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Sample records for nonoccupational pesticide exposure

  1. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Fallah Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani, Hamid

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor in dental personnel by examining the relationships between blood mercury, urine mercury, and their ratio with air mercury. The method was performed on 50 occupational exposed and 50 unexposed controls (25 men and 25 women). The mercury concentrations in air and human biological samples were determined based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and standard method (SM) by a new mode of liquid-phase microextraction, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (μg Hg(0)/g creatinine) and blood were significantly higher than control group, respectively (19.41 ± 5.18 vs 2.15 ± 0.07 μg/g and 16.40 ± 4.97 vs 2.50 ± 0.02 μg/L) (p mercury concentration in blood/urine ratio (r = .380) with dental office air are new indicators for assessing occupational exposure in dental personnel.

  3. Effects on health of non-occupational exposure to airborne mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M J; Saracci, R

    1989-01-01

    The most prominent potential marker of disease-related non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres is mesothelioma. Although many cases of mesothelioma have resulted from occupational exposure to asbestos, some have been associated with para-occupational domestic and/or neighbourhood exposure and have been reported in case series, case-control studies and a cohort study among non-occupationally exposed subjects. However, little information is available on mesothelioma as a direct consequence of general environmental asbestos exposure. Such cases of mesothelioma related to non-occupational exposure to asbestos as have occurred to date are likely to have resulted from past exposures much higher than those prevailing at the present time (in the developed countries); numbers will therefore probably decrease in the future. Very high rates of mesothelioma have been reported as a result of exposure to erionite. No studies are available on the effects of non-occupational exposure to man-made mineral fibres but, among occupationally exposed workers, a risk of mesothelioma is not apparent. There are suggestions of raised lung cancer rates among household contacts of asbestos workers and among individuals exposed to erionite. Non-malignant parenchymal and pleural abnormalities have been observed in subjects exposed non-occupationally to asbestos and erionite, but these are not necessarily associated with malignant lesions. Quantitative risk estimates of adverse effects on health have not been derived from these studies, essentially because of the absence of fibre exposure measurements.

  4. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  5. Pleuroparenchymal Lung Disease Secondary to Nonoccupational Exposure to Vermiculite

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    Fahad Al-Ghimlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of pleuroparenchymal lung disease caused by the inhalation of vermiculite dust, presumably containing asbestos fibers is described. The uniqueness of the case lies in the very indirect nature of exposure – the wife of a factory owner, rather than a worker exposed to asbestos, whose factory manufactured vermiculite. The present case illustrates the importance of taking careful occupational histories of all household members when presented with a patient whose chest radiograph exhibits features consistent with asbestos exposure.

  6. Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAHMAN Sohaila; KHALID Nasir; ZAIDI Jamshed Hussain; AHMAD Shujaat; IQBAL Mohammad Zafar

    2006-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43~66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209±11.7) (range 170~250) and (117±3.9) (range 105~140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78~201μg/L with a mean of 139 μg/L and 165~497μg/L with a mean of 255 μg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure.

  7. Nonoccupational environmental exposure to manganese is linked to deficits in peripheral and central olfactory function.

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    Guarneros, Marco; Ortiz-Romo, Nahum; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Drucker-Colín, René; Hudson, Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Manganese is of growing concern as a toxic air pollutant. It is readily transported from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, and unlike other metals, it is transported transynaptically to structures deep within the brain. However, little is known regarding the possible effect of nonoccupational exposure to manganese on olfactory function. Using the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, we compared the olfactory performance of subjects from a manganese mining district living manganese processing plant, with nonexposed subjects living 50 km from the closest source of exposure (N = 30/group). Groups were matched for age, sex, and schooling, and none had ever worked in mining-related activities. Concentrations of manganese in hair were measured as a biomarker of exposure; exposed subjects had significantly higher concentrations than nonexposed subjects. They were also significantly outperformed by the nonexposed subjects on all olfactory measures (threshold, discrimination, and identification), indicating adverse effects of manganese exposure on a range of olfactory functions, including those involving higher order cognitive processes. This contrasts with previous findings showing adverse peripheral but not central effects on olfactory function of big city air pollution, which mostly consists of toxicants known to affect the olfactory epithelium but with lower transynaptic transport capacity compared with manganese. We conclude that nonoccupational exposure to airborne manganese is associated with decrements in both peripheral and central olfactory function.

  8. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  9. G.I.S. Surveillance of Chronic Non-occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals as Oncogenic Risk

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    Mariana Vlad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potential oncogenic effect of some heavy metals in people occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to such heavy metals is already well demonstrated. This study seeks to clarify the potential role of these heavy metals in the living environment, in this case in non-occupational multifactorial aetiology of malignancies in the inhabitants of areas with increased prevalent environmental levels of heavy metals. Methods: Using a multidisciplinary approach throughout a complex epidemiological study, we investigated the potential oncogenic role of non-occupational environmental exposure to some heavy metals [chrome (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and arsenic (As—in soil, drinking water, and food, as significant components of the environment] in populations living in areas with different environmental levels (high vs. low of the above-mentioned heavy metals. The exposures were evaluated by identifying the exposed populations, the critical elements of the ecosystems, and as according to the means of identifying the types of exposure. The results were interpreted both epidemiologically (causal inference, statistical significance, mathematical modelling and by using a GIS approach, which enabled indirect surveillance of oncogenic risks in each population. Results: The exposure to the investigated heavy metals provides significant risk factors of cancer in exposed populations, in both urban and rural areas [χ² test (p < 0.05]. The GIS approach enables indirect surveillance of oncogenic risk in populations. Conclusions: The role of non-occupational environmental exposure to some heavy metals in daily life is among the more significant oncogenic risk factors in exposed populations. The statistically significant associations between environmental exposure to such heavy metals and frequency of neoplasia in exposed populations become obvious when demonstrated on maps using the GIS system. Environmental

  10. Exposure assessment of phthalates in non-occupational populations in China.

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    Chen, Li; Zhao, Yan; Li, Luxi; Chen, Bingheng; Zhang, Yunhui

    2012-06-15

    Phthalates have been used worldwide and are ubiquitous in environmental media and human bodies. Based on existing data on phthalate concentrations, distributions of phthalates in the environment and their exposure assessment to non-occupational populations in China can be evaluated. Fifty-three studies, published from January 2000 to October 2010, were reviewed and their data were analyzed in this study. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in mapping the published data of phthalate concentrations and their distributions in environmental media, while scatter diagrams were applied to show the time trends for phthalate concentrations in various environmental media. Results showed that there was a time-dependent increase in ∑phthalates (total phthalates) and DEHP concentrations in air during the past 10 years; phthalate concentrations varied in different areas, among which Guangdong and northeast China were the most polluted. Using Clark's equations, daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta was estimated from consumption of contaminated food, water and air. Results showed that daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP was 128.63 and 61.29 μg/kg BW/d for adults in the Pearl River Delta, which is significantly higher than those residing in the Yangtze River Delta (33.87 and 24.68 μg/kg BW/d).

  11. Pesticide Exposure and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Exposureto pesticides can trigger or exacerbate asthma, induce bronchospasm, orincrease bronchial hyperreactivity. Pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase canprovoke bronchospasm through increased cholinergic activity. At high doses,certain pesticides can act as airway irritants. Low levels that areinsufficient to cause acute poisoning can trigger severe reactions in thosewithout a previous diagnosis of asthma. Pesticides linked to asthma, wheezing,and hyperreactive airway disease include: 1. ...

  12. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black

  13. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

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    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  14. A review of epidemiologic studies of low-level exposures to organophosphorus insecticides in non-occupational populations.

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    Reiss, Richard; Chang, Ellen T; Richardson, Rudy J; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews epidemiologic studies related to low-level non-occupational exposures to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Many of the studies evaluate levels of maternal OP metabolites and subsequent health outcomes in offspring. The studies focused primarily on birth outcomes (e.g., infant body weight or head circumference) and neurodevelopmental (e.g., mental and psychomotor) testing results. The evidence from these studies was reviewed under the Bradford Hill guidelines. Most of the studies assessing exposure based on urinary levels of OP insecticide metabolites used only one or two measurements during pregnancy. The potential for exposure misclassification with this method is largely due to (1) preformed metabolites that are ingested with food, (2) the short elimination half-life of OP insecticides, and (3) lack of specificity to particular OP insecticides for many of the metabolites. For birth outcomes, the majority of reported results are not statistically significant, and the associations are inconsistent within and across studies. There is more within-study consistency for some of the neurodevelopmental testing results, although few associations were examined across several studies. These associations are generally weak, have been replicated only to a limited extent, and require further confirmation before they can be considered established. The OP insecticide levels measured in the epidemiologic studies are too low to cause biologically meaningful acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the most widely used metric for OP insecticide toxicity. Overall, the available evidence does not establish that low-level exposures to OP insecticides cause adverse birth outcomes or neurodevelopmental problems in humans.

  15. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  16. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  17. Prescription of Non-Occupational Post-Exposure HIV Prophylaxis by Emergency Physicians: An Analysis on Accuracy of Prescription and Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Malinverni, Stefano; Libois, Agnès; Gennotte, Anne-Françoise; La Morté, Cécile; Mols, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective nPEP (non-Occupational Post Exposure Prophylaxis) registry based on patients consulting at one academic Emergency department located in Brussels, Belgium. We review here 1,357 cases consulting from January 2011 to December 2013.The objective of the study is to determine whether emergency physicians prescribe nPEP according to national guideline with support from IDS (infectious disease specialists). As this intervention has a hi...

  18. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

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    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  19. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Garne, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population.......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population....

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

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    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...... in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...

  2. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

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    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  3. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  4. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia C.; Pereira, Gavin; Uhl, Sarah A.; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to increase threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. Method We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities. We reviewed and synthesized the state of science of this issue including methods to estimate exposure, and identified limitations in current research. Results We identified 61 epidemiological studies linking wildfire and human health in communities. The U.S. and Australia were the most frequently studied countries (18 studies on the U.S., 15 on Australia). Geographic scales ranged from a single small city (population about 55,000) to the entire globe. Most studies focused on areas close to fire events. Exposure was most commonly assessed with stationary air pollutant monitors (35 of 61 studies). Other methods included using satellite remote sensing and measurements from air samples collected during fires. Most studies compared risk of health outcomes between 1) periods with no fire events and periods during or after fire events, or 2) regions affected by wildfire smoke and unaffected regions. Daily pollution levels during or after wildfire in most studies exceeded U.S. EPA regulations. Levels of PM10, the most frequently studied pollutant, were 1.2 to 10 times higher due to wildfire smoke compared to non-fire periods and/or locations. Respiratory disease was the most frequently studied health condition, and had the most consistent results. Over 90% of these 45 studies reported that wildfire smoke was significantly associated with risk of respiratory morbidity. Conclusion Exposure measurement is a key challenge in current literature on wildfire and human health. A limitation is the difficulty of estimating

  5. CT findings in malignant pleural mesothelioma related to nonoccupational exposure to asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite)

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    Erzen, C.; Eryilmaz, M.; Kalyoncu, F.; Bilir, N.; Sahin, A.; Baris, Y.I. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    1991-03-01

    Endemic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in Turkey is related to two mineral fibers, tremolite asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite). Thirteen cases of MPM from the Cappadocian area, where the soil is rich in erionite, and 29 cases of MPM, from villages whose occupants have high asbestos exposure, were examined by CT. The CT findings of the two groups of MPM were compared with respect to the configuration of the pleural lesions, stage of disease, fissural involvement, pleural effusion, presence of calcified pleural plaques, and chronic fibrosing pleuritis. In erionite-related MPM the pleural lesions were flat and smooth in 69.1%; in asbestos-related MPM the lesions were nodular in 55.1%. Stage IV disease, calcified pleural plaques, and chronic fibrosing pleuritis were more common in the erionite-related MPM. The rest of the findings were similar in both groups. The early radiological diagnosis of erionite-related MPM may be even more difficult because of the similarity of the pleural lesions to chronic fibrosing pleuritis.

