    wireless channels, interference, signal processing as well as applications and standardization activities are addressed. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications provides easy-to-understand material to (graduate) students and researchers working in the field of commercial UWB wireless......Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology is the cutting edge technology for wireless communications with a wide range of applications. In Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications UWB principles and technologies for wireless communications are explained clearly. Key issues such as UWB...... communications. Due to tutorial nature of the book it can also be adopted as a textbook on the subject in the Telecommunications Engineering curriculum. Problems at the end of each chapter extend the reader's understanding of the subject. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications will aslo...

  9. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  10. Wideband Antennas for Modern Radar Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, Chieh-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the basics of the antenna and phased array are reviewed and different wideband antennas for modern radar systems are presented. The concepts of the radome and frequency selective surface are also reviewed. The main contents include important parameters of the antenna, and theory and design consideration of the array antenna. Various wideband antennas are introduced and their performances are demonstrated, including: (1) for the phased array radar, the slotted waveguide array ...

  11. Ultra wideband antennas design, methodologies, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan-Tejada, Giselle M; Jardón Aguilar, Hildeberto

    2015-01-01

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domainsDelivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennasDescribes solid-planar equivalen

  12. Quadrature frequency generation for wideband wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elbadry, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This book describes design techniques for wideband quadrature LO generation for software defined radio transceivers, with frequencies spanning 4GHz to around 80GHz. The authors discuss several techniques that can be used to reduce the cost and/or power consumption of one of the key components of the RF front-end, the quadrature local oscillator.  The discussion includes simple and useful insights into quadrature VCOs, along with numerous examples of practical techniques. ·         Provides a thorough survey of  quadrature LO generation; ·         Offers an intuitive explanation of the different quadrature VCO architectures, and categorization of these architectures based on the intuitive explanations; ·         Describes a new technique for simultaneous quadrature LO generation for channelized receivers; ·         Includes simple and detailed explanation of two new quadrature VCO techniques that improve phase-noise performance of QVCOs, while providing a large tuning rang...

  13. A Resistive Wideband Space Beam Splitter

    CERN Document Server

    Mahesh, Nivedita; Shankar, N Udaya; Raghunathan, Agaram

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, construction and measurements of the electromagnetic performance of a wideband space beam splitter. The beam splitter is designed to power divide the incident radiation into reflected and transmitted components for interferometer measurement of spectral features in the mean cosmic radio background. Analysis of a 2-element interferometer configuration with a vertical beam splitter between a pair of antennas leads to the requirement that the beam splitter be a resistive sheet with sheet resistance {\\eta}o /2, where {\\eta}o is the impedance of free space. The transmission and reflection properties of such a sheet is computed for normal and oblique incidences and for orthogonal polarizations of the incident electric field. We have constructed such an electromagnetic beam splitter as a square soldered grid of resistors of value 180 Ohms (approximately {\\eta}o /2) and a grid size of 0.1 m, and present measurements of the reflection and transmission coefficients over a wide frequency range bet...

  14. Wideband Interferometric Sensing and Imaging Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, James Salvatore; Kessler, Otto; Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

    1996-01-01

    Wideband Interferometric Sensing and Imaging Polarimetry (WISIP) has become an important, indispensible tool in wide area military surveillance and global environmental monitoring of the terrestrial and planetary covers. It enables dynamic, real time optimal feature extraction of significant characteristics of desirable targets and/or target sections with simultaneous suppression of undesirable background clutter and propagation path speckle at hitherto unknown clarity and never before achieved quality. WISIP may be adopted to the detection, recognition, and identification (DRI) of any stationary, moving or vibrating targets or distributed scatterer segments versus arbitrary stationary, dynamical changing and/or moving geo-physical/ecological environments, provided the instantaneous 2x2 phasor and 4x4 power density matrices for forward propagation/backward scattering, respectively, can be measured with sufficient accuracy. For example, the DRI of stealthy, dynamically moving inhomogeneous volumetric scatter environments such as precipitation scatter, the ocean/sea/lake surface boundary layers, the littoral coastal surf zones, pack ice and snow or vegetative canopies, dry sands and soils, etc. can now be successfully realized. A comprehensive overview is presented on how these modern high resolution/precision, complete polarimetric co-registered signature sensing and imaging techniques, complemented by full integration of novel navigational electronic tools, such as DGPS, will advance electromagnetic vector wave sensing and imaging towards the limits of physical realization. Various examples utilizing the most recent image data take sets of airborne, space shuttle, and satellite imaging systems demonstrate the utility of WISIP.

  15. Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Kwan; Chu, Moo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2001-04-01

    Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with frequency shifted feedback are described. The use of an intra-cavity gain flattening filter (GFF) was proposed in order to increase the lasing spectral bandwidth, leading to a demonstration of 34 lasing wavelengths in 28 nm bandwidth in C-band. The GFF induced spectral output power fluctuation is discussed. Multiwavelength operation was also demonstrated for the first time in L-band, where wideband laser operation was obtained without a GFF. Optical bistability and Kerr effect induced pulsation were determined to be limiting factors to stable operation range in this kind of multiwavelength lasers.

  16. Continuously tunable wideband semiconductor fiber-ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhao, Shiwei; Yuan, Suzhen; Wang, Xiaofa; Zheng, Peichao

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a wideband tunable semiconductor fiber-ring laser that can be continuously tuned from 1498 nm to 1623 nm. The proposed laser uses a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as a gain medium and a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter as a selective wavelength filter. The optimized drive current of the SOA and the output coupling ratio are obtained by experimental research. This laser has a simple configuration, low threshold, flat laser output power and high optical signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Up to 35 Gbps Ultra-Wideband Wireless Data Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    For the first time Ultra-Wideband record data transmission rates up to 35.1 Gbps and 21.6 Gbps are achieved, compliant with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee...

  18. Wideband Circularly Polarized SIW Antenna Array That Uses Sequential Rotation Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband right-handed circularly polarized (CP substrate integrated waveguide- (SIW- based diamond ring-slot antenna array at the X-band is presented in this study. The array consists of four elements that exhibit wideband impedance matching characteristics and good radiation performance. The array also employs a sequential rotation feeding method to achieve the wideband axial ratio (AR bandwidth. The feeding network is based on the SIW power divider with a delay line related to sequential rotation feeding. To validate our design, an antenna array is fabricated and measured. The measured impedance and AR bandwidths are 19.2% (VSWR<2 and 14.1% (AR<3 dB, respectively. Moreover, the antenna has a stable CP peak gain of more than 12 dBic from 10.1 GHz to 10.7 GHz.

  19. High-Reliability Pump Module for Non-Planar Ring Oscillator Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Qiu, Yueming; Wilson, Daniel W.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Forouhar, Siamak

    2007-01-01

    We propose and have demonstrated a prototype high-reliability pump module for pumping a Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO) laser suitable for space missions. The pump module consists of multiple fiber-coupled single-mode laser diodes and a fiber array micro-lens array based fiber combiner. The reported Single-Mode laser diode combiner laser pump module (LPM) provides a higher normalized brightness at the combined beam than multimode laser diode based LPMs. A higher brightness from the pump source is essential for efficient NPRO laser pumping and leads to higher reliability because higher efficiency requires a lower operating power for the laser diodes, which in turn increases the reliability and lifetime of the laser diodes. Single-mode laser diodes with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) stabilized wavelength permit the pump module to be operated without a thermal electric cooler (TEC) and this further improves the overall reliability of the pump module. The single-mode laser diode LPM is scalable in terms of the number of pump diodes and is capable of combining hundreds of fiber-coupled laser diodes. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, an e-beam written diffractive micro lens array, a custom fiber array, commercial 808nm single mode laser diodes, and a custom NPRO laser head are used. The reliability of the proposed LPM is discussed.

  20. Wideband Analog Data System (WADS), system design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The Wideband Analog System (WADS) which performs post flight structural dynamic analysis of wideband FM data recorded during orbital flight tests is defined. Screening, reporting, and plotting steady state and transient wave analysis data are provided by WADS.

  1. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  2. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  3. Wideband Monopole Antenna for WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a circular patch antenna for WLAN applications with wideband characteristics. It is shown that impedance of the antenna is matched over wideband by using the partial ground plane and quarter wave transformer with slotted TX-Line. Ansoft HFSS is used for simulation tool to map the numerical results for the return loss frequency behavior of antenna. Measure of bandwidth, return loss and radiation pattern are also reported with satisfactory performance. As the patch is circular in shape so substrate is kept in the same shape. The shape of the substrate is also discussed in details for specific antenna designs.

  4. Multi-projector auto-calibration and placement optimization for non-planar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lijing; Weng, Dongdong

    2015-10-01

    Non-planar projection has been widely applied in virtual reality and digital entertainment and exhibitions because of its flexible layout and immersive display effects. Compared with planar projection, a non-planar projection is more difficult to achieve because projector calibration and image distortion correction are difficult processes. This paper uses a cylindrical screen as an example to present a new method for automatically calibrating a multi-projector system in a non-planar environment without using 3D reconstruction. This method corrects the geometric calibration error caused by the screen's manufactured imperfections, such as an undulating surface or a slant in the vertical plane. In addition, based on actual projection demand, this paper presents the overall performance evaluation criteria for the multi-projector system. According to these criteria, we determined the optimal placement for the projectors. This method also extends to surfaces that can be parameterized, such as spheres, ellipsoids, and paraboloids, and demonstrates a broad applicability.

  5. Chaotic motion and its control for nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of a parametrically excited cantilever beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wei [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)] e-mail: sandyzhang0@yahoo.com

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the chaotic motion and its control for the nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of a cantilever beam subjected to a harmonic axial excitation and transverse excitations at the free end. A new method of controlling chaotic motion for the nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of the cantilever beam, refereed as to the force control approach, is proposed for the first time. The governing nonlinear equations of nonplanar motion under combined parametric and external excitations are obtained. The Galerkin procedure is applied to the governing equation to obtain a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system under combined parametric and forcing excitations for the in-plane and out-of-plane modes. The work is focused on the case of 2:1 internal resonance, principal parametric resonance-1/2 subharmonic resonance for the in-plane mode and fundamental parametric resonance-primary resonance for the out-of-plane mode. The method of multiple scales is used to transform the parametrically and externally excited system to the averaged equations which have a constant perturbation force. Based on the averaged equations obtained here, numerical simulation is utilized to discover the periodic and chaotic motions for the nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of the cantilever beam. The numerical results indicate that the transverse excitation in the z direction at the free end can control the chaotic motion to a period n motion or a static state for the nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of the cantilever beam. The methodology of controlling chaotic motion by using the transverse excitation is proposed. The transverse excitation in the z direction at the free end may be thought about to be an open-loop control. For the problem investigated in this paper, this approach is an effective methodology of controlling chaotic motion to a period n motion or a static state for the nonlinear nonplanar oscillations of the cantilever beam.

  6. Nonplanar ion-acoustic shocks in electron–positron–ion plasmas: Effect of superthermal electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deb Kumar Ghosh; Prasantha Chatterjee; Pankaj Kumar Mandal; Biswajit Sahu

    2013-09-01

    Ion-acoustic shock waves (IASWs) in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma, comprising superthermal electrons, positrons, and singly charged adiabatically hot positive ions are investigated via two-dimensional nonplanar Kadomstev–Petviashvili–Burgers (KPB) equation. It is found that the profiles of the nonlinear shock structures depend on the superthermality of electrons. The influence of other plasma parameters such as, ion kinematic viscosity and ion temperature, is discussed in the presence of superthermal electrons in nonplanar geometry. It is also seen that the IASWs propagating in cylindrical/spherical geometry with transverse perturbation will be deformed as time goes on.

  7. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  8. Nonplanar Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Electron-Positron-Ion Quantum Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Khan; S. Mahmood; Arshad M. Mirza

    2009-01-01

    @@ The propagation of nonplanar quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense, unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma are studied by using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) model The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations are used taking into account the quantum diffraction and quantum statistics corrections. The analytical and numerical solutions of KdV equation reveal that the nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons are modified significantly with quantum corrections and positron concentration, and behave differently in different geometries.

  9. A Novel Ropes-DrivenWideband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH in which a high-frequency generating beam (HFGB is driven by an array of low-frequency driving beams (LFDBs using ropes. Two mechanisms based on frequency upconversion and multimodal harvesting work together to broaden the frequency bandwidth of the proposed vibration energy harvester (VEH. The experimental results show that the output power of generating beam (GB remains unchanged with the increasing number of driving beams (DBs, compared with the traditional arrays of beams vibration energy harvester (AB-VEH, and the output power and bandwidth behavior can be adjusted by parameters such as acceleration, rope margin, and stiffness of LFDBs, which shows the potential to achieve unlimited wideband vibration energy-harvesting for a variable environment.

  10. The APWL Wideband Wall Current Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bohl, T

    2009-01-01

    A wideband wall current monitor was designed for use in LHC. The pick-up, named APWL, is of the coaxial type. Its main mechanical and electrical parameters are described and evaluated. The measured pick-up response is used to calculate the expected bunch profile obtainable with a pick-up of this type.

  11. Wideband radar micro-doppler applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave

    2013-05-01

    Wideband radar provides a significant improvement over traditional narrowband radars for micro-Doppler analysis because the high bandwidth can be used to separate many of the signals in range, allowing a simpler decomposition of the micro-Doppler signals. Recent wideband radar work has focused on micro-Doppler, but there is a point where the narrowband approach used to analyze the micro-Doppler signals breaks down. The effect is shown to be independent of frequency, but the error relative to the bandwidth is shown to be inversely proportional to the frequency and proportional to the velocity of the subject. This error can create a smearing effect in the observed Doppler if it is not corrected, leading to reduced signal-to-noise and the appearance of more diffuse targets in Doppler space. In range-space, wideband data can also break the subject into several range bins, affecting the observed signal to noise ratio. The possible applications of wideband micro-Doppler radar are also shown, including the separation of arm movement from human motion which implies that the arms are not encumbered.

  12. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Pulsatile Blood Flow in a Bifurcation Model with a Non-Planar Branch: The Effect of Different Bifurcation Angles and Non-Planar Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Arjmandi-Tash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a focal disease that susceptibly forms near bifurcations, anastomotic joints, side branches, and curved vessels along the arterial tree. In this study, pulsatile blood flow in a bifurcation model with a non-planar branch is investigated. Methods: Wall shear stress (WSS distributions along generating lines on vessels for different bifurcation angles are calculated during the pulse cycle. Results: The WSS at the outer side of the bifurcation plane vanishes especially for higher bifurcation angles but by increasing the bifurcation angle low WSS region squeezes. At the systolic phase there is a high possibility of formation of a separation region at the outer side of bifurcation plane for all the cases. WSS peaks exist on the inner side of bifurcation plane near the entry section of daughter vessels and these peaks drop as bifurcation angle is increased. Conclusion: It was found that non-planarity of the daughter vessel lowers the minimum WSS at the outer side of the bifurcation and increases the maximum WSS at the inner side. So it seems that the formation of atherosclerotic plaques at bifurcation region in direction of non-planar daughter vessel is more risky.

  14. Calculation of wideband ultrasonic fields radiated by immersed transducers into solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhemery, A.; Calmon, P.; Mephane, M.

    1996-12-31

    In ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT), configurations of immersion techniques where transducers radiate through non-planar interfaces are often encountered, e.g., pipe inspection where the probe can be scanned either inside or outside the pipe. When local radii of curvature are far larger that typical wave paths in the coupling fluid and into the piece, field predictions can often be made assuming a plane interface. For smaller radii, such an approximation is not valid. The model developed at the French Atomic ENergy Commission (CEA) to predict ultrasonic fields radiated by wideband transducers through liquid-interfaces (called Champ-Sons) is based on a modification of the Rayleigh integral to take account of refraction. It is derived under the geometrical optics approximation (GO) which introduces two factors: the transmission coefficient between the two media of elementary contributions from source-points to field-points and the so-called `divergence factor` of the transmitted rays (denoted by DF), accounting for the principal radii of curvature of the retransmitted rays (denoted by DF), accounting for the principal radii of curvature of the refracted wave fronts (initially spherical in the coupling medium). (authors).

  15. Static aeroelastic analysis of very flexible wings based on non-planar vortex lattice method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Changchuan; Wang Libo; Yang Chao; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and efficient method for static aeroelastic analysis of a flexible slender wing when considering the structural geometric nonlinearity has been developed in this paper.A non-planar vortex lattice method herein is used to compute the non-planar aerodynamics of flexible wings with large deformation.The finite element method is introduced for structural nonlinear statics analysis.The surface spline method is used for structure/aerodynamics coupling.The static aeroelastic characteristics of the wind tunnel model of a flexible wing are studied by the nonlinear method presented,and the nonlinear method is also evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained from two other methods and the wind tunnel test.The results indicate that the traditional linear method of static aeroelastic analysis is not applicable for cases with large deformation because it produces results that are not realistic.However,the nonlinear methodology,which involves combining the structure finite element method with the non-planar vortex lattice method,could be used to solve the aeroelastic deformation with considerable accuracy,which is in fair agreement with the test results.Moreover,the nonlinear finite element method could consider complex structures.The non-planar vortex lattice method has advantages in both the computational accuracy and efficiency.Consequently,the nonlinear method presented is suitable for the rapid and efficient analysis requirements of engineering practice.It could be used in the preliminary stage and also in the detailed stage of aircraft design.

  16. Non-planar Feynman diagrams and Mellin-Barnes representations with AMBRE 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Gluza, Janusz [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord

    2016-04-15

    We introduce the Mellin-Barnes representation of general Feynman integrals and discuss their evaluation. The Mathematica package AMBRE has been recently extended in order to cover consistently non-planar Feynman integrals with two loops. Prospects for the near future are outlined. This write-up is an introduction to new results which have also been presented elsewhere.

  17. Structural templating in a nonplanar phthalocyanine using single crystal copper iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Rochford, L. A. (Luke A.); Ramadan, Alexandra J.; Keeble, Dean S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, T S

    2015-01-01

    Solution-grown copper iodide crystals are used as substrates for the templated growth of the nonplanar vanadyl phthalocyanine using organic molecular beam deposition. Structural characterization reveals a single molecular orientation produced by the (111) Miller plane of the copper iodide crystals. These fundamental measurements show the importance of morphology and structure in templating interactions for organic electronics applications.

  18. Temporal analysis of the coherent properties of optical images of rough nonplanar objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandrosov, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of using temporal analysis to find the relation between chromatic properties of probe radiation and coherent properties of the optical images of rough non-planar objects is substantiated. The analysis is based on the use of the time correlation function and on the study of the speckl

  19. Wideband Tuning of Impedance Matching for actual RF Networks using AQPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive wideband impedance matching technique using a passive PI-network is presented in the paper on the basis of adaptive quantum particle swarm optimization algorithms (AQPSO, which  avoiding the drawbacks of the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The Wideband Tuning technique is for actual RF chips. So on-chip models for RF capacitors and inductors are considered. And the effects of the parasitic component loss in the PI-network are analyzed. Then the circuit is simplified according to the sensitivities of the elements. Therefore, the computational complexity is dramatically reduced. Finally, the AQPSO algorithm is adopted to maximize the power transmission efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed tuning technique can achieve good accuracy of impedance matching and load power. The reflection coefficient and VSWR obtained are also satisfactory. Moreover, the proposed method can be useful for software defined radio systems using a single antenna for multiple mobile and wireless bands.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Directional Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Photoemission Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, P. V.; Afonin, V. I.; Zamuraev, D. O.; Zavolokov, E. V.; Kupyrin, N. V.; Lazarev, Yu. N.; Romanov, Yu. O.; Syrtsova, Yu. G.; Sorokin, I. A.; Tischenko, A. S.; Brukhnevich, G. I.; Voronkova, N. P.; Pekarskaya, L. Z.; Belolipetskiy, V. S.

    The effect of electromagnetic wave generation by the electric current pulse propagating at the superluminal velocity along a conducting surface might be promising to create a high-power wideband microwave generator. The system comprising a plane vacuum photodiode with a transparent anode and using laser radiation to initialize electron emission is a variant to realize this scheme of electromagnetic pulse generation. This chapter presents results of experimental researches in characteristics of such radiating element with the cesium-antimonide cathode of Ø50 mm. The performed researches have shown that the generated wideband pulse (f_0 ≈ 3.3 {{GHz}},Δ f/f_0 ˜ 1) propagates in the direction corresponding to specular reflection of the incident laser radiation. Under the voltage of about 50 kV the electric field strength of 44 kV/m at the distance of 1.3 m has been recorded that corresponds to the generator power ˜10 MW.

  1. Ultra-wideband wireless receiver front-end for high-speed indoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Yang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-noise, ultra-wideband (UWB wireless receiver front-end circuits were presented in this study. A two-stage common-source low-noise amplifier with wideband input impedance matching network, an active-balun and a double-balanced down-conversion mixer were adopted in the UWB wireless receiver front-end. The proposed wireless receiver front-end circuits were implemented in 0.18 μm radio-frequency-CMOS process. The maximum down-conversion power gain of the front-end is 25.8 dB; minimum single-sideband noise figure of the front-end is 4.9 dB over complete UWB band ranging from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. Power consumption including buffers is 39.2 mW.

  2. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62–3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85–3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz. PMID:27563897

  3. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-08-23

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62-3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85-3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz.

  4. Wideband high frequency (HF) skywave channel parameters from narrowband measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Cynthia L.; Uffelman, Donald R.; Walton, Thomas L.

    The HF wideband channel allow the use of spread-spectrum techniques to provide covert communications with low probability of intercept (LPI) and antijam protection. The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used to infer effects in the wideband skywave channel. If oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used as a basis for developing wideband channel models, a large number of existing narrowband measurements can be made available for this task.

  5. Wideband P-Shaped Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Khalily

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel P-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA is presented and investigated for wideband wireless application. By using P-shaped resonator, a wideband impedance bandwidth of 80% from 3.5 to 8.2 GHz is achieved. The antenna covers all of wireless systems like C-band, 5.2, 5.5 and 5.8 GHz-WLAN and WiMax. The proposed antenna has a low profile and the thickness of the resonator is only 5.12 mm, which is 0.06-0.14 free space wavelength. A parametric study is presented. The proposed DRA is built and the characteristics of the antenna are measured. Very good agreement between numerical and measured results is obtained.

  6. Fast switching wideband rectifying circuit for future RF energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmeida, Akrem; Mustam, Saizalmursidi Md; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ashyap, A. Y. I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design and simulation of fast switching microwave rectifying circuit for ultra wideband patch antenna over a dual-frequency band (1.8 GHz for GSM and 2.4 GHz for ISM band). This band was chosen due to its high signal availability in the surrounding environment. New rectifying circuit topology with pair-matching trunks is designed using Advanced Design System (ADS) software. These trunks are interfaced with power divider to achieve good bandwidth, fast switching and high efficiency. The power divider acts as a good isolator between the trunks and its straightforward design structure makes it a good choice for a single feed UWB antenna. The simulated results demonstrate that the maximum output voltage is 2.13 V with an input power of -5 dBm. Moreover, the rectifier offers maximum efficiency of 86% for the input power of -5 dBm at given band, which could easily power up wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other small devices sufficiently.

  7. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao-Te; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P T P; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  8. Wideband FM Demodulation and Multirate Frequency Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    the center frequency and bandwidth are manually assigned to each formant, which may incur serious distortion to the isolated resonance signal and... problem can be solved via populating the whole time- frequency space to take advantage of the dyadic filter bank behavior of the EMD. Currently, we only...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0123 TR-2016-0123 WIDEBAND FM DEMODULATION AND MULTIRATE FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATIONS Balu Santhanam and Wenjing Liu

  9. Realization of Miniaturized Multi-/Wideband Microwave Front-Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shamaileh, Khair A.

    The ever-growing demand toward designing microwave front-end components with enhanced access to the radio spectrum (e.g., multi-/wideband functionality) and improved physical features (e.g., miniaturized circuitry, ease and cost of fabrication) is becoming more paramount than ever before. This dissertation proposes new design methodologies, simulations, and experimental validations of passive front-ends (i.e., antennas, couplers, dividers) at microwave frequencies. The presented design concepts optimize both electrical and physical characteristics without degrading the intended performance. The developed designs are essential to the upcoming wireless technologies. The first proposed component is a compact ultra-wideband (UWB) Wilkinson power divider (WPD). The design procedure is accomplished by replacing the uniform transmission lines in each arm of the conventional single-frequency divider with impedance-varying profiles governed by a truncated Fourier series. While such non-uniform transmission lines (NTLs) are obtained through the even-mode analysis, three isolation resistors are optimized in the odd-mode circuit to achieve proper isolation and output ports matching over the frequency range of interest. The proposed design methodology is systematic, and results in single-layered and compact structures. For verification purposes, an equal split WPD is designed, simulated, and measured. The obtained results show that the input and output ports matching as well as the isolation between the output ports are below --10 dB; whereas the transmission parameters vary between --3.2 dB and --5 dB across the 3.1--10.6 GHz band. The designed divider is expected to find applications in UWB antenna diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) schemes, and antenna arrays feeding networks. The second proposed component is a wideband multi-way Bagley power divider (BPD). Wideband functionality is achieved by replacing the single-frequency matching uniform microstrip lines in

  10. Non-planar vibrations of a string in the presence of a boundary obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkirat; Wahi, Pankaj

    2017-02-01

    We analyze planar and non-planar motions of a string vibrating against a unilateral curved obstacle. Our model incorporates the change in tension due to stretching of the string, which introduces nonlinear coupling between motions in mutually perpendicular directions, as well as the wrapping nonlinearity due to the presence of the obstacle. The system of equations has been discretized by assuming functional form of the displacements which satisfies all the geometrical boundary conditions. This discretized system is then used to investigate the various motions possible both in the absence as well as the presence of the obstacle. In the absence of the obstacle, there are infinitely many planar and two non-planar motions viz. a circular trajectory and a precessing elliptical trajectory for a fixed magnitude of the disturbance. In contrast, the string has only one planar motion when the obstacle is present and two non-planar motions, either an oscillating orbit or a whirling orbit depending on the magnitude of the initial disturbance. To obtain the transition from oscillating to whirling orbits, we perform a stability analysis of the planar motion using Floquet theory. This analysis reveals that there exists a critical amplitude below which the planar motion is neutrally stable and the typical trajectories are ellipses with major and minor radii changing both in magnitude and direction. Beyond the critical amplitude, the planar motion is unstable and we get whirling trajectories which are precessing ellipses again with varying major and minor radii. We further study the effect of changing obstacle parameters on the critical amplitude, and obtain the stability boundaries in the space spanned by the obstacle parameters and the amplitude of the planar vibration. We obtain some interesting values of the obstacle parameters for which small and large amplitude planar motions are stable resulting in oscillating ellipses while motions with intermediate amplitudes are unstable

  11. Wideband energy harvesting based on mixed connection of piezoelectric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Li, B. Y.; Shu, Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    An approach for wideband energy harvesting together with power enhancement is proposed by integrating multiple piezoelectric oscillators with mixed parallel-series connection. This gives rise to the feasibility of shifting the operation frequency band to the dominant frequency domain of ambient excitations. There are two types of connection patterns discussed here: the p-type (s-type) is the parallel (series) connection of all sets of oscillators where some of them may be connected in series (parallel). In addition, the standard interface circuit used for electric rectification is adopted here. The analytic estimates of output power are derived and explicitly expressed in terms of different matrix formulations for these two connection patterns. They are subsequently validated and are found in good agreement with numerical simulations and experimental observations. Finally, the experimental results from the mixed connection of 4 piezoelectric oscillators show that the peak power of each array is about 3.4 times higher than that generated by a single piezoelectric oscillator. In addition, the bandwidth of the array capable of switching connection patterns is around 2.8 times wider than that based on a single array configuration. Hence, the effective bandwidth is enlarged without the loss of peak power.

  12. Effect of nonplanar geometry on ion acoustic solitary waves in presence of ionization in collisional dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Samiran [College of Textile Technology, Berhampore 742101, Murshidabad, West Bengal (India)]. E-mail: sran_g@yahoo.com

    2005-04-11

    It has been found that the dust ion acoustic solitary wave (DIASW) is governed by a modified form of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation modified by the effects of ionization, particle collisions and bounded nonplanar geometry. Approximate analytical time evolution solution and also the numerical solution of modified form of KdV equation reveal that the wave amplitude grows exponentially with time due to ionization, whereas the bounded nonplanar geometry and collision reduce the instability growth rate.

  13. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust plasma with nonextensive electrons and ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M AMINA; S A EMA; A A MAMUN

    2017-06-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic shock waves (DASHWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasmasystem containing massive, micron-sized, positively and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with $q$ (nonextensive) distributed electrons and ions. The well-known reductive perturbation technique has been used to derive the modified Burgers equation (which describes the shock wave properties) and its numerical solution. It has been observed that the effects of charged dust grains of opposite polarity, nonextensivity of electrons and ions, and different dusty plasma parameters have significantly modified the fundamental properties (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the shock waves. The properties of DASHWs in nonplanar geometry are found tobe significantly different from those in one-dimensional planar geometry. The findings of our results from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the nonlinear features of localized electrostatic disturbancesin both space and laboratory dusty plasmas.

  14. 35 Gb/s Ultra-wideband Technology for Advanced Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    as ordinary noise. Furthermore, this technology allows unlicensed operation, provided standards and regulations are fulfilled. On the other hand, in current fast evolving scenarios, secure communications at the physical layer will soon become a requirement by the end users. Existing security techniques...... be applied, evolving from classic spectral inefficient pulsebased systems to more advanced and flexible modulation schemes. Ultra-wideband technology is suitable for low-power high-speed wireless communication systems over short distances, and is an appealing alternative for next generation networks ranging...... from high-speed wireless personal area networks, to the internet of things applications. Its popularity stems from the fact that they can be used as an overlay to existing systems, without interference, operating in parallel to existing wireless systems, which perceive ultra-wideband emissions...

  15. Design of a Compact Wideband Antenna Array for Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puskely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, wideband antenna arrays aimed at microwave imaging applications and SAR applications operating at Ka band were designed. The antenna array feeding network is realized by a low-loss SIW technology. Moreover, we have replaced the large feed network comprised of various T and Y junctions by a simple broadband network of compact size to more reduce losses in the substrate integrated waveguide and also save space on the PCB. The designed power 8-way divider is complemented by a wideband substrate integrated waveguide to a grounded coplanar waveguide transition and directly connected to the antenna elements. The measured results of antenna array are consistent with our simulation. Obtained results of the developed array demonstrated improvement compared to previously developed binary feed networks with microstrip or SIW splitters.

  16. 10th and 11th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mokole, Eric; UWB SP 10; UWB SP 11

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions of deep technical content and high scientific quality in the areas of electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-resolution techniques. Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Like previous books in this series, Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electrom...

  17. 7th conference on ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Uwe; Nitsch, Daniel; Sabath, Frank; Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7; UWBSP7

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP7 Conference, including wide-ranging contributions on electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-res...

  18. From Fibrevision To The Multi-Star Wideband Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Moore, D.

    1984-03-01

    Following experience gained with the Fibrevision cable TV trial at Milton Keynes the implementation of a large scale multi-star wideband local network is being investigated by British Telecom. An update on the Fibrevision trial is given followed by an outline description of a future multi-star wideband network.

  19. Compact wideband CMOS receiver frontends for wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, Stephan Carel

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for wideband receiver frontends. This is due to the emerge of wideband wireless standards (UWB) and due to the desire for flexible radios (SDR), which can comply with multiple existing and future communication standards. Existing receiver topologies are generally narro

  20. Human Target Tracking in Multistatic Ultra-Wideband Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multistatic ultra-wideband radar is acknowledged to be useful for human tracking in indoor surveillance. In this thesis, a global signal processing chain for detection and localization of moving human targets using a multistatic ultra-wideband radar system is proposed. The design options for the sys

  1. Manifestations of non-planar adsorption geometries of lead pyrenocyanine at the liquid-solid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Kunal S; Zöphel, Lukas; Ivasenko, Oleksandr; Müllen, Klaus; De Feyter, Steven

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we provide evidence for multiple non-planar adsorption geometries of a novel pyrenocyanine derivative at the liquid-solid interface under ambient conditions. When adsorbed at the organic liquid-solid interface, lead pyrenocyanine forms well-ordered monolayers that exhibit peculiar non-periodic contrast variation. The different contrast of the adsorbed molecules is attributed to dissimilar adsorption geometries which arise from the non-planar conformation of the molecules. The non-planarity of the molecular backbone in turn arises due to a combination of the angularly extended pyrene subunits and the presence of the large lead ion, which is too big to fit inside the central cavity and thus is located out of the aromatic plane. The two possible locations of the lead atom, namely below and above the aromatic plane, could be identified as depression and protrusion in the central cavity, respectively. The manifestation of such multiple adsorption geometries on the structure of the resultant monolayer is discussed in detail. The packing density of these 2D arrays of molecules could be tuned by heating of the sample wherein the molecular packing changes from a low-density, pseudo six-fold symmetric to a high-density, two-fold symmetric arrangement. Finally, a well-ordered two-component system could be constructed by incorporating C60 molecules in the adlayer of lead pyrenocyanine at the liquid-solid interface.