  6. Characterization of Pesticide Exposure in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 nonagricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphatedialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites [ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU)], 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, although the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region.

  7. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  8. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  11. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  12. An assessment of environmental and toxicological risk to pesticide exposure based on a case-based approach to computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cristina; Vicente, Henrique; Rosário Martins, M.; Lima, Nelson; Neves, Mariana; Neves, José

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide environmental fate and toxicity depends on its physical and chemical features, the soil composition, soil adsorption, as well as residues that may be found in different soil slots. Indeed, pesticide degradation in soil may be influenced by either biotic or abiotic factors. In addition, the toxicity of pesticides for living organisms depends on their adsorption, distribution, biotransformation, dissemination of metabolites together with interaction with cellular macromolecules and excretion. Biotransformation may result in the formation of less toxic and/or more toxic metabolites, while other processes determine the balance between toxic and a nontoxic upcoming. Aggregate exposure and risk assessment involve multiple pathways and routes, including the potential for pesticide residues in food and drinking water, in addition to residues from pesticide use in residential and non-occupational environments. Therefore, this work will focus on the development of a decision support system to assess the environmental and toxicological risk to pesticide exposure, built on top of a Logic Programming approach to Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, complemented with a Case Based attitude to computing. The proposed solution is unique in itself, once it caters for the explicit treatment of incomplete, unknown, or even self-contradictory information, either in terms of a qualitative or quantitative setting.

  13. Comparison of exposure assessment guidelines for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, P; Iyengar, S

    1992-01-01

    The field of exposure assessment of pesticides has become well established in the past decade. Consequently, government agencies and industry groups have identified the need for guidelines for conducting studies that assess mixer/loader/applicator exposure to pesticides, as well as the exposure of individuals to residues. This paper reviews guidelines on mixer/loader/applicator exposure studies issued by the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, the U.S. EPA, and the World Health Organization. Mention is also made of Canadian exposure guidelines in preparation. Also reviewed are two guidelines for conducting indoor occupant exposure studies, one by the National Agricultural Chemicals Association and one by Health and Welfare Canada. The only available guideline (EPA) on assessing pesticide exposure to workers upon reentry into treated fields is also reviewed. These guidelines are reviewed and compared as to criteria for requirements of exposure studies, methodologies recommended for dermal, inhalation, and biological monitoring, quality assurance and quality control, the use of surrogate data, data reporting, and exposure calculations. From this comparison, it is evident that there has been little significant progress in the area of methodologies used for dermal exposure monitoring. The use of patches as suggested by Durham and Wolfe (1962) is still accepted and widely used, despite its limitations. However, relatively recent research in this area has shown that the fluorescent tracer technique (Fenske et al. 1986a,b) and use of full-body dosimeters may help in overcoming some of these limitations. The tracer technique is mentioned in the EPA guidelines and full-body dosimeters are addressed by EPA, WHO, and NACA. Biological monitoring can also overcome many of the limitations of passive dosimetry, but all guidelines stress the need for extensive knowledge of the

  14. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.

  15. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  16. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  17. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  18. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  19. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  20. Breath gas concentrations mirror exposure to sevoflurane and isopropyl alcohol in hospital environments in non-occupational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Mar; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Sánchez, Juan M

    2016-01-29

    Anaesthetic gases and disinfectants are a primary source of air contamination in hospitals. A highly sensitive sorbent-trap methodology has been used to analyse exhaled breath samples with detection limits in the pptv range, which allows volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected at significantly lower levels (5-6 orders of magnitude below) than the recommended exposure limits by different organizations. Two common VOCs used in hospital environments, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and sevoflurane, have been evaluated. Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 100 volunteers (24 hospital staff, 45 hospital visitors and 31 external controls). Significant differences for IPA were found between samples from volunteers who had not been in contact with hospital environments (mean value of 8.032 ppbv) and people staying (20.981 ppbv, p  =  0.0002) or working (19.457 ppbv, p  =  0.000 09) in such an environment. Sevoflurane, an anaesthetic gas routinely used as an inhaled anaesthetic, was detected in all samples from volunteers in the hospital environment but not in volunteers who had not been in recent contact with a hospital environment. The levels of sevoflurane were significantly higher (p  =  0.000 24) among staff members (0.522 ppbv) than among visitors to the hospital (0.196 ppbv). We conclude that highly sensitive methods are required to detect anaesthetic gas contamination in hospital environments.

  1. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Pesticide exposure is recognized as an important environmental risk factor associated with cancer development. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer in humans has been studied globally in various settings. Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are associated with hemopoetic cancers, and cancers of the prostate, pancreas, liver, and other body systems. The involvement of pesticides in breast cancer has not yet been determined. In developing countries, sufficient epidemiologic research and evidence is lacking to link pesticide exposure with cancer development. Agricultural and industrial workers are high-risk groups for developing cancer following pesticide exposure. Children of farm workers can be exposed to pesticides through their parents. Maternal exposure to pesticides can pose a health risk to the fetus and the newborn. The organophosphates are most the commonly used compounds, but the organochlorines are still permitted for limited use in developing countries. Pesticide exposure, independently or in synergism with modifiable risk factors, is associated with several types of cancer.

  2. Importance of respiratory exposure to pesticides among agricultural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Seiber, James N

    2002-01-01

    In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of active ingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable non-agricultural uses; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2001a, Summary of Pesticide Use Report Data, 2000, Sacramento, CA: author). Agricultural workers and agricultural community residents are at particular risk for exposure to these compounds. The TAC program in California, and more recently the federal Clean Air Act amendments, have begun to address the exposures of these groups and have promulgated exposure guidelines that are, in general, much more stringent than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) worker exposure guidelines. Choosing lower volatility pesticides, lower concentrations of active ingredients, and handling equipment designed to minimize exposure can often reduce worker respiratory exposures significantly. The use of personal protective equipment, which would be facilitated by the development of more ergonomic alternatives, is important in these higher respiratory exposure situations. Finally, in the case of community residents, measures taken to protect workers often translate to lower ambient air concentrations, but further study and development of buffer zones and application controls in a given area are necessary to assure community protection.

  3. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  4. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  5. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  6. Improved awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP for HIV prevention following a multi-modal communication strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Byron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2005, the Western Australian Department of Health (WA Health developed a communication strategy to improve the awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP in WA. The communication strategy included the development of an nPEP information pamphlet, the establishment of a 24 hour nPEP phone line and the distribution of the WA Health nPEP guidelines to health professionals. The communication strategy was aimed at gay men, people in sero-discordant relationships, people living with HIV, injecting drug users and health care providers with patients from these populations. This evaluation aimed to assess the awareness and appropriate use of nPEP in WA before and after the commencement of the nPEP communication strategy. Methods A program logic method was used to identify the immediate (short-term and ultimate (long-term outcomes of the communication strategy. The achievement of these outcomes was evaluated using data from website statistics, a survey of ‘sexuality sensitive’ doctors, statistics published in Perth Gay Community Periodic Surveys (PGCPS and data from the WA nPEP database. A χ2 test for trend was conducted to identify any significant changes in the ultimate outcome indicators pre- and post-strategy. Results nPEP awareness among gay men in the PGCPS initially increased from 17.2% in 2002 to 54.9% in 2008, then decreased to 39.9% in 2010. After the commencement of the communication strategy, the proportion of nPEP prescriptions meeting the eligibility criteria for nPEP significantly increased (61.2% in 2002-2005 to 90.0% in 2008-2010 (p  Conclusions Since the introduction of the nPEP communication strategy, the delivery and appropriate use of nPEP have significantly improved in WA. In the 2008-2010 period, an improvement in HIV testing of nPEP recipients at three month follow-up was reported for the first time in WA. However, there is a need for ongoing activities to

  7. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  8. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Armando Meyer

    2002-01-01

    The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties ...

  9. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit

  10. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  11. [Evidence of pesticide exposure by hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Ludes, B

    1999-01-01

    The current report summarizes the development of an analytical method for the identification and the quantification of pesticides in hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and its application to 75 real samples. Hair strands [table: see text] were obtained from wine workers exposed to one or more pesticides. After decontamination, hair were cut into small pieces and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in methanol. The solvent was evaporated to dryness, the dry extract was redissolved in methanol and injected in a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. The detector was operated in electronic impact and in negative chemical ionization mode of detection (reactant gas: methane). In the first series of 75 hair specimens, obtained before the period of pesticide use, none of the 15 target compounds was detected. In the second series of 75 specimens, obtained from the same subjects but after the use of pesticides, 14 tested positive for 9 different pesticides.

  12. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  13. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  14. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  15. Parameterization Models for Pesticide Exposure via Crop Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied......) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop......-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework’s physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results...

  16. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Alix, A.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Gottesburen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for

  17. Total Pesticide Exposure Calculation among Vegetable Farmers in Benguet, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinky Leilanie Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with =.05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%, spills on hands (31.8%, and spraying against the wind (58%. The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%, organophosphates (24.2%, and carbamates (21.3%. Those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure. Furthermore, a farmer who was a pesticide applicator, mixer, loader, and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (64.1%, muscle pain (61.1%, cough (45.5%, weakness (42.4%, eye pain (39.9%, chest pain (37.4%, and eye redness (33.8%. The data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry.

  18. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

  19. Is pesticide exposure a cause of obstructive airways disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Doust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was performed to identify any associations between pesticide exposure and the occurrence (both prevalence and incidence of airways disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and wheezing symptoms. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched between September 2010 and October 2010 for papers with the inclusion criteria of English language, published after 1990, peer-reviewed and nondietary exposure. From a total of 4390 papers identified, 42 were included after initial assessment of content. After evaluating the included studies for quality, those considered to be at high risk of bias were excluded, leaving a total of 23 relevant papers. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides may be associated with prevalent asthma, but methodological issues, such as cross-sectional/case–control design, measurements of exposure and limited adjustment for confounders, limit the strength of the evidence base in this area. The association between pesticide exposure and asthma appears to be more evident and consistent in children than in adults. Exposure to pesticides may be associated with COPD; however, the strength of evidence for an association with COPD is weaker than for asthma. As the exposure metrics within each health end-point varied across studies, no meta-analyses were carried out.

  20. Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  1. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  2. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-09-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed daily for 42 days.We found out that T. axei larvae are the most resistant ones to tolylfluanid exposure - there was no statistical significance in any concentration tested after 42 days of tolylfluanid exposure. 100% of dead larvae were found on 33(rd) day of experiment at higher concentration, resp. on 37(th) day at lower tested concentration of glyphosate. C. curticei, O. circumcincta and H. contortus showed similar statistical significance in both pesticides tested (there was high statistical significance (p<0.0001) at both concentrations of glyphosate and only at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid). C. curticei and H. contortus larvae were found dead, spiral shaped and without movement at all concentrations tested, spiral shape was not observed in other two tested larvae. O. circumcincta larvae reacted to pesticides exposure very quickly; rapid death was recorded on second day of experiment at both concentrations of glyphosate and at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid. From four tested small ruminant parasites (L3), O. circumcincta larvae seem to be the most sensitive ones and need further research.