  2. Wireless Indoor Positioning Relying on Observations of Received Power and Mean Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begusic, Stjepan; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Kolonic, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    This contribution introduces position estimation methods relying on observations of the received power and mean delay obtained in a wideband multi-link scenario. In particular, one- and two-step methods are introduced based on statistical models of the observed link parameters. The proposed methods...... are tested on data from a wideband measurement campaign. The results show that including observations of mean delay of the wideband links can notably improve positioning accuracy as compared to relying on observations of received power alone....

  3. Analysis of thick, non-planar boundaries using the discontinuity analyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    Full Text Available The advent of missions comprised of phased arrays of spacecraft, with separation distances ranging down to at least mesoscales, provides the scientific community with an opportunity to accurately analyse the spatial and temporal dependencies of structures in space plasmas. Exploitation of the multi-point data sets, giving vastly more information than in previous missions, thereby allows unique study of their small-scale physics. It remains an outstanding problem, however, to understand in what way comparative information across spacecraft is best built into any analysis of the combined data. Different investigations appear to demand different methods of data co-ordination. Of the various multi-spacecraft data analysis techniques developed to affect this exploitation, the discontinuity analyser has been designed to investigate the macroscopic properties (topology and motion of boundaries, revealed by multi-spacecraft magnetometer data, where the possibility of at least mesoscale structure is considered. It has been found that the analysis of planar structures is more straightforward than the analysis of non-planar boundaries, where the effects of topology and motion become interwoven in the data, and we argue here that it becomes necessary to customise the analysis for non-planar events to the type of structure at hand. One issue central to the discontinuity analyser, for instance, is the calculation of normal vectors to the structure. In the case of planar and `thin' non-planar structures, the method of normal determination is well-defined, although subject to uncertainties arising from unwanted signatures. In the case of `thick', non-planar structures, however, the method of determination becomes particularly sensitive to the type of physical sampling that is present. It is the purpose of this article to firstly review the discontinuity analyser technique and secondly, to discuss the analysis of the normals to thick non-planar

  4. Noise Cancelling in Wideband CMOS LNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.

    2002-01-01

    A noise-cancelling technique in a wideband LNA achieves low noise figure (NF) and source impedance matching without global feedback. The 0.25 μm LNA provides <2.4 dB NF from 0.01-2 GHz, total voltage gain is 13.7 dB, -3 dB bandwidth is 0.01-1.6 GHz, S12 is <-36 dB, and S11 is <-10 dB. IIP2 is 12 dBm

  5. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun

    2006-01-01

    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  6. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James B Y

    2009-01-01

    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  7. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M. (1917 Hood, Richland, WA 99352); Collins, H. Dale (1751 Duluth, Richland, WA 99352); Hall, Thomas E. (8301 W. Entiat Pl., Kennewick, WA 99336); McMakin, Douglas L. (2173 Shasta Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Gribble, R. Parks (1215 Cottonwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Severtsen, Ronald H. (1803 Birch Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Prince, James M. (3029 W. 2nd Ave., Apt. F95, Kennewick, WA 99336); Reid, Larry D. (Rt. 1, Box 1291B, Benton City, WA 99320)

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  8. Performance requirements for analog-to-digital converters in wideband reconfigurable radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, David; Baldwin, Gerard; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-06-01

    With the current trend towards software defined radio, several candidate architectures for the analog receiver front-end have been presented. A common proposal for software defined reconfigurable radio is to develop a wideband ADC and utilise this for capturing a large segment of the spectrum. This would enable the subsequent signal processing operations of channel selection and data extraction to be carried out by a digital processor. This would allow the radio to be reconfigured by simply changing the software. In analysis of these systems, powerful neighbouring signals, or blockers, are considered but it has been conveniently assumed that suitable dynamic range will be available at the ADC. This is an acceptable assumption in narrowband systems where automatic gain control and analogue channel select filters can be used, but is not appropriate for a wideband system. In this paper we present an analysis based on bit-error-rates (BER) which shows the effect of blockers in a wideband architecture on the performance of the communication link and on the dynamic range requirements of the ADC.

  9. Wideband Speech Recovery Using Psychoacoustic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visar Berisha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many modern speech bandwidth extension techniques predict the high-frequency band based on features extracted from the lower band. While this method works for certain types of speech, problems arise when the correlation between the low and the high bands is not sufficient for adequate prediction. These situations require that additional high-band information is sent to the decoder. This overhead information, however, can be cleverly quantized using human auditory system models. In this paper, we propose a novel speech compression method that relies on bandwidth extension. The novelty of the technique lies in an elaborate perceptual model that determines a quantization scheme for wideband recovery and synthesis. Furthermore, a source/filter bandwidth extension algorithm based on spectral spline fitting is proposed. Results reveal that the proposed system improves the quality of narrowband speech while performing at a lower bitrate. When compared to other wideband speech coding schemes, the proposed algorithms provide comparable speech quality at a lower bitrate.

  10. Wideband Speech Recovery Using Psychoacoustic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha Visar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many modern speech bandwidth extension techniques predict the high-frequency band based on features extracted from the lower band. While this method works for certain types of speech, problems arise when the correlation between the low and the high bands is not sufficient for adequate prediction. These situations require that additional high-band information is sent to the decoder. This overhead information, however, can be cleverly quantized using human auditory system models. In this paper, we propose a novel speech compression method that relies on bandwidth extension. The novelty of the technique lies in an elaborate perceptual model that determines a quantization scheme for wideband recovery and synthesis. Furthermore, a source/filter bandwidth extension algorithm based on spectral spline fitting is proposed. Results reveal that the proposed system improves the quality of narrowband speech while performing at a lower bitrate. When compared to other wideband speech coding schemes, the proposed algorithms provide comparable speech quality at a lower bitrate.

  11. Elementary Wideband Timing of Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Pennucci, Timothy T; Ransom, Scott M

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the simultaneous measurement of a pulse time-of-arrival (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM) from folded wideband pulsar data. We extend the prescription put forth by Taylor (1992) to accommodate a general two-dimensional template ``portrait'', the alignment of which can be used to measure a pulse phase and DM. We show that there is a dedispersion reference frequency that removes the covariance between the two measured quantities, and note that the recovered pulse profile scaling amplitudes can provide useful information. We experiment with pulse modeling by using Gaussian-component scheme that allows for independent component evolution with frequency, a ``fiducial component'', and the inclusion of scattering. A demonstration on three years of wideband data on the bright millisecond pulsar J1824-2452A (M28A) from the Green Bank Telescope, and a suite of Monte Carlo analyses showcase and validate the algorithm. By using a simple model portrait of M28A we obtain DM trends comparable to ...

  12. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF. Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars.

  13. Interference Mitigation for Coexistence of Heterogeneous Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haitao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ultra-wideband (UWB specifications, that is, direct-sequence (DS UWB and multiband-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM UWB, have been proposed as the candidates of the IEEE 802.15.3a, competing for the standard of high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPAN. Due to the withdrawal of the standardization process, the two heterogeneous UWB technologies will coexist in the future commercial market. In this paper, we investigate the mutual interference of such coexistence scenarios by physical layer Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the coexistence severely degrades the performance of both UWB systems. Moreover, such interference is asymmetric due to the heterogeneity of the two systems. Therefore, we propose the goodput-oriented utility-based transmit power control (GUTPC algorithm for interference mitigation. The feasible condition and the convergence property of GUTPC are investigated, and the choice of the coefficients is discussed for fairness and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that GUTPC improves the goodput of the coexisting systems effectively and fairly with saved power.

  14. A Novel Approach to Wideband Spectrum Compressive Sensing Based on DST for Frequency Availability in LEO Mobile Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In LEO mobile satellite network, the L/S frequency availability is an essential task for global communication but entails several major technical challenges: high sampling rate required for wideband sensing, limited power and computing resources for processing load, and frequency-selective wireless fading. This paper investigates the issue of frequency availability in LEO mobile satellite system, and a novel wideband spectrum compressed signal detection approach is proposed to obtain active primary users (PUs subbands and their locations that should be avoided during frequency allocation. We define the novel wideband spectrum compressed sensing method based on discrete sine transform (DST-WSCS, which significantly improves the performance of spectrum detection and recovery accuracy compared with conventional discrete Fourier transform based wideband spectrum compressed sensing scheme (DFT-WSCS. Additionally, with the help of intersatellite links (ISL, the scheme of multiple satellites cooperative sensing according to OR and MAJ decision fusion rules is presented to achieve spatial diversity against wireless fading. Finally, in-depth numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme in aspect of signal detection probability, reconstruction precision, processing time, and so forth.

  15. Simulation study of planar and nonplanar super rogue waves in an electronegative plasma: Local discontinuous Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Aboelenen, Tarek

    2017-05-01

    Planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) ion-acoustic super rogue waves in an unmagnetized electronegative plasma are investigated, both analytically (for planar geometry) and numerically (for planar and nonplanar geometries). Using a reductive perturbation technique, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonplanar/modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which describes a slow modulation of the nonlinear wave amplitude. The local modulational instability of the ion-acoustic structures governed by the planar and nonplanar NLSE is reported. Furthermore, the existence region of rogue waves is strictly defined. The parameters used in our calculations are from the lab observation data. The local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method is used to find rogue wave solutions of the planar and nonplanar NLSE and to prove L2 stability of this method. Also, it is found that the numerical simulations and the exact (analytical) solutions of the planar NLSE match remarkably well and numerical examples show that the convergence orders of the proposed LDG method are N + 1 when polynomials of degree N are used. Moreover, it is noted that the spherical rogue waves travel faster than their cylindrical counterpart. Also, the numerical solution showed that the spherical and cylindrical amplitudes of the localized pulses decrease with the increase in the time | τ |.

  16. Nanoscale dielectric microscopy of non-planar samples by lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M; Fabregas, R; Biagi, M C; Fumagalli, L; Gomila, G

    2016-10-01

    Lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is one of the most convenient imaging modes to study the local dielectric properties of non-planar samples. Here we present the quantitative analysis of this imaging mode. We introduce a method to quantify and subtract the topographic crosstalk from the lift-mode EFM images, and a 3D numerical approach that allows for extracting the local dielectric constant with nanoscale spatial resolution free from topographic artifacts. We demonstrate this procedure by measuring the dielectric properties of micropatterned SiO2 pillars and of single bacteria cells, thus illustrating the wide applicability of our approach from materials science to biology.

  17. Nanopatterning planar and non-planar mold surfaces for a polymer replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi;

    2013-01-01

    , freestanding nickel foil with a reversed pattern. This foil is then used either as a direct master for polymer replication or as a master for an extremely high pressure embossing of such master onto a metallic injection mold cavity surface coated with special coating, which, when cured, forms robust and hard......, glass-like material. We have demonstrated nanopattern transfer on both planar and non-planar geometries and our nanopatterned mold coating can sustain more than 10.000 injection molding cycles. We can coat our nanopatterned mold surfaces with a monolayer of perfluorosilane to further reduce surface...

  18. Nanoscale dielectric microscopy of non-planar samples by lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M.; Fabregas, R.; Biagi, M. C.; Fumagalli, L.; Gomila, G.

    2016-10-01

    Lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is one of the most convenient imaging modes to study the local dielectric properties of non-planar samples. Here we present the quantitative analysis of this imaging mode. We introduce a method to quantify and subtract the topographic crosstalk from the lift-mode EFM images, and a 3D numerical approach that allows for extracting the local dielectric constant with nanoscale spatial resolution free from topographic artifacts. We demonstrate this procedure by measuring the dielectric properties of micropatterned SiO2 pillars and of single bacteria cells, thus illustrating the wide applicability of our approach from materials science to biology.

  19. High-Efficiency, High-Power Ka-Band Elliptic-Beam Traveling-Wave-Tube Amplifier for Long-Range Space RF Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space telecommunications require amplifiers that are efficient, high-power, wideband, small, lightweight, and highly reliable. Currently, helix traveling wave tube...

  20. Wideband Single Crystal Transducer for Bone Characterization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop a very wideband ultrasound diagnostic tool for quantification of trabecular bone properties for astronauts in long term space...

  1. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Niraula, Manoj; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors with larger angular tolerance than their classical counterparts. We quantify the angular-spectral performance of representative resonant wideband reflectors in conic and classic mounts by numerical calculations with improved spectra found for fully conic incidence. Moreover, these predictions are verified experimentally for wideband reflectors fashioned in crystalline and amorphous silicon in distinct spectral regions spanning the 1200-1600-nm and 1600-2400-nm spectral bands. These results will be useful in various applications demanding wideband reflectors that are efficient and materially sparse.

  2. Molecular Engineering of Nonplanar Porphyrin and Carbon Nanotube Assemblies: A Linear and Nonlinear Spectroscopic and Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éimhín M. Ní Mhuircheartaigh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of molecular conformation to the nature and strength of noncovalent interactions existing between a series of increasingly nonplanar tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP derivatives and carbon nanotubes was systematically investigated experimentally in solution using a range of linear and nonlinear optical techniques. Additional complementary molecular dynamics studies were found to support the experimental observations. Convincing evidence of binding between single walled nanotubes (SWNTs and some of these porphyrins was discovered, and a nonplanar macrocycle conformation was found to increase the likelihood of noncovalent binding onto nanotubes. Nonlinear optical studies showed that the optical limiting behavior of the TPP derivatives deteriorated with increasing porphyrin nonplanarity, but that formation of nanotube composites dramatically improved the optical limiting properties of all molecules studied. It was also found that the significant photoluminescence quenching behavior reported in the literature for such porphyrin/SWNT composites is at least partly caused by photoluminescence and excitation self-absorption and is, therefore, an artifact of the system.

  3. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NON-NEWTONIAN BLOOD FLOW IN THE NON-PLANAR ARTERY WITH BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; LU Xi-yun; ZHUANG Li-xian; WANG Wen

    2004-01-01

    A numerical analysis of non-Newtonian fluid flow in non-planar artery with bifurcation was performed by using a finite element method to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the non-Newtonian constitutive models, including Carreau,Cross and Bingham models. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the non-Newtonian properties of blood as well as curvature and out-of-plane geometry in the non-planar daughter vessels on the velocity distribution and wall shear stress. The results of this study support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are of important in hemodynamics and play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology.

  4. Ultra wideband technology for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xiong, Weiming

    2011-08-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an important method for planetary surface exploration. To investigate the optimized wireless technology for WSNs, we summarized the key requirements of WSNs and justified ultra wideband (UWB) technology by comparing with other competitive wireless technologies. We also analyzed network topologies as well as physical and MAC layer designs of IEEE 802.15.4a standard, which adopted impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) technology. Our analysis showed that IR-UWB-based 802.15.4a standard could enable robust communication, precise ranging, and heterogeneous networking for WSNs applications. The result of our present work implies that UWB-based WSNs can be applied to future planetary surface exploration.

  5. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.

    2012-12-01

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  6. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-12-11

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  7. Parametric estimation of ultra wideband radar targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Ping; Jing Zhanrong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of impulse response properties, a scattering model of ultra wideband (UWB) radar targets is developed to estimate the target parameters exactly. With this model, two algorithms of multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and matrix pencil (MP), are introduced to calculate the scattering center parame-ters of targets and their performances are compared. The simulation experiments show that there are no differ-ences in the estimation precision of MUSIC and MP methods when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is larger than 13 dB. However, the MP method has a better performance than that of MUSIC method when the SNR is smaller than 13 dB. Besides, the time consuming of MP method is leas than that of MUSIC method. Therefore, the MP algorithm is preferred for the parametric estimation of UWB radar targets.

  8. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  9. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  10. Design of the GaN power amplifier for high gain and ultra-wideband%高增益宽频带GaN功率放大器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳浩

    2016-01-01

    针对新一代半导体材料氮化镓(Gallium Nitride,GaN)带宽大、效率高的优点,利用ADS谐波平衡仿真软件,设计了一个1.5~2.5GHz宽带高效的功率放大器。设计采用Cree公司的GaN 高电子迁移率晶体管CGH40010F,利用晶体管的大信号模型进行电路仿真,结果显示,功放在1.5~2.5GHz频带内,饱和输出功率大于41.7dBm,小信号增益大于18dB,功率附加效率大于70%。%This letter designs a 1.5~2.5GHz broadband highly efficient PA using the ADS harmonic-balanced simulator based on GaN,a new semiconductor materials with wide bandwidth and high efficience.The PA was designed with Cree’s GaN HEMT CGH40010F,and simulated with its large signal model.The result shows that the PA had a saturated power above 41.7dBm,a small signal gain over 18dB and the PAE above 74% in 1.5~2.5GHz frequency band.

  11. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  12. Time-Domain Diversity in Ultra-Wideband MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sibille

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of ultra-wideband (UWB communications is impeded by the drastic transmitted power limitations imposed by regulation authorities due to the “polluting” character of these radio emissions with respect to existing services. Technical solutions must be researched in order either to limit the level of spectral pollution by UWB devices or to increase their reception sensitivity. In the present work, we consider pulse-based modulations and investigate time-domain multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO diversity as one such possible solution. The basic principles of time-domain diversity in the extreme (low multipath density or intermediate (dense multipath UWB regimes are addressed, which predict the possibility of a MIMO gain equal to the product Nt×Nr of the numbers of transmit/receive antenna elements when the channel is not too severe. This analysis is confirmed by simulations using a parametric empirical stochastic double-directional channel model. They confirm the potential interest of MIMO approaches solutions in order to bring a valuable performance gain in UWB communications.

  13. A Wideband Channel Model for Intravehicular Nomadic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bellens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electronic entertainment equipments within vehicles has rendered the idea of replacing the wired links with intra-vehicle personal area networks. Ultra-wideband (UWB seems an appropriate candidate technology to meet the required data rates for interconnecting such devices. In particular, the multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM is able to provide very high transfer rates (up to 480 MBps over relatively short distances and low transmit power. In order to evaluate the performances of UWB systems within vehicles, a reliable channel model is needed. In this paper, a nomadic system where a base station placed in the center of the dashboard wants to communicate with fixed devices placed at the rear seat is investigated. A single-input single-output (SISO channel model for intra-vehicular communication (IVC systems is proposed, based on reverberation chamber theory. The model is based on measurements conducted in real traffic conditions, with a varying number of passengers in the car. Temporal variations of the wireless channels are also characterized and parametrized. The proposed model is validated by comparing model-independent statistics with the measurements.

  14. Compressive Wideband Spectrum Sensing for Fixed Frequency Spectrum Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yipeng

    2010-01-01

    Too high sampling rate is the bottleneck to wideband spectrum sensing for cognitive radio (CR). As the survey shows that the sensed signal has a sparse representation in frequency domain in the mass, compressed sensing (CS) can be used to transfer the sampling burden to the digital signal processor. An analog to information converter (AIC) can randomly sample the received signal with sub-Nyquist rate to obtained the random measurements. Considering that the static frequency spectrum allocation of primary radios means the bounds between different primary radios is known in advance, here we incorporate information of the spectrum boundaries between different primary user as a priori information to obtain a mixed l2/l1 norm denoising operator (MNDO). In the MNDO, the estimated power spectrum density (PSD) vector is divided into block sections with bounds corresponding different allocated primary radios. Different from previous standard l1-norm constraint on the whole PSD vector, a sum of the l2 norm of each sect...

  15. Compressed Measurements Based Spectrum Sensing for Wideband Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A. Khalaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the most important component in the cognitive radio (CR technology. Spectrum sensing has considerable technical challenges, especially in wideband systems where higher sampling rates are required which increases the complexity and the power consumption of the hardware circuits. Compressive sensing (CS is successfully deployed to solve this problem. Although CS solves the higher sampling rate problem, it does not reduce complexity to a large extent. Spectrum sensing via CS technique is performed in three steps: sensing compressed measurements, reconstructing the Nyquist rate signal, and performing spectrum sensing on the reconstructed signal. Compressed detectors perform spectrum sensing from the compressed measurements skipping the reconstruction step which is the most complex step in CS. In this paper, we propose a novel compressed detector using energy detection technique on compressed measurements sensed by the discrete cosine transform (DCT matrix. The proposed algorithm not only reduces the computational complexity but also provides a better performance than the traditional energy detector and the traditional compressed detector in terms of the receiver operating characteristics. We also derive closed form expressions for the false alarm and detection probabilities. Numerical results show that the analytical expressions coincide with the exact probabilities obtained from simulations.

  16. A novel auto-reference ultra-wideband receiver scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Xuewen; ZHU Shihua; ZENG Erlin

    2007-01-01

    A new auto-reference (AR) transmit-receive scheme and a corresponding group decision algorithm on the generaiized likelihood ratio testing(GLRT)principle is proposed in this paper to overcome the drawbacks of the power inefficiency and the high noise vulnerability in transmitted-reference(TR)ultra-wideband(UWB)systems.A partly overlapped detection window structure is introduced in which the decided data frames are regarded as the reference signal so that energy and time resources in the reference frame are saved and full-rate data transmission is achieved.Differential coding was utilized to solve the error propagation problem introduced by the overlapped detection windows.The group decision algorithm on the GLRT principle was utilized to estimate the correlation template through all data frames in detection windows and could offer better noise suppression.Simulation results reveal that the AR scheme with its decision algorithm outperforms the conventional and other modified TR schemes in generalized signal-to-noise ratio(SNR).

  17. Preparation of a Corannulene-functionalized Hexahelicene by Copper(I)-catalyzed Alkyne-azide Cycloaddition of Nonplanar Polyaromatic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Celedonio M; Barbero, Héctor; Ferrero, Sergio

    2016-09-18

    The main purpose of this video is to show 6 reaction steps of a convergent synthesis and prepare a complex molecule containing up to three nonplanar polyaromatic units, which are two corannulene moieties and a racemic hexahelicene linking them. The compound described in this work is a good host for fullerenes. Several common organic reactions, such as free-radical reactions, C-C coupling or click chemistry, are employed demonstrating the versatility of functionalization that this compound can accept. All of these reactions work for planar aromatic molecules. With subtle modifications, it is possible to achieve similar results for nonplanar polyaromatic compounds.

  18. Time-domain model of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for wideband optical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puris, D; Schmidt-Langhorst, C; Lüdge, K; Majer, N; Schöll, E; Petermann, K

    2012-11-19

    We present a novel theoretical time-domain model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier, that allows to simulate subpicosecond pulse propagation including power-based and phase-based effects. Static results including amplified spontaneous emission spectra, continuous wave amplification, and four-wave mixing experiments in addition to dynamic pump-probe simulations are presented for different injection currents. The model uses digital filters to describe the frequency dependent gain and microscopically calculated carrier-carrier scattering rates for the interband carrier dynamics. It can be used to calculate the propagation of multiple signals with different wavelengths or one wideband signal with high bitrate.

  19. Status of GRB Observations with the Suzaku Wideband All-sky Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M S; Urata, Y; Onda, K; Kodaka, N; Endo, A; Suzuki, M; Morigami, K; Yamaoka, K; Nakagawa, Y E; Sugita, S; Fukazawa, Y; Ohno, M; Takahashi, T; Kira, C; Uehara, T; Tamagawa, T; Enoto, T; Miyawaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Makishima, K; Sonoda, E; Yamauchi, M; Maeno, S; Tanaka, H; Hara, R; Suzuki, M; Kokubun, M; Takahashi, T; Hong, S J; Murakami, T; Tajima, H

    2008-01-01

    The Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) is a function of the large lateral BGO shield of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) onboard Suzaku. Its large geometrical area of 800 cm^2 per side, the large stopping power for the hard X-rays and the wide-field of view make the WAM an ideal detector for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observations in the energy range of 50-5000 keV. In fact, the WAM has observed 288 GRBs confirmed by other satellites, till the end of May 2007.

  20. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  1. Conformal growth of anodic nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cells: part II. Nonplanar electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Anodic titania nanotube array features highly ordered alignment as well as porous nature, and exhibits intriguing properties when employed in a variety of applications. All these profit from the continuous efforts on controlling the nanotube configurations. Recently, nonplanar electrodes have also been used to grow the nanotubes besides the conventional planar counterparts. As such, it is of great interest and significance to complete a picture to link the nanotubes grown on planar and various nonplanar electrodes for a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growing manners, in an attempt to boost their future applications. In the first part of this review, planar electrodes are focused with regard to nanotube growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this part, the nanotubes grown on patterned or curved surfaces are discussed first with reference to a similar structure of alumina nanopores, which are subsequently used to mirror the growth of nanotubes on cylindrical electrodes (i.e., titanium wires or meshes). The last section focuses on titanium tubular electrodes which are attractive for thermal fluids in view of the drastically reduced thermal conductivity in the presence of anodic nanotubes. As a recent hot topic, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are deliberated in terms of cell structure, efficiency calculation, merits, challenges and outlook.

  2. Elementary framework for cold field emission from quantum-confined, non-planar emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, A. A., E-mail: apatters@mit.edu; Akinwande, A. I. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    For suitably small field emitters, the effects of quantum confinement at the emitter tip may have a significant impact on the emitter performance and total emitted current density (ECD). Since the geometry of a quantum system uniquely determines the magnitude and distribution of its energy levels, a framework for deriving ECD equations from cold field electron emitters of arbitrary geometry and dimensionality is developed. In the interest of obtaining semi-analytical ECD equations, the framework is recast in terms of plane wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation via the use of the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. To demonstrate the framework's consistency with our previous work and its capabilities in treating emitters with non-planar geometries, ECD equations were derived for the normally unconfined cylindrical nanowire (CNW) and normally confined (NC) CNW emitter geometries. As a function of the emitter radius, the NC CNW emitter ECD profile displayed a strong dependence on the Fermi energy and had an average ECD that exceeded the Fowler-Nordheim equation for typical values of the Fermi energy due to closely spaced, singly degenerate energy levels (excluding electron spin), comparatively large electron supply values, and the lack of a transverse, zero-point energy. Such characteristics suggest that emitters with non-planar geometries may be ideal for emission from both an electron supply and electrostatics perspective.

  3. Wideband digitally tunable lasers based on fiber Bragg grating external cavity array and 1×N optical switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiwen Cai(蔡海文); Jianxin Geng(耿建新); Zuoren Dong(董作人); Gaoting Chen(陈高庭); Zujie Fang(方祖捷)

    2003-01-01

    A novel wideband digitally tunable laser based on fiber Bragg grating external cavities and 1 × N optical switch provides 5 ms fast tuning time with output power more than 1 dBm over whole C-band that is only limited by the laser emission bandwidth. Less than 50 pm wavelength drift over -10 to 55℃ temperature range make that the wavelength locker and monitor are not necessary in this tunable laser.

  4. In-Body to On-Body Ultra WidebandPropagation Model Derived from Measurementsin Living Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Floor, Pål Anders; Chavez-Santiago, Raul; Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Bergsland, Jacob; Grymyr, Ole-Johannes; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Palomar, Rafael; Plettemeier, Dirk; Hamran, Svein-Erik; Ramstad, Tor Audun; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology for wireless implants has gained significant attention. UWB enables the fabrication of faster and smaller transceivers with ultra low power consumption, which may be integrated into more sophisticated implantable biomedical sensors and actuators. Nevertheless, the large path loss suffered by UWB signals propagating through inhomogeneous layers of biological tissues is a major hindering factor. For the optimal design of implantable transceivers, the accura...

  5. Nonplanar integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Warren; de Mello Koch, Robert; Lin, Hai

    2011-03-01

    In this article we study operators with a dimension Δ ˜ O( N) and show that simple analytic expressions for the action of the dilatation operator can be found. The operators we consider are restricted Schur polynomials. There are two distinct classes of operators that we consider: operators labeled by Young diagrams with two long columns or two long rows. The main complication in working with restricted Schur polynomials is in building a projector from a given S n+ m irreducible representation to an S n × S m irreducible representation (both specified by the labels of the restricted Schur polynomial). We give an explicit construction of these projectors by reducing it to the simple problem of addition of angular momentum in ordinary non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The diagonalization of the dilatation operator reduces to solving three term recursion relations. The fact that the recursion relations have only three terms is a direct consequence of the weak mixing at one loop of the restricted Schur polynomials. The recursion relations can be solved exactly in terms of symmetric Kravchuk polynomials or in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This proves that the dilatation operator reduces to a decoupled set of harmonic oscillators and therefore it is integrable.

  6. Nonplanar Integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Warren; Lin, Hai

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study operators with a dimension $\\Delta\\sim O(N)$ and show that simple analytic expressions for the action of the dilatation operator can be found. The operators we consider are restricted Schur polynomials. There are two distinct classes of operators that we consider: operators labeled by Young diagrams with two long columns or two long rows. The main complication in working with restricted Schur polynomials is in building a projector from a given $S_{n+m}$ irreducible representation to an $S_n\\times S_m$ irreducible representation (both specified by the labels of the restricted Schur polynomial). We give an explicit construction of these projectors by reducing it to the simple problem of addition of angular momentum in ordinary non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The diagonalizationof the dilatation operator reduces to solving three term recursion relations. The fact that the recursion relations have only three terms is a direct consequence of the weak mixing at one loop of the restricte...

  7. Direction Dependent Effects In Wide-Field Wideband Full Stokes Radio Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jagannathan, Preshanth; Rau, Urvashi; Taylor, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy is affected by instrumental and atmospheric effects which introduce direction-dependent (DD) gains.The antenna power pattern varies both as a function of time and frequency. The broad band time varying nature of the antenna power pattern when not corrected leads to gross errors in full Stokes imaging and flux estimation. In this poster we explore the errors that arise in image deconvolution while not accounting for the time and frequency dependence of the antenna power pattern. Simulations were conducted with the wide-band full Stokes power pattern of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) antennas to demonstrate the level of errors arising from direction-dependent gains and their non-neglegible impact on upcoming sky surveys such as the VLASS. DD corrections through hybrid projection algorithms are computationally expensive to perform. A highly parallel implementation through high performance computing architectures is the only feasible way of applying these correction...

  8. Application of Young-Michelson and Brown-Twiss interferometers for determining geometric parameters of nonplanar rough objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandrosov, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using Young-Michelson and Brown-Twiss interferometers for measuring the angular dimensions and parameters of the surface shape of remote passively scattering and self-luminous nonplanar rough objects by optical radiation propagating from them is substantiated. The analysis is base

  9. Non-planar Rearview Mirrors: The Influence of Experience and Driver Age on Gap Acceptance and Vehicle Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Perel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Non-planar driver's side rear-view mirrors provide a wider field-of-view than planar mirrors, but produce a minified image. A field experiment was conducted to measure the performance of drivers when making lane change decisions based on mirror information. Four mirror types were included: a planar

  10. Apparatus And Method For Wireless Monitoring Using Ultra-wideband Frequencies

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-04-23

    A system for and a method of wirelessly monitoring one or more patients can include transmitting ultra-wideband pulses toward the one or more patients, receiving ultra-wideband signals, and sampling the ultra-wideband signals. Sampling the ultra-wideband pulses can be performed with a sample rate that is less than the Nyquist rate. Impulse response can be estimated and/or recovered by exploiting sparsity of the impulse response.

  11. [The effect of technological parameters of wide-band laser cladding on microstructure and sinterability of gradient bioceramics composite coating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qibin; Zhu, Weidong; Zou, Longjiang; Zheng, Min; Dong, Chuang

    2005-12-01

    The gradient bioceramics coating was prepared on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And the effect of technological parameters of wide-band laser cladding on microstructure and sinterability of gradient bioceramics composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicated that in the circumstances of size of laser doze D and scanning velocity V being fixed, with the increasement of power P, the density of microstructure in bioceramics coating gradually degraded; with the increasement of power P, the pore rate of bioceramics gradually became high. While P = 2.3 KW, the bioceramics coating with dense structure and lower pore rate (5.11%) was obtained; while P = 2.9 KW, the bioceramics coating with disappointing density was formed and its pore rate was up to 21.32%. The microhardness of bioceramics coating demonstrated that while P = 2.3 KW, the largest value of microhardness of bioceramics coating was 1100 HV. Under the condition of our research work, the optimum technological parameters for preparing gradient bioceramics coating by wide-band laser cladding are: P = 2.3 KW, V = 145 mm/min, D = 16 mm x 2 mm.