  3. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  4. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  5. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-04

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

  6. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Butinof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880. A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  7. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  8. Non-occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasuo, Susanna; Liippo, Jussi; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2012-03-01

    Sensitization to epoxy resins often results from occupational exposure in various fields of construction and industry. Non-occupational sensitization sources and environments have remained overlooked. To analyse non-occupational and occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients. Special attention was paid to patients sensitized from non-occupational sources. During a 10-year period, 6042 general dermatology patients were patch tested with epoxy resin (bisphenol A) in the Dermatology Clinic of Turku University Hospital. The clinical data and the sources of occupational and non-occupational exposure to epoxy resin were analysed in sensitized patients. Epoxy resin sensitization was found in 59 patients. Non-occupational sensitization was found in 21 (35%) patients, whereas the number of occupational cases was 38 (65%). The most common sources of non-occupational epoxy resin sensitization were materials used in domestic renovation and construction projects and in boat repair. Non-occupational sensitization sources account for approximately one-third of epoxy resin sensitization cases, and therefore represent an important risk among hobbies and leisure activities. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos J T I; Egsmose, Mark; Gardi, Ciro; Klein, Michael; Vanderborght, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Standardised exposure scenarios play an important role in European pesticide authorisation procedures (a scenario is a combination of climate, weather and crop data to be used in exposure models). The European Food Safety Authority developed such scenarios for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms to pesticides. Scenarios were needed for both the concentration in total soil and for the concentration in the liquid phase. The goal of the exposure assessment is the 90th percentile of the exposure concentration in the area of agricultural use of a pesticide in each of three regulatory European zones (North, Centre and South). A statistical approach was adopted to find scenarios that are consistent with this exposure goal. Scenario development began with the simulation of the concentration distribution in the entire area of use by means of a simple analytical model. In the subsequent two steps, procedures were applied to account for parameter uncertainty and scenario uncertainty (i.e. the likelihood that a scenario that is derived for one pesticide is not conservative enough for another pesticide). In the final step, the six scenarios were selected by defining their average air temperature, soil organic-matter content and their soil textural class. Organic matter of the selected scenarios decreased in the order North-Centre-South. Because organic matter has a different effect on the concentration in total soil than it has on the concentration in the liquid phase, the concentration in total soil decreased in the order North-Centre-South whereas the concentration in the liquid phase decreased in the opposite order. The concentration differences between the three regulatory zones appeared to be no more than a factor of two. These differences were comparatively small in view of the considerable differences in climate and soil properties between the three zones.

  10. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  11. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  12. Use of job-exposure matrices to estimate occupational exposure to pesticides: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Camille; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The health effects of pesticides have been extensively studied in epidemiology, mainly in agricultural populations. However, pesticide exposure assessment remains a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. Besides self-reported information, expert assessment or metrology, job-exposure matrices still appear to be an interesting tool. We reviewed all existing matrices assessing occupational exposure to pesticides in epidemiological studies and described the exposure parameters they included. We identified two types of matrices, (i) generic ones that are generally used in case-control studies and document broad categories of pesticides in a large range of jobs, and (ii) specific matrices, developed for use in agricultural cohorts, that generally provide exposure metrics at the active ingredient level. The various applications of these matrices in epidemiological studies have proven that they are valuable tools to assess pesticide exposure. Specific matrices are particularly promising for use in agricultural cohorts. However, results obtained with matrices have rarely been compared with those obtained with other tools. In addition, the external validity of the given estimates has not been adequately discussed. Yet, matrices would help in reducing misclassification and in quantifying cumulated exposures, to improve knowledge about the chronic health effects of pesticides.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  14. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  15. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhilin; Xue, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups to acceptable daily intakes (ADI), characterize pesticide trends in exposures over different time periods, and determine commodities contributing to pesticide exposures. SHEDS was applied, using Pesticide Data Program (PDP) (1991-2011) and pesticide usage data on crops from USDA combined with NHANES dietary consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by age group. ADI data collected from EPA, WHO, and other sources were used to rank pesticides based on relativeness of the dietary exposure potential to ADI by age groups. Sensitivity analysis provided trends in pesticide exposures. Within SHEDS, commodities contributing the majority of pesticides with greatest exposure potential were determined. The results indicated that the highest ranking pesticides were methamidophos and diazinon which exceeded 100% of the ADI. Sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure to methamidophos, diazinon, malathion, ethion and formetanate hydrochloride had a marked decrease from 1991-1999 to 2000-2011. Contributions analysis indicated that apples, mushroom, carrots, and lettuce contributed to diazinon exposure. Beans and pepper contributed to methamidophos exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Determination of farm workers' exposure to pesticides by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2012-04-25

    In the present work, a highly sensitive method based on solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry was used to test hair samples for 50 pesticides including 39 molecules from different chemical families currently used in agriculture and 11 organochlorines. The population investigated was composed of 18 farm workers who provided hair samples repeatedly collected during the entire treatment period (from March to November 2009). Among the 62 hair samples that were collected, 33 different target molecules were detected. The most frequently detected agricultural pesticides were Diflufenican and Pyrimethanil, two herbicides which were detected in 13 subjects. The concentration in volunteers' hair matched with agricultural activity and the highest concentration was observed for Cyprodinil (1161pg/mg), an anilinopyrimidine used as a fungicide. For organochlorines, p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH were the most frequently detected molecules as they were present in at least one of the hair samples provided by each of the 18 volunteers. The highest concentrations detected for these chemicals reached 21.0pg/mg for p,p'-DDE and 23.5pg/mg for γ-HCH, but the highest concentration of organochlorine was observed for β-endosulfan (105pg/mg). The results suggest that farm workers have a weak, though constant exposure to organochlorine pesticides, especially to p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH, while exposure to currently used pesticides is strongly associated with occupation. Observations also suggest that spraying work would not necessarily be the only source of exposure to agricultural pesticides and that worker not directly involved in spraying can also be submitted to significant level of exposure.

  17. Prevalence of pesticide exposure in young males (prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potti, Anil; Panwalkar, Amit W; Langness, Eric

    2003-07-15

    Evidence implicating pesticides as causative agents of prostate cancer is controversial, and specifically, data in young adults is lacking. Hence, we performed a preliminary study evaluating the relationship between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer in young males. After approval from the University of North Dakota Institutional Review Board and Human Subjects Committee, a retrospective study was performed on all young males (prostate. The records of all patients aged less than/equal to 50 years, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, from January 1991 through December 2001 were reviewed. Pesticide risk assessment interviews were performed by a single member of the team, for consistency, via telephone on the basis of a pre-determined questionnaire investigating occupations and hobbies with special emphasis on: Duration of exposure. An exposure index was calculated for each interviewed subject according to the following formula: hours/day x days/year x years. Patients with an exposure index >2400 hours were considered as 'exposed.' The 2400 hour cut-off value was chosen on the basis of previous reports indicating that this figure represents heavy exposure to genotoxic agents. Statistical analysis was obtained using SPSS-10ledR;. Between 1991 and 2001, 61 young males with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were identified, of whom 56 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range: 40-49) had complete records of treatment and could be contacted for completion of the questionnaire. The most common stage at presentation was Stage III and the mean Gleason's score was 7.5 (range 5-9). Interestingly, almost a third (16/56, 28.6%) of patients had stage IV disease at presentation. 37/56 (66.1%) patients had 'significant' exposure in our study. In addition, interestingly, the mean survival in the subgroup of patients with pesticide exposure was 11.3 months (SD: +/- 2.3 months), while the mean survival in the patients without pesticide exposure (n = 19) was 20

  18. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results.

  19. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  20. Impact of Organophosphorous Pesticide Exposure on Semen Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-ying LI; Jun-qing WU; Xiao-ping ZOU; Cai-qin XIAO; Wei-jin ZHOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of organophorous pesticide exposure on semen quality and other risk factors of semen qualityMethod Questionnaire investigation, external genital examination and laboratory examination of semen quality were conducted on 322 subjects, who were divided into exposed and control group, each consisting of 161 subjects. Results Multivariate analysis showed that educational level and years of alcohol drinking had effect on semen volume. Compared with subjects with primary school education or lower, those with junior high school education had higher value of semen volume(OR=1.961). Proportion of subjects with high semen volume decreased with the increasing years of alcohol drinking (OR=0.962). Organophosphorous pesticide exposure could result in the decline of the number of sperms with progressive forward progression (OR=0.528), figure of semen density (OR=0.266), semen viability (OR=0.398) and percentage of normal sperm morphology (OR=0.281). There are possible relationships between the season of semen collection and the number of sperms with progressive forward progression, semen viability and percentage of normal sperm morphology. Compared to summer, values of the above three indices would be higher in winter (OR was 2.272, 4.060 and 5.249, respectively).Conclusion Exposure to organophosphorous pesticide could result in the deterioration of semen quality of the peasants.

  1. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  2. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  3. The determinants of dermal exposure ranking method (DERM): a pesticide exposure assessment approach for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis E; Aragón, Aurora; Lundberg, Ingvar; Wesseling, Catharina; Nise, Gun

    2008-08-01

    A new method for assessment of dermal exposure to pesticides in subsistence farmers by use of determinants of dermal exposure is described. The method, called the determinants of dermal exposure ranking method (DERM), is a combination of checklists and expert rating assessment. Thus, determinants are listed in a form, which is used to check their presence and to assess them using a simple algorithm based on two factors, the type of transport process (T value) and the area of body surface exposed (A value). In addition, the type of clothing worn during applications is included as a protection factor. We applied the DERM to real pesticide applications, characterizing dermal exposure and comparing DERM estimates with earlier developed semiquantitative visual scores based on fluorescent tracer, the total visual score (TVS) and contaminated body area (CBA). DERM showed a very good level of agreement with both the TVS (r = 0.69; P = 0.000) and the CBA (r = 0.67; P = 0.000). DERM allowed identification of the determinants that had the highest effect on exposure and the farmers with the highest exposure. In conclusion, DERM provided information on the determinants responsible for dermal exposure in a group of subsistence farmers. This can be useful to design monitoring and preventive programs, define priorities for intervention and prioritize and select most adequate measurement strategies. DERM promises to be a low-cost easy-to-use method to assess dermal exposure to pesticides in developing country conditions.

  4. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    . In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...

  5. Cutaneous changes in rats induced by chronic skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation and organophosphate pesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; Santos, Itamar; Korinsfky,Juliana Pedrosa; Silva,Benedyto Sávio Lima e; Carvalho,Luis Otávio; Plapler,Hélio

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the possible potentiation of the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation associated with an organophosphate pesticide.METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (n=10 each) randomized according to the procedures: group A received only UVR-B radiation; group B, UVR-B for eight weeks followed by a seven week period of pesticide exposure; group C, UVR-B + pesticide concomitantly: group D, only pesticide application. At the end of the fifth, tenth and fiftee...

  6. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  8. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  9. Mechanistic modeling of pesticide exposure: The missing keystone of honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Douglas B; Johnson, Reed M

    2017-04-01

    The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. The authors submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: 1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees, and 2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers. The acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees must be understood as the spatiotemporal intersection between environmental contamination and honey bee foraging activity. This implies that exposure is distributional, not discrete, and that a subset of foragers may acquire harmful doses of pesticide while the mean colony exposure would appear safe. The in-hive distribution of pesticide is a complex process driven principally by food transfer interactions between colony members, and this process differs importantly between pollen and nectar. High priority should be placed on applying the extensive literature on honey bee biology to the development of more rigorously mechanistic models of honey bee pesticide exposure. In combination with mechanistic effects modeling, mechanistic exposure modeling has the potential to integrate the field of honey bee toxicology, advancing both risk assessment and basic research. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:871-881. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Bringing Work Home: Take-Home Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwin, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis take-home pesticide exposure among farm families, with an emphasis on herbicides, was investigated. Take-home exposure occurs when a worker unwittingly brings home a substance on his or her clothing or shoes, thereby potentially exposing his or her family. The pesticides investigated

  11. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  12. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  13. [Exposure pathways to pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía

    2014-01-01

    To describe pesticide concentrations in distinct environmental matrices at two time points (low and high seasons in local agricultural production) and to estimate the association between the presence of pesticide residues in matrices and the use of pesticides in the home with the sociodemographic variables of schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 190 schoolchildren. Families were surveyed about their children's vegetable consumption in school and at home, the use of pesticides in the home, and other sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we measured pesticide residues in vegetables and water consumed by the schoolchildren and in the soil of 14 schools. At both time points, the vegetable matrix had the highest pesticide concentration, both in urban and rural schoolchildren. The most common pesticide residues in vegetables were chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole. In the home, pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were mainly used in summer. Dangerous pesticide residues such as azinphos methyl and dimethoate were found in vegetables consumed by the children in schools and households, and organochlorines were found in the soil in some schools. Pesticide exposure should be limited and the health effects related to pesticide exposure should be assessed in the school population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of pesticide exposure and DNA damage in immigrant farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda A; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nazar Stewart, Valle; Kisby, Glen

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the Comet assay has been used increasingly in studies of workers potentially exposed to genotoxic substances in the workplace or environment. Significant increases in DNA damage measured with the Comet assay has been reported in lymphocytes of agricultural workers; however, less intrusive means of biomonitoring are needed in epidemiological investigations. This study was designed to use the Comet assay to describe the association of markers of DNA damage in oral leukocytes with biomarkers of pesticide exposure in 134 farmworkers working in berry crops in Oregon compared to control populations. The authors also examined the extent of DNA damage in young workers compared to adults and the effect of work histories, lifestyle factors, and diet on markers of DNA damage. Urinary levels of organophosphate pesticides were low at the time of sampling; however, mean levels of the Captan metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) were found to be shifted significantly higher in the farmworkers (0.14 microg/ml) compared to controls (0.078 microg/ml) (one-sided p value=.01). Likewise, the combined molar equivalent of all dialkylphosphate metabolites was marginally higher in farmworkers (p value=.05). The mean tail intensity was significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to controls (one-sided p valuedamage in the oral leukocytes. On average, the mean tail intensity was 10.9 units greater for agricultural workers (95% CI: 6-16 units greater). Tail moment was also significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to nonagricultural workers (one-sided p valuepesticide types on DNA damage and to capture the temporal relationship between exposure to agricultural chemicals and changes in Comet parameters.

  15. Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children exposed to pesticides are susceptible for neurodevelopmental disruption. Data from developing countries are scarce. Aim: Assessing long-term and recent pesticide exposure in Nicaraguan children in relation to parental pesticide use and examining potential associated neurobehavioral effects. Methods: In the first study, pre- and post-spraying urinary residues of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPY and diazinon metabolite IMPY were measured among 7 subsistence farmers and 10 p...

  16. Continuous exposure of pesticides in an aquifer changes microbial biomass, diversity and degradation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, J. R.; Johnsen, K.; Aamand, J.;

    2000-01-01

    We studied in situ effects of pesticide exposure on microbial degradation potential and community structure of aquifer sediments. Sediment samples pre-exposed to pesticides were significantly different to non-exposed control samples. Pre-exposed sediment showed an increased degradation potential...... towards phenoxyalcanoic acid herbicides as well as impact on microbial diversity was observed. Furthermore, bacterial biomass was changed, e.g. increased numbers of phenoxyalcanoic acid degraders in pesticide exposed sediment....

  17. Pesticide exposures and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Soares da Silva, Agnes; Wesseling, Catharina

    2017-05-23

    The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension but epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) occur in Central America, Sri Lanka, India and beyond. Althoug also being observed in women, CKDu concentrates among men in agricultural sectors. Therefore, suspicions fell initially on pesticide exposure, but currently chronic heat stress and dehydration are considered key etiologic factors. Responding to persistent community and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we performed a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that addressed associations between any indicator of pesticide exposure and any outcome measure of CKD. Of the 21 analytical studies we identified, seven were categorized as with low, ten with medium and four with relatively high explanation value. Thirteen (62%) studies reported one or more positive associations, but four had a low explanation value and three presented equivocal results. The main limitations of both positive and negative studies were unspecific and unquantified exposure measurement ('pesticides'), the cross-sectional nature of most studies, confounding and selection bias. The four studies with stronger designs and better exposure assessment (from Sri Lanka, India and USA) all showed exposure-responses or clear associations, but for different pesticides in each study, and three of these studies were conducted in areas without CKDu epidemics. No study investigated interactions between pesticides and other concommittant exposures in agricultural occupations, in particular heat stress and dehydration. In conclusion, existing studies provide scarce evidence for an association between pesticides and regional CKDu epidemics but, given the poor pesticide exposure assessment in the majority, a role of nephrotoxic agrochemicals cannot be conclusively discarded. Future research should procure assessment of lifetime exposures to relevant specific pesticides and enough power

  18. Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakke, B.; de Roos, A.J.; Barr, D.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Blair, A.; Freeman, L.B.; Lynch, C.F.; Allen, R.H.; Alavanja, M.C.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers' pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health

  19. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  20. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  1. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  2. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: Implications for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Bretveld, R.; Schinkel, J.; Wendel van - Joode, B. de; Kromhout, H.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Roeleveld, N.; Preller, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and su

  3. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: Implications for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Bretveld, R.; Schinkel, J.; Wendel van - Joode, B. de; Kromhout, H.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Roeleveld, N.; Preller, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and

  4. EUROPOEM : a predictive occupational exposure database for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2001-01-01

    For registration of agricultural pesticides, the risks for humans, animals, and the environment must be determined. The risk assessment is based on an appraisal of the levels of exposure and the hazards of the active substance(s) in the plant protection product, that is, the agricultural pesticide.

  5. Exposure to pesticides with dermal toxicity in farmers of Community of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brandon Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermal route has a toxicological importance, as well as substances such as entry, but by frequent local effects. In applications of pesticides by farmers is common and important the dermal exposure to pesticides, so the dermal route in this sector of activity could be of particular relevance. Objective: To determine the hazard of dermal exposure in farmers using pesticides and to propose specific preventive measures. Material and methods: A transversal descriptive study based on a questionnaire designed by the researchers, replying to the 238 attendees at the courses for pesticide handler card basic level Department of Health Xativa-Ontinyent (Valencia in 2009. Pesticides used were collected over the past 12 months and reviewed their R phrases (risk phrases looking for dermal effects. Results: 55 % of pesticides had some phrase R on skin problems. The phrase R38 "Irritating to skin" was found in 16 products, used by 59.05 % of respondents and the R43 "Possibility of sensitization by skin contact" at 7, used by 23.91 %. Conclusions: The skin irritation effect was related to more dermal exposure to these pesticides. It is necessary to emphasize the skin protection in the courses for workers who apply these products. Skin problems should be included damages for workplace exposure to pesticides.

  6. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Wilks, Martin F; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well‑designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases.

  7. Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Rats After Exposure to Pesticides of Different Chemical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon...

  8. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  9. Organizational Statement for EPA-sponsored Public Meetings to Discuss Pesticide Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about EMPM meetings: Vision, Mission Statement, Organization, Meeting Administration and Public Meeting Attendance. Purpose is to discuss and exchange information regarding technical model-related pesticide exposure issues.

  10. Pesticide exposure and genetic variation in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes interact to induce biochemical liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Requena, Mar; Parrón, Tesifón; Alarcón, Raquel

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic activation of pesticides in the liver may result in highly reactive intermediates capable of impairing various cellular functions. Nevertheless, the knowledge about the effect of pesticide exposure on liver function is still limited. This study assessed whether exposure to pesticides elicits early biochemical changes in biomarkers of liver function and looked for potential gene-environmental interactions between pesticide exposure and polymorphisms of pesticide-metabolizing genes. A longitudinal study was conducted in farm-workers from Andalusia (South Spain), during two periods of the same crop season with different degree of pesticide exposure. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities as well as for determining clinical chemistry parameters as biomarkers of liver function. Serum lipid levels were also measured as they may help to monitor the progress of toxic liver damage. A reduction in serum cholinesterase was associated with decreased levels of all clinical chemistry parameters studied except HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, a decreased erythrocyte cholinesterase (indicating long-term pesticide exposure) was associated with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and increased levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol. Changes in liver biomarkers were particularly associated with the PON155M/192R haplotype. The obtained results therefore support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure results in subtle biochemical liver toxicity and highlight the role of genetic polymorphisms in pesticide-metabolizing enzymes as biomarkers of susceptibility for developing adverse health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of occupational and non-occupational stress with smoking in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.

  12. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  13. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  14. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Vandever, Mark W.; Smalling, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado from two land cover types: grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >10% of the samples included the insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), and imidacloprid (13%), the fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), and pyraclostrobin (11%), and the herbicide atrazine (19%). Concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 312 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m buffer influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in both grasslands and wheat fields are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  15. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ledda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years. Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.. Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes.

  16. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielhuis Gerhard A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but the hormonal function may be disrupted in many more ways through pesticide exposure. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function of the female reproductive system and in particular the ovarian cycle. Disruption can occur in all stages of hormonal regulation: 1. hormone synthesis; 2. hormone release and storage; 3. hormone transport and clearance; 4. hormone receptor recognition and binding; 5. hormone postreceptor activation; 6. the thyroid function; and 7. the central nervous system. These mechanisms are described for effects of pesticide exposure in vitro and on experimental animals in vivo. For the latter, potential effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides on the female reproductive system, i.e. modulation of hormone concentrations, ovarian cycle irregularities, and impaired fertility, are also reviewed. In epidemiological studies, exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects, which may or may not be due to disruption of the female hormonal function. Because pesticides comprise a large number of distinct substances with dissimilar structures and diverse toxicity, it is most likely that several of the above-mentioned mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological pathways explaining the role of pesticide exposure in ovarian cycle disturbances, ultimately leading to fertility problems and other reproductive effects. In future research, information on the ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function as

  17. Exposure to pesticides of fruit growers and effects on reproduction: an epidemiological approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, de J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis the exposure to pesticides of fruit growers in The Netherlands was studied as well as its relation to reproductive health effects. The most commonly used fungicide, captan, was used as a marker for exposure. Several exposure studies were carried out during application of captan, and w

  18. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  19. SURVEY OF ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES IN TRADES AND MINING OCCUPATIONS AND IN FACTORY AND MINING COMMUNITIES AS A MEANS OF PREDICTING HEALTH RISKS OF NONOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FIBROUS MINERALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; ,

    1984-01-01

    A review based on 36 published epidemiological studies is given of disease patterns that have developed among industrial workers, miners, and millers who had been exposed to dusts of one or more of the commercial asbestos minerals or to dusts from minerals perceived to be asbestos-like. Health data are also reviewed for individuals exposed to asbestos dusts in nonoccupational settings. From the published reports it is clear that there are very significant differences in the health effects of the several asbestos or asbestos-like minerals.