  12. A wideband terahertz high-T c superconducting Josephson-junction mixer: electromagnetic design, analysis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Du, Jia; Weily, Andrew R.; Guo, Yingjie Jay; Foley, Cathy P.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a wideband terahertz (THz) mixer based on a thin-film antenna-coupled high-temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) step-edge Josephson junction. The HTS mixer enables the flexible harmonic mixing operation at multiple THz bands with the same microwave local oscillator (LO) source, and features very wide intermediate-frequency or instantaneous bandwidth. In order to optimize the frequency down-conversion performance of the mixer, systematic electromagnetic design and analysis have been carried out to improve the power coupling of THz radiation as well as wideband transmission of microwave signals. Experimental characterization of a fabricated device prototype has demonstrated that the mixer exhibits good performance at both the 200 GHz and 600 GHz bands. Detailed measurement results including the DC characteristics, LO pumping requirement, frequency response, mixing linearity and conversion gain are presented in this paper.

  13. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping

    2016-07-04

    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR using direct wideband radio frequency (RF digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V.

    1949-03-16

    The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of transient wave forms, a better time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal levels. While the distributed amplifier may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband, the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may be applied to the low-frequency end.

  16. An Ultra-Wideband Schottky Diode Based Envelope Detector for 2.5 Gbps signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva; Granja, Angel Blanco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband (UWB) Schottky diode based envelope detector is reported. The detector consists of an input matching network, a Schottky diode and wideband output filtering network. The output network is tailored to demodulate ultra-wideband amplitude shift keying (ASK) signals up...

  17. Ultra Wideband Signal Detection with a Schottky Diode Based Envelope Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva

    its interoperability with existing wireless services and its license free operation. The latter is conditioned on meeting a number of standards and regulations for maximum radiated powers, designed to ensure the former by defining uwb signals as signals with large bandwidths in the frequency range...... of 2.85 GHz to 10.6 GHz and low power spectral density radio frequency (rf) emission. The use of such low power levels ensures non-problematic coexistence with other already deployed wireless technologies – e.g. WiFi, GPS and mobile services – and allows deployment in environments sensitive to rf....... The receiver is able to detect an ultra-wideband signal compliant with the Federal Communications Commission (fcc) regulations for uwb transmission and consisting of a 2.5 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero (nrz) data signal on a 6.9 GHz carrier after 20 cm wireless transmission. Bit error rates (ber) below the forward...

  18. Nonplanar nanoselective area growth of InGaAs/InP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Colman, Pierre; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial nano-patterned selective area growth of InGaAs/InP on non-planar (001) InP surfaces. Due to high etching resistance and the small molecular size of negative tone electron beam HSQ resist, the protection mask formed in HSQ has...... of the active material, the cross-sectional geometry was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties were carried out at room temperature using micro-photoluminescence setup. The results showed different deposition rates...... for openings oriented along [0-11] and [0-1-1] directions with higher rate along [0-1-1]. The fabricated active material was incorporated into photonic crystal waveguides....

  19. Non-planar and Non-linear Second Sound Waves in He Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; KIMURA Seiji; MURAKAMI Masahide; WANG Ru-zhu

    2000-01-01

    Non-planar and non-linear second sound wave are experimentally investigated in an open He Ⅱ bath. It is found that second sound wave characterized by a negative tail part in an open He Ⅱ bath is different from that propagating through a channel, and the shape of the negative tail part of second sound wave varies at different location in an open He Ⅱ bath. Theoretical consideration is also carried out based on two-fluid model and vortex evolution equation. It is found that experimental and theoretical results agree rather well with each other. Second sound wave may develop into the thermal shock wave provided that the heat flux is large.

  20. A Low Power Wide-band Voltage Controlled Oscillator for Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver%一种应用于全球导航卫星系统接收机的低功耗宽带压控振荡器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹喜珍; 肖时茂; 马成炎; 叶甜春

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new low power small area wide-band Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The VCO is separated in two discrete working regions from the characteristic of all-band GNSS signals. The power and phase noise can be optimized individually, the complexity of VCO is reduced and the area is saved. A technique of tuning curve linearization is used; The conventional VCO problem of having narrow effective tuning range of control voltage ( Vctrl) is solved. A linear tuning curve in whole variation of Vctrl is kept, the Amplitude Modulation to Frequency Modulation (AM-FM) conversion is decreased, and the phase noise is allayed. The measured results show that the tuning range of frequency is 49.5%, the gain of VCO (Kvco) is constant when Vctrl varies from 0.1 to 0.9 V. Measured phase noise is lower than -120 dBc at 1 MHz offset, the entire VCO consumes 2 mA current, occupies 0.24 mm2 area. The proposed VCO is implemented in 0.13 p.m 1P6M process, and it is successfully applied to all-band GNSS receiver.%该文设计了一种应用于全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)射频接收芯片的新型低功耗小面积宽频率调节范围的压控振荡器(VCO).根据全波段GNSS信号的特点,将VCO分成两个离散的频率工作区域,可分别对这两个区域进行功耗、相位噪声的优化,减小了VCO结构的复杂度,并节省了芯片面积.利用调谐曲线线性化技术,克服了传统的VCO控制电压有效调节范围窄的问题,使VCO在整个控制电压范围内调节曲线线性,减小了幅度调制转频率调制(AM-FM),降低了相位噪声.测试结果显示,该VCO频率调节范围为49.5%,控制电压在0.1~0.9 V内,VCO增益(KVCO)恒定,当频率偏移为1 MHz时相位噪声小于-120 dBc/Hz,消耗电流2 mA,占用芯片面积为0.24mm2.提出的VCO在0.13 μm 1P6M工艺上实现,已成功应用于全波段GNSS接收机中.

  1. Multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2004-11-01

    This report documents the author's efforts in the deterministic modeling of copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates such as diodes and electrical connectors. A new framework based on Goma was developed for multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates. In this framework, the moving sulfidation front is explicitly tracked by treating the finite-element mesh as a pseudo solid with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation and repeatedly performing re-meshing using CUBIT and re-mapping using MAPVAR. Three one-dimensional studies were performed for verifying the framework in asymptotic regimes. Limited model validation was also carried out by comparing computed copper-sulfide thickness with experimental data. The framework was first demonstrated in modeling one-dimensional copper sulfidation with charge separation. It was found that both the thickness of the space-charge layers and the electrical potential at the sulfidation surface decrease rapidly as the Cu{sub 2}S layer thickens initially but eventually reach equilibrium values as Cu{sub 2}S layer becomes sufficiently thick; it was also found that electroneutrality is a reasonable approximation and that the electro-migration flux may be estimated by using the equilibrium potential difference between the sulfidation and annihilation surfaces when the Cu{sub 2}S layer is sufficiently thick. The framework was then employed to model copper sulfidation in the solid-state-diffusion controlled regime (i.e. stage II sulfidation) on a prototypical diode until a continuous Cu{sub 2}S film was formed on the diode surface. The framework was also applied to model copper sulfidation on an intermittent electrical contact between a gold-plated copper pin and gold-plated copper pad; the presence of Cu{sub 2}S was found to raise the effective electrical resistance drastically. Lastly, future research needs in modeling atmospheric copper sulfidation are discussed.

  2. Change of manufacturing technique for the W7-X nonplanar coil cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, M. E-mail: michael_gehring@bb-power.de; Schaefer, P.; Herrmann, K.D.; Scheller, H

    2001-11-01

    The geometry of the coil cases of the nonplanar coil system for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experiment (Sapper, The superconducting magnet system for the W7-X stellarator. Proceedings 12th Topical Meeting on the Fusion Technology) was changed to a more complex shape compared to the DEMO Coil case (Kronhardt et al., 1998. Proceedings of the 20th SOFT (1998) 731-734). Therefore the manufacturing technique developed for the DEMO Coil case cannot be used for the series production of 50 coils. For the final design of the coil cases, investigations were performed to find a technique suitable for manufacturing the cases within the required geometrical tolerances and mechanical characteristics. In order to qualify the manufacturing technique a complete half case was cast and machined afterwards. The casting procedure was optimised with respect to the geometrical accuracy and the mechanical characteristics at 4.2 K. Measurements of the yield strength, the tensile strength, the elongation, and the Young's modulus were performed at room- and cryo-temperature (4 and 7 K). The influence of the heat treatment, the annealing temperature and the size of the casting on the mechanical values is shown. The requirements on the stainless steel are a yield strength of 800 MPa at 4 K and an elongation at fracture of >25%. The magnetic permeability has to be <1.01. Furthermore the welding properties of the case material were investigated. The development program showed that casting of complete case half shells is a feasible manufacturing technique for the series production of the Wendelstein 7-X nonplanar coil cases.

  3. An Analog Correlator for Ultra-Wideband Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Chunjiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analog circuit exhibiting high bandwidth and low distortion, specially designed for signal correlation in an ultra-wideband receiver front end. The ultra-wideband short impulse signals are correlated with a local pulse template by the correlator. A comparator then samples the output for signal detection. A typical Gilbert mixer core is adopted for multiplication of broadband signals up to . As a result of synchronization of the received signal and the local template, the output voltage level after integration and sampling can reach up to , which is sufficient for detection by the comparator. The circuit dissipates about from double voltage supplies of and using SiGe BiCMOS technology. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of this circuit design for use in ultra-wideband receivers.

  4. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors with larger angular tolerance than their classical counterparts. We quantify the angular-spectral performance of representative resonant wideband reflectors in conic and classic mounts by numerical calculations with improved spectra found for fully conic incidence. Moreover, these predictions are verified experimentally for wideband reflectors fashioned in crystalline and amorphous silicon in distinct spectral regions spanning the 1200-1600-nm and 1600-2400-nm spectral bands. These results will be useful in various applic...

  5. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  6. Compressed wideband spectrum sensing based on discrete cosine transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin

    2014-01-01

    Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a special type of transform which is widely used for compression of speech and image. However, its use for spectrum sensing has not yet received widespread attention. This paper aims to alleviate the sampling requirements of wideband spectrum sensing by utilizing the compressive sampling (CS) principle and exploiting the unique sparsity structure in the DCT domain. Compared with discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wideband communication signal has much sparser representation and easier implementation in DCT domain. Simulation result shows that the proposed DCT-CSS scheme outperforms the conventional DFT-CSS scheme in terms of MSE of reconstruction signal, detection probability, and computational complexity.

  7. Compressed Wideband Spectrum Sensing Based on Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT is a special type of transform which is widely used for compression of speech and image. However, its use for spectrum sensing has not yet received widespread attention. This paper aims to alleviate the sampling requirements of wideband spectrum sensing by utilizing the compressive sampling (CS principle and exploiting the unique sparsity structure in the DCT domain. Compared with discrete Fourier transform (DFT, wideband communication signal has much sparser representation and easier implementation in DCT domain. Simulation result shows that the proposed DCT-CSS scheme outperforms the conventional DFT-CSS scheme in terms of MSE of reconstruction signal, detection probability, and computational complexity.

  8. Conical Shape Antenna with Circular Slots for Ultra Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Al-Shaheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an ultra wideband of conical shaped with different configurations are designed and simulated.The antenna is printed on FR4 dielectric substrate of dimensions 42mm X 42 mm X 1.5 mm.conical shape using as a stub with circular slot etched on the ground plane, with microstrip CPW fed. The results shows a good bandwidth impedance below (S11< -10 dB for the ultra wideband UWB range from 3.1-10.6 GHz. Parametric study is done to optimize these antennas to be fit with UWB wireless applications.

  9. Substrate Effects in Wideband SiGe HBT Mixer Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the influence from substrate effects on the performance of wideband SiGe HBT mixer circuits is investigated. Equivalent circuit models including substrate networks are extracted from on-wafer test structures and compared with electromagnetic simulations. Electromagnetic simulations...... are also applied to predict short distance substrate coupling effects. Simulation results using extracted equivalent circuit models and substrate coupling networks are compared with experimental results obtained on a wideband mixer circuit implemented in a 0.35 μm, 60 GHz ft SiGe HBT BiCMOS process....

  10. Narrowband and wideband characterisation of satellite mobile/PCN channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, G.; Parks, M. A. N.; Evans, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents models characterizing satellite mobile channel. Statistical narrowband models based on the CSER high elevation angle channel measurement campaign are reported. Such models are understood to be useful for communication system simulations. It has been shown from the modelling results that for the mobile satellite links at high elevation angles line-of-sight (LOS) signal is available most of the time, even under the heavy shadowing conditions. Wideband measurement campaign which CSER is about to undertake, and subsequently the modelling approach to be adopted is also discussed. It is noted that a wideband channel model is expected to provide a useful tool in investigating CDMA applications.

  11. Effect of direction on loudness for wideband and reverberant sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    presented to the listeners via individual binaural synthesis. The results confirm that loudness depends on sound incidence angle, as it does for narrow-band, anechoic sounds. The directional effects, however, were attenuated with the wideband and reverberant stimuli used in the present investigation.......The effect of incidence angle on loudness was investigated for wideband and reverberant sounds. In an adaptive procedure, five listeners matched the loudness of a sound coming from five incidence angles in the horizontal plane to that of the same sound with frontal incidence. The stimuli were...

  12. An Enhancing Approach to Speech Degradation by Wideband Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOUHongwei; HUGuangrui

    2003-01-01

    A novel speech enhancement algorithm based on the simplified Karhunen-Loeve transform is proposed to suppress the wideband noise. There are no requirements of the matrix inversion, noise whitening and SNR pre-calculating. Experiments and comparison between different speech enhancement systems by means of the distortion measure show that the proposed method performs better shaping and suppressing of the wideband noise for speech enhancement. Spectral distortions fall widely to the lower level of 5dB in different SNRs. The noisy speech is enhanced with no musical residual noise.

  13. Optimal Designs of Ultra Wide-band Communication Antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIYicai; LIUQizhong; HEXiulian; ZHANGHou

    2004-01-01

    A novel design approach combining the Hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) with Method of moment (MoM) is investigated for the fast optimal design of ultra wide-band loaded wire antennas. A simple filtrating procedure is used to reduce the number of the loads and the components of the loading circuits, thus making the manufacture and experimental adjustment of the antennas easier, and the reliability of the antennas enhanced. The effectivity of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through its application to the optimal design of an ultra wide-band antenna.

  14. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  15. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  16. A Wideband Noise-canceling CMOS LNA Using Cross-coupled Feedback and Bulk Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Benqing; Yang, Guoning; An, Shiquan

    2014-05-01

    An improved wideband common-gate (CG) and common-source (CS) CMOS LNA with noise cancellation is proposed. The cross-coupled feedback between the CG input transistor and the cascode transistor of CS input stage is used to increase the input transconductance of the LNA. And the bulk effect of CS input transistors is utilized to enhance gm-boosting coefficient. Thus, comparable gain and noise are achieved by reduced bias currents of the LNA while the resulted additional NF degradation is negligible. Fabricated in a 0.13 μm RF CMOS process, the LNA achieves a flat voltage gain of 18 dB, an NF of 2.7~3.2 dB, and an IIP3 of -4.5~-7.4 dBm over a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.1~4.4 GHz. It consumes only 4.1 mA from a 1 V supply and occupies an area of 520 × 490 um2. In contrast to those of reported wideband LNAs, the proposed LNA has the merit of lower power consumption and lower supply voltage.

  17. Wideband DOA Estimation via Sparse Bayesian Learning over a Khatri-Rao Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujian Pan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the wideband direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation by exploiting the multiple measurement vectors (MMV based sparse Bayesian learning (SBL framework. First, the array covariance matrices at different frequency bins are focused to the reference frequency by the conventional focusing technique and then transformed into the vector form. Then a matrix called the Khatri-Rao dictionary is constructed by using the Khatri-Rao product and the multiple focused array covariance vectors are set as the new observations. DOA estimation is to find the sparsest representations of the new observations over the Khatri-Rao dictionary via SBL. The performance of the proposed method is compared with other well-known focusing based wideband algorithms and the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB. The results show that it achieves higher resolution and accuracy and can reach the CRLB under relative demanding conditions. Moreover, the method imposes no restriction on the pattern of signal power spectral density and due to the increased number of rows of the dictionary, it can resolve more sources than sensors.

  18. Conformal and Spectrally Agile Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antenna for Communication and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M.; Alwan, Elias; Miranda, Felix; Volakis, John

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing need for reducing size and weight of satellite systems, and is also strong interest to increase the functional role of small- and nano-satellites (for instance SmallSats and CubeSats). To this end, a family of arrays is presented, demonstrating ultra-wideband operation across the numerous satellite communications and sensing frequencies up to the Ku-, Ka-, and Millimeter-Wave bands. An example design is demonstrated to operate from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR2 at broadside, and validated through fabrication of an 8 x 8 prototype. This design is optimized for low cost, using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication. With the same fabrication technology, scaling is shown to be feasible up to a 9-49 GHz band. Further designs are discussed, which extend this wideband operation beyond the Ka-band, for instance from 20-80 GHz. Finally we will discuss recent efforts in the direct integration of such arrays with digital beamforming back-ends. It will be shown that using a novel on-site coding architecture, orders of magnitude reduction in hardware size, power, and cost is accomplished in this transceiver.

  19. Ultra-wideband MMICs for remote sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current activity at the Technical University of Denmark in the field of ultra-wideband monolitic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for next-generation high-resolution synthetic aperature radar (SAR) systems. The transfer function requirements for MMIC co...

  20. Wideband scalable probe for Spherical Near-Field Antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a design of an open-boundary quad-ridged horn to be used as a wideband scalable dual-linearly polarized probe for spherical near-field antenna measurements. With a new higher-order probe correction technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark, the probe will enabl...

  1. Target Doppler Estimation Using Wideband Frequency Modulated Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doisy, Y.; Deruaz, L.; Beerens, S.P.; Been, R.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the design and performance analysis of wideband sonar waveforms capable of estimating both target range and Döppler using as few replicas in the processing as possible. First, it is shown that for conventional Döppler sensitive waveforms, for which the Döppler and delay ar

  2. Aliasing-free wideband beamforming using sparse signal representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Z.; Blacquière, G.; Leus, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sparse signal representation (SSR) is considered to be an appealing alternative to classical beamforming for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. For wideband signals, the SSR-based approach constructs steering matrices, referred to as dictionaries in this paper, corresponding to different frequen

  3. Fibre Optics In A Multi-Star Wideband Local Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    Early experience has been gained with the switched-star type of network in the Fibrevision cable TV trial at Milton Keynes, and British Telecom are progressing towards a full-scale multi-star wideband local network. This paper discusses both the present and future use of fibre optics in this type of network.

  4. Design and Optimization of Wideband Multilayer Printed Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, B.; Jeuland, H.; Bolioli, S.

    2013-01-01

    The presentation will give an overview of ONERA recent research work in the field of wideband printed antenna arrays. A special focus will be given to the comprehensive analysis and design optimization of multilayered printed arrays for wide bandwidth and wide scan angle operation.

  5. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side ha...

  6. MIMO-OFDM performance in relation to wideband channel properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Zhang, H.; Oostveen, J.; Fledderus, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity of the error rate performance of MIMO-OFDM-based practical systems (WiMAX and LTE) to wide band channel properties is investigated. The behavior of the wideband channel is characterized in terms of delay spread (DS) and angular spread (AS). The impacts of DS and AS on

  7. Long slot arrays - Part 2: Ultra wideband test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.J.; Livingston, S.; Koenig, R.; Nagata, D.; Lai, L.; Neto, A.

    2005-01-01

    A wideband long slot array was recently developed for radar and EW applications. Theoretically the new design has unlimited bandwidth if no ground plane is included but at the expense of 3 dB loss in gain because of bi-directional radiation. In practice, however, a ground plane is used which limits

  8. Ultra wideband coplanar waveguide fed spiral antenna for humanitarian demining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun covering the frequency range of the antenna was developed. The constructed spiral antenna is very useful in a stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for humanitarian demining due to the very...

  9. Wideband HF Channel Prober: System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-09

    results in roughly equal power. Figure 48 shows output power vs frequency for a sin- gle power amplifier operating into a dummy load in both the Sounder and...eliminate time sidelobes of the ground wave, which would otherwise clutter the display. The iono- sonde format provides the frequency-delay

  10. High-Fidelity Aerostructural Optimization of Nonplanar Wings for Commercial Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Shahriar

    Although the aerospace sector is currently responsible for a relatively small portion of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the growth of the airline industry raises serious concerns about the future of commercial aviation. As a result, the development of new aircraft design concepts with the potential to improve fuel efficiency remains an important priority. Numerical optimization based on high-fidelity physics has become an increasingly attractive tool over the past fifteen years in the search for environmentally friendly aircraft designs that reduce fuel consumption. This approach is able to discover novel design concepts and features that may never be considered without optimization. This can help reduce the economic costs and risks associated with developing new aircraft concepts by providing a more realistic assessment early in the design process. This thesis provides an assessment of the potential efficiency improvements obtained from nonplanar wings through the application of fully coupled high-fidelity aerostructural optimization. In this work, we conduct aerostructural optimization using the Euler equations to model the flow along with a viscous drag estimate based on the surface area. A major focus of the thesis is on finding the optimal shape and performance benefits of nonplanar wingtip devices. Two winglet configurations are considered: winglet-up and winglet-down. These are compared to optimized planar wings of the same projected span in order to quantify the possible drag reductions offered by winglets. In addition, the drooped wing is studied in the context of exploratory optimization. The main results show that the winglet-down configuration is the most efficient winglet shape, reducing the drag by approximately 2% at the same weight in comparison to a planar wing. There are two reasons for the superior performance of this design. First, this configuration moves the tip vortex further away from the wing. Second, the winglet

  11. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  12. Time evolution of nonplanar dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with superthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Sciences- Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, U.S.T.H.B, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India)

    2015-12-15

    A theoretical study on the nonlinear propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASW) is carried out in a dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and charge fluctuating stationary dust particles. Using the reductive perturbation theory, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. It is shown that the propagation characteristics of the cylindrical and spherical DIA solitary waves significantly differ from those of their one-dimensional counterpart.

  13. Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons collision in Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Carbonaro, P.

    2016-04-01

    The solitons collision in nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) plasmas consisting of positive ions, two different negative ions, and isothermal electrons is studied. For this purpose, the Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method is used to obtain two-coupled nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (nKdV) equations. Also, the nonplanar phase shifts are calculated. The physical parameters of two plasma experiments; namely Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- are used to examine the properties of the localized pulses and their phase shifts after collision. It is found that the present model gives rise to the propagation of positive and negative pulses. The effects of the total negative ions concentration, the density ratio of the second-negative ions, the temperature ratio, and the geometrical effects on the behavior of solitons collisions and their phase shifts are investigated. Furthermore, it is found that the phase shifts in the case of the Ar+-F-- SF6- plasma are much larger than those of the Xe+-F-- SF6- plasma. Also, for fixed plasma parameters, the solitons collision received the largest phase shift in spherical geometry, followed by the cylindrical and planar geometries.

  14. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic stability caused by the interactions among the wideband control of power converters and passive components in an AC power-electronicsbased power system. The impedance-based analytical approach is employed and expanded to a meshed and balanced threephase network...

  16. Coherent, non-planar illumination of a defocused specimen: consequences for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan

    The objective of this study has been to examine the imaging properties of transmission electron microscopes when coherent non-planar illumination is used in conjunction with defocused specimens. This situation is reminiscent of what is commonly the case in electron microscopic phase-contrast studies of biologically relevant macromolecules, using a field emission gun as a coherent electron source. For the sake of simplicity, the imaging system has been idealized as a thin lens with properties that can be described by the Fresnel approximation of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The resulting expressions show that the system magnification has a defocus dependent factor, as do the contrast transfer functions. These factors are normally not taken into account in conventional derivations. The defocus dependent factor can be minimized by using planar illumination. The factor approaches infinity as the crossover moves closer to the specimen, and it is in the region close to the specimen that this factor is most significant. These results can have serious implications for high-resolution single-particle cryo electron microscopy as this technique often relies on combining data taken at a range of defocus values.

  17. Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly Approaches for Doping Planar and Non-Planar Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popere, Bhooshan; Russ, Boris; Heitsch, Andrew; Trefonas, Peter; Segalman, Rachel

    As electronic circuits continue to shrink, reliable nanoscale doping of functional devices presents new challenges. While directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) has enabled excellent pitch control for lithography, controlling the 3D dopant distribution remains a fundamental challenge. To this end, we have developed a BCP self-assembly approach to confine dopants to nanoscopic domains within a semiconductor. This relies on the supramolecular encapsulation of the dopants within the core of the block copolymer (PS- b-P4VP) micelles, self-assembly of these micelles on the substrate, followed by rapid thermal diffusion of the dopants into the underlying substrate. We show that the periodic nature of the BCP domains enables precise control over the dosage and spatial position of dopant atoms on the technologically relevant length scales (10-100 nm). Additionally, as the lateral density of 2D circuit elements approaches the Moore's limit, novel 3D architectures have emerged. We have utilized our BCP self-assembly approach towards understanding the self-assembly our micelles directed by such nanoscale non-planar features. We show that the geometric confinement imposed by the hard feature walls directs the assembly of these micelles.

  18. Elastic wave field computation in multilayered nonplanar solid structures: a mesh-free semianalytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram

    2008-03-01

    Multilayered solid structures made of isotropic, transversely isotropic, or general anisotropic materials are frequently used in aerospace, mechanical, and civil structures. Ultrasonic fields developed in such structures by finite size transducers simulating actual experiments in laboratories or in the field have not been rigorously studied. Several attempts to compute the ultrasonic field inside solid media have been made based on approximate paraxial methods like the classical ray tracing and multi-Gaussian beam models. These approximate methods have several limitations. A new semianalytical method is adopted in this article to model elastic wave field in multilayered solid structures with planar or nonplanar interfaces generated by finite size transducers. A general formulation good for both isotropic and anisotropic solids is presented in this article. A variety of conditions have been incorporated in the formulation including irregularities at the interfaces. The method presented here requires frequency domain displacement and stress Green's functions. Due to the presence of different materials in the problem geometry various elastodynamic Green's functions for different materials are used in the formulation. Expressions of displacement and stress Green's functions for isotropic and anisotropic solids as well as for the fluid media are presented. Computed results are verified by checking the stress and displacement continuity conditions across the interface of two different solids of a bimetal plate and investigating if the results for a corrugated plate with very small corrugation match with the flat plate results.

  19. Theoretical Study on a New Non-Planar Multi-Pass Laser Amplifier%新型非平面多程激光放大器的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清; 霍玉晶; 何淑芳

    2012-01-01

    A new non-planar multi-pass laser amplifier based on the two-mirror ring optical path is proposed. It has the advantages of simple structure, small size, good space symmetry, easily adjustable and more amplification times. In the cavity of the amplifier, the signal beam goes through the laser medium many times for amplification along the three-dimensional non-planar symmetric path, and the high-power amplified laser can be obtained in a small-size laser medium. Theoretical modeling and parametric analysis of the optical path in the cavity of the amplifier are done. Simulation graphs for a portion of modes of optical path are given, optical loss and power amplification are also analyzed. A basic design of a solid-state non-planar multi-pass thin-disk laser amplifier based on Yb: YAG thin disk and laser diode (LD) end-pumping is given for high-power laser amplification.%提出了一种基于双镜环行光路的新型非平面多程激光放大器,它具有结构简单、体积小、空间对称性好、调节容易、光通放大次数多的优点.信号光束在放大器腔内沿着立体环行的非平面空间对称路径多次通过激光介质被放大,可在小型激光介质中获得高功率的放大激光输出.对放大器腔内光路进行了理论建模和参量分析,给出了部分光路模式的模拟图,分析了光路损耗与功率放大;初步设计了基于Yb∶YAG薄片和激光二极管(LD)端面抽运的全固态非平面多程薄片激光放大器,适用于高功率激光放大.

  20. Wideband Direction of Arrival (DOA Estimation: A Comparative Study of Wideband MUSIC Method, Joint Diagonalization Structure (JDS Method and Beam-Space Genetic Algorithm (BGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Santosh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of Wideband MUSIC method, Joint Diagonalization Structure (JDS method and Beam-Space Genetic Algorithm (BGA is presented with respect to resolution probability and Root mean square error (RMSE evaluated in both low and high Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR regions. The simulation results show that BGA has higher resolution probability than the JDS method and Wideband MUSIC method in low SNR region while in the high SNR region, Wideband MUSIC has higher resolution probability followed by BGA and JDS method. RMSE is smallest for BGA as compared to JDS and Wideband MUSIC in low SNR region. In the high SNR region, Wideband MUSIC has smallest RMSE followed by BGA and JDS method.

  1. Investigation on cored-eutectic structure in Ni60/WC composite coatings fabricated by wide-band laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qunshuang, E-mail: maqunshuang@126.com; Li, Yajiang, E-mail: yajli@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Juan, E-mail: jwang@sdu.edu.cn; Liu, Kun, E-mail: liu_kun@163.com

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Perfect composite coatings were fabricated using wide-band laser cladding. • Special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized in Ni60/WC composite coatings. • Cored-eutectic consists of hard carbide compounds and fine lamellar eutectic of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe). • Wear resistance of coating layer was significantly improved due to precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides. - Abstract: Ni60 composite coatings reinforced with WC particles were fabricated on the surface of Q550 steel using LDF4000-100 fiber laser device. The wide-band laser and circular beam laser used in laser cladding were obtained by optical lens. Microstructure, elemental distribution, phase constitution and wear properties of different composite coatings were investigated. The results showed that WC particles were partly dissolved under the effect of wide-band fiber laser irradiation. A special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized due to dissolution of WC particles. According to EDS and XRD results, the inside cores were confirmed as carbides of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} enriched in Cr, W and Fe. These complex carbides were primarily separated out in the molten metal when solidification started. Eutectic structure composed of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe) grew around carbides when cooling. Element content of Cr and W is lower at the bottom of cladding layer. In consequence, the eutectic structure formed in this region did not have inside carbides. The coatings made by circular laser beam were composed of dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic carbides, lacking of block carbides. Compared to coatings made by circular laser spot, the cored-eutectic structure formed in wide-band coatings had advantages of well-distribution and tight binding with matrix. The uniform power density and energy distribution and the weak liquid convection in molten pool lead to the unique microstructure evolution in composite coatings made by wide-band laser

  2. Systematic Design Methodology of a Wideband Multibit Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awinash Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic design of a low power, wideband and multi-bit continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM is presented. The design methodology is illustrated with a 640 MS/s, 20 MHz signal bandwidth 4th order 2-bit CTDMS implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The implemented design achieves a peak SNDR of 65.7 dB and a high dynamic range of 70 dB while consuming only 19.7 mW from 1.8 V supply. The design achieves a FoM of 0.31 pJ/conv. Direct path compensation is employed for one clock excess loop delay compensation. In the feedforward topology, capacitive summation using the last opamp eliminates extra summation opamp.

  3. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  4. Wideband resonant polarizers made with ultra-sparse dielectric nanowire grids

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Polarizers are essential in diverse photonics applications including display [1], microscopy [2], polarimetric astrophysical observation [3], laser machining [4], and quantum information processing [5]. Whereas conventional polarizers based on natural crystals and multilayer thin films are commonplace, nanostructured polarizers offer compact integrability [6,7], thermal stability in high-power systems [4,8], and space-variant vector beam generation [9,10]. Here, we introduce a new class of reflectors and polarizers fashioned with dielectric nanowire grids that are mostly empty space. It is fundamentally extremely significant that the wideband spectral expressions presented can be generated in these minimal systems. We provide computed results predicting high reflection and attendant polarization extinction in multiple spectral regions. Experimental results with Si nanowire arrays show ~200-nm-wide band of total reflection for one polarization state and free transmission for the orthogonal state. These results...

  5. Millimeter-Wave Ultra-Wideband Six-Port Receiver Using Cross-Polarized Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new low-cost millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB transceiver architecture operating over V-band from 60 to 64 GHz. Since the local oscillator (LO power required in the operation of six-port receiver is generally low (compared to conventional one using diode mixers, the carrier recovery or LO synchronization is avoided by using second transmission path and cross-polarized antennas. The six-port model used in system simulation is based on -parameters measurements of a rectangular waveguide hybrid coupler. The receiver architecture is validated by comparisons between transmitter and receiver bit sequences and bit error rate results of 500 Mb/s pseudorandom QPSK signal.

  6. Millimeter-Wave Ultra-Wideband Six-Port Receiver Using Cross-Polarized Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serioja O. Tatu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new low-cost millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB transceiver architecture operating over V-band from 60 to 64 GHz. Since the local oscillator (LO power required in the operation of six-port receiver is generally low (compared to conventional one using diode mixers, the carrier recovery or LO synchronization is avoided by using second transmission path and cross-polarized antennas. The six-port model used in system simulation is based on S-parameters measurements of a rectangular waveguide hybrid coupler. The receiver architecture is validated by comparisons between transmitter and receiver bit sequences and bit error rate results of 500 Mb/s pseudorandom QPSK signal.

  7. Ultra-Wideband Channel Sounder – Design, Construction and Selected Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zetik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes construction, design, and application of a real-time ultra-wideband channel sounder. Its specific architecture allows measurements of time-variant radio propagation channels in different frequency bands. The sounder’s stimulation signal is the maximum length binary sequence. Synchronous multi-channel operation is supported by its excellent timing stability and by its low power consumption of miniature sized low temperature co-fired ceramics modules that comprise custom integrated SiGe circuits. This is a prerequisite to build a multiple-input-multiple-output sounder which is suitable for sounding even in distributed scenarios such as sensor networks. Selected application examples demonstrated the performance and possibilities of the sounder.

  8. Pulse shaping method to compensate for antenna distortion in ultra-wideband communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems, a critical spectral mask is released to restrict the allowable interference to other wireless devices by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and then some pulse shaping methods have been presented to fulfil the mask. However, most pulse shaping methods do not consider the antenna distortion which cannot be neglected in the UWB communication systems compared with the conventional systems. To this end, an orthogonal wavelet based pulse shaping method is proposed in this paper to integrate compensation of antenna distortion into pulse shaping. Simulation results show that the novel pulse shaping method can be used to achieve compensation for antenna distortion, optimization of transmission power spectrum, and simplification of the algorithm, as well as simple implementation of the pulse generator.

  9. Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband

    CERN Document Server

    Berthe, Abdoulaye; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Plana, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed performance evaluation of distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) Physical layer (PHY). Two main classes of Medium Access Control protocol have been considered: Slotted and UnSlotted with reliability. The reliability is based on Automatic Repeat ReQuest (ARQ). The performance evaluation is performed using a complete Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) simulator built on the Global Mobile Information System Simulator (GloMoSim). The optimal operating parameters are first discussed for IR-UWB in terms of slot size, retransmission delay and the number of retransmission, then a comparison between IR-UWB and other transmission techniques in terms of reliability latency and power efficiency.

  10. Modelling and Studies for a Wideband Feedback System for Mitigation of Transverse Single Bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K S B; Rumolo, G; Cesaratto, J; Dusatko, J; Fox, J; Pivi, M; Pollock, K; Rivetta, C; Turgut, O

    2013-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) Project [1], a wideband feedback system is under study for mitigation of coherent single bunch instabilities. This type of system may provide a generic way of shifting the instability threshold to regions that are currently inaccessible, thus, boosting the brightness of future beams. To study the effectiveness of such systems, a numerical model has been developed that constitutes a realistic feedback system including real transfer functions for pickup and kicker, realistic N-tap FIR and IIR filters as well as noise and saturation effects. Simulations of SPS cases have been performed with HEADTAIL to evaluate the feedback effectiveness in the presence of transverse mode coupling and electron clouds. Some results are presented addressing bandwidth limitations and amplifier power requirements.

  11. Time-domain ultra-wideband radar, sensor and components theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis, and design of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar and sensor systems (in short, UWB systems) and their components. UWB systems find numerous applications in the military, security, civilian, commercial and medicine fields. This book addresses five main topics of UWB systems: System Analysis, Transmitter Design, Receiver Design, Antenna Design and System Integration and Test. The developments of a practical UWB system and its components using microwave integrated circuits, as well as various measurements, are included in detail to demonstrate the theory, analysis and design technique. Essentially, this book will enable the reader to design their own UWB systems and components. In the System Analysis chapter, the UWB principle of operation as well as the power budget analysis and range resolution analysis are presented. In the UWB Transmitter Design chapter, the design, fabrication and measurement of impulse and monocycle pulse generators are covered. The UWB Receiver Design cha...

  12. Design and analysis of ultra-wideband antennas for transient field excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzev, Miroslav; Kreitlow, Matthias; Gronwald, Frank

    2016-09-01

    This work addresses the design of two ultra-wideband antennas for the application of transient field measurements that are characterized by frequency spectra that typically range from a few MHz to several GHz. The motivation for their design is the excitation of high power transient pulses, such as double exponential or damped sinusoidal pulses, within highly resonant metallic enclosures. The antenna design is based on two independent numerical full-wave solvers and it is aimed to achieve a low return loss over a wide range of frequencies together with a high pulse fidelity. It turns out that antennas of the conical and discone type do achieve satisfactory broadband characteristics while limitations towards low frequencies persist. Also the concept of fidelity factor turns out as advantageous to determine whether the proposed antennas allow transmitting certain broadband pulse forms.

  13. Impulse radio ultra wide-band over multi-mode fiber for in-home signal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Rodes, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2009-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high speed impulse radio ultra wide-band (IR-UWB) wireless link for in-home network signal distribution. The IR-UWB pulse is distributed over a multimode fiber to the transmitter antenna. Wireless transmitted bit-rates of 1 Gbps at 2 m and 2 Gbps at 1.5 m...... have successfully been demonstrated, with a simple envelope detection scheme. This system is remarkably simple and robust; this makes it very attractive for low-cost applications in short range high-speed wireless links with low radiated power....

  14. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  15. Optimization and Design of Wideband Antenna Based on Q Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband antenna is designed based on Q factor in this paper. Firstly, the volume-surface integral equations (VSIEs and self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm (DEA are introduced as the basic theories to optimize antennas. Secondly, we study the computation of Q of arbitrary shaped structures, aiming at designing an antenna with maximum bandwidth by minimizing the Q of the antenna. This method is much more efficient for only Q values at specific frequency points that are computed, which avoids optimizing bandwidth directly. Thirdly, an integrated method combining the above method with VSIEs and self-adaptive DEA is employed to optimize the wideband antenna, extending its bandwidth from 11.5~16.5 GHz to 7~20 GHz. Lastly, the optimized antenna is fabricated and measured. The measured results are consistent with the simulated results, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Detection of Wideband Signal Number Based on Bootstrap Resampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing source number correctly is the precondition for most spatial spectrum estimation methods; however, many snapshots are needed when we determine number of wideband signals. Therefore, a new method based on Bootstrap resampling is proposed in this paper. First, signals are divided into some nonoverlapping subbands; apply coherent signal methods (CSM to focus them on the single frequency. Then, fuse the eigenvalues with the corresponding eigenvectors of the focused covariance matrix. Subsequently, use Bootstrap to construct the new resampling matrix. Finally, the number of wideband signals can be calculated with obtained vector sequences according to clustering technique. The method has a high probability of success under low signal to noise ratio (SNR and small number of snapshots.

  17. Fundamental Limits of Wideband Localization - Part II: Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuan; Win, Moe Z

    2010-01-01

    The availability of positional information is of great importance in many commercial, governmental, and military applications. Localization is commonly accomplished through the use of radio communication between mobile devices (agents) and fixed infrastructure (anchors). However, precise determination of agent positions is a challenging task, especially in harsh environments due to radio blockage or limited anchor deployment. In these situations, cooperation among agents can significantly improve localization accuracy and reduce localization outage probabilities. A general framework of analyzing the fundamental limits of wideband localization has been developed in Part I of the paper. Here, we build on this framework and establish the fundamental limits of wideband cooperative location-aware networks. Our analysis is based on the waveforms received at the nodes, in conjunction with Fisher information inequality. We provide a geometrical interpretation of equivalent Fisher information for cooperative networks....

  18. Numerical investigation of blood flow in a deformable coronary bifurcation and non-planar branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Esmail; Omidi, Amir Ali; Saghafi Zanjani, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among cardiovascular diseases, arterials stenosis is recognized more commonly than the others. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood play a key role in the incidence of stenosis. This paper numerically investigates the pulsatile blood flow in a coronary bifurcation with a non-planar branch. To create a more realistic analysis, the wall is assumed to be compliant. Furthermore, the flow is considered to be three-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar. Methods: The effects of non-Newtonian blood, compliant walls and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow were evaluated. Shear thinning of blood was simulated with the Carreau-Yasuda model. The current research was mainly focused on the flow characteristics in bifurcations since atherosclerosis occurs mostly in bifurcations. Moreover, as the areas with low shear stresses are prone to stenosis, these areas were identified. Results: Our findings indicated that the compliant model of the wall, bifurcation’s angle, and other physical properties of flow have an impact on hemodynamics of blood flow. Lower wall shear stress was observed in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall. The outer wall of bifurcation in all models had lower wall shear stress. In bifurcations with larger angles, wall shear stress was higher in outer walls, and lower in inner walls. Conclusion: The non-Newtonian blood vessels and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow evaluation confirmed a lower wall shear stress in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall, while the wall shear stress was higher in outer walls but lower in inner walls in the bifurcation regions with larger angles. PMID:25671176

  19. Episodic slow slip events in a non-planar subduction fault model for northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.

    2014-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events have been detected along the Cascadia margin, as well as many other subduction zones, by increasingly dense seismic and geodetic networks over the past decade. In northern Cascadia, ETS events arise on the thrust fault interface of 30~50 km depth, coincident with metamorphic dehydration of the subducting oceanic slab around temperatures of 350. Previous numerical simulations (e.g., Liu and Rice 2007) suggested that near-lithostatic pore pressure in the rate-state friction stability transition zone could give rise to slow slip events (SSE) down-dip of the seismogenic zone, which provides a plausible physical mechanism for these phenomena. Here we present a 3-D numerical simulation of inter-seismic SSEs based on the rate- and state- friction law, incorporating a non-planar, realistic northern Cascadia slab geometry compiled by McCrory et al. (2012) using triangular dislocation elements. Preliminary results show that the width and pore pressure level of the transition zone can remarkably affect the recurrence of SSEs. With effective normal stress of ~1-2 MPa and characteristic slip distance of ~1.4 mm, inter-seismic SSEs can arise about every year. The duration of each event is about 2~3 weeks, with the propagating speed along strike in the range of km/day. Furthermore, the slab bending beneath southern Vancouver Island and northern Washington State appears to accelerate the along-strike propagation of SSEs. Our next step is to constrain the rate-state frictional properties using geodetic inversion of SSE slip and inter-SSE plate coupling from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS measurements. Incorporating the realistic fault geometry into a physics model constrained by geodetic data will enable us to transition from a conceptual towards a quantitative and predictive understanding of SSEs mechanism.

  20. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duru, Kenneth, E-mail: kduru@stanford.edu [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dunham, Eric M. [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge–Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture

  1. Analysis of Wideband Beamformers Designed with Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 0-90-1 ANALYSIS OF WIDEBAND BEAMFORMERS DESIGNED WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS by Cary Cox Instrumentation Services Division...included. A briel tutorial on beamformers and neural networks is also provided. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF PAGES Artificial neural networks Fecdforwa:,l...Beamformers Designed with Artificial Neural Networks ". The study was conducted under the general supervision of Messrs. George P. Bonner, Chief

  2. Ultra-Wideband Signals for Target Detection in Foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1997], and Fourier analysis [ Papoulis , 1987]. This approach gives a simple intuitive physical explanation for the formation and propagation of...transform or Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques can be applied to compute (2.14) and (2.15) [ Papoulis , 1987; Oppenheim et al., 1997] to obtain the...Assessment of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology, Battelle Tactical Technology Center, July 13, 1990. A. Papoulis , The Fourier Integral and its

  3. A wideband IM3 cancellation technique for CMOS attenuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; Annema, A.J.; Wienk, G.J.M.; Nauta, B.

    2012-01-01

    A highly linear P attenuator system using a wideband IM3 cancellation technique is presented that provides 4 discrete attenuation levels with 6dB spacing for DC-5GHz. For the whole band, S11<-14dB, attenuation flatness<1.6dB, +10dBm input P1dB and +26dBm IIP3 are achieved. For the TV band (0.1Gz-1.2

  4. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  5. Closely Mounted Compact Wideband Diversity Antenna for Mobile Phone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunggil Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here a compact wideband diversity antenna covering the PCS/UMTS/WiMAX bands with high isolation and low enveloped correlation coefficient (ECC is proposed. To widen the bandwidth, the proposed antenna uses a structure with a gap-coupled feed and an inductively shorted line that has capacitive compensation between the radiator and the ground plane. Also, a suspended line with a parasitic element is used to enhance the isolation between the two antennas.

  6. Ruggedizing Printed Circuit Boards Using a Wideband Dynamic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Ho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing approaches to ruggedizing inherently fragile and sensitive critical components of electronic equipment such as printed circuit boards (PCB for use in hostile industrial and military environment are either insufficient or expensive. This paper addresses a novel approach towards ruggedizing commercial-off-the-shelf PCBs using a miniature wideband dynamic absorber. The optimisation technique used relies on the experimentally measured vibration spectra and complex receptance of the original PCB.

  7. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Niraula, Manoj; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors ...

  8. Design of a wideband excitation source for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Kang, Minhang; Lu, Yong; Wang, Jian; Yue, Jing; Gao, Zonghai

    2011-01-01

    Multi-frequency-one-time (MFOT) measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) can greatly reduce measurement time and grasp the transient physiological status of a living body compared with the traditional one-frequency-one-time (OFOT) measurement technology, and a wideband excitation source mixed with multiple frequencies is a crucial part of MFOT measurement of BIS. This communication describes a design of a wideband excitation source. Firstly, a multi-frequency mixed (MFM) signal containing seven primary harmonics is synthesized based on Walsh functions, which is a periodical and rectangular signal and whose 68.9% of the energy is homogeneously distributed on its seven 2nth primary harmonics. Then the MFM signal is generated by a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and a unipolar-to-bipolar convertor (UBC) is designed to convert the unipolar signal into bipolar signal. Finally, the bipolar MFM signal is driven by a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS). A 2R-1C series model is adopted as the load of the VCCS, and the simulated voltage response on the load is obtained based on the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that the practical waveform on the load matches well with the theoretical analysis, which indicates that the VCCS has a good performance on the MFM signal. The design of the wideband excitation source establishes a good foundation for fast measurement of BIS.

  9. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  10. Wideband Spectrum Sensing at Sub-Nyquist Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Mishali, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    We present a mixed analog-digital spectrum sensing method that is especially suited to the typical wideband setting of cognitive radio (CR). The advantages of our system with respect to current architectures are threefold. First, our analog front-end is fixed and does not involve scanning hardware. Second, both the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the digital signal processing (DSP) rates are substantially below Nyquist. Finally, the sensing resources are shared with the reception path of the CR, so that the lowrate streaming samples can be used for communication purposes of the device, besides the sensing functionality they provide. Combining these advantages leads to a real time map of the spectrum with minimal use of mobile resources. Our approach is based on the modulated wideband converter (MWC) system, which samples sparse wideband inputs at sub-Nyquist rates. We report on results of hardware experiments, conducted on an MWC prototype circuit, which affirm fast and accurate spectrum sensing in par...

  11. Nonplanar positron-acoustic Gardner solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M. J., E-mail: josim.phys2007@gmail.com; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)

    2015-02-15

    Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  12. A New Physics-Based Modeling of Multiple Non-Planar Hydraulic Fractures Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [University of Utah; Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deo, Milind [University of Utah; Jiang, Shu [Energy & Geoscience Institute

    2015-10-01

    Because of the low permeability in shale plays, closely spaced hydraulic fractures and multilateral horizontal wells are generally required to improve production. Therefore, understanding the potential fracture interaction and stress evolution is critical in optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multi-stage horizontal wells. In this paper, a novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple non-planar fractures propagation. The numerical model from Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to simulate the mechanics of fracture propagations and interactions, while a conjugate irregular lattice network is generated to represent fluid flow in both fractures and formation. The fluid flow in the formation is controlled by Darcy’s law, but within fractures it is simulated by using cubic law for laminar flow through parallel plates. Initiation, growth and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. We investigate the fracture propagation path in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs using the simulator developed. Stress shadow caused by the transverse fracture will change the orientation of principal stress in the fracture neighborhood, which may inhibit or alter the growth direction of nearby fracture clusters. However, the initial in-situ stress anisotropy often helps overcome this phenomenon. Under large in-situ stress anisotropy, the hydraulic fractures are more likely to propagate in a direction that is perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress. Under small in-situ stress anisotropy, there is a greater chance for fractures from nearby clusters to merge with each other. Then, we examine the differences in fracture geometry caused by fracturing in cemented or uncemented wellbore. Moreover, the impact of

  13. Generating all two-MOS-transistor amplifiers leads to new wide-band LNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    This paper presents a methodology that systematically generates all 2-MOS-transistor wide-band amplifiers, assuming that MOSFET is exploited as a voltage-controlled current source. This leads to new circuits. Their gain and noise factor have been compared to well-known wide-band amplifiers. One of

  14. Machine Learning Aided Efficient and Robust Algorithms for Spectrum Knowledge Acquisition in Wideband Autonomous Cognitive Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    WIDEBAND AUTONOMOUS COGNITIVE RADIOS Sudharman Jayaweera Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM...of Electrical and Computer Engineering 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 9. SPONSORING...1, is the wideband spectrum scanning [1,8]. Hardware constraints limit the instantaneous sensing bandwidth of most state-of-the- art software

  15. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  16. GaAs Wideband Low Noise Amplifier Design for Breast Cancer Detection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Krozer, Viktor; Delcourt, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    Modern wideband systems require low-noise receivers with bandwidth approaching 10 GHz. This paper presents ultra-wideband stable low-noise amplifier MMIC with cascode and source follower buffer configuration using GaAs technology. Source degeneration, gate and shunt peaking inductors are used to ...

  17. Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test-Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method: Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12-octave…

  18. Fast Computation of Wideband Beam Pattern for Designing Large-Scale 2-D Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cheng; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    For real-time and high-resolution 3-D ultrasound imaging, the design of sparse distribution and weights of elements of a large-scale wideband 2-D array is needed to reduce hardware cost and achieve better directivity. However, due to the high time consumption of computing the wideband beam pattern, the design methods that need massive iterations have rarely been applied to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays by directly computing the wideband beam pattern. In this paper, a fast method is proposed to realize the computation of a wideband beam pattern of arbitrary 2-D arrays in the far field in order to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays. The proposed fast method exploits two important techniques: 1) nonuniform fast Fourier transform (FFT) and 2) short inverse FFT. Compared with the commonly used ultrasound simulator Field II, two orders of magnitude improvement in computation speed is achieved with comparable accuracy. The proposed fast method enables massive iterations of direct wideband beam pattern computation of arbitrary large-scale 2-D arrays. A design example in this paper demonstrates that the proposed fast method can help achieve better performance in designing large-scale wideband 2-D arrays.

  19. Time-integrating acousto-optic correlator for wideband random noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangtaek; Narayanan, Ram; Zhou, Wei; Wagner, Kelvin

    2004-10-01

    A time-integrating acousto-optic correlator (TIAOC) is a good candidate for imaging and target detection using a wideband random noise radar system. We have developed such a correlator for a random noise radar with a signal frequency range of 1-2 GHz. This system has demonstrated good wideband signal correlation performance with good dynamic range and fine tuning of delays.

  20. Effects of nonthermal distribution of electrons and polarity of net dust-charge number density on nonplanar dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A A; Shukla, P K

    2009-09-01

    Effects of the nonthermal distribution of electrons as well as the polarity of the net dust-charge number density on nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the basic features of the DIASWs are significantly modified by the effects of nonthermal electron distribution, polarity of net dust-charge number density, and nonplanar geometry. The implications of our results in some space and laboratory dusty plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  1. Global stabilization of high-energy resonance for a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Arata; Sato, Takeru

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a wideband nonlinear vibration energy harvester which has a globally stabilized high-energy resonating response. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the maximum performance of the power generation and its bandwidth are in a relation of trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear resonator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear resonators often have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. In this study, an experimental verification of this concept are carried out. An experimental prototype harvester is designed and fabricated and the performance of the proposed harvester is experimentally verified. It has been shown that the numerical and experimental results agreed very well, and the highest-energy solutions above the threshold value were successfully stabilized globally.

  2. Wide-band heterodyne receiver development for effluent measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Liu, H.C.; Buchanan, M. [National Research Council of Canada (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced infrared heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Passive heterodyne radiometry in the LWIR region of the spectrum has historically been restricted by HgCdTe (MCT) detector technology to receiver bandwidths of only 2 GHz. Given typical atmospheric line widths of approximately 3 GHz, a CO{sub 2} (or isotope) laser local oscillator with an average line spacing of 50 GHz, and an MCT detector, only chemical species whose absorptions fall directly on top of laser lines can be measured. Thus, with traditional narrow-band heterodyne radiometry, much of the LWIR spectrum is missed and the less complex direct detection DIAL has been the preferred technique in remote sensing applications. Wide-band heterodyne receivers offer significant improvements in remote measurement capability. Progress at the Institute for Microstructural Sciences (IMS) at National Research Council of Canada and at ORNL in wide-band quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QIPs) and receivers is significantly enhancing the bandwidth capabilities of heterodyne radiometers. ORNL recently made measurements in the lab using QWIPs developed at IMS that demonstrate heterodyne quantum efficiencies of 5% with a heterodyne bandwidth of 7 GHz. The path forward indicates that > 10% heterodyne quantum efficiencies and 30-GHz bandwidths are achievable with current QWIP technology. With a chopped, 30-GHz passive heterodyne receiver, a much larger portion of the LWIR spectrum can now be covered. One potential advantage of wide-band heterodyne receivers for effluent measurements is to dramatically reduce the number of laser lines needed to characterize and distinguish multiple chemical species of interest. In the following paper, the authors discuss this and other implications of these new technologies to the characterization of effluents using both passive heterodyne radiometry and thermo-luminescence.

  3. Diffuse Scattering Model of Indoor Wideband Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete-time numerical algorithm for computing field distribution in indoor environment by diffuse scattering from walls. Calculations are performed for a rectangular room with semi-reflective walls. The walls are divided into 0.5 x 0.5 m segments, resulting in 2272 wall...... segments in total and approximately 2 min running time on average computer. Frequency independent power levels at the walls around the circumference of the room and at four receiver locations in the middle of the room are observed. It is demonstrated that after finite period of initial excitation the field...... intensity in all locations eventually follows exponential decay with the same slope and approximately the same level for given delay. These observations are shown to be in good agreement with theory and previous measurements—the slopes of the decay curves for measurement, simulation and theory are found...

  4. Fast Domain Partitioning Method for dynamic boundary integral equations applicable to non-planar faults dipping in 3-D elastic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-11-01

    The elastodynamic boundary integral equation method (BIEM) in real space and in the temporal domain is an accurate semi-analytical tool to investigate the earthquake rupture dynamics on non-planar faults. However, its heavy computational demand for a historic integral generally increases with a time complexity of O(MN3)for the number of time steps N and elements M due to volume integration in the causality cone. In this study, we introduce an efficient BIEM, termed the `Fast Domain Partitioning Method' (FDPM), which enables us to reduce the computation time to the order of the surface integral, O(MN2), without degrading the accuracy. The memory requirement is also reduced to O(M2) from O(M2N). FDPM uses the physical nature of Green's function for stress to partition the causality cone into the domains of the P and S wave fronts, the domain in-between the P and S wave fronts, and the domain of the static equilibrium, where the latter two domains exhibit simpler dependences on time and/or space. The scalability of this method is demonstrated on the large-scale parallel computing environments of distributed memory systems. It is also shown that FDPM enables an efficient use of memory storage, which makes it possible to reduce computation times to a previously unprecedented level. We thus present FDPM as a powerful tool to break through the current fundamental difficulties in running dynamic simulations of coseismic ruptures and earthquake cycles under realistic conditions of fault geometries.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Cueing Wideband Digital EW Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jun; TANG Bin; WU Wei; JIANG Zong-ming; ZHANG Chang-ju; YIN Mao-wei; DEN Ming-yi; DU Dong-ping

    2006-01-01

    A cueing wideband digital Electronic Warfare (EW) receiver is presented. The proposed receiver, which is to measure the instantaneous frequency and bandwidth of the intercept short-duration pulse radar signals that cue and match the corresponding ones, meets the requirements of good sensitivity and dynamic range for EW and can save hardware resources greatly as well. In addition, real-time signal processing, which is the main bottleneck for covering a wide instantaneous frequency band for EW receiver, is better solved in the proposed design structure. The highly efficient implementation and good parameter estimation algorithms are proposed as well. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this structure is feasible.

  6. Ultra-wideband and 60 GHz communications for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the design of devices, systems, and circuits for medical applications using the two recently established frequency bands: ultra-wideband (3.1-10.6 GHz) and 60 GHz ISM band. These two bands provide the largest bandwidths available for communication technologies and present many attractive opportunities for medical applications. The applications of these bands in healthcare are wireless body area network (WBAN), medical imaging, biomedical sensing, wearable and implantable devices, fast medical device connectivity, video data transmission, and vital signs monitoring. The r

  7. Wideband EMI pre-screening for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. N.; Ramachandran, G.; Gader, P. D.; Smock, B.; Scott, W. R.

    2009-05-01

    This paper considers the use of data from a wideband electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor in a prescreener for a landmine detection system employing both ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and EMI sensors. The paper looks at a unique EMI prescreening strategy based on the use of prototypes derived from a training set of landmines. We show that this prescreener is robust to a wide range of induced energy levels in sensed objects. We also compare properties of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of this prescreener on a varied collection of targets to the properties of a GPR prescreener, identifying performance difference with respect to target object classes.

  8. Development of UAS Design Based on Wideband Antenna Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Drummond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An Unmanned Aerial System (UAS has been developed which is based on an aerodynamically functionalized planar wideband antenna. The antenna utilizes a planar circular dipole metallization scheme. The aerodynamic structure implements a planform similar to the Nutball flier, a hobbyist flight architecture. The resulting codesign achieved a large impedance bandwidth defined by a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR less than 2 from 100 MHz to over 2 GHz and omnidirectional dipole-like radiation patterns at the lower frequency region and more directional patterns at higher frequencies.

  9. A Modulation Based Approach to Wideband-STAP (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Library. Downloaded on October 7, 2009 at 18:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 1 fm =[f(t-(M-I)T2 ),-, f(t-(M-I)T2-(N-I)T )] ( 12) In the wideband...F(co)H(e jco) Authorized licensed use limited to: AFRL Technical Library. Downloaded on October 7, 2009 at 18:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions...AFRL Technical Library. Downloaded on October 7, 2009 at 18:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 3 This combined signal is finally bandpass

  10. Wideband Holographic Digital Recording and Reproduction. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    AD-AO86 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 14/5 WIDEBAND HOLOGRAPHIC DIGITAL RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION. PHASE --ETC(U...requirements of the opto- mechanisms, and increase record time for a given film length. 3-59 AD-AOBA 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION Sy...V 0 - 00 0 0 -~~~ -4I - N Z U -1 +1 en0- ~ V), 0 >4 C4, 00 C 0 C ;4 k .1 4-60 C AD-ADB6 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC

  11. AN EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION ARCHITECTURE FOR WIDE-BAND DIGITAL DOWNCONVERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhicheng; Xiao Xianci

    2001-01-01

    The wide-band digital receiving systems require digital downconversion(DDC) with high data rate and short tuning time in order to intercept the narrow-band signals within broad tuning bandwidth. But these requirements can not be met by the commercial DDC. In this paper an efficient implementation architecture is presented. It combines the flexibility of DFT tuning with the efficiency of the polyphase filter bank decomposition. By first decimating the data prior to filtering and mixing, this architecture gives a better solution to the mismatch between the lower hardware speed and high data rate. The computer simulations show the feasibility of this processing architecture.

  12. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  13. Wide-Band Multi-spectral Space for Color Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Lingwang; ZHU Yuanhong; Kurt Muenger; ZHANG Xuliang

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a wide-band multi-spectral space for color representation with Aitken PCA algorithm. This novel mathematical space using the broad-band spectra matching method aims at improving the accuracy of color representation as well as reducing costs for processing and storing multi-spectral images. The results show that the space can present our experimental original spectral spaces (i. e. Munsell color matt and DIN-6164 color chips) with high efficiency, and that the spanning space with three eigenvectors can present the original space at more than 98%CSCR, and when 5 eigenvectors are used it can cover almost the whole original spaces.

  14. UCom: Ultra-wideband Communications in Harsh Propagation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, F

    2007-03-14

    LLNL has developed an ultra-wideband (UWB) system that provides unique, through-the-wall wireless communications in heavy metallic and heavy concrete indoor channels. LLNL's UWB system is the only available wireless communications system that performs successfully and reliably in facilities where conventional narrowband communications usually fail due to destructive reflections from multiple surfaces. These environments include: cargo ships and reinforced, heavy concrete buildings. LLNL's revolutionary system has applications for the military, as well as commercial indoor communications in multistory buildings, and cluttered industrial structures.

  15. A NOVEL WIDEBAND ANTENNA DESIGN USING U-SLOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Wenwen; Zhang Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    U-slot patch antennas with ∏-shaped feed slot are studied, and numerical results based on the FDTD method are presented. The effects of varying physical parameters are investigated with a goal of understanding the coupling among different resonators. It is found that the U-slot patch antenna can be designed to attain 50% impedance bandwidth as well as 30-40% gain bandwidth. By altering the sizes of U-slot and feed slot, the wideband characteristic can be changed into a dual-frequency characteristic.

  16. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  17. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  18. NEWS: the near-infrared Echelle for wideband spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Taylor, Brian; Ye, Jimmy

    2016-08-01

    We present an updated optical and mechanical design of NEWS: the Near-infrared Echelle for Wide-band Spectroscopy (formerly called HiJaK: the High-resolution J, H and K spectrometer), a compact, high-resolution, near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter class telescopes. NEWS provides a spectral resolution of 60,000 and covers the full 0.8-2.5 μm range in 5 modes. We adopt a compact, lightweight, monolithic design and have developed NEWS to be mounted to the instrument cube at the Cassegrain focus of the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope.

  19. NEWS: the near-infrared Echelle for wideband spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Veyette, Mark; Hall, Zachary; Taylor, Brian; Ye, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated optical and mechanical design of NEWS: the Near-infrared Echelle for Wide-band Spectroscopy (formerly called HiJaK: the High-resolution J, H and K spectrometer), a compact, high-resolution, near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter class telescopes. NEWS provides a spectral resolution of 60,000 and covers the full 0.8-2.5 micron range in 5 modes. We adopt a compact, lightweight, monolithic design and developed NEWS to be mounted to the instrument cube at the Cassegrain focus of the the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope.

  20. Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, Marta; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Llorente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Optical generation of impulse-radio ultra-wideband (UWB) signals in the 60-GHz band is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. External-cavity laser (ECL) and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is employed for frequency up-conversion by heterodyne mixing with a UWB optical signal...... for comparison purposes. Real-time bit-error-rate (BER) performance of generated signals at 3.125 Gb/s is evaluated combining fiber and 2-m wireless transmission. Different optical fiber types including 1-km bend-insensitive single-mode fiber and 20-km nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber is evaluated. $\\hbox......{BER} for the ECL and $\\hbox{BER} for the VCSEL requiring higher received optical power than the ECL is demonstrated employing electrical power detection....

  1. Ultra-wideband reflective polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Liang; Lin, Bao-Qin; Da, Xin-Yu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an ultra-wideband reflective linear cross-polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface. Its unit cell is composed of a square-shaped resonator with intersectant diagonal and metallic ground sheet separated by dielectric substrate. Simulated results show that the converter can generate resonances at four frequencies under normal incident electromagnetic (EM) wave, leading to the bandwidth expansion of cross-polarization reflection. For verification, the designed polarization converter is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results agree well with each other, showing that the fabricated converter can convert x- or y-polarized incident wave into its cross polarized wave in a frequency range from 7.57 GHz to 20.46 GHz with a relative bandwidth of 91.2%, and the polarization conversion efficiency is greater than 90%. The proposed polarization converter has a simple geometry but an ultra wideband compared with the published designs, and hence possesses potential applications in novel polarization-control devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471387, 61271250, and 61571460).

  2. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4–8 GHz) and the X-band (8–12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels. PMID:27546310

  3. Wideband digital phase comparator for high current shunts

    CERN Document Server

    Pogliano, Umberto; Serazio, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    A wideband phase comparator for precise measurements of phase difference of high current shunts has been developed at INRIM. The two-input digital phase detector is realized with a precision wideband digitizer connected through a pair of symmetric active guarded transformers to the outputs of the shunts under comparison. Data are first acquired asynchronously, and then transferred from on-board memory to host memory. Because of the large amount of data collected the filtering process and the analysis algorithms are performed outside the acquisition routine. Most of the systematic errors can be compensated by a proper inversion procedure. The system is suitable for comparing shunts in a wide range of currents, from several hundred of milliampere up to 100 A, and frequencies ranging between 500 Hz and 100 kHz. Expanded uncertainty (k=2) less than 0.05 mrad, for frequency up to 100 kHz, is obtained in the measurement of the phase difference of a group of 10 A shunts, provided by some European NMIs, using a digit...