  20. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.;

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced sem...

  1. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  2. Pesticide exposure and thyroid function in an agricultural population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Camila; Cremonese, Cleber; Koifman, Rosalina J; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Although numerous pesticides may interfere with thyroid function, however, epidemiological evidence supporting this relationship is limited, particularly regarding modern non-persistent pesticides. We sought to evaluate the association of agricultural work practices, use of contemporary-use pesticides, and OC pesticides residue levels in serum with circulating thyroid hormone levels in an agricultural population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 275 male and female farm residents in Farroupilha, South of Brazil. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyle and agricultural work was obtained through questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on all participants and analyzed for cholinesterase activity, serum residues of OC pesticides, and levels of free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and TSH. Non-persistent pesticides exposure assessment was based on questionnaire information on current use of pesticides, and frequency and duration of use, among others. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression models. Total lifetime years of use of fungicides, herbicides and dithiocarbamates in men was associated with increased TSH accompanied by decrease in FT4, with evidence of a linear trend. In addition, there was an association between being sampled in the high pesticide-use season and increased TSH levels. Conversely, farm work and lifetime use of all pesticides were related with slight decrease in TSH and increased TT3 and FT4, respectively. In general, pesticide use was not associated with thyroid hormones in women. Subjects with detected serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide B, γ-chlordane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethane and endosulfan II experienced slight changes in TT3; however, associations were weak and inconsistent. These findings suggest that both cumulative and recent occupational exposure to agricultural pesticides may affect the thyroid function

  3. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  4. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes.

  5. Relative Pesticide and Exposure Route Contribution to Aggregate and Cumulative Dose in Young Farmworker Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Bradman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Child-Specific Aggregate Cumulative Human Exposure and Dose (CACHED framework integrates micro-level activity time series with mechanistic exposure equations, environmental concentration distributions, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic components to estimate exposure for multiple routes and chemicals. CACHED was utilized to quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates for a population of young farmworker children and to evaluate the model for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Micro-activities of farmworker children collected concurrently with residential measurements of pesticides were used in the CACHED framework to simulate 115,000 exposure scenarios and quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates. Modeled metabolite urine concentrations were not statistically different than concentrations measured in the urine of children, indicating that CACHED can provide realistic biomarker estimates. Analysis of the relative contribution of exposure route and pesticide indicates that in general, chlorpyrifos non-dietary ingestion exposure accounts for the largest dose, confirming the importance of the micro-activity approach. The risk metrics computed from the 115,000 simulations, indicate that greater than 95% of these scenarios might pose a risk to children’s health from aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure. The variability observed in the route and pesticide contributions to urine biomarker levels demonstrate the importance of accounting for aggregate and cumulative exposure in establishing pesticide residue tolerances in food.

  6. Health in relation to occupational exposure to pesticides in the Dutch flower bulb culture : Part 2 : estimation of long-term exposure to pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Brouwer, E.J.; Hemmen, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    As a part of an epidemiological study with a cross-sectional design aiming at the establishment of possible health effects due to the exposure to pesticides in the flower bulb culture, an occupational hygiene study has been conducted in order to discriminate or to rank participants according to the

  7. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Karen S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers 1. However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. Methods/design The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over and children(aged 4-12 years will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in additionfor a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012, covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. Discussion The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are

  8. Maternal hair--an appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Bielawski, Dawn M; Posecion, Norberto C; Corrion, Melissa L; Jin, Yan; Janisse, James J; Ager, Joel W

    2006-07-01

    The detection of exposure of pregnant women to toxicants in the environment is important because these compounds can be harmful to the health of the woman and her fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze for pesticides/herbicides in paired maternal hair and blood samples to determine the most appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to these compounds. A total of 449 pregnant women were prospectively recruited at midgestation from an agricultural site in the Philippines where a preliminary survey indicated significant use at home and on the farm of the following compounds: propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon, and transfluthrin. Paired maternal hair and blood samples were obtained from each subject upon recruitment into the study (midgestation) and at birth and were analyzed for the above compounds, as well as lindane and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], and some of their known metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The highest exposure rate was seen for propoxur and bioallethrin and maternal hair analysis provided the highest detection rate for these two compounds, compared to blood, at both time periods: (1) At midgestation, 10.5% positive for propoxur in hair compared to 0.7% in blood (Phair compared to 0% in blood (P hair compared to 4% in blood (P hair compared to 0% in blood (P hair samples were also positive for malathion, chlorpyrifos, pretilachlor, and DDT. Only a few of the pesticide metabolites were detected, principally 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, malathion monocarboxylic acid, and DDE [1,1,dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and they were mostly found in maternal blood. There was a significant association between the use of the home spray pesticide, Baygon, and propoxur in maternal hair at birth (P=0.001) and between the use of a slow-burning mosquito coil and the presence of bioallethrin in maternal hair at midgestation and at birth (P=0

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides.

  10. An Evaluation of the Importance of Hand Exposures Using Rubber Latex Gloves as Sampling Dosimeters for Assessing Pesticide Exposures in Strawberry Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Gayatri

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of pesticides in California is commonly viewed as a significant public health concern. Exposure is particularly a concern for workers who use pesticides in agriculture or who are exposed to them during the harvesting of fruits and vegetables. Previous research has shown that direct dermal and clothing contact with foliar residues is primarily responsible for pesticide exposures among harvesters. These exposures occur primarily due to hand contact with treated leaf surfac...

  11. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

  12. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides.

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides and nerve conduction studies among Korean farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyeong; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Gyu Taek; Lee, Won Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with decreased nerve conduction studies among farmers. On 2 separate occasions, the authors performed a cross-sectional study of a group of 31 male farmers who periodically applied pesticides. The study included questionnaire interviews and nerve conduction studies on the median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. Although all mean values remained within laboratory normal limits, significant differences between the first and second tests were found in sensory conduction velocities on the median and sural nerves, and motor conduction velocities on the posterior tibial nerve. Lifetime days of pesticide application was negatively associated with nerve conduction velocities at most nerves after adjusting for potential confounders. These findings may reflect a link between occupational pesticide exposure and peripheral neurophysiologic abnormality that deserves further evaluation.

  14. Pesticides exposure as etiological factors of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases--a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-10-15

    The etiology of most neurodegenerative disorders is multifactorial and consists of an interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. The role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative disease has long been suspected, but the specific causative agents and the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. For the main neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis there are evidences linking their etiology with long-term/low-dose exposure to pesticides such as paraquat, maneb, dieldrin, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Most of these pesticides share common features, namely the ability to induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein fibrillization and neuronal cell loss. This review aims to clarify the role of pesticides as environmental risk factors in genesis of idiopathic PD and other neurological syndromes. For this purpose, the most relevant epidemiological and experimental data is highlighted in order to discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration.

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  16. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue....... Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...

  17. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides.

  18. Multidrug resistance 1 gene variants, pesticide exposure, and increased risk of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage.

  19. Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Variants, Pesticide Exposure, and Increased Risk of DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P<0.01 or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P<0.01 had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell. Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619 TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P<0.01. Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage.

  20. Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture : Pt 1 General aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For registration of pesticides data on toxicology and on occupational exposure are required. In this series of reviews the exposure data available in the published literature for mixing and loading, application and re-entry are considered for the establishment of generic/surrogate data bases with wh

  1. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Kim; Boezen, H. Marike; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Postma, Dirkje S.; Vonk, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to

  2. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to

  3. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  4. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age.

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    Helle R Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. METHODS: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed. Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. RESULTS: Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele.

  5. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  6. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

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    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  7. Wings as a new route of exposure to pesticides in the honey bee.

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    Poquet, Yannick; Kairo, Guillaume; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2015-09-01

    In pesticide risk assessment, estimating the routes and levels of exposure is critical. For honey bees subjected to pesticide spray, toxicity is assessed by thorax contact to account for all possible contact exposures. In the present study, the authors tested 6 active substances with different hydrophobicity. For the first time, the authors demonstrated that it is possible to induce mortality by pesticide contact with only the wings of the honey bee. The toxicities induced by contact with the wings and thorax were similar, with the wing median lethal dose (LD50) being 0.99 to 2.23 times higher than that of the thorax. This finding demonstrates that the wings represent a relevant route of exposure in the honey bee. In a second approach, the authors estimated the air volume displaced by the wings during 1 beating cycle to be 0.51 ± 0.03 cm(3), which corresponds to a volume of 116.8 ± 5.8 cm(3)  s(-1) at a wing beat frequency of 230 Hz. The authors then tested realistic scenarios of exposure for bees flying through a pesticide cloud at different concentrations. In the worst-case scenario, the dose accumulated during the flight reached 525 ng bee(-1)  s(-1). These results show that the procedure used to assess the risk posed by contact with pesticides could be improved by accounting for wing exposure.

  8. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  9. Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón von Osten, Jaime; Epomex, Centro; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2004-08-01

    The authors surveyed agricultural production methods and pesticide use among subsistence farmers (campesinos) in 4 rural communities of Campeche, Mexico. Self-reports of symptoms of poisoning resulting from occupational pesticide exposure were elicited by questionnaire (N = 121), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during insecticide use was evaluated from blood samples (N = 127). In individuals from 2 of the 4 communities, AChE activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the mean of activity determined for individuals in a reference group. Results of this study show that erythrocyte AChE inhibition provides a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in field studies with human populations. Carbamates, particularly carbofuran, seem to be more associated with exuberant and diversified symptomatology of pesticide exposure than organophosphates. Studies in field communities where both carbamates and organophosphates are suspected to exist should include blood AChE determinations, symptomatology surveys, and socioeconomic questionnaires. The authors recommend that the Mexican National Health Ministry authorities specify additional provisions regarding the use of protective equipment and the adoption of other safety practices during field work, increase information campaigns about the risks of pesticide use and the value of safety practices, and increase programs of medical monitoring and assistance for rural communities dealing with pesticides.

  10. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: impacts of field exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Mazellier, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on how Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) work in real environmental conditions. A selection of 23 polar pesticides and 8 metabolites were investigated by exposure of triplicates of integrative samplers in two rivers in France for successive 14-day periods. The pesticides and metabolites were trapped not only in Oasis HLB sorbent but also in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane of the POCIS. The distribution of pesticides depended on the molecular structure. The use of the Performance Reference Compound (PRC) is also discussed here. The impact of some environmental parameters and exposure setup on the transfer of pesticides in POCIS sorbent was studied: river flow rate, biofouling on membranes, sampler holding design and position in the stream. Results show a significant impact of river flow velocity on PRC desorption, especially for values higher than 4 cm·s(-1). Some fouling was observed on the PES membrane which could potentially have an impact on molecule accumulation in the POCIS. Finally, the positioning of the sampler in the river did not have significant effects on pesticide accumulation, when perpendicular exposures were used (sampler positioning in front of the water flow). The POCIS with PRC correction seems to be a suitable tool for estimating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, for all the molecules except for one of the nine pesticides analyzed in these two French rivers.