  4. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  5. A VLSI Neural Monitoring System With Ultra-Wideband Telemetry for Awake Behaving Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Mollazadeh, M; Hu, C; Wei Tang; Culurciello, E; Thakor, V

    2011-04-01

    Long-term monitoring of neuronal activity in awake behaving subjects can provide fundamental information about brain dynamics for neuroscience and neuroengineering applications. Here, we present a miniature, lightweight, and low-power recording system for monitoring neural activity in awake behaving animals. The system integrates two custom designed very-large-scale integrated chips, a neural interface module fabricated in 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and an ultra-wideband transmitter module fabricated in a 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technology. The system amplifies, filters, digitizes, and transmits 16 channels of neural data at a rate of 1 Mb/s. The entire system, which includes the VLSI circuits, a digital interface board, a battery, and a custom housing, is small and lightweight (24 g) and, thus, can be chronically mounted on small animals. The system consumes 4.8 mA and records continuously for up to 40 h powered by a 3.7-V, 200-mAh rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Experimental benchtop characterizations as well as in vivo multichannel neural recordings from awake behaving rats are presented here.

  6. Resolving a Long-Standing Ambiguity: the Non-Planarity of gauche-1,3-BUTADIENE Revealed by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; McCarthy, Michael C.; Patterson, David; Eibenberger, Sandra; Buckingham, Grant; Baraban, Joshua H.; Ellison, Barney; Stanton, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The preferred conformation of cis-1,3-butadiene (CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2) has been of long-standing importance in organic chemistry because of its role in Diels-Alder transition states. The molecule could adopt a planar s-cis conformation, in favor of conjugations in the carbon chain, or a non-planar gauche conformation, as a result of steric interactions between the terminal H atoms. To resolve this ambiguity, we have now measured the pure rotational spectrum of this isomer in the microwave region, unambiguously establishing a significant inertial defect, and therefore a gauche conformation. Experimental measurements of gauche-1,3-butadiene and several of its isotopologues using cavity Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion and chirped-pulse FTMW spectroscopy in a 4 K buffer gas cell will be summarized, as will new quantum chemical calculations.

  7. Comment on a spurious prediction of a non-planar geometry for benzene at the MP2 level of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Nagaprasad Reddy; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2017-02-01

    MP2 calculations with the full aug-cc-pVTZ basis set give a non-planar structure for benzene. Although this non-physical result can be avoided by using the smaller aug-cc-pVDZ basis set or by scaling or deleting selected functions from the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, such changes to the basis set can result in calculated values of the frequencies of the b2g out-of-plane vibrations that are considerably underestimated. The origin of this behavior is traced to linear dependency problems with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets when used for benzene.

  8. Progress in Development and Applications of Pulsed Power Devices at the University of Texas at Dallas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Symposium, Portland, OR, U.S.A., 2005. [6] F. J. Agee, D. W . Scholfield, W . Prather and J. W . Burger, Powerful Ultra-Wide Band Emitters: Status and...Lehr, R.J. Torres, T.C. Tran, J.W. Burger, D.I. Lawry , J.A. Gaudet, “Recent Development in Ultra-Wideband Sources and Antennas,” in Ultra-Wideband

  9. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  10. Frequency diversity wideband digital receiver and signal processor for solid-state dual-polarimetric weather radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kumar Vijay

    The recent spate in the use of solid-state transmitters for weather radar systems has unexceptionably revolutionized the research in meteorology. The solid-state transmitters allow transmission of low peak powers without losing the radar range resolution by allowing the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this research, a novel frequency-diversity wideband waveform is proposed and realized to extenuate the low sensitivity of solid-state radars and mitigate the blind range problem tied with the longer pulse compression waveforms. The latest developments in the computing landscape have permitted the design of wideband digital receivers which can process this novel waveform on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. In terms of signal processing, wideband systems are generally characterized by the fact that the bandwidth of the signal of interest is comparable to the sampled bandwidth; that is, a band of frequencies must be selected and filtered out from a comparable spectral window in which the signal might occur. The development of such a wideband digital receiver opens a window for exciting research opportunities for improved estimation of precipitation measurements for higher frequency systems such as X, Ku and Ka bands, satellite-borne radars and other solid-state ground-based radars. This research describes various unique challenges associated with the design of a multi-channel wideband receiver. The receiver consists of twelve channels which simultaneously downconvert and filter the digitized intermediate-frequency (IF) signal for radar data processing. The product processing for the multi-channel digital receiver mandates a software and network architecture which provides for generating and archiving a single meteorological product profile culled from multi-pulse profiles at an increased data date. The multi-channel digital receiver also continuously samples the transmit pulse for calibration of radar receiver gain and transmit power. The multi

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hao; Pan Minghai; Lu Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting sig-nal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP) are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  12. Wideband monolithically integrated front-end subsystems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Joseph Rene

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and measurements of passive, monolithically integrated, wideband recta-coax and printed circuit board front-end components. Monolithic fabrication of antennas, impedance transformers, filters, and transitions lowers manufacturing costs by reducing assembly time and enhances performance by removing connectors and cabling between the devices. Computational design, fabrication, and measurements are used to demonstrate the capabilities of these front-end assemblies. Two-arm wideband planar log-periodic antennas fed using a horizontal feed that allows for filters and impedance transformers to be readily fabricated within the radiating region of the antenna are demonstrated. At microwave frequencies, low-cost printed circuit board processes are typically used to produce planar devices. A 1.8 to 11 GHz two-arm planar log-periodic antenna is designed with a monolithically integrated impedance transformer. Band rejection methods based on modifying the antenna aperture, use of an integrated filter, and the application of both methods are investigated with realized gain suppressions of over 25 dB achieved. The ability of standard circuit board technology to fabricate millimeter-wave devices up to 110 GHz is severely limited. Thin dielectrics are required to prevent the excitation of higher order modes in the microstrip substrate. Fabricating the thin line widths required for the antenna aperture also becomes prohibitively challenging. Surface micro-machining typically used in the fabrication of MEMS devices is capable of producing the extremely small features that can be used to fabricate antennas extending through W-band. A directly RF fed 18 to 110 GHz planar log-periodic antenna is developed. The antenna is fabricated with an integrated impedance transformer and additional transitions for measurement characterization. Singly terminated low-loss wideband millimeter-wave filters operating over V- and W- band are developed. High

  13. Wide-Band Microwave Receivers Using Photonic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Yu, Nan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy

    2008-01-01

    In wide-band microwave receivers of a type now undergoing development, the incoming microwave signals are electronically preamplified, then frequency-up-converted to optical signals that are processed photonically before being detected. This approach differs from the traditional approach, in which incoming microwave signals are processed by purely electronic means. As used here, wide-band microwave receivers refers especially to receivers capable of reception at any frequency throughout the range from about 90 to about 300 GHz. The advantage expected to be gained by following the up-conversion-and-photonic-processing approach is the ability to overcome the limitations of currently available detectors and tunable local oscillators in the frequency range of interest. In a receiver following this approach (see figure), a preamplified incoming microwave signal is up-converted by the method described in the preceeding article. The frequency up-converter exploits the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator made of LiNbO3. Up-conversion takes place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. The WGM resonator is designed and fabricated to function simultaneously as an electro-optical modulator and to exhibit resonance at the microwave and optical operating frequencies plus phase matching among the microwave and optical signals circulating in the resonator. The up-conversion is an efficient process, and the efficiency is enhanced by the combination of microwave and optical resonances. The up-converted signal is processed photonically by use of a tunable optical filter or local oscillator, and is then detected. Tunable optical filters can be made to be frequency agile and to exhibit high resonance quality factors (high Q values), thereby making it possible to utilize a variety of signal-processing modalities. Therefore, it is anticipated that when fully developed, receivers of this type will be compact and will be capable of both

  14. High Power High Efficiency Ka-Band Power Combiners for Solid-State Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jon C.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2006-01-01

    Wide-band power combining units for Ka-band are simulated for use as MMIC amplifier applications. Short-slot couplers as well as magic-tees are the basic elements for the combiners. Wide bandwidth (5 GHz) and low insertion (approx.0.2 dB) and high combining efficiencies (approx.90 percent) are obtained.

  15. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  16. Ultra wideband reflector antenna log-periodic feed with operating frequency range 1–20 GHz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Dubrovka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of modeling and optimization of electric characteristics of ultra wideband reflector antenna log-periodic feed, based on two log-periodic antennas array for operating over frequency range 1 -20 GHz, are presented.

  17. Reconfigurable, Wideband Radar Transceiver and Antenna for P-band Stretch Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes to develop a Reconfigurable Wideband Radar Transceiver, with direct digital synthesis of P-band radar frequencies, novel high bandwidth P-band antenna...

  18. Ultra-Wideband Transceiver for Integrated Communication and Relative Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop an innovative way of using Time Modulated Ultra Wideband (TM-UWB) transceivers (radios) to provide high performance integrated...

  19. Software Radio Implementation of RF Short-Wave Wideband Channel Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYahui; GANLiangcai; XIELing

    2005-01-01

    A novel radio frequency short-wave wideband channel simulator which can be used to evaluate wideband SW communication system performance over shortwave channel with time-variant and dispersive property, is proposed in this paper. The channel simulator consists of RF transmitting, receiving module and baseband digital signal processing module. In particular, a wideband channel model is introduced into this project that can exhibit various short-wave characteristic such as delay spread, Doppler shift, Doppler spread and all kinds of noise and interference. At the same time, this paper makes a great improvement on SW wideband channel model proposed in Ref.[2] and utilizes some idea of software radio to design the channel simulator's RF part. Therefore, the channel simulator described in the paper can be applicable to not only theoretical research, but also practical application.

  20. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  1. Design of a High Linearity Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier in Wideband Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul kareem Mokif Obais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode four quadrant analog multiplier in the wideband frequency rangeis designed using a wideband operational amplifier (OPAMP and squaring circuits. The wideband OPAMP is designed using 10 identical NMOS transistorsand operated with supply voltages of ±12V. Two NMOS transistors and two wideband OPAMP are utilized in the design of the proposed squaring circuit. All the NMOS transistors are based on 0.35µm NMOStechnology. The multiplier has input and output voltage ranges of ±10 V, high range of linearity from -10 V to +10 V, and cutoff frequency of about 5 GHz. The proposed multiplier is designed on PSpice in Orcad 16.6

  2. Versatile Wideband Balanced Detector for Quantum Optical Homodyne Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ranjeet; MacRae, Andrew; Cairns, E; Huntington, E H; Lvovsky, A I

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theory and an easy to follow method for the design and construction of a wideband homodyne detector for time-domain quantum measurements. We show how one can evaluate the performance of a detector in a specific time-domain experiment based on electronic spectral characteristic of that detector. We then present and characterize a high-performance detector constructed using inexpensive, commercially available components such as low-noise high-speed operational amplifiers and high-bandwidth photodiodes. Our detector shows linear behavior up to a level of over 13 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise, in the range from DC to 100 MHz. The detector can be used for measuring quantum optical field quadratures both in the continuous-wave and pulsed regimes with pulse repetition rates up to about 250 MHz.

  3. Cooperative Wideband Spectrum Sensing for the Centralized Cognitive Radio Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Various primary user (PU) radios have been allocated into fixed frequency bands in the whole spectrum. A cognitive radio network (CRN) should be able to perform the wideband spectrum sensing (WSS) to detect temporarily unoccupied frequency bands. We summarize four occupancy features for the frequency bands. 1. The occupancy is sparse; 2. The frequency band allocation information is fixed and common; 3. There are three categories for the frequency band usages; 4. The occupied frequency bands are common in the CRN. For the first time, we consider all features as the prior knowledge in the compressed sensing based cooperative WSS (CWSS) algorithm design for a centralized CRN. We propose a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (Mod-OMP) algorithm and a modified simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (Mod-SOMP) algorithm for the CWSS. We compare the CWSS performance of Mod-OMP/Mod-SOMP with the original OMP/SOMP and show the performance improvements.

  4. Wideband and UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review concerning the geometry, the manufacturing technologies, the materials, and the numerical techniques, adopted for the analysis and design of wideband and ultrawideband (UWB antennas for wireless applications, is presented. Planar, printed, dielectric, and wearable antennas, achievable on laminate (rigid and flexible, and textile dielectric substrates are taken into account. The performances of small, low-profile, and dielectric resonator antennas are illustrated paying particular attention to the application areas concerning portable devices (mobile phones, tablets, glasses, laptops, wearable computers, etc. and radio base stations. This information provides a guidance to the selection of the different antenna geometries in terms of bandwidth, gain, field polarization, time-domain response, dimensions, and materials useful for their realization and integration in modern communication systems.

  5. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  6. Micro-Doppler processing for ultra-wideband radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme E.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe an operational pulse Doppler radar imaging system for indoor target localization and classification, and show how a target's micro-Doppler signature (μDS) can be processed when ultra-wideband (UWB) waveforms are employed. Unlike narrowband radars where time-frequency signal representations can be applied to reveal the target time-Doppler frequency signatures, the UWB system permits joint range-time-frequency representation (JRTFR). JRTFR outputs the data in a 3D domain representing range, frequency, and time, allowing both the μDS and high range resolution (HRR) signatures to be observed. We delineate the relationship between the μDS and the HRR signature, showing how they would form a complimentary joint feature for classification. We use real-data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the UWB pulse-Doppler radar, combined with nonstationary signal analyses, in gaining valuable insights into human positioning and motions.

  7. Fundamental Limits of Wideband Localization - Part I: A General Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The availability of positional information is of great importance in many commercial, public safety, and military applications. The coming years will see the emergence of location-aware networks with sub-meter accuracy, relying on accurate range measurements provided by wide bandwidth transmissions. In this two-part paper, we determine the fundamental limits of localization accuracy of wideband wireless networks in harsh multipath environments. We first develop a general framework to characterize the localization accuracy of a given node here and then extend our analysis to cooperative location-aware networks in Part II. In this paper, we characterize localization accuracy in terms of a performance measure called the squared position error bound (SPEB), and introduce the notion of equivalent Fisher information to derive the SPEB in a succinct expression. This methodology provides insights into the essence of the localization problem by unifying localization information from individual anchors and information ...

  8. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  9. Mathematic principle of active jamming against wideband LFM radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixian Gong; Xizhang Wei; Xiang Li; Yongshun Ling

    2015-01-01

    The inherent mathematic principle of active jamming against the wideband linear frequency modulated (LFM) radar is investigated. According to different generation strategies, the active jamming methods are reclassified into three groups, i.e., non-coherent jamming (NCJ), convolution jamming (CJ) and mul-tiplying jamming (MJ). Based on the classification, the mathematic principles of different active jamming groups are put forward, which describe the relationships between the modulated signals and the jamming results. The advantages and disadvantages of different groups are further analyzed, which provides a new perspective for the study of jamming/anti-jamming methods and a potential for engineers to integrate similar jamming methods into one jam-mer platform. The analyses and simulation results of some typical active jamming methods prove the validity of the proposed mathe-matics principle.

  10. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2015-12-03

    LTE/LTE-A networks have been successfully providing advanced broadband services to millions of users worldwide. Lately, it has been suggested to use LTE networks for mission-critical applications like public safety, smart grid and military communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel, SINR estimation in frequency domain and computation of utilities based on observable parameters under the framework of single-shot and repeated games with asymmetric information. In a single-shot game formulation, network utility is severely compromised at its solutions, i.e. at the Nash Equilibria (NE). We propose evolved repeated-game strategy algorithms to combat smart jamming attacks that can be implemented in existing deployments using current technology. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. A GPU-Based Wide-Band Radio Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Jones, Glenn; Chen, Hong; Ford, John; Kepley, Amanda; Lorimer, D R; Nie, Jun; Prestage, Richard; Roshi, D Anish; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has become an integral part of astronomical instrumentation, enabling high-performance online data reduction and accelerated online signal processing. In this paper, we describe a wide-band reconfigurable spectrometer built using an off-the-shelf GPU card. This spectrometer, when configured as a polyphase filter bank (PFB), supports a dual-polarization bandwidth of up to 1.1 GHz (or a single-polarization bandwidth of up to 2.2 GHz) on the latest generation of GPUs. On the other hand, when configured as a direct FFT, the spectrometer supports a dual-polarization bandwidth of up to 1.4 GHz (or a single-polarization bandwidth of up to 2.8 GHz).

  12. Low sampling frequency processing for ultra-wideband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yonglun; Si, Qiang; Lu, Youxin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xuegang

    2005-11-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals are widely used in radar, navigation and satellite communications. It is rather difficult to process UWB signals. In this paper we adopt dechirp pulse compression method to process the received UWB linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals. UWB signals are converted into signals with frequency components that are proportional to the relative range between the target and the reference target. It means to select low-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADC) for sampling UWB signals. The simulation results show that LFM signal with 600MHz center frequency, 200MHz bandwidth and 30usec pulse width can be processed under 70MHz sampling frequency by means of the method.

  13. A wideband combined transducer for measuring system in sound tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yaozong; MO Xiping; LIU Yongping; CUI Zheng; ZHANG Tonggen

    2012-01-01

    A wideband transducer for sound tube system is presented, which combines longitudinal transducer and Class IV flextensional transducer to improve the performance at low frequency and broaden the working band. The equivalent circuit is obtained and used to analyze the coupling mechanism between longitudinal transducer and flextensional transducer. A prototype of the transducer is developed after optimizing the electro-acoustic performances by Finite Element Method. The standing wave in the sound tube stimulated by this transducer has been studied and the sound absorbing coefficients of two acoustic materials samples are measured using this sound tube, which shows that the transducer can meet the requirements of acoustic material measurement with the working band ranging from 1.4 kHz to 23 kHz.

  14. Optimal Time-Reversed Wideband Signals for Distributed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jerry; Mokole, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a distributed wave-based sensing system that probes a scene consisting of multiple interacting idealized targets. Each sensor is a collocated transmit-receive pair that is capable of transmitting arbitrary wideband waveforms. We address the problem of finding the space-time transmit waveform that provides the best target detection performance in the sense of maximizing the energy scattered back into the receivers. Our approach is based on earlier work that constructed the solution by an iterative time-reversal (TR) process. In particular, for the case of idealized point-like scatterers in free space, we examine the frequency dependence of the eigenvalues of the TR operator, and we show that their behavior depends on constructive and destructive interference of the waves traveling along different paths. In addition, we show how these eigenvalues are connected to the poles of the Singularity Expansion Method. Our study of the frequency behavior distinguishes this work from most previous TR ...

  15. Ultra-wideband noise radar based on optical waveform generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodensky, Daniel; Kravitz, Daniel; Zadok, Avi

    2012-06-01

    A microwave-photonic, ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar system is proposed and demonstrated. The system brings together photonic generation of UWB waveforms and fiber-optic distribution. The use of UWB noise provides high ranging resolution and better immunity to interception and jamming. Distribution over fibers allows for the separation the radar-operating personnel and equipment from the location of the front-end. The noise waveforms are generated using the amplified spontaneous emission that is associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering in a standard optical fiber, or with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Our experiments demonstrate a proof of concept for an integrated radar system, driven by optically generated UWB noise waveforms of more than 1 GHz bandwidth that are distributed over 10 km distance. The detection of concealed metallic object and the resolving of two targets with the anticipated ranging resolution are reported.

  16. All-Digital Wideband Space-Frequency Beamforming for the SKA Aperture Array

    CERN Document Server

    Khlebnikov, Vasily A; Armstrong, Richard P; Jones, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimum multi-domain real-time beamforming and high-precision beam pattern positioning in application to very large wideband array antennas, particularly to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) aperture array antenna. We present a new structure for wideband space-frequency beamforming and beamsteering that maximizes detectability of cosmic signals over the array operational frequency range.

  17. Ultra-Wideband Harmonic Radar for Locating Radio-Frequency Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-Wideband Harmonic Radar for Locating Radio- Frequency Electronics by Gregory J Mazzaro, Kyle A Gallagher, Albert R Owens, Kelly D...Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an...Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7256 March 2015 Ultra-Wideband Harmonic Radar for Locating Radio- Frequency Electronics

  18. Direction of Arrival Estimation of Wide-Band Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojati, Shahram

    Most published algorithms for DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation of incoming signals by spatially dispersed electromagnetic or acoustic sources rely on the narrow -band approximation. This approach is inadequate from at least two standpoints. First, the approximation breaks down in many practical situation of interest; and, second, it inhibits the exploitation of intrinsic degrees of freedom of wide-band emitters to achieve additional improvements in angular resolution. In this dissertation the direction of arrival estimation problem is examined without employing the customary narrow-band restriction. A class of algorithms that has been successfully employed for DOA estimation of narrow-band signals exploits the eigenstructure of the array correlation matrix. Although they are sub-optimum, these algorithms enjoy substantial computational advantages over the optimum maximum likelihood approaches. It is shown that the frequency domain representation of the array output leads to a spectral coherence matrix that exhibits an eigenstructure similar to the correlation matrix used under the narrow-band approximation. As a consequence, narrow-band eigenbased algorithms can be adopted to DOA estimation without restrictions on signal bandwidth. The Spectral Coherence Technique (SCT) is applied in conjunction with the MUSIC, the Root-Music and a modified form of the Pisarenko algorithms to DOA estimation of wide -band emitters using linear arrays. Simulation indicate that all three algorithms afford comparable performance: the variance of the angle of arrival estimate decreases approximately inversely with the signal time bandwidth product. They differ, however, with regard to computational efficiency. In particular, the wide-band version of the algorithm MUSIC requires substantially more processing time than either the Pisarenko or the Root-Music algorithms. These algorithms also yield comparable performance to an alternative approach using frequency segmentation (Wi

  19. Broadband Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on Distributed Modulated Wideband Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modulated wideband converter (MWC is a kind of sub-Nyquist sampling system which is developed from compressed sensing theory. It accomplishes highly accurate broadband sparse signal recovery by multichannel sub-Nyquist sampling sequences. However, when the number of sparse sub-bands becomes large, the amount of sampling channels increases proportionally. Besides, it is very hard to adjust the number of sampling channels when the sparsity changes, because its undersampling board is designed by a given sparsity. Such hardware cost and inconvenience are unacceptable in practical applications. This paper proposes a distributed modulated wideband converter (DMWC scheme innovatively, which regards one sensor node as one sampling channel and combines MWC technology with a broadband cooperative spectrum sensing network perfectly. Being different from the MWC scheme, DMWC takes phase shift and transmission loss into account in the input terminal, which are unavoidable in practical application. Our scheme is not only able to recover the support of broadband sparse signals quickly and accurately, but also reduces the hardware cost of the single node drastically. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that phase shift has no influence on the recovery of frequency support, but transmission loss degrades the recovery performance to a different extent. Nevertheless, we can increase the amount of cooperative nodes and select satisfactory nodes by a different transmission distance to improve the recovery performance. Furthermore, we can adjust the amount of cooperative nodes flexibly when the sparsity changes. It indicates DMWC is extremely effective in the broadband cooperative spectrum sensing network.

  20. Development of an Ultra-Wideband Receiver for the North America Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, J. E.; Soriano, M.; Hoppe, D.; Russell, D.; D'Addario, L.; Long, E.; Bowen, J.; Samoska, L.; Lazio, J.

    2016-11-01

    The North America Array (NAA) is a concept for a radio astronomical interferometric array operating in the 1.2 GHz to 116 GHz frequency range. It has been designed to provide substantial improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and frequency coverage beyond the current Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). It will have a continuous frequency coverage of 1.2 GHz to 50 GHz and 70 to 116 GHz, and a total aperture 10 times more sensitive than the VLA (and 25 times more sensitive than a 34-m-diameter antenna of the Deep Space Network [DSN]). One of the key goals for the NAA is to reduce the operating costs without sacrificing performance. We are designing an ultra-wideband receiver package designed to operate across the 8 to 48 GHz frequency range in contrast to the current VLA, which covers this frequency range with five receiver packages. Reducing the number of receiving systems required to cover the full frequency range would reduce operating costs. To minimize implementation, operational, and maintenance costs, we are developing a receiver that is compact, simple to assemble, and that consumes less power. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype integrated feed-receiver package with a sensitivity performance comparable to current narrower-band systems on radio telescopes and the DSN, but with a design that meets the requirement of low long-term operational costs. The ultra-wideband receiver package consists of a feedhorn, low-noise amplifier (LNA), and downconverters to analog intermediate frequencies. Both the feedhorn and the LNA are cryogenically cooled. Key features of this design are a quad-ridge feedhorn with dielectric loading and a cryogenic receiver with a noise temperature of no more than 30°K at the low end of the band. In this article, we report on the status of this receiver package development, including the feed design and LNA implementation. We present simulation studies of the feed horn carried out to optimize illumination

  1. Experimental verification of color flow imaging based on wideband Doppler method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naohiko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to eliminate the aliasing in color flow imaging. The wideband Doppler method is applied to generate a color flow image, and the validity of the method is experimentally confirmed. The single beam experiment is carried out to confirm the velocity estimation based on the wideband Doppler method. The echo data for the conventional pulsed Doppler method and the wideband Doppler method are obtained using a flow model, and the estimated velocity for each method is compared. The color flow images for each method are also generated using several types of flow model. The generated images are compared, and the characteristics of the imaging based on the wideband Doppler method are discussed. The high velocity beyond the Nyquist limit is successfully estimated by the wideband Doppler method, and the availability in low velocity estimation is also confirmed. The aliasing in color flow images is eliminated, and the generated images show the significance of the elimination of the aliasing in the flow imaging. The aliasing in color flow imaging can be eliminated by the wideband Doppler method. This technique is useful for the exact understanding of blood flow dynamics.

  2. Design Verification and Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Wideband CDMA Receiver Using Channel Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Belhassen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal array receiver (STAR decomposes generic wideband CDMA channel responses across various parameter dimensions (e.g., time delays, multipath components, etc. and extracts the associated time-varying parameters (i.e., analysis before reconstructing the channel (i.e., synthesis with increased accuracy. This work verifies the channel analysis/synthesis design of STAR by illustrating its capability to extract accurately the channel parameters (time delays and drifts, carrier frequency offsets, Doppler spread, etc. from measured data and to adapt online to their observed time evolution in real-world propagation conditions. We also verify the performance of STAR by comparing the results achieved with generic and measured channels for an average multipath power profile of [ ] dB and a vehicular speed below 30 km/h. The results suggest that losses due to operations with real channels are only 1 dB in SNR and – % in capacity with DBPSK and single transmit and receive antennas. The corresponding SNR threshold for operation with real channels is about 5 dB.

  3. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓丰; 莫太山; 马成炎; 叶甜春

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented.The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs.And what's more,the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy.A zero,which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity,is introduced to compensate for the pole.The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process.The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB.The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA,and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  4. ON THE PAR REDUCTION OF MB-OFDM ULTRA-WIDEBAND SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Peak to Average power Ratio (PAR) of a Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multi-plexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) signals can be substantially larger than that of single carrieror carrier-less ultra-wideband signals. In this letter, a novel PAR reduction scheme for the MB-OFDM UWBsystem based on spreading and interleaving is proposed. By spreading the coded bits over each subcarrier incorresponding band and interleaving the spread symbols across all bands, the PAR statistics of theMB-OFDM signals can be improved and the PAR is reduced obviously. In the PAR reduction scheme, there isno loss in transmission data rate or Bit Error Rate (BER) performance decreasing. Since the spreading andinterleaving operation are implemented by unitary Hadamard sequences and used for an approach to providethe robustness of the UWB system to narrowband interference, there is no additional implementation burden.Simulation results show that the investigated scheme gives the PAR reduction of 3dB compared with that ofthe original MB-OFDM signals.

  5. Wide-Band Spectra of Giant Radio Pulses from the Crab Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Mikami, Ryo; Tanaka, Shuta J; Kisaka, Shota; Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Misawa, Hiroaki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kita, Hajime; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Terasawa, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous observation of the Giant Radio Pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 0.3, 1.6, 2.2, 6.7 and 8.4 GHz with four telescopes in Japan. We obtain 3194 and 272 GRPs occurring at the main pulse and the interpulse phases, respectively. A few GRPs detected at both 0.3 and 8.4 GHz are the most wide-band samples ever reported. In the frequency range from 0.3 to 2.2 GHz, we find that about 70\\% or more of the GRP spectra are consistent with single power-laws and the spectral indices of them are distributed from $-4$ to $-1$. We also find that a significant number of GRPs have so hard spectral index $\\sim -1$) that the fluence at 0.3 GHz is below the detection limit (``dim-hard' GRPs). Stacking light curves of such dim-hard GRPs at 0.3 GHz, we detect consistent enhancement compared to the off-GRP light curve. Our samples show apparent correlations between the fluences and the spectral hardness, which indicates that more energetic GRPs tend to show softer spectra. Our comprehensiv...

  6. Design of the New Wideband RF System for the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, Mauro; Angoletta, Maria Elena; Arnaudon, Luca; Energico, Salvatore; Findlay, Alan; Haase, Matthias; Jaussi, Michael; Jones, Anthony; Landré, David; Molendijk, John; Quartullo, Danilo; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    For the renovation and upgrade of the CERN PS Booster (PSB) RF systems a development project was launched in 2012. The design, based on a new approach, aimed at replacing the existing tuned, narrowband RF systems with wideband, modular, solid-state driven units. A wide range of issues had to be addressed spanning from RF power production, radiation hardness of solid-state devices, active cancellation of beam-induced voltages, dedicated low-level electronics allowing multi-harmonic operation and beam stability. Following a three-year prototyping and testing campaign and two international reviews, the project endorsement came at the end of year 2015. It foresees the complete removal of present h1, h2 and h10 systems and the deployment of a new one covering all the frequency ranges from 1 MHz to 18 MHz. The four PSB rings will be equipped with 144 identical acceleration cells providing 24 kV total RF voltage per ring. This paper describes the design concepts, the retained solutions, the expected performances and...

  7. Integrated wideband optical frequency combs with high stability and their application in microwave photonic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Sunlong; Zhong, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Haiqing; Yu, Lijuan; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-08-01

    An integrated wideband optical frequency comb (OFC) based on a semiconductor quantum dot laser is realized with high stability. The OFC module is packaged in our lab. A circuit which is designed to provide a low-ripple current and control the temperature regards as a servo system to enhance the stability of the OFC. The frequency stability of the OFC is 2.7×10-9 (Allan Variance). The free spectral range (FSR) of the OFC is 40 GHz and the number of comb lines is up to 55. The flatness of the OFC over span of 4 nm can be limited to 0.5 dB. Negative coefficients microwave photonic filters with multiple taps are generated based on the proposed OFC. For the 10 taps microwave photonic filter, the pass-band at 8.74 GHz has a 3 dB bandwidth of 630 MHz with 16.58 dB side-lobe suppression. Compared with the published microwave photonic filters, the proposed system is more stable, of more compact structures, and of less power consumption.

  8. Adaptive Space-Time-Spreading-Assisted Wideband CDMA Systems Communicating over Dispersive Nakagami- Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lie-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the performance of wideband code-division multiple-access (W-CDMA systems using space-time-spreading- (STS- based transmit diversity is investigated, when frequency-selective Nakagami- fading channels, multiuser interference, and background noise are considered. The analysis and numerical results suggest that the achievable diversity order is the product of the frequency-selective diversity order and the transmit diversity order. Furthermore, both the transmit diversity and the frequency-selective diversity have the same order of importance. Since W-CDMA signals are subjected to frequency-selective fading, the number of resolvable paths at the receiver may vary over a wide range depending on the transmission environment encountered. It can be shown that, for wireless channels where the frequency selectivity is sufficiently high, transmit diversity may be not necessitated. Under this case, multiple transmission antennas can be leveraged into an increased bitrate. Therefore, an adaptive STS-based transmission scheme is then proposed for improving the throughput of W-CDMA systems. Our numerical results demonstrate that this adaptive STS-based transmission scheme is capable of significantly improving the effective throughput of W-CDMA systems. Specifically, the studied W-CDMA system's bitrate can be increased by a factor of three at the modest cost of requiring an extra 0.4 dB or 1.2 dB transmitted power in the context of the investigated urban or suburban areas, respectively.

  9. Design of CMOS RFIC ultra-wideband impulse transmitters and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the design of ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-based transmitter and receiver frontends, operating within the 3.1-10.6 GHz frequency band, using CMOS radio-frequency integrated-circuits (RFICs). CMOS RFICs are small, cheap, low power devices, better suited for direct integration with digital ICs as compared to those using III-V compound semiconductor devices. CMOS RFICs are thus very attractive for RF systems and, in fact, the principal choice for commercial wireless markets.  The book comprises seven chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to UWB technology and outlines its suitability for high resolution sensing and high-rate, short-range ad-hoc networking and communications. The second chapter provides the basics of CMOS RFICs needed for the design of the UWB RFIC transmitter and receiver presented in this book. It includes the design fundamentals, lumped and distributed elements for RFIC, layout, post-layout simulation, and measurement. The third chapter discusses the basics of U...

  10. A localized cooperative wideband spectrum sensing for dynamic access of TV bands using RF sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we address and simulate a Radio Frequency (RF) sensor network for a cooperative spectrum sensing and localization scheme. The proposed method integrates a Wavelet based Multi-Resolution Spectrum Sensing (MRSS), an N-bit hard combination technique for cooperative decision making and a Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization algorithm to detect the availability of frequency bands and the location of the usable base station. We develop an N-bit hard combination technique and compare its performance to a traditionally used 2-bit hard combination for cooperative sensing. The key idea is to design a novel RF sensor network based cooperative wideband spectrum sensing and localization scheme by using a wavelet based Multi-Resolution Spectrum Sensing (MRSS) and Received Signal Strength (RSS) Localization techniques which were originally proposed for cognitive radio applications. The performance evaluations are also done to show the different detection accuracies for varying parameters such as number of sensor nodes, Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR) and number of averaged Power Spectral Densities (PSD). The proposed scheme improves the problems of shadowing, fading and noise. In addition, the RSS based localization technique was shown to be an acceptable means of estimating the position of the available transmitter. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Studies on a wideband, solid-state driven RF system for the CERN PS booster

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, M M; Arnaudon, L; Chritin, N S; Mikulec, B; Hanke, K; Tardy, T

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project (LIU) the PS Booster (PSB) will undergo in depth consolidation and upgrade programs [1]. The aim is increasing the extraction energy to 2 GeV, exploiting the potential of Linac4 and allowing reliable operations during the next 25 years. For the RF system, substantial improvements could come from the replacement of the existing narrowband, tuned systems covering the h=1 and h=2 frequency ranges (0.6 ÷ 1.8 MHz and 1.2 ÷ 3.6 MHz respectively) with wideband (0.5 ÷ 4 MHz) Finemet® loaded cavities. The new system would be modular, allow multi-harmonic operation, use solid-state power stages and include fast RF feedback to compensate beam loading effects to some extent. A proof of principle system providing ≈3.0 kV accelerating voltage has been designed, constructed and installed in one of the PSB rings. This paper provides details on the design and measurements as well as information on the project status.

  12. The Pros and Cons of Compressive Sensing for Wideband Signal Acquisition: Noise Folding vs. Dynamic Range

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, Mark A; Treichler, John R; Baraniuk, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) exploits the sparsity present in many common signals to reduce the number of measurements needed for digital acquisition. With this reduction would come, in theory, commensurate reductions in the size, weight, power consumption, and/or monetary cost of both signal sensors and any associated communication links. This paper examines the use of CS in the design of a wideband radio receiver in a noisy environment. We formulate the problem statement for such a receiver and establish a reasonable set of requirements that a receiver should meet to be practically useful. We then evaluate the performance of a CS-based receiver in two ways: via a theoretical analysis of the expected performance, with a particular emphasis on noise and dynamic range, and via simulations that compare the CS receiver against the performance expected from a conventional implementation. On the one hand, we show that CS-based systems that aim to reduce the number of acquired measurements are somewhat sensitive to sig...

  13. Finding a faint polarized signal in wide-band radio data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Lee, K. J.

    2017-04-01

    We develop two algorithms, based on maximum likelihood inference, for estimating the parameters of polarized radio sources which emit at a single rotation measure (RM), e.g. pulsars. These algorithms incorporate the flux density spectrum of the source, either a power law or a scaled version of the Stokes I spectrum, and a variation in sensitivity across the observing band. We quantify the detection significance and measurement uncertainties in the fitted parameters, and we derive weighted versions of the RM synthesis algorithm which, under certain conditions, maximize the likelihood. We use Monte Carlo simulations to compare injected and recovered source parameters for a range of signal-to-noise ratios, investigate the quality of standard methods for estimating measurement uncertainties and search for statistical biases. These simulations consider one frequency band each for the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the Low Frequency Array. We find that results obtained for one frequency band cannot be easily generalized, and that methods that were developed in the past for correcting bias in individual frequency channels do not apply to wide-band data sets. The standard method for estimating the measurement uncertainty in RM is not accurate for sources with non-zero spectral indices. Furthermore, dividing Stokes Q and U by Stokes I to correct for spectral index effects, in combination with RM synthesis, does not maximize the likelihood.

  14. A wideband CMOSVGLNA based on single-to-differential stage and resistive attenuator for TV tuners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Kefeng; Tan Xi; Tang Zhangwen; Min Hao

    2011-01-01

    A wideband CMOS variable gain low noise amplifier (VGLNA) based on a single-to-differential (S2D) stage and resistive attenuator is presented for TV tuner applications.Detailed analysis of input matching,noise figure (NF) and linearity for S2D is given.A highly linear passive resistive attenuator is proposed to provide 6 dB attenuation and input matching for each gain stage.The chip was fabricated by a 0.18μm 1P6M CMOS process,and the measurements show that the VGLNA covers a gain range over 36.4 dB and achieves a maximum gain of 21.3 dB,a minimum NF of 3.0 dB,an IIP3 of 0.9 dBm and an IIP2 of 26.3 dBm at high gain mode with a power consumption less than 10 mA from a 1.8 V supply.

  15. Prediction of buried mine-like target radar signatures using wideband electromagnetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrick, A.L.; Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-04-06

    Current ground penetrating radars (GPR) have been tested for land mine detection, but they have generally been costly and have poor performance. Comprehensive modeling and experimentation must be done to predict the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of mines to access the effect of clutter on the EM signature of the mine, and to understand the merit and limitations of using radar for various mine detection scenarios. This modeling can provide a basis for advanced radar design and detection techniques leading to superior performance. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a radar technology that when combined with comprehensive modeling and detection methodologies could be the basis of an advanced mine detection system. Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology exhibits a combination of properties, including wideband operation, extremely low power consumption, extremely small size and low cost, array configurability, and noise encoded pulse generation. LLNL is in the process of developing an optimal processing algorithm to use with the MIR sensor. In this paper, we use classical numerical models to obtain the signature of mine-like targets and examine the effect of surface roughness on the reconstructed signals. These results are then qualitatively compared to experimental data.

  16. Outage Analysis of Ultra-Wideband System in Lognormal Multipath Fading and Square-Shaped Cellular Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirinen Pekka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic ultra-wideband (UWB spread-spectrum system performance is evaluated in centralized and distributed spatial topologies comprising square-shaped indoor cells. Statistical distributions for link distances in single-cell and multicell configurations are derived. Cochannel-interference-induced outage probability is used as a performance measure. The probability of outage varies depending on the spatial distribution statistics of users (link distances, propagation characteristics, user activities, and receiver settings. Lognormal fading in each channel path is incorporated in the model, where power sums of multiple lognormal signal components are approximated by a Fenton-Wilkinson approach. Outage performance of different spatial configurations is outlined numerically. Numerical results show the strong dependence of outage probability on the link distance distributions, number of rake fingers, and path losses.

  17. Effect of nonthermal distributed electrons and temperature on phase shifts during the collision of inward and outward ion-acoustic solitary waves in nonplanar geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uday Narayan Ghosh; Prasantha Chatterjee; Deb Kumar Ghosh

    2013-10-01

    Interaction of nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves is an important source of information for studying the nature and characteristics of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs). The head-on collision between two cylindrical/spherical IASWs in un-magnetized plasmas comprising of nonthermal distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated using the extended version of Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) perturbation method. How the interactions are taking place in cylindrical and spherical geometries are shown numerically. Analytical phase shifts are derived for nonplanar geometry. The effects of the ion to electron temperature parameter and the nonthermal electrons parameter on the phase shift are studied. It is shown that the properties of the interaction of IASWs in different geometries are very different.

  18. Synthesis and processing strategies to tune the film structure and optoelectronic properties of non-planar molecular semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszpanski, Anna Maria

    Molecular semiconductors have generated significant interest for their potential use in lightweight and mechanically flexible electronic devices. Yet, predicting how new molecular semiconductors will perform in devices remains a challenge because devices are comprised of polycrystalline thin films of molecular semiconductors, and charge transport in these films depends greatly on the details of their microstructure whose heterogeneities can span multiple length scales. The microstructure typically evolves during deposition, and thus developing organic electronics not only hinges on the success of materials discovery, but also on the ability to fine-tune deposition and processing parameters to access the thin-film structure most conducive for charge transport. This thesis explores chemical modification of a non-planar organic semiconductor, contorted hexabenzocoronene, cHBC, to tune its optoelectronic properties and processing strategies to induce structural changes in thin films. We primarily explore fluorine- and chlorine-substitution at the peripheral aromatic rings of cHBC to lower its energy levels and optical bandgap, and we demonstrate such halogenated derivatives as electron acceptors in organic solar cells. Substitution with these larger atoms also increases cHBC's intramolecular steric hindrance, providing access to an alternative molecular conformation with an order of magnitude higher solubility and systematic shifts in absorption and emission characteristics. cHBC's non-planarity provides an added dimension of tunability as it frustrates crystallization during deposition, producing amorphous films that can be subsequently crystallized with post-deposition processing. Decoupling structural development from deposition allows us to fabricate transistors from differently treated cHBC films and elucidate the effects of changes in film structure on charge transport, as measured by the field-effect mobility. With different processing, the extent of c

  19. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  20. Wavelength-dependent femtosecond pulse amplification in wideband tapered-waveguide quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we study the wavelength-dependent amplification in three different wideband quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers (QWAs) having conventional, exponentially tapered, and linearly tapered active region waveguide structures. A new theoretical model for tapered-waveguide QWAs considering the effect of lateral carrier density distribution and the strain effect in the quantum well is established based on a quantum well transmission line modeling method. The temporal and spectral characteristics of amplified femtosecond pulse are analyzed for each structure. It was found that, for the amplification of a single femtosecond pulse, the tapered-waveguide QWA provides higher saturation gain, and the output spectra of the amplified pulse in all three structures exhibit an apparent redshift and bandwidth narrowing due to the reduction of carrier density; however, the output spectrum in the tapered-waveguide amplifier is less distorted and exhibits smaller bandwidth narrowing. For the simultaneous amplification of two femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies, in all the three structures, two peaks appear in the output spectra while the peak at the frequency closer to the peak frequency of the QWA gain spectrum receives higher amplification due to the frequency (wavelength) dependence of the QWA gain. At a low peak power level of the input pulse, the bandwidth of each window in the tapered structure is larger than that of the conventional waveguide structure, which aggravates the spectrum alias in the amplification of femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies. As the peak powers of the two pulses increase, the spectrum alias in the conventional waveguide becomes more serious while there are small changes in the tapered structures. Also, we have found that in the amplification of a femtosecond pulse train, the linear-tapered QWAs exhibit the fastest gain recovery as compared with the conventional and exponentially tapered QWAs.

  1. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly(Phenylene Containing a Non-Planar Structure and Dibenzoyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyoun Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers for application as sulfonated polyphenylene membranes were prepared by nickel-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene (BCD and 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene (DCBP. Conjugated cis/trans isomer (BCD had a non-planar conformation containing four peripheral aromatic rings that facilitate the formation of π–π interactions. 1,4-Dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene was synthesized from the oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Friedel-Crafts reaction with benzene. DCBP monomer had good reactivity in polymerization affecting the activity of benzophenone as an electron-withdrawing group. The polyphenylene was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid. These polymers without any ether linkages on the polymer backbone were protected from nucleophilic attack by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxide anion, and radicals generated by polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC operation systems. The mole fraction of the sulfonic acid groups was controlled by varying the mole ratio of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene in the copolymer. In comparison with Nafion 211® membrane, these SBCDCBP membranes showed ion exchange capacity (IEC ranging from 1.04 to 2.07 meq./g, water uptake from 36.5% to 69.4%, proton conductivity from 58.7 to 101.9 mS/cm, and high thermal stability.

  3. High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Non-planar Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yi; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Moreel, Loise; Zhou, Jie; Du, Qingyang; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Dobson, Kevin D; Birkmire, Robert; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a versatile, roll-to-roll and backend compatible technique for the fabrication of high-index-contrast photonic structures on both silicon and plastic substrates. The fabrication technique combines low-temperature chalcogenide glass film deposition and resist-free single-step thermal nanoimprint to process low-loss (1.6 dB/cm), sub-micron single-mode waveguides with a smooth surface finish using simple contact photolithography. Using this approach, the first chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators are fabricated by thermal nanoimprint. The devices exhibit an ultra-high quality-factor of 400,000 near 1550 nm wavelength, which represents the highest value reported in chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators. Furthermore, sub-micron nanoimprint of chalcogenide glass films on non-planar plastic substrates is demonstrated, which establishes the method as a facile route for monolithic fabrication of high-index-contrast devices on a wide array of unconventional substrates.

  4. Structural stability, C--N internal rotations and vibrational spectral analysis of non-planar phenylurea and phenylthiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Hassan M

    2009-04-01

    The structural stability and C-N internal rotations of phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 and MP4//MP2 calculations with 6-311G** and/or 6-311+G** basis sets. The complex multirotor internal rotations in phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory from which several clear minima were predicted in the calculated potential energy scans of both molecules. For phenylurea two minima that correspond to non-planar- (CNCC dihedral angle of about 45 degrees ) cis (CNCO dihedral angle is near 0 degrees ) and trans (CNCO dihedral angle is near 180 degrees ) structures were predicted to have real frequency. For phenylthiourea only the non-planar-trans structure was predicted to be the low energy minimum for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of the lowest energy non-planar-trans conformer of each of the two molecules were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of normal coordinate analysis and experimental infrared and Raman data.

  5. Structural stability, C-N internal rotations and vibrational spectral analysis of non-planar phenylurea and phenylthiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Hassan M.

    2009-04-01

    The structural stability and C-N internal rotations of phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 and MP4//MP2 calculations with 6-311G** and/or 6-311+G** basis sets. The complex multirotor internal rotations in phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory from which several clear minima were predicted in the calculated potential energy scans of both molecules. For phenylurea two minima that correspond to non-planar- (CNCC dihedral angle of about 45°) cis (CNCO dihedral angle is near 0°) and trans (CNCO dihedral angle is near 180°) structures were predicted to have real frequency. For phenylthiourea only the non- planar- trans structure was predicted to be the low energy minimum for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of the lowest energy non-planar-trans conformer of each of the two molecules were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of normal coordinate analysis and experimental infrared and Raman data.

  6. Design of Analytical Model for Ultra Wideband System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana P. Adsul

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The UWB (Ultra Wideband technology has drawn phenomenal interest in industry as well as academia.Ultra Wide Band impulse radios are microwave systems that communicate using baseband pulses of veryshort duration. UWB systems transmit information data over a wide frequency spectrum with low powerconsumption and high speed for local area wireless network applications. Unlike the traditional digitalcommunication method based on a carrier wave, UWB is pulse based. Pulse Generation, modulation, andmultiple access are time domain dependent functions. This paper presents the development of analyticalmodel for UWB system. A theoretical reference for UWB system performances is designed in non-idealchannels. In this mathematical models for biphase, pulse–position and hybrid modulation are developed.The detection rules are formulated for detecting signals in AWGN channels. The performance of UWBsystem is described with the help of BER. The BER of a UWB system depends on the modulation schemeand detection method it uses. It is observed that for optimum performance modulation parameterselection is important.

  7. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-05-16

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  8. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alarifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  9. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  10. A linear signal transmission system calibration method of wideband GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhao, Kai; Gu, Ling-jia; Cao, Qiong; Li, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Xing-ming

    2016-09-01

    In VHF pulse Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) system, the echo pass through the antenna and transmission line circuit, then reach the GPR receiver. Thus the reflection coefficient at the receiver sampling gate interface, which is at the end of the transmission line, is different from the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface, which could cause the GPR receiving error. The pulse GPR receiver is a wideband system that can't be simply described as traditional narrowband transmission line model. Since the GPR transmission circuit is a linear system, the linear transformation method could be used to analyze the characteristic of the GPR receiving system. A GPR receiver calibration method based on transmission line theory is proposed in this paper, which analyzes the relationship between the reflection coefficients of theory calculation at antenna interface and the measuring data by network analyzer at the sampling gate interface. Then the least square method is introduced to calibrate the transfer function of the GPR receiver transmission circuit. This calibration method can be useful in media quantitative inversion by GPR. When the reflection coefficient at the sampling gate is obtained, the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface can be easily determined.

  11. Principles and Limitations of Ultra-Wideband FM Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouwenhoven Michiel HL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel UWB communications system using double FM: a low-modulation index digital FSK followed by a high-modulation index analog FM to create a constant-envelope UWB signal. FDMA techniques at the subcarrier level are exploited to accommodate multiple users. The system is intended for low (1–10 kbps and medium (100–1000 kbps bit rate, and short-range WPAN systems. A wideband delay-line FM demodulator that is not preceded by any limiting amplifier constitutes the key component of the UWBFM receiver. This unusual approach permits multiple users to share the same RF bandwidth. Multipath, however, may limit the useful subcarrier bandwidth to one octave. This paper addresses the performance with AWGN and multipath, the resistance to narrowband interference, as well as the simultaneous detection of multiple FM signals at the same carrier frequency. SPICE and Matlab simulation results illustrate the principles and limitations of this new technology. A hardware demonstrator has been realized and has allowed the confirmation of theory with practical results.

  12. Unrecorded wideband instrumentation reference tape feasibility study: Frequency response results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, D. R.

    1980-03-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine signal response variations when a variety of wideband instrumentation magnetic tapes is used on a cross section of recorder/reproducer systems. Data for the investigation were collected by transmitting a set of eight sample test tapes to participating data recording/reproducing facilities for the purpose of making data measurements. Data collected represent measurements made with 16 different recorder/reproducer systems at 11 different testing facilities located throughout the United States. The data-collection process involved approximately 2 years of testing. The originating/coordinating facility was the Pacific Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, California. The test results indicated the following: all of the sample test tapes exhibited bidirectional performance within the limits of measurement repeatability; overall system stability was better in the low-band regions than in the upper-band regions; and the overall relative frequency response of the sample test tapes did not change appreciably during the 2 year investigative period. The most significant result of the test measurements is that at least 90% of the frequency response values were within + or - 2.0 dB at all frequencies. Machine stability factors such as azimuth, equalizer, and gain changes had more effect on data variability than did magnetic tape or tape speed. The use of a reference tape system is recommended as a method to assure that relative frequency response variations will be less than or equal to + or - 2.0 dB.

  13. Optimization of Planar Monopole Wideband Antenna for Wireless Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Mohammed Nazmus; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new compact wideband monopole antenna is presented for wireless communication applications. This antenna comprises of a new radiating patch, a new arc-shaped strip, microstrip feed line, and a notched ground plane. The proposed radiating patch is combined with a rectangular and semi-circular patch and is integrated with a partial ground plane to provide a wide impedance bandwidth. The new arc-shaped strip between the radiating patch and microstrip feed line creates an extra surface on the patch, which helps further widen the bandwidth. Inserting one step notch on the ground plane further enhances the bandwidth. The antenna has a compact size of 16×20×1.6mm3. The measured result indicated that the antenna achieves a 127% bandwidth at VSWR≤2, ranging from 4.9GHz to 22.1GHz. Stable radiation patterns with acceptable gain are achieved. Also, a measured bandwidth of 107.7% at VSWR≤1.5 (5.1-17GHz) is obtained, which is suitable for UWB outdoor propagation. This antenna is compatible with a good number of wireless standards, including UWB band, Wimax 5.4 GHz band, MVDDS (12.2-12.7GHz), and close range radar and satellite communication in the X-band (8-12GHz), and Ku band (12-18GHz).

  14. Conceptual design of combined visible - Xray Wide-Band telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Otani, Chico; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2002-12-01

    Superconduting tunnel junctions (STJ) have been developed to detect X-ray ~ visivle photons for application to astrophysics, particle physics, material physics, and so on. STJ are applicable as photon detectors with good energy resolution and a high photon-counting rate. STJ also have good efficiency because of their high absorption efficiency below 1 keV photon energy. That is advantageous in the observation of the faint objects with which the photon number is limited like astronomical objects and planetary plasma observation. STJ have potentials to open new windows of telescope. On the other hand, the progress of multilayers makes it possible to fabricated a normal incidence telescope (NIT) with high angular resolution and wide field of view up to 500 eV photon energyThe combination of the improved optical elements (multilayer) and STJ will enable us to design a new optical system in the near future. We demonstrate the design combined Visible - X-ray Wide-Band Space Telescope (WBST).

  15. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF COGNITIVE RADIO WITH WIDEBAND SPECTRUM SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saraniya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR technology allows the unlicensed user to access the licensed spectrum bands. Spectrum sensing is an essential function in cognitive radio to detect the spectrum holes and opportunistically use the underutilized frequency bands without causing interference to primary user (PU. In this paper we are maximizing the throughput capacity of cognitive radio user and hence the performance of spectrum sensing and protection to licensed user improves over a wideband spectrum sensing band. The simulation of cognitive radio is done by analyzing the performance of energy detector spectrum sensing technique to detect primary user and to formulate the optimization using multiband joint detection method (MJD to achieve suitable trade- off between secondary user access and primary user network. The main aim of this paper is to maximize the probability of detection and to decrease the probabilities of miss detection and false alarm. To maximize the throughput it requires minimizing the throughput loss caused by miss detection and the significant reduction in probability of false alarm helps in achieving the spectral efficiency from the secondary user’s perspective. The simulation results show that the performance increases with the MJD method.

  16. Wideband impedance spectrum analyzer for process automation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Steffen; Schneider, Thomas; Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2007-10-01

    For decades impedance spectroscopy is used in technical laboratories and research departments to investigate effects or material characteristics that affect the impedance spectrum of the sensor. Establishing this analytical approach for process automation and stand-alone applications will deliver additional and valuable information beside traditional measurement techniques such as the measurement of temperature, flow rate, and conductivity, among others. As yet, most of the current impedance analysis methods are suited for laboratory applications only since they involve stand-alone network analyzers that are slow, expensive, large, or immobile. Furthermore, those systems offer a large range of functionality that is not being used in process control and other fields of application. We developed a sensor interface based on high speed direct digital signal processing offering wideband impedance spectrum analysis with high resolution for frequency adjustment, excellent noise rejection, very high measurement rate, and convenient data exchange to common interfaces. The electronics has been implemented on two small circuit boards and it is well suited for process control applications such as monitoring phase transitions, characterization of fluidal systems, and control of biological processes. The impedance spectrum analyzer can be customized easily for different measurement applications by adapting the appropriate sensor module. It has been tested for industrial applications, e.g., dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature gas analysis.

  17. Cross-layer optimization in ultra wideband networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) network brings both chance and challenge to personal area wireless communications. Compared with other IEEE 802 small range wireless protocols (such as WLAN and Bluetooth), UWB has both extremely high bandwidth (up to 480 Mbps) and low radiation. Moreover, the structured MAC layer of UWB is the fundamental difference to WLAN. The top one is that only when two UWB devices belong to the same piconet can they communicate with each other directly, which means that we must jointly consider topology formation and routing when deploying UWB networks because the interaction between routing and topology formation makes separate optimization ineffective. This paper tries to optimize UWB network from a cross-layer point of view. Specifically, given device spatial distribution and traffic requirement, we want to form piconets and determine routing jointly, to maximize the overall throughput. We formulate the problem of joint optimization to mixed-integer programming and give a practical lower bound that is very close to the theoretical upper bound in our simulation. Furthermore, our lower bound is much better than an algorithm that only considers topology formation in UWB networks.

  18. A survey of antennas for ultra-wideband applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaraz, Maysam; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    The usage of ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is growing in many communication systems such as radar systems, communication and measurement systems and imaging systems mainly because unlike the other wireless technologies UWB is not restricted to using a narrow waveband and it has high speed data rate. The large transmission bandwidth makes UWB-based electronic device resistive to interferences and gives immunity against getting detected. Typical operational frequency range of the UWB devices varies from few 100s MHz to 10 GHz. However, the most popular UWB devices are designed to operate between 1-3 GHz. This paper presents an overview of different types of commercially available antennas suitable for UWB applications. The paper begins with the basics of understanding of antennas properties. Next, it discusses the main antenna characteristics like: radiation pattern (directional or omni-directional), gain, bandwidth, size, etc for different UWB applications and explains criterions for quantitative and qualitative performance measure of the antennas. The antennas covered in this paper include: TEM Horn, Folded horn, Dipole, Planner Fat Dipole, Cross Dipole, Rolled Dipole, UWB dielectric, Bowtie, Wire Bowtie, etc. This paper describes the pros and cons of each antenna and highlights the application areas of each antenna. Lastly, this paper summaries the important characteristics of the antennas and presents several promising directions for future enhancement of UWB antenna systems.

  19. Predicting the intelligibility of vocoded and wideband Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C

    2011-05-01

    Due to the limited number of cochlear implantees speaking Mandarin Chinese, it is extremely difficult to evaluate new speech coding algorithms designed for tonal languages. Access to an intelligibility index that could reliably predict the intelligibility of vocoded (and non-vocoded) Mandarin Chinese is a viable solution to address this challenge. The speech-transmission index (STI) and coherence-based intelligibility measures, among others, have been examined extensively for predicting the intelligibility of English speech but have not been evaluated for vocoded or wideband (non-vocoded) Mandarin speech despite the perceptual differences between the two languages. The results indicated that the coherence-based measures seem to be influenced by the characteristics of the spoken language. The highest correlation (r = 0.91-0.97) was obtained in Mandarin Chinese with a weighted coherence measure that included primarily information from high-intensity voiced segments (e.g., vowels) containing F0 information, known to be important for lexical tone recognition. In contrast, in English, highest correlation was obtained with a coherence measure that included information from weak consonants and vowel/consonant transitions. A band-importance function was proposed that captured information about the amplitude envelope contour. A higher modulation rate (100 Hz) was found necessary for the STI-based measures for maximum correlation (r = 0.94-0.96) with vocoded Mandarin and English recognition.

  20. High-resolution wide-band Fast Fourier Transform spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Bernd; Krämer, Ingo; Bell, Andreas; Meyer, Klaus; Güsten, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of our latest generations of sensitive wide-band high-resolution digital Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FFTS). Their design, optimized for a wide range of radio astronomical applications, is presented. Developed for operation with the GREAT far infrared heterodyne spectrometer on-board SOFIA, the eXtended bandwidth FFTS (XFFTS) offers a high instantaneous bandwidth of 2.5 GHz with 88.5 kHz spectral resolution and has been in routine operation during SOFIA's Basic Science since July 2011. We discuss the advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) signal processing pipeline, with an optimized multi-tap polyphase filter bank algorithm that provides a nearly loss-less time-to-frequency data conversion with significantly reduced frequency scallop and fast sidelobe fall-off. Our digital spectrometers have been proven to be extremely reliable and robust, even under the harsh environmental conditions of an airborne observatory, with Allan-variance stability times of several 1000 se...

  1. Ultra-Wideband Printed Slot Radiators with Controllable Frequency Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of creating ultra-wideband (UWB antennas with controlled frequency response of matching based on the printed slot antenna Vivaldi by introducing controlled resonators directly into the structure of the radiator. In the area of irregular slotline there are printed switched resonators with variable capacitance (varactor model, which allow tuning the frequency characteristics for each state of switching cavities, providing bandpass and band-barrage properties of the antenna. The investigation of reconfigurable printed resonators in the system of reconfigurable resonators of a bandpass filter is conducted. The paper considers filter to provide restructuring in the band (3-9 GHz. Electrodynamic simulation of the device was carried out in the time domain using a finite integration method. A bandstop reconfigurable filter is also investigated. The filter located on the substrate opposite the slit is based on tunable L-shaped resonator that has one end connected to the short-circuitor through the board metallization; the other end remains open and is brought into the region of interaction with the slotline. Such filter provides an effective narrow-band suppression and can be easily tuned to the desired frequency channel. The combination of these two types of filters allows you to create a controlled print Vivaldi slot antenna with combined properties. The paper investigates parameters of the scattering and radiation pattern of the antenna in different modes.

  2. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Mohan, R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.edu; Chang, T. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Tian, M. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Bekker, S. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Olson, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ostrander, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Khallaayoun, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dollinger, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cole, Z. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cone, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Schlottau, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wagner, K.H. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution ({approx}25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 {mu}s) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed.

  3. All-optical ultra-wideband doublet signal source based on the cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zan-shan; LI Pei-li; ZHENG Jia-jin; PAN Ting-ting; HUANG Shi-jie; LUO You-hong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate the ultra-wideband (UWB) doublet signal pulse based on the cross-gain modulation (XGM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).In the scheme,only an optical source and an SOA are needed.As there is only one wavelength included in the output doublet signal pulse,no time difference between the upper and down pulses is introduced during the transmission process.By using the software of Optisystem 7.0,the impacts of the optical power,the SOA current,the wavelength and the input signal pulse width on the generated doublet pulse are simulated and tudied numerically.The results show that when the pulse width of the input signal pulse is larger,the output signal pulse is better,and is insensitive to the change of wavelength.In addition,the ultra-wideband positive and negative monocycles can be generated by choosing suitable optical source power and SOA current.

  4. 8th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyo, J. Scott; Baum, Carl E; Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8; UWBSP8

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics Conference series is to focus on advanced technologies for the generation, radiation and detection of ultra-wideband short pulse signals, taking into account their propagation and scattering from and coupling to targets of interest. This Conference series reports on developments in supporting mathematical and numerical methods and presents current and potential future applications of the technology. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8 is based on the American Electromagnetics 2006 conference held from June 3-7 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Topical areas covered in this volume include pulse radiation and measurement, scattering theory, target detection and identification, antennas, signal processing, and communications.

  5. Total Variation Minimization Based Compressive Wideband Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    Wideband spectrum sensing is a critical component of a functioning cognitive radio system. Its major challenge is the too high sampling rate requirement. Compressive sensing (CS) promises to be able to deal with it. Nearly all the current CS based compressive wideband spectrum sensing methods exploit only the frequency sparsity to perform. Motivated by the achievement of a fast and robust detection of the wideband spectrum change, total variation mnimization is incorporated to exploit the temporal and frequency structure information to enhance the sparse level. As a sparser vector is obtained, the spectrum sensing period would be shorten and sensing accuracy would be enhanced. Both theoretical evaluation and numerical experiments can demonstrate the performance improvement.

  6. Wideband current transformers for the surveillance of the beam extraction kicker system of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Defrance, C; Ducimetière, L; Vossenberg, E

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must protect the LHC machine from damage by reliably and safely extracting and absorbing the circulating beams when requested. Two sets of 15 extraction kicker magnets form the main active part of this system. A separate high voltage pulse generator powers each magnet. Because of the high beam energy and the consequences which could result from significant beam loss due to a malfunctioning of the dump system the magnets and generators are continuously surveyed in order to generate a beam abort as soon as an internal fault is detected. Amongst these surveillance systems, wideband current transformers have been designed to detect any erratic start in one of the generators. Output power should be enough to directly re-trigger all the power trigger units of the remaining 14 generators. The current transformers were developed in collaboration with industry. To minimize losses, high-resistivity cobalt alloy was chosen for the cores. The annealing techniques originally developed for LEP b...

  7. Wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvesters with nonlinear polyimide springs based on rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2016-12-01

    A wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvester employing nonlinear spring effects is proposed and demonstrated. The harvesters were designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology. Rigid FR-4 boards were used for mechanical support and coil winding, whereas flexible polyimide films were patterned for mechanical springs and mass platforms. Two sets of coils were patterned and fabricated in the harvester with an internal coil resistance of about 16 Ω each. Two rare-earth magnets were attached to the central platform as shuttle mass. The total dimension of the harvester was 20 × 20 × 4 mm3. In vibration tests, nonlinearity could be observed even at 0.1 grms vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The frequency for peak induced voltage increased from 187 Hz at low vibration to 382 Hz at 5 grms vibration. The effective half-power bandwidth increased from 8 Hz at 0.1 grms to 32 Hz at 1 grms and 52 Hz at 5 grms due to the hysteresis in frequency response. For a matched load and 1 grms vibration at 250 Hz, the maximum output power was 160 nW, corresponding to a power density of 100 nW cm-3.

  8. Twisted cyanines: a non-planar fluorogenic dye with superior photostability and its use in a protein-based fluoromodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nathaniel I; Pham, Ha H; Waggoner, Alan S; Armitage, Bruce A

    2013-01-09

    The cyanine dye thiazole orange (TO) is a well-known fluorogenic stain for DNA and RNA, but this property precludes its use as an intracellular fluorescent probe for non-nucleic acid biomolecules. Further, as is the case with many cyanines, the dye suffers from low photostability. Here, we report the synthesis of a bridge-substituted version of TO named α-CN-TO, where the central methine hydrogen of TO is replaced by an electron withdrawing cyano group, which was expected to decrease the susceptibility of the dye toward singlet oxygen-mediated degradation. An X-ray crystal structure shows that α-CN-TO is twisted drastically out of plane, in contrast to TO, which crystallizes in the planar conformation. α-CN-TO retains the fluorogenic behavior of the parent dye TO in viscous glycerol/water solvent, but direct irradiation and indirect bleaching studies showed that α-CN-TO is essentially inert to visible light and singlet oxygen. In addition, the twisted conformation of α-CN-TO mitigates nonspecific binding and fluorescence activation by DNA and a previously selected TO-binding protein and exhibits low background fluorescence in HeLa cell culture. α-CN-TO was then used to select a new protein that binds and activates fluorescence from the dye. The new α-CN-TO/protein fluoromodule exhibits superior photostability to an analogous TO/protein fluoromodule. These properties indicate that α-CN-TO will be a useful fluorogenic dye in combination with specific RNA and protein binding partners for both in vitro and cell-based applications. More broadly, structural features that promote nonplanar conformations can provide an effective method for reducing nonspecific binding of cationic dyes to nucleic acids and other biomolecules.