  11. Health perspective of pesticide exposure and dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rathinam; Rekha, K; Bairy, Kl

    2004-03-01

    Among the chemicals, pesticides which are mainly used in agriculture pose major health problems to human beings. Indiscriminate use of pesticides belonging to the class organophosphate, organochlorine, carbomate, and pyrethroid leads to various health problems affecting the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune systems. The toxicity of pesticide in human beings is influenced by various factors such as age, gender and health status of the individual in addition to the intensity and frequency of pesticide used. Comparatively, children are at greater risk than the adults. The human detoxification system plays a vital role in reducing the harmful effects of the pesticides. However, when the toxic level is increased beyond the capacity of the detoxification system, health condition deteriorates. Human diet plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall health of a person. Vitamins such as Vitamin C and E are effective in preventing DNA damage because of their antioxidant properties. Intake of fruits and vegetables improves the antioxidants level in the blood. Phenolic substances present in certain spices possess potent anticarcinogenic activities. Organic farming may be a viable solution to reduce the toxic effects of chemicals.

  12. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  13. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  14. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Th Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.

  15. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  16. Exposure to pesticides and metal contaminants of fertilizer among tree planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Davies, Hugh W

    2011-08-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, harvested forests are manually replanted by seasonal workers. The work is known to be physically demanding and ergonomically difficult, and recently, there have been concerns over chemical exposures due to pesticide residues on seedlings, fertilizers (often applied alongside seedlings), and potential metal contamination of these fertilizers. This study aimed to characterize metal and pesticide exposure among a sample of British Columbia tree planters. Between May 2006 and April 2007, exposure measurements were taken from 54 tree planters at five geographically disperse worksites throughout British Columbia. Four worksites were using fertilizer and one was not. Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on post-shift hand wipes, full-shift personal air sample, bulk soil, seedling root balls, and fertilizer samples. Pesticides were measured on post-shift hand wipes and on bulk seedling samples. Seedling nursery pesticide application records were used to focus pesticide analyses on pesticides known to have been applied to the seedlings used at the study sites. Carbamate pesticides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and all other pesticides by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No evidence was found that tree planters who worked with fertilizer were at an elevated risk of exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel relative to tree planters who did not. Pesticide residues were found on seedlings taken from work sites early in the tree planting season in April 2007. At these worksites, the fungicides chlorothalonil and iprodione were found on the skin of workers at low levels (range 0.37-106.3 ng cm(-2) and 0.48-15.9 ng cm(-2), respectively), providing evidence for exposure potential. Very poor hygiene conditions were observed at all tree planting work sites. Hand washing facilities were not available at work sites and only 5.6% of subjects

  17. Editor's Highlight: Base Excision Repair Variants and Pesticide Exposure Increase Parkinson's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laurie H; Paul, Kimberly C; Howlett, Evan H; Lawal, Hakeem; Boppana, Sridhar; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to certain pesticides induces oxidative stress and increases Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is found in dopaminergic neurons in idiopathic PD and following pesticide exposure in experimental models thereof. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway responsible for repairing oxidative DNA damage in cells. Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BER genes alone or in combination with pesticide exposure influence PD risk is unknown. We investigated the contributions of functional SNPs in 2 BER genes (APEX1 and OGG1) and mitochondrial dysfunction- or oxidative stress-related pesticide exposure, including paraquat, to PD risk. We also studied the effect of paraquat on levels of mtDNA damage and mitochondrial bioenergetics. 619 PD patients and 854 population-based controls were analyzed for the 2 SNPs, APEX1 rs1130409 and OGG1 rs1052133. Ambient pesticide exposures were assessed with a geographic information system. Individually, or in combination, the BER SNPs did not influence PD risk. Mitochondrial-inhibiting (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.32, 2.42]), oxidative stress-inducing pesticides (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.22, 2.11]), and paraquat (OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.23, 1.93]) were associated with PD. Statistical interactions were detected, including for a genetic risk score based on rs1130409 and rs1052133 and oxidative stress inducing pesticides, where highly exposed carriers of both risk genotypes were at the highest risk of PD (OR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.25, 3.86]); similar interactions were estimated for mitochondrial-inhibiting pesticides and paraquat alone. Additionally, paraquat exposure was found to impair mitochondrial respiration and increase mtDNA damage in in vivo and in vitro systems. Our findings provide insight into possible mechanisms involved in increased PD risk due to pesticide exposure in the context of BER genotype variants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  18. A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risk from pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Juárez, Patricia M; Leyva, Claudia; Corona, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews a successful community-based education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., trained lay health educators, or promotoras de salud, from local agencies in southern New Mexico in pesticide safety and in ways to successfully promote safety information in the farmworker community. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information, emphasizing the health effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure and steps to protect farmworker children from pesticide exposure. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures. Additionally, the project showed improved behaviors aimed at minimizing pesticide exposure through accidental poisonings in the home. This pilot project proved the efficacy of an in-home, one-on-one approach with a culturally appropriate educational comic book as an instrument to help transfer education to the community. Moreover, the educational method involving promotoras offers a training-of- trainer approach that is easy to implement and potentially replicate.

  19. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  20. Passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia in an Italian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Costanzini, Sofia; Heck, Julia E; Malavolti, Marcella; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Oleari, Paola; Palazzi, Giovanni; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, but definitive evidence on this relation and the specific pesticides involved is still not clear. We carried out a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community to assess the possible relation between passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of acute childhood leukemia. We assessed passive pesticide exposure of 111 childhood leukemia cases and 444 matched controls by determining density and type of agricultural land use within a 100-m radius buffer around children's homes. We focused on four common crop types, arable, orchard, vineyard and vegetable, characterized by the use of specific pesticides that are potentially involved in childhood induced leukemia. The use of these pesticides was validated within the present study. We computed the odds ratios (OR) of the disease and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to type and density of crops around the children's homes, also taking into account traffic pollution and high-voltage power line magnetic field exposure. Childhood leukemia risk did not increase in relation with any of the crop types with the exception of arable crops, characterized by the use of 2.4-D, MCPA, glyphosate, dicamba, triazine and cypermethrin. The very few children (n=11) residing close to arable crops had an OR for childhood leukemia of 2.04 (95% CI 0.50-8.35), and such excess risk was further enhanced among children aged <5 years. Despite the null association with most crop types and the statistical imprecision of the estimates, the increased leukemia risk among children residing close to arable crops indicates the need to further investigate the involvement in disease etiology of passive exposure to herbicides and pyrethroids, though such exposure is unlikely to play a role in the vast majority of cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Foodborne exposure to pesticides and methylmercury in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christopher A; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Al-Harthi, Suaad S; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2012-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive environmental health strategic planning project initiated by the government of Abu Dhabi, we assessed potential dietary exposure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to methylmercury (in seafood) and pesticides (in fruits and vegetables) above international guideline levels. We present results for the UAE population by age, gender, and body mass index. Our results show very low daily risks of exposure to pesticides in fruits and vegetables at levels exceeding WHO guidelines even under the conservative assumption that no pesticides are removed during washing and food preparation. Thus, exposure to pesticides on fruits and vegetables does not appear to be a major public health concern in the UAE. The chances of exposure to methylmercury in seafood are much higher; our model estimates a mean 1 in 5 daily risk of exceeding the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake. However, great caution should be used in interpreting these results, as we analyzed only the risks and not the substantial benefits of fish consumption. In fact, previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish can increase IQ in developing children, and it can substantially decrease the risk in adults of coronary heart disease and stroke. Further research is warranted to compare the risk of Me-Hg exposure from fish to the nutritional benefits of fish consumption in the UAE and to determine appropriate methods to communicate risk and benefit information to the UAE population.

  2. Realistic pesticide exposure through water and food amplifies long-term effects in a Limnephilid caddisfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Reiber, Lena; Holmstrup, Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2017-02-15

    Pesticides are increasingly recognized as relevant stressors in stream ecosystems. Stream biota is exposed to pesticides with low water solubility, e.g. pyrethroid insecticides, via water, habitat, and food. However, long-term effects of simultaneous exposure pathways are unknown. In this context, we conducted a microcosm experiment with the caddisfly Anabolia nervosa exposing the larvae to the pyrethroid insecticide esfenvalerate (EFV) at 0.1 and 1.0μgL(-1) via (i) water, (ii) food or a (iii) combination of water and food. Combined exposure through water and food significantly reduced emergence by 60% and significantly postponed emergence timing at the highest EFV level, whereas none of the single-phase exposures showed significant effects. Moreover, our study revealed that successfully emerged females from the highest biphasic treatment level were characterised by altered composition of storage lipids indicative of reduced energy reserves. Consequently, a realistic test scenario that represents simultaneous exposure of organisms and their food may reveal substantially increased long term effects of pyrethroids when compared with current ecological risk assessment applying only single phase exposure. We recommend that relevant concurrent exposure routes of pesticides should be considered in order to derive realistic regulatory acceptable concentrations of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-11-16

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness.

  4. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  5. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  6. Determinants of dermal exposure among Nicaraguan subsistence farmers during pesticide applications with backpack sprayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis E; Aragón, Aurora; Lundberg, Ingvar; Lidén, Carola; Wesseling, Catharina; Nise, Gun

    2005-01-01

    Identification of pesticide exposure determinants has become an issue in explaining exposure variability and improving control measures. Most studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify relevant dermal exposure determinants among Nicaraguan subsistence farmers. Field data on possible determinants were collected during 32 pesticide applications through observation and supplementary videorecording. A multistep reduction strategy brought down the 110 potential exposure determinants to 27 variables, which were grouped as worksite, spray equipment, working practices, clothing or hygiene practices related. Dermal exposure was quantified with a modification of Fenske's visual scoring method. Multivariate linear regression modeling within groups and across groups was performed. In the within-group analyses, work practices, spray equipment and worksite related determinants explained 52, 33 and 25% of the exposure variability, respectively. Clothing and hygiene practices were weaker determinants and did not always reduce the exposure. The final model included determinants from all groups except hygiene practices and explained 69% of the exposure variability. A less restricted model increased the explained variability to 75%. Several novel determinants were identified, including spraying on a muddy terrain, dew on plants, sealing the tank lid with a cloth and wiping sweat from the face. This study showed that a combination of observation and visual scoring techniques can provide valuable information on determinants of pesticide exposure and affected body parts under developing country conditions. The results could be used to develop job-specific questionnaires and to design training and preventive programs.

  7. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top of Page How ... in Forensic Toxicology 2017 Forensic Course Abstracts Faculty Bios 2015 ACMT Seminars In Forensic Toxicology 2015 Forensic ...

  8. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. Results We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and

  9. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect level (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and epidemiological studies have reported some associations between endocrine disrupting effects and combined exposure to certain pesticides....... Although laboratory animal studies have shown that some endocrine disrupting pesticides can affect reproduction and sexual differentiation, individual pesticides may appear to be present in human tissues at too low levels to cause concern for adverse reproductive effects. However, recent studies in our...... to five pesticides, i.e. procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and prochloraz. Common features for the three azole fungicides are that they increase gestational length possibly because of an increase in progesterone levels in dams. Groups of 8 time-mated Wistar rats (HanTac:WH) were gavaged...

  10. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances...