  9. Detection of latent fingerprints using high-resolution 3D confocal microscopy in non-planar acquisition scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    In digitized forensics the support of investigators in any manner is one of the main goals. Using conservative lifting methods, the detection of traces is done manually. For non-destructive contactless methods, the necessity for detecting traces is obvious for further biometric analysis. High resolutional 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) grants the possibility for a detection by segmentation approach with improved detection results. Optimal scan results with CLSM are achieved on surfaces orthogonal to the sensor, which is not always possible due to environmental circumstances or the surface's shape. This introduces additional noise, outliers and a lack of contrast, making a detection of traces even harder. Prior work showed the possibility of determining angle-independent classification models for the detection of latent fingerprints (LFP). Enhancing this approach, we introduce a larger feature space containing a variety of statistical-, roughness-, color-, edge-directivity-, histogram-, Gabor-, gradient- and Tamura features based on raw data and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) using high resolutional data. Our test set consists of eight different surfaces for the detection of LFP in four different acquisition angles with a total of 1920 single scans. For each surface and angles in steps of 10, we capture samples from five donors to introduce variance by a variety of sweat compositions and application influences such as pressure or differences in ridge thickness. By analyzing the present test set with our approach, we intend to determine angle- and substrate-dependent classification models to determine optimal surface specific acquisition setups and also classification models for a general detection purpose for both, angles and substrates. The results on overall models with classification rates up to 75.15% (kappa 0.50) already show a positive tendency regarding the usability of the proposed methods for LFP detection on varying surfaces in non-planar

  10. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-12-23

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft-lithography, is complex and expensive for producing three-dimensional (3D) structures. The emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive alternative due to its simplicity and low-cost. Recently a handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, these devices invariably use purely two-dimensional (2D) flow structures. Herein we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate simple and low-cost 3D miniaturized fluidic devices for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without need for surface treatment of the channel walls. This is accomplished by varying the channel diameters at the junction, so the inner liquid does not touch the outer walls. This 3D-printed emulsion generator has been successfully tested over a range of conditions. We also formulate and demonstrate, for the first time, uniform scaling laws for the emulsion drop sizes generated in different regimes, by incorporating the dynamic contact angle effects during the drop formation. Magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering.

  11. Non-planar femtosecond enhancement cavity for VUV frequency comb applications

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Georg; Seres, Jozsef; Seres, Enikoe; Schumm, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    External passive femtosecond enhancement cavities (fsECs) are widely used to increase the efficiency of non-linear conversion processes like high harmonic generation (HHG) at high repetition rates. Their performance is often limited by beam ellipticity, caused by oblique incidence on spherical focusing mirrors. We introduce a novel three-dimensionally folded variant of the typical planar bow-tie resonator geometry that guarantees circular beam profiles, maintains linear polarization, and allows for a significantly tighter focus as well as a larger beam cross-section on the cavity mirrors. The scheme is applied to improve focusing in a Ti:Sapphire based VUV frequency comb system, targeting the 5th harmonic around 160 nm (7.8 eV) towards high-precision spectroscopy of the low-energy isomer state of Thorium-229. It will also be beneficial in fsEC-applications with even higher seeding and intracavity power where the damage threshold of the mirrors becomes a major concern.

  12. Mutual Coupling Reduction for UWB MIMO Antennas with a Wideband Neutralization Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A wideband neutralization line is proposed to reduce the mutual coupling of a compact ultrawideband (UWB) MIMO antenna. With the introduced decoupling method, the designed UWB MIMO antenna covers the band of 3.1-5 GHz with an isolation of higher than 22 dB. The proposed wideband neutralization line...... is not necessarily placed in the clearance area between two MIMO elements and can be put above the copper ground. A small clearance (antenna area) of 35 mm × 16 mm is achieved. The designed UWB MIMO antenna is fabricated. S parameters, radiation patterns, total efficiency and realized gain of the prototype...

  13. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Ultra-Wideband Fermi Antenna Using Microstrip-to-CPS Balun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong-Sik; Kim, Young-Gon; Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Kang Wook

    A new design and experimental results of a microstrip-fed ultra-wideband Fermi antenna at millimeter-wave frequencies are presented. By utilizing a new microstrip-to-CPS balun (or transition), which provides wider bandwidth than conventional planar balun, the design of microstrip-fed Fermi antenna is greatly simplified. The proposed Fermi antenna demonstrates ultra-wideband performance for the frequency range of 23 to over 58GHz with the antenna gain of 12 to 14dBi and low sidelobe levels. This design yields highly effective solutions to various millimeter-wave phased-arrays and imaging systems.

  15. Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.

  16. Analysis and Design of Wide-Band SiGe HBT Active Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2005-01-01

    performing frequency conversion of wide-band signals is discussed. The analysis is verified by computer simulations using a realistic high-frequency large-signal SiGe HBT model. An active mixer design based on the Gilbert cell topology modified for wide-band operation using emitter degenerated...... transconductance stage and shunt feedback load stage is discussed. Experimental results are given for an active mixer implemented in a 0.8-μm 35-GHz fT SiGe HBT BiCMOS process....

  17. Novel wideband MIMO antennas that can cover the whole LTE spectrum in handsets and portable computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Mohamed; Hassan, Noha

    2014-01-01

    A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G) bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.

  18. Genetic algorithm-based wide-band deterministic maximum likelihood direction finding algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The wide-band direction finding is one of hit and difficult task in array signal processing. This paper generalizes narrow-band deterministic maximum likelihood direction finding algorithm to the wideband case, and so constructions an object function, then utilizes genetic algorithm for nonlinear global optimization. Direction of arrival is estimated without preprocessing of array data and so the algorithm eliminates the effect of pre-estimate on the final estimation. The algorithm is applied on uniform linear array and extensive simulation results prove the efficacy of the algorithm. In the process of simulation, we obtain the relation between estimation error and parameters of genetic algorithm.

  19. A novel algorithm of channel resource allocation in wide-band WLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the development of Wide-band wireless communications.MAC protocol in IEEE 802.11 call't satisfy user-individual quality of service(QoS)guarantees effectively and can't support hish-speed mobility.A novel algorithm for channel allocation in Wide-band WLAN and an improved resource reservation mechanism aDplied into IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol are proposed in this article.The simulated results indicate that the advanced protocol makes the system throughput improved and delay decrease.Moreover,the improved system shows an excellent performance in the environment with high-speed mobility.

  20. Compact Wideband and Low-Profile Antenna Mountable on Large Metallic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a compact wideband and low-profile antenna mountable on large metallic surfaces. Six rows of coupled microstrip resonators with different lengths are printed on a Teflon block. The lengths of the microstrip resonators in different rows are gradually reduced along the end...... resonance at the lowest frequency. A trapezoid-shaped capacitive-feed (C-fed) strip is utilized and also printed on the Teflon block to globally optimize the wideband impedance matching. The proposed antenna covers a relative bandwidth of 109% for VSWR

  1. Wide-band profile domain pulsar timing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentati, L.; Kerr, M.; Dai, S.; Hobson, M. P.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Coles, W.; Dempsey, J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.; Wen, L.; You, X.; Zhu, X.

    2017-04-01

    We extend profile domain pulsar timing to incorporate wide-band effects such as frequency-dependent profile evolution and broad-band shape variation in the pulse profile. We also incorporate models for temporal variations in both pulse width and in the separation in phase of the main pulse and interpulse. We perform the analysis with both nested sampling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods. In the latter case, we introduce a new parametrization of the posterior that is extremely efficient in the low signal-to-noise regime and can be readily applied to a wide range of scientific problems. We apply this methodology to a series of simulations, and to between seven and nine years of observations for PSRs J1713+0747, J1744-1134 and J1909-3744 with frequency coverage that spans 700-3600 Mhz. We use a smooth model for profile evolution across the full frequency range, and compare smooth and piecewise models for the temporal variations in dispersion measure (DM). We find that the profile domain framework consistently results in improved timing precision compared to the standard analysis paradigm by as much as 40 per cent for timing parameters. Incorporating smoothness in the DM variations into the model further improves timing precision by as much as 30 per cent. For PSR J1713+0747, we also detect pulse shape variation uncorrelated between epochs, which we attribute to variation intrinsic to the pulsar at a level consistent with previously published analyses. Not accounting for this shape variation biases the measured arrival times at the level of ∼30 ns, the same order of magnitude as the expected shift due to gravitational waves in the pulsar timing band.

  2. Wettability patterning for high-rate, pumpless fluid transport on open, non-planar microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Schutzius, Thomas M; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-05-07

    Surface tension driven transport of liquids on open substrates offers an enabling tool for open micro total analysis systems that are becoming increasingly popular for low-cost biomedical diagnostic devices. The present study uses a facile wettability patterning method to produce open microfluidic tracks that - due to their shape, surface texture and chemistry - are capable of transporting a wide range of liquid volumes (~1-500 μL) on-chip, overcoming viscous and other opposing forces (e.g., gravity) at the pertinent length scales. Small volumes are handled as individual droplets, while larger volumes require repeated droplet transport. The concept is developed and demonstrated with coatings based on TiO2 filler particles, which, when present in adequate (~80 wt.%) quantities within a hydrophobic fluoroacrylic polymer matrix, form composites that are intrinsically superhydrophobic. Such composite coatings become superhydrophilic upon exposure to UV light (390 nm). A commercial laser printer-based photo-masking approach is used on the coating for spatially selective wettability conversion from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic. Carefully designed wedge-patterned surface tension confined tracks on the open-air devices move liquid on them without power input, even when acting against gravity. Simple designs of wettability patterning are used on versatile substrates (e.g., metals, polymers, paper) to demonstrate complex droplet handling tasks, e.g., merging, splitting and metered dispensing, some of which occur in 3-D geometries. Fluid transport rates of up to 350 μL s(-1) are attained. Applicability of the design on metal substrates allows these devices to be used also for other microscale engineering applications, e.g., water management in fuel cells.

  3. Ultra-Wideband Radars for Measurements over Land and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogineni, S.; Hale, R.; Miller, H. G.; Yan, S.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Leuschen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Binder, T.; Steinhage, D.; Gehrmann, M.; Braaten, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    We developed two ultra-wideband (UWB) radars for measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica and sea ice. One of the UWB radars operates over a 150-600 MHz frequency range with a large, cross-track 24-element array. It is designed to sound ice, image the ice-bed interface, and map internal layers with fine resolution. The 24-element array consists of three 8-element sub-arrays. One of these sub-arrays is mounted under the fuselage of a BT-67 aircraft; the other two are mounted under the wings. The polarization of each antenna element can be individually reconfigured depending on the target of interest. The measured inflight VSWR is less than 2 over the operating range. The fuselage sub-array is used both for transmission and reception, and the wing-mounted sub-arrays are used for reception. The transmitter consists of an 8-channel digital waveform generator to synthesize chirped pulses of selectable pulse width, duration, and bandwidth. It also consists of drivers and power amplifiers to increase the power level of each individual channel to about 1 kW and a fast high-power transmit/receive switch. Each receiver consists of a limiter, switches, low-noise and driver amplifiers, and filters to shape and amplify received signals to the level required for digitization. The digital sub-section consists of timing and control sub-systems and 24 14-bit A/D converters to digitize received signals at a rate of 1.6 GSPS. The radar performance is evaluated using an optical delay line to simulate returns from about 2 km thick ice, and the measured radar loop sensitivity is about 215 dB. The other UWB microwave radar operates over a 2-18 GHz frequency range in Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave (FM-CW) mode. It is designed to sound more than 1 m of snow over sea ice and map internal layers to a depth about 25-40 m in polar firn and ice. We operated the microwave radar over snow-covered sea ice and mapped snow as thin as 5 cm and as thick as 60 cm. We mapped

  4. Flexible and transparent silicon-on-polymer based sub-20 nm non-planar 3D FinFET for brain-architecture inspired computation

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-02-22

    An industry standard 8′′ silicon-on-insulator wafer based ultra-thin (1 μm), ultra-light-weight, fully flexible and remarkably transparent state-of-the-art non-planar three dimensional (3D) FinFET is shown. Introduced by Intel Corporation in 2011 as the most advanced transistor architecture, it reveals sub-20 nm features and the highest performance ever reported for a flexible transistor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. SL(2,C) Chern–Simons theory, a non-planar graph operator, and 4D quantum gravity with a cosmological constant: Semiclassical geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Haggard, Hal M.; Muxin Han; Wojciech Kamiński; Aldo Riello

    2015-01-01

    We study the expectation value of a nonplanar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory on $S^3$. In particular we analyze its asymptotic behaviour in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. When the Wilson graph operator has a specific form, motivated by loop quantum gravity, the critical point equations obtained in this double-scaling limit describe a very specific class of flat co...

  6. Production of gamma rays by pulsed laser beam Compton scattering off GeV-electrons using a non-planar four-mirror optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Akagi, T; Bonis, J; Chaikovska, I; Chiche, R; Cizeron, R; Cohen, M; Cormier, E; Cornebise, P; Delerue, N; Flaminio, R; Funahashi, S; Jehanno, D; Honda, Y; Labaye, F; Lacroix, M; Marie, R; Miyoshi, S; Nagata, S; Omori, T; Peinaud, Y; Pinard, L; Shimizu, H; Soskov, V; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, R; Terunuma, T; Urakawa, J; Variola, A; Zomer, F

    2011-01-01

    As part of the positron source R&D for future $e^+-e^-$ colliders and Compton based compact light sources, a high finesse non-planar four-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity has recently been installed at the ATF (KEK, Tsukuba, Japan). The first measurements of the gamma ray flux produced with a such cavity using a pulsed laser is presented here. We demonstrate the production of a flux of 2.7 $\\pm$ 0.2 gamma rays per bunch crossing ($\\sim3\\times10^6$ gammas per second) during the commissioning.

  7. DESIGN AND FEM STATIC ANALYSIS OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF NON-PLANAR FUNCTIONAL SURFACES OF MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOYAN SLAVOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a specialized instrument for formation different types of regular microshape roughness on functional surfaces of parts with non-planar macroshape by using the process, called “surface plastic deformation”. The elements of which it is constructed are explained and the results from carried out strength and deformation analysis, obtained by Finite Element Method, conducted using the Simulation module of the SolidWorks are also represented. On this basis some advantages and limitations of some of the surface plastic deformation process technological parameters are identified and recommendations for its implementation are given.

  8. Efficient wideband guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction using phased surface acoustic wave array in LiNbO(3) waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Tsai, C S

    1977-05-01

    Efficient wideband guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction has been demonstrated using a phased surface acoustic wave array in Y-cut LiNbO(3) waveguides. The results of measurement made on the devices which employ the first-order acoustic beam steering from six-element phased-SAWs of relatively small total acoustic aperture, at the center frequency of 325 MHz, have shown that accurate tracking of the Bragg condition is achievable for a frequency band of more than 250 MHz. In one of the deflectors that employ a larger total acoustic aperture, only 68 mW of electric drive power or 3.5 mW of acoustic power was required to diffract 50% of the light over a bandwidth of 112 MHz. This bandwidth is a nearly sixfold increase over that of the deflector that employs a single SAW of identical aperture. The quality of both deflected and undeflected light beams was very good.

  9. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John

    2012-07-10

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  10. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  11. A 4.2 GS/s Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, JD; Rivetta, C; Rivetta, I; Turgut, O; Uemura, S; Hofle, W; Wehrle, U.

    2012-01-01

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in synchronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of singlebunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20 -1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using s...

  12. Super-resolved time-frequency analysis of wideband backscattered data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, John; Ling, H.

    1995-01-01

    A time-frequency super-resolution procedure is presented for processing wideband backscattered data containing both scattering center and natural resonance information. In this procedure, Prony's method is first applied in the frequency domain to locate scattering centers. The data is processed one...

  13. Modeling alien-line impedance mismatch in wideband vectored wireline systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, E.; Magesacher, T.; Ödling, P.; Wei, D.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Eriksson, P.E.; Lu, C.; Boschma, J.J.; Heuvel, B.M. van den

    2014-01-01

    Sudden changes of channel coefficients in a wideband vectored wireline system (such as G.fast) due to changes in the terminating impedance of lines outside the vectored group can seriously degrade stability and throughput. This letter presents a model that predicts the impact of termination mismatch

  14. Wideband CMOS receivers exploiting simultaneous output balancing and noise/distortion canceling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Abstract— This paper deals with the problem of realizing wideband receiver front-ends in downscaled CMOSTechnologies, which are highly wanted for multi-standard radio receivers and cognitive radio applications. Instead of using many narrowband inductor based receivers, we prefer the use of one

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar: Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.

    2008-01-01

    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft so

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar: Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yarovoy, A.

    2008-01-01

    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft solves the bottleneck problems.

  17. First Experimental Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Transmission Under the Russian Spectral Emission Mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Rommel, Simon; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-wideband impulse-radio wireless transmission under the stringent conditions and complex shape of the Russian spectral emission mask is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Transmission of 1Gbit/s and 1.25Gbit/s signals over distances of 6m and 3m is achieved with a BER below 3.8×...

  18. Wideband Erbium-Ytterbium Co-Doped Phosphate Glass Waveguide Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new '(?)' type of wideband erbium-ytterbium co-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier integrated with medium thin film filter is proposed, Average gain about 15.5dB between 1530nm and 1570nm with gain difference of below 2 dB is obtained.

  19. Enhanced bit rate-distance product impulse radio ultra-wideband over fiber link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a record distance and bit rate-wireless impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link with combined transmission over a 20 km long fiber link. We are able to improve the compliance with the regulated frequency emission mask and achieve bit rate-distance products as high as 16 Gbit/s·m....

  20. Wideband helicity dependent spoof surface plasmon polaritons coupling metasurface based on dispersion design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoxiang; Shi, Hongyu; He, Yuchen; Zhang, Anxue; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhuang, Yongyong; Du, Bai; Xia, Song; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have many potential application due to their local field enhancement and sub-wavelength characteristics. Recently, the gradient metasurface is introduced to couple the spoof SPPs in microwave frequency band. One of the most important issue which should be solved is the narrowband of spoof SPPs coupling on the gradient metasurface. Here, the metasurface is proposed to achieve the wideband helicity dependent directional spoof SPPs coupling for circular polarized light. Our research show that the coupling frequency of spoof SPPs on the gradient metasurface is determined by the dispersion of the metasurface, so the coupling frequency can be controlled by dispersion design. The careful design of each cell geometric parameters has provided many appropriate dispersion relations possessed by just one metasurface. The wave vector matching between the propagating wave and the spoof SPPs has been achieved at several frequencies for certain wave vector provided by the metasurface, which leads to wideband spoof SPPs coupling. This work has shown that wideband helicity dependent directional spoof SPPs coupling has been achieved with a high efficiency. Hence, the proposed wideband spoof SPPs coupling presents the improvement in practice applications.

  1. Analytical Description and Design of Printed Dipole Arrays for Wideband Wide-Scan Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wideband arrays of printed dipoles with inter-element loads are investigated. A closed-form expression for the active input impedance of the array element is derived with a spectral domain approach. The procedure is based on an extension of the Green's function formulation for arrays of connected di

  2. A wide-band compact end-entry septum polariser OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, N. D.; Kapartis, S.; Brain, D. J.

    The theoretical design and measured performance of an extremely compact wide-band end-entry septum polarizer orthomode transducer (OMT) are described. The in-line configuration is compatible with the requirements of a closely packed feed array geometry. It is noted that this OMT offers a significantly better performance than previously published empirical designs within a much shorter length.

  3. Wideband impedance measurements and modeling of DC motors for EMI predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diouf, F.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Duval, Fabrice; Bensetti, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In electromagnetic interference prediction, dc motors are usually modeled as a source and a series impedance. Previous researches only include the impedance of the armature, while neglecting the effect of the motor's rotation. This paper aims at measuring and modeling the wideband impedance of a dc

  4. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  5. Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible noise maskers: II. Results for rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Early, Susan J.; Mason, Christine R.; Idrobo, Fabio; Harrison, J. Michael; Carney, Laurel H.

    2002-01-01

    Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband noise maskers was examined by using a Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink response in rabbits. The target was a tone at 500 Hz, and the maskers were ten individual noise samples having one of two bandwidths, 200 Hz (410 Hz to 610 Hz) or 2900 Hz (100 Hz to 3 kHz). The narrowband noise maskers were created by filtering the wideband noise maskers such that the two sets of maskers had identical spectra in the 200-Hz frequency region surrounding the tone. The responses across the set of noise maskers were compared across bandwidths and across interaural configurations (N0S0 and N0Sπ). Responses across the set of noise waveforms were not strongly correlated across bandwidths; this result is inconsistent with models for binaural detection that depend only upon the narrow band of energy centered at the frequency of the target tone. Responses were correlated across interaural configurations for the wideband masker condition, but not for the narrowband masker. All of these results were consistent with the companion study of human listeners [Evilsizer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 336-345 (2002)] and with the results of human studies of binaural detection that used only wideband [Gilkey et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78, 1207-1219 (1985)] or narrowband [Isabelle and Colburn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 352-259 (1991)] individual noise maskers.

  6. Miniature wideband filter based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new design of a wideband bandpass filter is proposed, based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator, taking advantage of the last one to introduce two transmission zeros and suppress a spurious response. The proposed filter demonstrates significantly improved characteristics...

  7. A Wideband 2x13-bit All-Digital I/Q RF-DAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, S.M.; Staszewski, R.B.; De Vreede, L.C.N.; Long, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a wideband 2 13-bit in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) RF digital-to-analog converter-based all-digital modulator realized in 65-nm CMOS. The isolation between I and Q paths is guaranteed employing 25% duty-cycle differential quadrature clocks. With a 1.3-V supply and an on-chip pow

  8. A photonic ultra-wideband pulse generator based on relaxation oscillations of a semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Pawlik, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    A photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulse generator based on relaxation oscillations of a semiconductor laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We numerically simulate the modulation response of a direct modulation laser (DML) and show that due to the relaxation oscillations of the laser...

  9. The Large Office Environment - Measurement and Modeling of the Wideband Radio Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Bauch, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    In a future 4G or WLAN wideband application we can imagine multiple users in a large office environment con-sisting of a single room with partitions. Up to now, indoor radio channel measurement and modelling has mainly concentrated on scenarios with several office rooms and corridors. We present...

  10. Wide-band CMOS low-noise amplifier exploiting thermal-noise canceling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, Federico; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    Known elementary wide-band amplifiers suffer from a fundamental tradeoff between noise figure (NF) and source impedance matching, which limits the NF to values typically above 3 dB. Global negative feedback can be used to break this tradeoff, however, at the price of potential instability. In contra

  11. Conformal antenna array for ultra-wideband direction-of-arrival estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberal, I.; Caratelli, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2011-01-01

    The design and full-wave analysis of an antenna system for ultra-wideband radio direction finding applications is presented. The elliptical dipole antenna is selected as antenna element due to its robust circuital and radiation properties. The influence of the conformal deformation on the antenna

  12. Conformal antenna array for ultra-wideband direction-of-arrival estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberal, I.; Caratelli, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2011-01-01

    The design and full-wave analysis of an antenna system for ultra-wideband radio direction finding applications is presented. The elliptical dipole antenna is selected as antenna element due to its robust circuital and radiation properties. The influence of the conformal deformation on the antenna pe

  13. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  14. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  15. Frequency Invariant Uniform Circular Array for Wideband mm-Wave Channel Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach for designing frequency invariant (FI) uniform circular array (UCA) is proposed, and its application to wideband multipath estimation at millimeter wave bands is studied. Both numerical simulations and channel sounding results at mm-Wave bands are provided to demonstrate...... the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method in channel parameter estimation over conventional FI UCA method....

  16. Wideband impedance measurements and modeling of DC motors for EMI predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diouf, Fatou; Leferink, Frank; Duval, Fabrice; Bensetti, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In electromagnetic interference prediction, dc motors are usually modeled as a source and a series impedance. Previous researches only include the impedance of the armature, while neglecting the effect of the motor's rotation. This paper aims at measuring and modeling the wideband impedance of a dc

  17. Mitigation of wideband interference on UWB-IR transmission using multi-carrier templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakshmanan, M.K.; Nikookar, H.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) wireless systems are highly susceptible to interference from other services. To reduce the effect of interference from co-existing sources such as the WLAN standard IEEE 802.11a on UWB Communication, the construction of a modified template waveform using multi-carrier sinusoids

  18. Provision of 9.6-kbps wideband data rate capability in the DSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunder, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The new 9.6-kbps wideband data rate capability in the DSN is reviewed. A functional description of the completed implementation is presented, together with a plan to upgrade the central communications terminal for additional 9.6 s operational flexibility.

  19. Wide-Band Optical Fibre System for Investigation of MEMS and NEMS Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowska Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.

  20. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  1. A wide-band Gunn-effect CW waveguide amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, A.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Broad-band CW amplification with Gunn diodes in waveguide circuits has been obtained, with power gains typically between 10 and 15 dB and half-power bandwidths of more than 1 GHz. It is found that amplifier performance can be modeled with fair accuracy using a rough characterization for the diode parameters.

  2. 四种超宽带扩频方案的电磁兼容性能研究%Research on the Electromagnetic Compatibility of Four Ultra-wideband Spread Spectrum Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 金梁; 刘双平; 黄开枝; 钟州

    2011-01-01

    As the protection distance is limited, ultra-wideband signals may still interfere another communication system even with the satisfaction of the power spectral density limit. This paper derives the common expressions of bit error rate of another communication system without spread spectrum under the interference of the four ultra-wideband spread spectrum signals which pass through AWGN channel, and the four ultra-wideband spread spectrum schemes are direct sequence spread spectrum, time-hopping spread spectrum, frequency-hopping spread spectrum and chirp spread spectrum. The derived expressions are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Also provided here are the simulation results obtained when ultra-wideband spread spectrum signals pass through IEEE 802.15.3a CM4 channel. The conclusions can be used as important references for the electromagnetic compatibility performance evaluation and the selection of spread spectrum schemes of ultra-wideband systems.%由于保护距离有限,在满足功率谱密度限制的条件下超宽带信号仍然可能对其它通信系统产生一定的干扰.该文在直接序列扩频、跳时扩频、跳频扩频和线性调频扩频4种超宽带扩频信号通过AWGN信道时,推导了在超宽带扩频信号干扰下未扩频的其它通信系统误比特率的通用表达式,并通过蒙特卡罗仿真验证了理论推导的正确性.同时还给出了超宽带扩频信号通过IEEE802.15.3aCM4信道时的仿真结果.这些结论为超宽带系统的电磁兼容性能评价和扩频方案选择提供了重要参考.

  3. Model-based sub-Nyquist sampling and reconstruction technique for ultra-wideband (UWB) radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam; Tran, Trac D.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Research Lab has recently developed an ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar has been employed to support proof-of-concept demonstration for several concealed target detection programs. The radar transmits and receives short impulses to achieve a wide-bandwidth from 300 MHz to 3000 MHz. Since the radar directly digitizes the wide-bandwidth receive signals, the challenges is to how to employ relatively slow and inexpensive analog-to-digital (A/D) converters to sample the signals with a rate that is greater than the minimum Nyquist rate. ARL has developed a sampling technique that allows us to employ inexpensive A/D converters (ADC) to digitize the widebandwidth signals. However, this technique still has a major drawback due to the longer time required to complete a data acquisition cycle. This in turn translates to lower average power and lower effective pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Compressed Sensing (CS) theory offers a new approach in data acquisition. From the CS framework, we can reconstruct certain signals or images from much fewer samples than the traditional sampling methods, provided that the signals are sparse in certain domains. However, while the CS framework offers the data compression feature, it still does not address the above mentioned drawback, that is the data acquisition must be operated in equivalent time since many global measurements (obtained from global random projections) are required as depicted by the sensing matrix Φ in the CS framework. In this paper, we propose a new technique that allows the sub-Nyquist sampling and the reconstruction of the wide-bandwidth data. In this technique, each wide-bandwidth radar data record is modeled as a superposition of many backscatter signals from reflective point targets. The technique is based on direct sparse recovery using a special dictionary containing many time-delayed versions of the transmitted probing signal. We demonstrate via simulated as well as

  4. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  5. 1.5 octave wideband traveling-wave tube with heavily-loaded helical slow-wave structure

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S S; Han, S T; Jeon, S; Soukhov, A V; Park, G S

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. A 1.5 octave wideband traveling wave tube (TWT) with a helical structure loaded by the thick dielectric support rods has been designed and fabricated for the frequency range of 6-18 GHz. Helical slow-wave structure (SWS) was modeled using three- dimensional HFSS code. The nonresonant perturbation measurement using a thin copper wire with 20 mm diameter was performed to verify the phase velocity and interaction impedance of the helical structure. The performance of TWT was predicted using one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear theory involving a macro particle beam model. The harmonic effect was considered in this calculation. The measured performance of TWT using a beam voltage 4 kV and a beam current of 120 mA was shown. These results were compared with a 1-D nonlinear theory. The comparison showed that the measured power and gain were less than the predicted one but had a similar trend over the operating frequency range. The 2nd harmonic levels at the low frequency range of 6-8 GHz were ne...

  6. A wide-band low phase noise LC-tuned VCO with constant KVCO/ωosc for LTE PLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继伟; 王志功; 李奎利; 李正平; 王永平

    2012-01-01

    A wideband LC-tuned voltage-controlled oscillator (LC-VCO) applied in LTE PLL frequency synthesizers with constant KVCO/ωosc is described,In order to minimize the loop bandwidth variations of PLL,a varactor array is proposed,which consists of a series of differential variable capacitor pairs and a series of single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches to connect Vtune or VDD.The switches are controlled by switching bits.With this scheme,the ratio of KV =(6)Cvar/(6)Vtune and the capacitance value of the capacitor array maintains relatively constant; furthermore,the loop bandwidth of the PLL fluctuation is suppressed.The 3.2-4.6-GHz VCO for multi-band LTE PLL is fabricated in a 0.13-μm RF-CMOS process.The VCO exhibits a maximum variation of KVCO/ωosc of only ±4%.The VCO also exhibits a low phase-noise of-124 dBc/Hz at a 1-MHz offset frequency and a low current consumption of 18.0 mA with a 1.2-V power supply.

  7. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  8. Wideband and flat-gain amplifier based on high concentration erbium-doped fibres in parallel double-pass configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamida, B. A.; Cheng, X. S.; Harun, S. W.; Naji, A. W.; Arof, H.; Al-Khateeb, W.; Khan, S.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-03-01

    A wideband and flat gain erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a hybrid gain medium of a zirconiabased erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) and a high concentration erbium-doped fibre (EDF). The amplifier has two stages comprising a 2-m-long ZEDF and 9-m-long EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  9. Wideband and flat-gain amplifier based on high concentration erbium-doped fibres in parallel double-pass configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamida, B A; Cheng, X S; Harun, S W; Naji, A W; Arof, H; Al-Khateeb, W; Khan, S; Ahmad, H

    2012-03-31

    A wideband and flat gain erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a hybrid gain medium of a zirconiabased erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) and a high concentration erbium-doped fibre (EDF). The amplifier has two stages comprising a 2-m-long ZEDF and 9-m-long EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  10. Optimal Linear Precoding Strategies for Wideband Non-Cooperative Systems based on Game Theory-Part I: Nash Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Scutari, Gesualdo; Barbarossa, S

    2007-01-01

    In this two-parts paper we propose a decentralized strategy, based on a game-theoretic formulation, to find out the optimal precoding/multiplexing matrices for a multipoint-to-multipoint communication system composed of a set of wideband links sharing the same physical resources, i.e., time and bandwidth. We assume, as optimality criterion, the achievement of a Nash equilibrium and consider two alternative optimization problems: 1) the competitive maximization of mutual information on each link, given constraints on the transmit power and on the spectral mask imposed by the radio spectrum regulatory bodies; and 2) the competitive maximization of the transmission rate, using finite order constellations, under the same constraints as above, plus a constraint on the average error probability. In Part I of the paper, we start by showing that the solution set of both noncooperative games is always nonempty and contains only pure strategies. Then, we prove that the optimal precoding/multiplexing scheme for both gam...