  11. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  12. Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-07-01

    Insect pollinators are essential for both the production of a large proportion of world crops and the health of natural ecosystems. As important pollinators, bumblebees must learn to forage on flowers to feed both themselves and provision their colonies.Increased use of pesticides has caused concern over sublethal effects on bees, such as impacts on reproduction or learning ability. However, little is known about how sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide might affect the ability of bees to visit and manipulate flowers.We observed the behaviour of individual bumblebees from colonies chronically exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide (10 ppb thiamethoxam) or control solutions foraging for the first time on an array of morphologically complex wildflowers (Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens) in an outdoor flight arena.We found that more bees released from pesticide-treated colonies became foragers, and that they visited more L. corniculatus flowers than controls. Interestingly, bees exposed to pesticide collected pollen more often than controls, but control bees learnt to handle flowers efficiently after fewer learning visits than bees exposed to pesticide. There were also different initial floral preferences of our treatment groups; control bees visited a higher proportion of T. repens flowers, and bees exposed to pesticide were more likely to choose L. corniculatus on their first visit.Our results suggest that the foraging behaviour of bumblebees on real flowers can be altered by sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide. This has implications for the foraging success and persistence of bumblebee colonies, but perhaps more importantly for the interactions between wild plants and flower-visiting insects and ability of bees to deliver the crucial pollination services to plants necessary for ecosystem functioning.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Matthew R; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Hoppin, Jane A; Koutros, Stella; Sandler, Dale P; Lynch, Charles F; Hines, Cynthia J; Thomas, Kent; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2017-04-01

    Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. We evaluated use of 43 pesticides and 654 lung cancer cases after 10 years of additional follow-up in the AHS, a prospective cohort study comprising 57,310 pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. Information about lifetime pesticide use and other factors was ascertained at enrollment (1993-1997) and updated with a follow-up questionnaire (1999-2005). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking (smoking status and pack-years), sex, and lifetime days of use of any pesticides. Hazard ratios were elevated in the highest exposure category of lifetime days of use for pendimethalin (1.50; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31), dieldrin (1.93; 95% CI: 0.70, 5.30), and chlorimuron ethyl (1.74; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.96), although monotonic exposure-response gradients were not evident. The HRs for intensity-weighted lifetime days of use of these pesticides were similar. For parathion, the trend was statistically significant for intensity-weighted lifetime days (p = 0.049) and borderline for lifetime days (p = 0.073). None of the remaining pesticides evaluated was associated with lung cancer incidence. These analyses provide additional evidence for an association between pendimethalin, dieldrin, and parathion use and lung cancer risk. We found an association between chlorimuron ethyl, a herbicide introduced in 1986, and lung cancer that has not been previously reported. Continued follow-up is warranted.

  14. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Christine G; Hoppin, Jane A; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Costenbader, Karen H; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-11-01

    Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728-1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129.

  17. Exposure to pesticides : Pt. III Application to chrysanthemums in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Haan, M. de; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van; Kort, W.L.A.M. de

    1994-01-01

    During 20 applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored. Inhalation exposure during mixing, loading and application averaged 5.1 microgram/hour. Dermal exposure of the hands during mixing and

  18. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  19. Can traditional epidemiology detect cancer risks caused by occupational exposure to pesticides?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgellis, A. [Environmental Illness Research Center, Huddinge (Sweden); Kolmodin-Hedman, B. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health Sciences; Kouretas, D. [Thessaly Univ. , Pedion Areos, Volos (Greece). School of Agriculture

    1999-06-01

    In order to investigate the possible relationship between cancer and occupational exposure to pesticides, the authors reviewed the latest literature of the epidemiological studies in this area coming to the conclusion that, while several studies indicate a link between certain pesticides and certain tumors, this information is still insufficient, and further research on the health consequence of exposure to pesticides is needed. Moreover, provided there is a risk, it is often too limited to be detected by available epidemiological techniques. Therefore, in addition to the epidemiological studies, the development of new biology, gene technology and medical biotechnology methods may significantly enhance the specificity of the epidemiological studies. Thus, the fusion of molecular biology and epidemiology into molecular epidemiology may provide more specific methods for monitoring the occupational dependent carcinogenic risk of individuals and groups.

  20. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE...... human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography......) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate...

  1. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  2. Mishandling and exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Al-Saad, Khalid; Nriagu, Jerome

    2014-08-01

    We used a combination of subjective (questionnaire) and objective (urinary metabolites) measurements to evaluate factors that can predict the exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides and to assess whether the levels of exposure are associated with any self-reported health outcomes. The results show that pesticides were being extensively mishandled in the farms. Very few (pesticide they were using, and about one-third of the participants did not know the amount of pesticides to be applied to the crops. Nearly all (96%) of the participants had participated in mixing pesticides together before use and few (29%) used protective clothing while engaged in this operation. A significant number of participants (18%) had no knowledge that pesticides are a health hazard. At least one dialkyllphosphate (DAP) metabolite was detected in every worker. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the dimethylalkylphosphates (DMAP) was 108 nM (range, from below the limit of detection (LOD) to 351 nM), and the GM for the diethylalkylphosphates (DEAP) was 43 nM (range, LOD-180 nM). The GM for total concentration of the metabolites (DAP) of 146 nM (maximum value estimated to be 531 nM) is below the values that have been reported for farmers in some countries, but higher than the levels in the general populations of many countries. We explored the influence of metal exposure and found consistent and negative relationships between the DAP metabolites and the concentrations of most of the trace elements in the urine of the farm workers; the negative associations were statistically significant for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, As, and Pb. We suspect that the negative associations are not source-dependent but may be reflective of antagonistic relationships in human metabolism of OPPs and trace metals; hence we recommend that metals should be included as co-factors in assessing the health effects of OPP exposure.

  3. Cutaneous changes in rats induced by chronic skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation and organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; Santos, Itamar; Korinsfky, Juliana Pedrosa; Lima e Silva, Benedyto Sávio; Carvalho, Luis Otávio; Plapler, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    To study the possible potentiation of the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation associated with an organophosphate pesticide. Forty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (n=10 each) randomized according to the procedures: group A received only UVR-B radiation; group B, UVR-B for eight weeks followed by a seven week period of pesticide exposure; group C, UVR-B + pesticide concomitantly: group D, only pesticide application. At the end of the fifth, tenth and fifteenth weeks the animals were photographed. Skin biopsy and histopathological study with Hematoxylin-Eosin were done on the fifteenth week. Statistical analysis with Fisher's and Sign (unilateral) tests, 5% value for significance. Macroscopic lesions in the group A evolved from the erythema to erythema + desquamation. The groups B and C, with the association of two carcinogens, and group D presented evolution to keratosis, with higher incidence in group D. The histology showed a significant increase in the severity of injuries when the UVR-B and the pesticide were applied simultaneously, leading to cellular atypia. Concurrent association of UVR-B to organophosphate pesticide produced more severe lesions microscopically, although this has not been so apparent macroscopically. In daily practice the clinical evaluation should be complemented with laboratory evaluation.

  4. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photogra...

  5. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, K.B.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.J.J.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or othe

  6. Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephantus J Muturi

    Full Text Available Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats.

  7. Erosion rills offset the efficacy of vegetated buffer strips to mitigate pesticide exposure in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Dabrowski, James Michael; Bangert, Uli; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1-12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R(2)=0.626; pmodeling approach in which buffer strip width was set to zero at sites with erosion rills; in contrast, no relationship between predicted runoff losses and in-stream pesticide concentrations were detected in the modeling approach that neglected erosion rills and thus assumed efficient buffer strips. Overall, the results of our study show that erosion rills may substantially reduce buffer strip pesticide retention efficacies during runoff events and suggest that the capability of buffer strips as a risk mitigation tool for runoff is largely overestimated in current regulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization.

  8. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  9. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outdoors on rainy or windy days. DO NOT water your garden after using a pesticide. Check the manufacturer's instructions ... home: DO NOT place food scraps in the garden for birds, raccoons, ... puddles of water as soon as possible, change birdbath water at ...

  10. Metabolomics tools for describing complex pesticide exposure in pregnant women in Brittany (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Chevrier, Cécile; Canlet, Cécile; Warembourg, Charline; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-01-01

    The use of pesticides and the related environmental contaminations can lead to human exposure to various molecules. In early-life, such exposures could be responsible for adverse developmental effects. However, human health risks associated with exposure to complex mixtures are currently under-explored. THIS PROJECT AIMS AT ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: What is the influence of exposures to multiple pesticides on the metabolome? What mechanistic pathways could be involved in the metabolic changes observed? Based on the PELAGIE cohort (Brittany, France), 83 pregnant women who provided a urine sample in early pregnancy, were classified in 3 groups according to the surface of land dedicated to agricultural cereal activities in their town of residence. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics analyses were performed on urine samples. Partial Least Squares Regression-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and polytomous regressions were used to separate the urinary metabolic profiles from the 3 exposure groups after adjusting for potential confounders. The 3 groups of exposure were correctly separated with a PLS-DA model after implementing an orthogonal signal correction with pareto standardizations (R2 = 90.7% and Q2 = 0.53). After adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index and smoking habits, the most statistically significant changes were observed for glycine, threonine, lactate and glycerophosphocholine (upward trend), and for citrate (downward trend). This work suggests that an exposure to complex pesticide mixtures induces modifications of metabolic fingerprints. It can be hypothesized from identified discriminating metabolites that the pesticide mixtures could increase oxidative stress and disturb energy metabolism.

  11. Exposure to Multiple Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men from Six Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, Karin; Harris, Shelley A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Spinelli, John J.; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A.; Demers, Paul A.; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been linked to several agricultural exposures, including some commonly used pesticides. Although there is a significant body of literature examining the effects of exposure to individual pesticides on NHL, the impact of exposure to multiple pesticides or specific pesticide combinations has not been explored in depth. Data from a six-province Canadian case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 were analyzed to investigate the relationship between NHL, the total number of pesticides used and some common pesticide combinations. Cases (n = 513) were identified through hospital records and provincial cancer registries and controls (n = 1,506), frequency matched to cases by age and province of residence, were obtained through provincial health records, telephone listings, or voter lists. In multiple logistic regression analyses, risk of NHL increased with the number of pesticides used. Similar results were obtained in analyses restricted to herbicides, insecticides and several pesticide classes. Odds ratios increased further when only ‘potentially carcinogenic’ pesticides were considered (OR[one pesticide] = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.90–1.88; OR[two to four] = 1.54, CI = 1.11–2.12; OR[five or more] = 1.94, CI = 1.17–3.23). Elevated risks were also found among those reporting use of malathion in combination with several other pesticides. These analyses support and extend previous findings that the risk of NHL increases with the number of pesticides used and some pesticide combinations. PMID:21776232

  12. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  13. Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavallé, N; Font, L; Garcia-Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998-2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non-arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non-arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non-arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Long term exposure to non-arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers.