  11. Wide-band fanned-out supercontinuum source covering O-, E-, S-, C-, L- and U-bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Latif, A. A.; Awang, N. A.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Thambiratnam, K.; Ghani, Z. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2012-10-01

    A wide-band supercontinuum source generated by mode-locked pulses injected into a Highly Non-Linear Fiber (HNLF) is proposed and demonstrated. A 49 cm long Bismuth-Erbium Doped Fiber (Bi-EDF) pumped by two 1480 nm laser diodes acts as the active gain medium for a ring fiber laser, from which mode-locked pulses are obtained using the Non-Polarization Rotation (NPR) technique. The mode-locked pulses are then injected into a 100 m long HLNF with a dispersion of 0.15 ps/nm km at 1550 nm to generate a supercontinuum spectrum spanning from 1340 nm to more than 1680 nm with a pulse width of 0.08 ps and an average power of -17 dBm. The supercontinuum spectrum is sliced using a 24 channel Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) with a channel spacing of 100 GHz to obtain a fanned-out laser output covering the O-, E-, S-, C-, L- and U-bands. The lasing wavelengths obtained have an average pulse width of 9 ps with only minor fluctuations and a mode-locked repetition rate of 40 MHz, and is sufficiently stable to be used in a variety of sensing and communication applications, most notably as cost-effective sources for Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks.

  12. Estimation of Sidelobe Level Variations of Phased Codes in Presence of Random Interference for Bistatic Wideband Noise Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vazquez Alejos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of using the sidelobe level of the cross-correlation function as a criterion to implement a noise radar based on the transmission of wideband binary waveforms. Theoretical expressions are introduced for the parameters Peak-Sidelobe, Secondary-Sidelobe, and Integrated-Sidelobe levels for both Golay and pseudorandom binary sequences in presence of additive white Gaussian noise, relating the sequence length M to the spectral power N0 of the interfering noise. These expressions offer a valuable method for adaptive radar waveform design in order to determine sequence requirements which allow facing the noise present in the frequency band of interest. We also show a comparison of the ambiguity functions for Golay and PRBS sequences to analyze their performance in terms of Doppler and range accuracy. We describe a practical implementation of a pseudonoise waveform-based bistatic radar with reduced sidelobe level due to the use of Golay codes in combination with single side band modulation and operation at UHF band. Experimental measurements were performed in actual scenarios for ranging test of single and double targets. Linear polarizations were combined with different length sequences to determine their influence on the sounder performance under field test conditions.

  13. Wideband Parameters Analysis and Validation for Indoor radio Channel at 60/70/80GHz for Gigabit Wireless Communication employing Isotropic, Horn and Omni directional Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Affum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, applications of millimeter (mm waves for high-speed broadband wireless local area network communication systems in indoor environment are increasingly gaining recognition as it provides gigabit-speed wireless communications with carrier-class performances over distances of a mile or more due to spectrum availability and wider bandwidth requirements. Collectively referred to as E-Band, the millimeter wave wireless technology present the potential to offer bandwidth delivery comparable to that of fiber optic, but without the financial and logistic challenges of deploying fiber. This paper investigates the wideband parameters using the ray tracing technique for indoor propagation systems with rms delay spread for Omni-directional and Horn Antennas for Bent Tunnel at 80GHz. The results obtained were 2.03and 1.95 respectively, besides, the normalized received power with 0.55×?10?^8excess delay at 70GHz for Isotropic Antenna which was at 0.97.

  14. Wideband and high-gain frequency stabilization of a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG laser for second-generation gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, Noriaki; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu

    2010-07-01

    Second-generation gravitational wave detectors require a highly stable laser with an output power greater than 100 W to attain their target sensitivity. We have developed a frequency stabilization system for a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. By placing an external wideband electro-optic modulator used as a fast-frequency actuator in the optical path of the slave output, we can circumvent a phase delay in the frequency control loop originating from the pole of an injection-locked slave cavity. Thus, we have developed an electro-optic modulator made of a MgO-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal. Using this modulator, we achieve a frequency control bandwidth of 800 kHz and a control gain of 180 dB at 1 kHz. These values satisfy the requirement for a laser frequency control loop in second-generation gravitational wave detectors.

  15. Wideband and high-gain frequency stabilization of a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG laser for second-generation gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, Noriaki; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu

    2010-07-01

    Second-generation gravitational wave detectors require a highly stable laser with an output power greater than 100 W to attain their target sensitivity. We have developed a frequency stabilization system for a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. By placing an external wideband electro-optic modulator used as a fast-frequency actuator in the optical path of the slave output, we can circumvent a phase delay in the frequency control loop originating from the pole of an injection-locked slave cavity. Thus, we have developed an electro-optic modulator made of a MgO-doped stoichiometric LiNbO(3) crystal. Using this modulator, we achieve a frequency control bandwidth of 800 kHz and a control gain of 180 dB at 1 kHz. These values satisfy the requirement for a laser frequency control loop in second-generation gravitational wave detectors.

  16. Contribution of planar (0-1 Ortho) and nonplanar (2-4 Ortho) fractions of aroclor 1260 to the induction of altered hepatic foci in female sprague-dawley rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der S.A.; Sundberg, H.; Berg, van den H.; Scheu, G.; Wester, P.; Jensen, S.; Bergman, A.; Boer, de J.; Koeman, J.H.; Brouwer, A.

    2000-01-01

    The hepatic tumor promoting activity of the planar 0–1 ortho (~9.7 /w) and the nonplanar 2–4 ortho (~90.3 /w) fraction of the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 was studied using a medium-term two-stage initiation/promotion bioassay in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Fractionation was carried out on an

  17. A Baseband, Impulse Ultra-Wideband Transceiver Front-end for Low Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    Jim Young , and Roy Sutton who had a similar long, strange road to travel. Here’s to the end and what lies beyond. I also would like to thank ST...taken at “plusN” ( modulo 32) from the DLL phases to generate the output control. For example, if phase N is “plus00” and starts sampling (ending reset...Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 1990. [107] I. A. Young , J. K. Greason, and K. L. Wong, “A pll clock generator with 5 to 110 mhz of lock range for

  18. New Wideband Beam-forming Method Used in Underwater Communication System%New Wideband Beam-forming Method Used in Underwater Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏为; 黄晓燕; 程恩; 袁飞; 孙海信

    2011-01-01

    A novel wideband beam-forming structure with constant beam width based on complex coefficients (FIR) digital filters used in underwater acoustic communication is proposed. First, the received signals are compensated with integer sampling period by using delay line. Then their complex envelopes are calculated by using frequency shift method. Finally, the envelopes are weighted by using complex coefficients FIR digital filters whose coefficients are optimized. Simulation re- sults show that, in the communication band, the maximum difference between the designed beam and desired beam is less than 0.3 dB when the ratio of communication band to carrier frequency is 0. 85.

  19. Next Generation Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Intrusion Detection Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Marine, Inc., Charlot- tesville, VA, which marketed the product to law enforcement agencies. The Small Business Administration, in their 5th Annual...A,= - --N,(2.3) so that the equation for determining peak power is given by: 4P 2 - 4G = P, =- watt. (2.4) Solving for the effective radiated power...computers now run- ning at a 100 MHz and high speed graphics cards becoming more prevalent for addressing com- mercial real-time video markets , it is

  20. CW Interference Effects on High Data Rate Transmission Through the ACTS Wideband Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ngo, Duc H.; Tran, Quang K.; Tran, Diepchi T.; Yu, John; Kachmar, Brian A.; Svoboda, James S.

    1996-01-01

    Satellite communications channels are susceptible to various sources of interference. Wideband channels have a proportionally greater probability of receiving interference than narrowband channels. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) includes a 900 MHz bandwidth hardlimiting transponder which has provided an opportunity for the study of interference effects of wideband channels. A series of interference tests using two independent ACTS ground terminals measured the effects of continuous-wave (CW) uplink interference on the bit-error rate of a 220 Mbps digitally modulated carrier. These results indicate the susceptibility of high data rate transmissions to CW interference and are compared to results obtained with a laboratory hardware-based system simulation and a computer simulation.

  1. In-situ identification of marine organisms using high frequency, wideband ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai

    at all frequencies in the low MHz range. The part of a fish that contributes most is not necessarily the swimbladder as the results indicate that in the low MHz frequency range bone structures, and skin surfaces are more important. The second case study was to develop a method to generate simulated...... that higher frequencies and broader bandwidths than used until now will give more information useful for fish species identification. The objective of this Ph.D. study has been to develop a method to investigate the possibility of in-situ identification of fish with high-frequency, wideband ultrasound....... The approach was to build a 1 MHz wideband single-element transducer system to obtain range profiles of fish, and to do fish species identification by comparing measured range profiles with libraries of reference range profiles as it is done in some radar systems used to identify aircraft. To do this...

  2. Inkjet Printing of Paper-Based Wideband and High Gain Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin

    2011-12-07

    This thesis represents a major contribution to wideband and high gain inkjet-printed antennas on paper. This work includes the complete characterization of the inkjet printing process for passive microwave devices on paper substrate as well as several ultra-wideband and high gain antenna designs. The characterization work includes the electrical characterization of the permittivity and loss tangent for paper substrate through 10 GHz, ink conductivity data for variable sintering conditions, and minimum feature sizes obtainable by today’s current inkjet processes for metallic nanoparticles. For the first time ever, inkjet-printed antennas are demonstrated that operate over the entire UWB band and demonstrate gains up to 8dB. This work also presents the first fractal-based inkjet-printed antennas with enhanced bandwidth and reduced production costs, and a novel slow wave log periodic dipole array which shows minimizations of 20% in width over conventional log periodic antennas.

  3. Multiband and wideband monopole antenna for GSM900 and other wireless applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutarboush, Hattan

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, the design of a compact monopole antenna for multiband and wideband operations is proposed. The antenna has three distinct frequency bands, centered at 0.94, 2.7, and 4.75 GHz. The antenna has a compact size of only 30×40×1.57 mm$ 3 including the ground plane. The multiband and wideband operations are achieved by using an E-shaped slot on the ground plane. The design procedure is also discussed. The frequency bands can be independently controlled by using the parameters of the E-slot. The impedance bandwidth, current distributions, radiation patterns, gain, and efficiency of the antenna are studied by computer simulation and measurements. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. A wideband textile antenna with a ring-slotted AMC plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Ezzaty Faridah Nor Mohd; Soh, Ping Jack; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Lago, Herwansyah; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul

    2017-01-01

    A wideband microstrip-based textile planar antenna with artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plane is presented. The antenna is initially designed using the combination of two rectangular microstrip antennas operating at 1.5 and 2.5 GHz before being further optimized for wideband operation using various broadbanding techniques. This optimized radiator is then placed over an array of unit elements forming an AMC plane. Each unit element is formed using a square patch slotted using a circular ring and is designed to resonate at 2 GHz. To validate the contribution of the AMC plane in reducing backward radiation toward the human user, the performance of the proposed antenna is compared to a similar antenna without the AMC plane. This investigation indicated that the proposed antenna is capable of reducing backlobe while simultaneously increasing gain to 3.38 dB and improving bandwidth up to 52%.

  5. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution for Wideband Terahertz Radar Using Intra-Pulse Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Qin, Yuliang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; You, Peng

    2017-04-29

    Micro-Doppler, induced by micro-motion of targets, is an important characteristic of target recognition once extracted via parameter estimation methods. However, micro-Doppler is usually too significant to result in ambiguity in the terahertz band because of its relatively high carrier frequency. Thus, a micro-Doppler ambiguity resolution method for wideband terahertz radar using intra-pulse interference is proposed in this paper. The micro-Doppler can be reduced several dozen times its true value to avoid ambiguity through intra-pulse interference processing. The effectiveness of this method is proved by experiments based on a 0.22 THz wideband radar system, and its high estimation precision and excellent noise immunity are verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. A Wideband Slotted Kicker Design for SPS Transverse Intra-Bunch Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Cesaratto, John M; DeSantis, S; Drago, A; Fox, J D; Gallo, A; Hofle, W; Marcellini, F; Rivetta, C H; Zobov, M

    2013-01-01

    Control and mitigation of transverse beam instabilities caused by electron cloud and TMCI will be essential for the SPS to meet the beam intensity demands for the HL-LHC upgrade. A wideband intra-bunch feedback method is in development, based on a 4 GS/s data acquisition and processing, and with a back end frequency structure extending to 1 GHz. A slotted type kicker, similar to those used for stochastic cooling, has been considered as the terminal element of the feedback chain. It offers the most promising deflecting structure characteristics to meet the system requirements in terms of bandwidth, shunt impedance, and beam coupling impedance. Different types of slotted structures have been explored and simulated, including a ridged waveguide and coaxial type waveguide. In this paper we present our findings and the conceptual design of a vertical SPS wideband kicker consistent with the stay clear, vacuum, frequency band coverage, and peak shunt impedance requirements.

  7. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution for Wideband Terahertz Radar Using Intra-Pulse Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Doppler, induced by micro-motion of targets, is an important characteristic of target recognition once extracted via parameter estimation methods. However, micro-Doppler is usually too significant to result in ambiguity in the terahertz band because of its relatively high carrier frequency. Thus, a micro-Doppler ambiguity resolution method for wideband terahertz radar using intra-pulse interference is proposed in this paper. The micro-Doppler can be reduced several dozen times its true value to avoid ambiguity through intra-pulse interference processing. The effectiveness of this method is proved by experiments based on a 0.22 THz wideband radar system, and its high estimation precision and excellent noise immunity are verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Exposure to industrial wideband noise increases connective tissue in the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João R Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats were daily exposed (eight hours/day for a period of four weeks to the same high-intensity wideband noise that was recorded before in a large textile plant. Histologic observation of liver sections of the rats was used to perform quantitative comparison of hepatic connective tissue (dyed by Masson trichromic staining between the noise-exposed and control animals. For that, we have photographed at random centrolobular areas of stained rat liver sections. We found that noise exposure resulted in significant enhancement in the area of collagen-rich connective tissue present in the centrolobular domain of the rat liver. Our data strengthen previous evidence showing that fibrotic transformation is a systemic effect of chronic exposure of rodents and humans to industrial wideband noise.

  9. Wideband Excitation of Microbubbles to Maximize the Sonoporation Efficiency and Contrast in Ultrasound Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Harput, Sevan; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the excitation bandwidth is well known in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. However, the effect of excitation bandwidth in therapeutic applications of microbubbles has been mostly overlooked. A majority of contrast agent production techniques generate polydisperse microbubble populations, so a wide range of resonance frequencies exist. Therefore, wideband excitation is necessary to fully utilize microbubble resonance behavior and maximize the reradiated energy from a microbubble population, both for imaging and therapy. Oscillations of sixty SonoVue microbubbles in proximity of a rigid boundary were captured on a high speed camera at 3 Mfps, excited with a peak negative pressure of 50 kPa at 1 MHz. Measurements were analyzed according to their peak radiated pressure, radial oscillations, root mean squared pressure, and shear stress generated by microbubbles. Results showed that long duration and wideband excitation at low intensity levels was preferable for sonoporation, where microbubbles can ...

  10. DOA estimation of wideband signals based on slice-sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2013-12-01

    In this article, the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problem of wideband signal sources is studied. We pass the incident signals through a bank of narrowband filters to split the array outputs into several narrowband components. Then, a novel slice-sparse representation model of the joint narrowband array covariance data is proposed in the frequency domain to enforce joint sparsity in the concatenated covariance matrix of all frequencies. Based on the greed matching pursuit algorithm, a multiple measurement slices orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is proposed to exploit the joint frequency processing in the case of wideband scenarios. The DOA estimation is achieved by joint processing of the array covariance data at different frequency bins. The estimated performance is compared with the representative DOA estimation methods. Simulation experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. DOA estimation of coherent wideband signals based on extended TOPS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Zengping

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for coherent wideband signals. This algorithm is based on the test of orthogonality of projected subspaces (TOPS) method which will fail to work in real environments where signals are highly correlated or coherent due to multipath propagation. In order to overcome the disadvantage, we combine spatial smoothing techniques with TOPS method so that the rank of covariance matrix is equal to the number of signal sources even signals received are coherent. Unlike other coherent wideband methods, such as the coherent signal subspace method (CSSM) and WAVES, the new method does not require any initial DOA estimation, thus avoiding errors brought by incorrect initial values. Simulations on computer and experiments in the anechoic chamber based on an 8-elements digital array radar test-bed operating at L & S band are carried out. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of proposed algorithm.

  12. Zodiacal light dynamics experiment: A wideband imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.; Young, E.; Torr, M. R.; Nagy, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The Solar Probe will provide an ideal platform from which to study dynamics of dust particles near the sun by measuring the detailed character of the Fraunhofer structure of the zodiacal light. The suggested instrument is a wideband imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer with state of the art technology in both the optics and the detector. The instrument would function as a high-resolution imaging device providing wavelength resolution of 0.03 A over about a 20 A range. The wideband imaging capability would provide sky maps of the zodiacal light on a despun spacecraft without mechanical scanning. The Solar Probe mission would allow the velocity distribution of the dust to be mapped along most of the trajectory of the spacecraft.

  13. Approach for wideband direction-of-arrival estimation in the presence of array model errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Deli; Zhang Cong; Tao Huamin; Lu Huanzhang

    2009-01-01

    The presence of array imperfection and mutual coupling in sensor arrays poses several challenges for development of effective algorithms for the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problem in array processing. A correlation domain wideband DOA estimation algorithm without array calibration is proposed, to deal with these array model errors, using the arbitrary antenna array of omnidirectional elements. By using the matrix operators that have the memory and oblivion characteristics, this algorithm can separate the incident signals effectively. Compared with other typical wideband DOA estimation algorithms based on the subspace theory, this algorithm can get robust DOA estimation with regard to position error, gain-phase error, and mutual coupling, by utilizing a relaxation technique based on signal separation. The signal separation category and the robustness of this algorithm to the array model errors are analyzed and proved. The validity and robustness of this algorithm, in the presence of array model errors, are confirmed by theoretical analysis and simulation results.

  14. Wideband absorption in fibonacci quasi-periodic graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Renxia; Liu, Shaobin; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Xiangkun; Bian, Borui; Bao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A heterostructure containing a Fibonacci quasi-periodic layer and a resonant metal back reflector is proposed, which can realize wideband absorption. The Fibonacci layer is composed of graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials and isotropic media to obtain wideband absorption. To enhance absorption, an impedance-matching layer is put on top of the Fibonacci layer. It is shown to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves in an 11 terahertz absorption bandwidth for a transverse magnetic mode at normal angle incidence. The absorption bandwidth is affected by the reflection band gap. Compared with some previous designs, our proposed structure has a larger absorption bandwidth and higher absorption in the mid-infrared range. The results should be valuable in the design of infrared stealth and broadband optoelectronic devices.

  15. 67 cm long bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier with wideband operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X. S.; Hamida, B. A.; Naji, A. W.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a wideband Bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) using two pieces of bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a total length of 67 cm as gain media in a double pass parallel configuration. Both Bi-EDFs have an erbium ion concentration of 6300 ppm. Compared to conventional silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Si-EDFA) with the same amount of erbium ions, the Bi-EDFA provides a higher attainable gain as well as a greater amplification bandwidth, which ranging from 1525 to 1620 nm. The proposed Bi-EDFA achieved a wideband gain of around 18 dB within the wavelength region from 1530 to 1565 nm. The noise figures are maintained below 10 dB within a wide wavelength region from 1535 nm to 1620 nm.

  16. FREQUENCY ESTIMATION OF SINUSIODE FROM WIDEBAND USING SUB-NYQUIST SAMPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel frequency estimation algorithm for wideband signal with sub-Nyquist sampling is pro-posed in this paper. With the aid of information provided by the auxiliary delayed sampling channel and thealiased frequency estimation for wideband signal with sub-Nyquist sampling, the frequency aliasing due tosub-Nyquist sampling can be solved. This method can reduce the complexity of the overall hardware at thecost of an auxiliary sampling channel. Furthermore, in order to alleviate the computation burden for its practi-cability, a more simplified algorithm is put forward and its validity is proved by our numerical simulation re-sults. The Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of the frequency estimation is also derived at the end of this pa-per.

  17. Compact Wideband and Low-Profile Antenna Mountable on Large Metallic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    resonance at the lowest frequency. A trapezoid-shaped capacitive-feed (C-fed) strip is utilized and also printed on the Teflon block to globally optimize the wideband impedance matching. The proposed antenna covers a relative bandwidth of 109% for VSWR...This paper proposes a compact wideband and low-profile antenna mountable on large metallic surfaces. Six rows of coupled microstrip resonators with different lengths are printed on a Teflon block. The lengths of the microstrip resonators in different rows are gradually reduced along the end......-fire direction. The first four rows of resonators provide four resonances at different frequencies for bandwidth enhancement. The last two rows of resonators are used as two directors to suppress sidelobe levels at high frequencies. A trapezoidal launcher is applied to serve as a reflector and provide one...

  18. Wideband laser locking to an atomic reference with modulation transfer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negnevitsky, V; Turner, L D

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate that conventional modulated spectroscopy apparatus, used for laser frequency stabilization in many atomic physics laboratories, can be enhanced to provide a wideband lock delivering deep suppression of frequency noise across the acoustic range. Using an acousto-optic modulator driven with an agile oscillator, we show that wideband frequency modulation of the pump laser in modulation transfer spectroscopy produces the unique single lock-point spectrum previously demonstrated with electro-optic phase modulation. We achieve a laser lock with 100 kHz feedback bandwidth, limited by our laser control electronics. This bandwidth is sufficient to reduce frequency noise by 30 dB across the acoustic range and narrows the imputed linewidth by a factor of five.

  19. Generalized Analysis Method for a Class of Novel Wideband Loaded-Stub Phase Shifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensong An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis method of wideband loaded-stub phase shifters and a fast designing procedure is presented. These kinds of phase shifters use a transmission line loaded with one or two open stubs and a reference line to achieve up to 135° phase shift. Analysis results shows that lower than -10dB return loss and precise phase shift can be achieved over a 100% bandwidth employing the ideal open stubs. To approach the ideal impedance value of the open stubs, an arrow-shaped stub and several means to control its impedance is proposed. As verification of the analysis method, a 90° two-stub loaded phase shifter is easily designed and fabricated. Measured results show the design achieves better than ±4° phase ripple, less than 0.5dB insertion loss, and better than 10dB return loss over an 85% wideband.

  20. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  1. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge in the remote sensing arena. Developing the tools needed to remotely measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is an important priority. The Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) is being developed to address this need. WISM is an airborne instrument comprised of a dual-frequency (X- and Ku-bands) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and dual-frequency (K- and Ka-bands) radiometer. A unique feature of this instrument is that all measurement bands share a common antenna aperture consisting of an array feed reflector that covers the entire bandwidth. This paper covers the design and fabrication of the wideband array feed which is based on tightly coupled dipole arrays. Implementation using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process results in a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from 8 to 40 gigahertz.

  2. Note: Development of a wideband amplifier for cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jeon, Hoyeon; Oh, Myungchul; Lee, Minjun; Kim, Sungmin; Yi, Sunwouk; Lee, Hanho; Zoh, Inhae; Yoo, Yongchan; Kuk, Young

    2017-06-01

    A wideband cryogenic amplifier has been developed for low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The amplifier consisting of a wideband complementary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors operational amplifier together with a feedback resistor of 100 kΩ and a capacitor is mounted within a 4 K Dewar. This amplifier has a wide bandwidth and is successfully applied to scanning tunneling microscopy applications at low temperatures down to ˜7 K. The quality of the designed amplifier is validated by high resolution imaging. More importantly, the amplifier has also proved to be capable of performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements, showing the detection of the Shockley surface state of the Au(111) surface and the superconducting gap of Nb(110).

  3. Analysis and Design of Tapered Slot Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yuan; CHEN Wenhua; HUANG Bin; FENG Zhenghe; ZHANG Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    The tapered slot antenna,such as Vivaldi,has been widely used due to its ultra-wideband,high gain,simple feed structure,and easy fabrication.However,there is no rigorous analytical theory for this type of antenna.This paper analyzed the metal parts of a tapered slot antenna in a conical coordinate system with the medium analyzed in rectangular coordinates.This mixed mode gave an approximate analytical form for the tapered slot antenna with the field distribution and radiation characteristics.A planar tapered slot antenna was proposed according to the results of the analysis methods.Measured and simulated results demonstrate the antenna performance.The antenna shows good impedance matching over a wide bandwidth of 9 GHz,from 2 GHz to 11 GHz,and good radiation patterns.It is suitable for ultra-wideband applications.

  4. Design and study of a compact planar ultra-wideband antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yong; LU Wenjun; CHENG Chonghu; CAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a novel,small,and compact planar antenna for ultra-wideband(UWB)applications is proposed.The antenna is an extension of microstrip slot antenna technology.To achieve ultra-wideband characteristics,a tapered microstrip fork-shaped stub has been employed.A symmetric polygon wide slot has been placed on the antenna ground.The design was investigated numerically to obtain proper dimensions for the antenna and a prototype was constructed.The return loss,pattern and gain of the prototype antenna have been measured.The transient pulse signal fidelity has also been investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)method.Experimental results show that the proposed antenna design has promising characteristics for UWB applications.

  5. STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL OF STRONGLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS UNDER WIDE-BAND RANDOM EXCITATION WITH ACTUATOR SATURATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changshui Feng; Weiqiu Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A bounded optimal control strategy for strongly non-linear systems under non-white wide-band random excitation with actuator saturation is proposed. First, the stochastic averaging method is introduced for controlled strongly non-linear systems under wide-band random excitation using generalized harmonic functions. Then, the dynamical programming equation for the saturated control problem is formulated from the partially averaged Ito equation based on the dynamical programming principle. The optimal control consisting of the unbounded optimal control and the bounded bang-bang control is determined by solving the dynamical programming equation. Finally, the response of the optimally controlled system is predicted by solving the reduced Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation associated with the completed averaged Ito equation. An example is given to illustrate the proposed control strategy. Numerical results show that the proposed control strategy has high control effectiveness and efficiency and the chattering is reduced significantly comparing with the bang-bang control strategy.

  6. A system architecture for an advanced Canadian wideband mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takats, P.; Keelty, M.; Moody, H.

    In this paper, the system architecture for an advanced Canadian ka-band geostationary mobile satellite system is described, utilizing hopping spot beams to support a 256 kbps wideband service for both N-ISDN and packet-switched interconnectivity to small briefcase-size portable and mobile terminals. An assessment is given of the technical feasibility of the satellite payload and terminal design in the post year 2000 timeframe. The satellite payload includes regeneration and on-board switching to permit single hop interconnectivity between mobile terminals. The mobile terminal requires antenna tracking and platform stabilization to ensure acquisition of the satellite signal. The potential user applications targeted for this wideband service includes: home-office, multimedia, desk-top (PC) videoconferencing, digital audio broadcasting, single and multi-user personal communications.

  7. Spatial Dynamic Wideband Modeling of the MIMO Satellite-to-Earth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehner

    2014-01-01

    response (CIR time series depending on the movement profile of a land mobile terminal is presented in this paper. Based on high precise wideband measurements in L-band the model reproduces the correlated shadowing and multipath conditions in rich detail. The model includes time and space variant echo signals appearing and disappearing in dependence on the receive antenna position and movement, and the actual azimuths and elevations to the various signal sources. Attenuation and path delays relative to the hypothetical line of sight (LOS ensure usability for ranging purposes. Parameters for car and pedestrian applications in urban and suburban environments are provided. The channel characteristics are determined independently of the transmitted signal. Therefore the usability, for example, for GPS and GALILEO, as well as wideband communication services from hovering platforms, is given.

  8. Target Recognition Using Late-Time Returns from Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    WIDEBAND, SHORT-PULSE RADAR DISSERTATION Kenneth J. Pascoe, B.S.E.E., M.S. Major, USAF Approved: Dr. Michael J. Havrilla Dissertation Advisor Date Dr...Acknowledgments Thanks to all the people who helped to make this research happen. Thanks to my committee: Dr. Michael Havrilla , the late Major Bill Wood...Singularity Expansion Method 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Michael J. Havrilla , Ph.D. (ENG) a. REPORT U b

  9. Wideband Analog Transmission System Based on the External Intensity Electro-Optic Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Svarny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with design and integration of an analog electro-optic transmission system suitable for some specialized tasks of diagnostics and measurements. The system is based on principle of external intensity modulation of fiber guided laser radiation. Besides wideband and almost lossless transmission the system tolerates extreme length of the transmitting medium and ensures ultimate galvanic barrier between the input and output.

  10. Miniature and Wide-Band ILA Antenna with Non-Foster Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Haskou, Abdullah; Lemur, Dominique; Collardey, Sylvain; Sharaiha, Ala

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a miniature, wide-band, Inverted L Antenna (ILA) with non-Foster matching. The antenna size is 9.5 × 19.5 mm 2 and it is integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) of 100 × 60 mm 2. The antenna covers the whole frequency band of (0.76 − 2.17) GHz and the circuit is stable throughout this band.

  11. High-speed ultra-wideband wireless signals over fiber systems: photonic generation and DSP detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We firstly review the efforts in the literature on ultra-wideband (UWB)-over-fiber systems. Secondly, we present experimental results on photonic generation of high-speed UWB signals by both direct modulation and external optical injecting an uncooled semiconductor laser. Furthermore, we introduc...... the use of digital signal processing (DSP) technology to receive the generated UWB signal at 781.25 Mbit/s. Error-free transmission is achieved....

  12. Evaluation of pre-filtering techniques for delay-spread compression in Wideband MISO systems

    OpenAIRE

    Comas Massague, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes in quite depth the channel behaviour in wireless communications, pointing some of the complexities that communication systems must face. The document is then focused in Delay Spread Compression (DSC) as one of the solutions to significant problems in Wideband communications. With this objective, Time Reversal (TR) in its simplest mode has been studied and implemented in Matlab for a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) system. Then, a possible upgrade has been done regard...

  13. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  14. Absolute calibration of a wideband antenna and spectrometer for sky noise spectral index measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Alan E E

    2012-01-01

    A new method of absolute calibration of sky noise temperature using a three-position switched spectrometer, measurements of antenna and low noise amplifier impedance with a vector network analyzer, and ancillary measurements of the amplifier noise waves is described. The details of the method and its application to accurate wideband measurements of the spectral index of the sky noise are described and compared with other methods.

  15. Miniaturized Wideband Aperture Coupled Microstrip Patch Antenna by Using Inverted U-Slot

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a linear polarized aperture coupled inverted U-slot patch antenna with small steps at the edges. The proposed design exhibits wideband behavior, acceptable return loss, VSWR, gain, small size, and less complexity. The theoretical analysis is based on the finite element method (FEM). This design has wide bandwidth, good return loss, VSWR, and radiation characteristics by implanting the inverted U-shaped stepped slots on a single aperture coupled patch. The proposed antenna ...

  16. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    communications (SATCOM) for beyond line-of- sight (LOS) links. However, standard HF systems operating over a 3-kHz bandwidth do not provide sufficient...wideband mid-latitude HF channel soundings and three-dimensional (3-D) ray-tracing simulations to develop a statistical model of a particular nearly...46 5 THE HF-NVIS CHANNEL SOUNDING SYSTEM ...................................................................... 47 5.1 TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE HF

  17. A wide-band dielectric characterization system for liquid materials of interest in biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bramanti, Mauro

    1995-01-01

    In many fields of applied research the interest exhists for wide-band dielectric ,characterization of liquid materials, for example, aqueous solutions of biological materials. For this purpose a particular procedure is here proposed, based on the use of a Vectorial Network Analyzer and a suitably designed cell which contains the material under test. Fundamental features of this method are: dielectric characterization directly in the frequency domain without the use of a Fourier inverse trasfo...

  18. Development of a Wideband Compact Orthomode Transducer for the 180-270 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A.; Reck, Theodore J.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A.; Montejo-Garai, Jose R.; Rebollar, Jesus M.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a wideband compact orthomode transducer (OMT) for the 180-270 GHz band. The OMT design is based on the classical high performance Bøifot waveguide junction and implemented in split-block using high precision CNC milling. The obtained results validate the high performance operation in a 40% fractional bandwidth and constitute a remarkable achievement at this high frequency band.

  19. Design and Simulation of Sub Nanosecond Pulse Generator for Uitra-Wideband Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping-ping; OUYANG Yong-yan; FAN Xiang-ning

    2003-01-01

    A new sub-nanosecond pulse generator scheme is proposed in the opinion of frequency field in this paper.The filtering techniques used in the UWB (ultra-wideband) generator make the circuit simple and suitable for integration. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that monocycle form generated in the scheme have a good balance between positive and negative shape and small traipse by circuit parameter control and has improved the quality of UWB pulse form.

  20. Tomographic imaging with ultra-wideband noise radar using time-domain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a noise waveform in an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system for two-dimensional tomographic imaging of a stationary object with a multistatic tomographic geometry. Multiple UWB transmitters and receivers are positioned along each side of the imaging area. We perform several numerical simulations in time-domain, and the successful imaging of the target is achieved by visual inspection of the formed images.