  14. The effects of pesticide exposure on ultraviolet-B radiation avoidance behavior in tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Weir, Scott M; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2014-05-15

    Effects of contaminants on behavior may have important consequences on wildlife populations because behaviors such as predation, predator avoidance, reproduction, and social interaction can affect population dynamics. As a common environmental stressor, ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation causes various deleterious effects and some aquatic organisms actively avoid UVB radiation in water. However, the extent to which environmental contaminants can impair UVB avoidance has not been evaluated, which may cause greater UVB exposure and toxicity. In the present study, we used Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine if acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of agricultural chemicals can alter tadpole response to UVB radiation. We exposed tadpoles to four pesticides (malathion, endosulfan, α-cypermethrin, and chlorothalonil) for 96 h. At the end of the exposure, tadpoles were transferred to tanks divided into UVB and no-UVB areas. We observed tadpoles for 30 min and recorded time spent in the UVB area. We compared the proportion of time tadpoles spent in the UVB area among different concentrations for each pesticide. There was no significant difference between FETAX control and solvent control tadpoles. When combined, control tadpoles spent less than half of the time in the UVB area indicating that X. laevis tadpoles exhibit UVB avoidance behavior. Tadpoles exposed to 5 μg/L endosulfan spent significantly more time under UVB than control tadpoles. Other pesticides had no effect on tadpole UVB avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that some neurotoxic pesticides can affect UVB avoidance in larval amphibians, which may increase their exposure and subsequently the risk of UVB-induced damage. The present study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between two stressors that co-occur across broad spatial scales and to consider behavioral alteration when evaluating the risk of pesticides to amphibians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms after pesticide exposure and the role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašková, Veronika; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Many pesticides have been documented to induce embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in non-target aquatic biota such a fish, amphibians and invertebrates. Our review of the existing literature shows that a broad range of pesticides, representing several different chemical classes, induce variable toxic effects in aquatic species. The effects observed include diverse morphological malformations as well as physiological and behavioral effects. When development malformations occur, the myoskeletal system is among the most highly sensitive of targets. Myoskeletal effects that have been documented to result from pesticides were also known to interfere with the development of organ systems including the eyes or the heart and are also known to often cause lethal or sublethal edema in exposed organisms. The Physiological, behavioral, and population endpoints affected by pesticides include low or delayed hatching, growth suppression, as well as embryonal or larval mortality. The risks associated with pesticide exposure increase particularly during the spring. This is the period of time in which major pepticide applications take place, and this period unfortunately also coincides with many sensitive reproductive events such as spawning, egg laying, and early development of many aquatic organisms. Only few experimental studies with pesticides have directly linked developmental toxicity with key oxidative stress endpoints, such as lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, or modulation of antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, it has been documented in many reports that pesticide-related oxidative damage occurs in exposed adult fish, amphibians, and invertebrates. Moreover, the contribution of oxidative stress to the toxicity of pesticides has been emphasized in several recent review papers that have treated this topic. In conclusion, the available experimental data, augmented by several indirect lines of evidence, provide support to the concept that oxidative stress is a

  16. Interaction between paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure on metabolic markers in children using a multiplex approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nellemann, Christine; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine;

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal environmental exposures may influence the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases later in life. This study used a multiplex approach to investigate non-fasting serum levels of metabolic markers in a cohort of school-aged children for whom associations between prenatal pesticide exposure...... and body fat content and blood pressure were previously found to be dependent on paraoxonase1 (PON1) Q192R genotype. In children with the PON1 192 R-allele, leptin, glucagon, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with prenatal pesticide exposure. For PON1 192 QQ......-homozygote children none of the biomarkers were significantly affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. In children with the R-allele, leptin was associated with both body fat measures and prenatal pesticide exposure and seems to mediate body fat accumulation in exposed children. These findings support our previous...

  17. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  18. Paternal and joint parental occupational pesticide exposure and spina bifida in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Stacy M; Bell, Erin M; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Olshan, Andrew; Lupo, Philip J; Soim, Aida; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Michalski, Adrian M; Sanderson, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    Because of persistent concerns over the association between pesticides and spina bifida, we examined the role of paternal and combined parental occupational pesticide exposures in spina bifida in offspring using data from a large population-based study of birth defects. Occupational information from fathers of 291 spina bifida cases and 2745 unaffected live born control infants with estimated dates of delivery from 1997 to 2002 were collected by means of maternal report. Two expert industrial hygienists estimated exposure intensity and frequency to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for exposure to any pesticide and to any class of pesticide (yes/no; and by median), and exposure to combinations of pesticides (yes/no) and risk of spina bifida. Adjusted odds ratios were also estimated by parent exposed to pesticides (neither, mother only, father only, both parents). Joint parental occupational pesticide exposure was positively associated with spina bifida (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4) when compared with infants with neither maternal nor paternal exposures; a similar association was not observed when only one parent was exposed. There was a suggested positive association between combined paternal insecticide and fungicide exposures and spina bifida (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-2.8), however, nearly all other aORs were close to unity. Overall, there was little evidence paternal occupational pesticide exposure was associated with spina bifida. However, the small numbers make it difficult to precisely evaluate the role of pesticide classes, individually and in combination. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:963-971, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P.; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with

  20. Exposure to pesticides in agriculture: a survey of spraymen using dimethoate in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, J. F.; Fakhri, Z. I.; Miles, J. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Osman, Y.; Wolfe, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need for objective data on the exposure of spraymen to pesticides in agriculture in order to assess minimum requirements for practicable protection in tropical areas. To provide data, a survey was carried out in the Sudan on spraymen using dimethoate. No cholinesterase depressions were found and the calculated dose received by each man per day was within safe limits in the circumstances of this survey. Respiratory exposure was only a minor part of total exposure. The methodology of such surveys is discussed and the need for the use of a standard protocol is emphasized. PMID:1088104

  1. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-07-07

    Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because occupational exposures are a modifiable risk factor for COPD. To investigate the associations between occupational exposures and fixed airflow obstruction using postbronchodilator spirometry. One thousand three hundred and thirty-five participants were included from 2002 to 2008 follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). Spirometry was performed and lifetime work history calendars were used to collect occupational history. ALOHA plus Job Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposure, and defined as ever exposed and cumulative exposure unit (EU)-years. Fixed airflow obstruction was defined by postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC exposure to biological dust (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.48), pesticides (RR=1.74,95% CI 1.00 to 3.07) and herbicides (RR=2.09,95% CI 1.18 to 3.70) were associated with fixed airflow obstruction. Cumulative EU-years to all pesticides (RR=1.11,95% CI 1.00 to 1.25) and herbicides (RR=1.15,95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) were also associated with fixed airflow obstruction. In addition, all pesticides exposure was consistently associated with chronic bronchitis and symptoms that are consistent with airflow obstruction. Ever exposure to mineral dust, gases/fumes and vapours, gases, dust or fumes were only associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics only. Pesticides and herbicides exposures were associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Biological dust exposure was also associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics. Minimising occupational exposure to these agents may help to reduce the burden of COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  2. Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-05-15

    Pesticides are important agricultural tools often used in combination to avoid resistance in target pest species, but there is growing concern that their widespread use contributes to the decline of pollinator populations. Pollinators perform sophisticated behaviours while foraging that require them to learn and remember floral traits associated with food, but we know relatively little about the way that combined exposure to multiple pesticides affects neural function and behaviour. The experiments reported here show that prolonged exposure to field-realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor coumaphos and their combination impairs olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Using a method for classical conditioning of proboscis extension, honeybees were trained in either a massed or spaced conditioning protocol to examine how these pesticides affected performance during learning and short- and long-term memory tasks. We found that bees exposed to imidacloprid, coumaphos, or a combination of these compounds, were less likely to express conditioned proboscis extension towards an odor associated with reward. Bees exposed to imidacloprid were less likely to form a long-term memory, whereas bees exposed to coumaphos were only less likely to respond during the short-term memory test after massed conditioning. Imidacloprid, coumaphos and a combination of the two compounds impaired the bees' ability to differentiate the conditioned odour from a novel odour during the memory test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to sublethal doses of combined cholinergic pesticides significantly impairs important behaviours involved in foraging, implying that pollinator population decline could be the result of a failure of neural function of bees exposed to pesticides in agricultural landscapes.

  3. Biomonitoring exposure assessment to contemporary pesticides in a school children population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Marta; Miralles-Marco, Ana; Ferré, Joan; Pérez, Rosa; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-05-01

    The exposure to pesticides amongst school-aged children (6-11 years old) was assessed in this study. One hundred twenty-five volunteer children were selected from two public schools located in an agricultural and in an urban area of Valencia Region, Spain. Twenty pesticide metabolites were analyzed in children's urine as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, and herbicides. These data were combined with a survey to evaluate the main predictors of pesticide exposure in the children's population. A total of 15 metabolites were present in the urine samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 5% to 86%. The most frequently detected metabolites with DF>53%, were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos), diethyl phosphate (DEP, generic metabolite of OP insecticides), 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY, metabolite of diazinon) and para-nitrophenol (PNP, metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion). The calculated geometric means ranged from 0.47 to 3.36 µg/g creatinine, with TCPy and IMPY showing the higher mean concentrations. Statistical significant differences were found between exposure subgroups (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) for TCPy, DEP, and IMPY. Children living in the agricultural area had significantly higher concentrations of DEP than those living in the urban area. In contrast, children aged 6-8 years from the urban area, showed statistically higher IMPY levels than those from agricultural area. Higher levels of TCPy were also found in children with high consumption of vegetables and higher levels of DEP in children whose parents did not have university degree studies. The multivariable regression analysis showed that age, vegetable consumption, and residential use of pesticides were predictors of exposure for TCPy, and IMPY; whereas location and vegetable consumption were factors associated with DEP concentrations. Creatinine concentrations were the most

  4. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  5. Pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years in Texas, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Amber B; Forrester, Mathias B; Han, Daikwon; Shipp, Eva M; Cizmas, Leslie H

    2016-11-01

    Although national poison center data show that pesticides were the 8th most commonly reported substance category (3.27%) for children aged ≤5 years in 2014, there is limited information on childhood and adolescent pesticide exposures. This study assessed pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years from 2000-2013 in Texas to characterize the potential burden of pesticides. Pesticide-related poison center exposures among children and adolescents aged ≤19 years reported to Texas poison centers were identified. The distribution of exposures was estimated by gender, age category, medical outcome, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. From 2000 to 2013, there were 61,147 pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years. The prevalence was highest among males at 864.24 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of unintentional exposures was highest among children aged ≤5 years at 2310.69 per 100,000 population, whereas the prevalence of intentional exposures was highest among adolescents aged 13-19 years at 13.82 per 100,000 population. A majority of medical outcomes reported were classified as having no effect (30.24%) and not followed, but minimal clinical effects possible (42.74%). Of all the exposures, 81.24% were managed on site. However, 57% of intentional exposures were referred to or treated at a health-care facility. The most common routes of exposure were ingestion (80.83%) and dermal (17.21%). The most common pesticide categories included rodenticides (30.02%), pyrethrins/pyrethroids (20.69%), and other and unspecified insecticides (18.14%). The study found differences in the frequency of exposures by intent for sex and age categories, and identified the most common medical outcomes, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. Through characterizing pesticide-related poison center exposures, future interventions can be designed to address groups

  6. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and childhood tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Garcia, Wanda E.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Horton, Megan K.; Barr, Dana B.; Louis, Elan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used for agricultural purposes, has been linked to neurodevelopmental deficits. Possible motor effects at low to moderate levels of exposure have not been evaluated. Methods Prenatal exposure to CPF was measured in umbilical cord blood in a sample of 263 inner-city minority children, who were followed prospectively. At approximately 11 years of age (mean age 10.9 ± 0.85 years, range = 9.0–13.9), during a neuropsychological assessment, children were asked to draw Archimedes spirals. These were rated by a senior neurologist specializing in movement disorders who was blind to CPF exposure level. Results Compared to all other children, those with prenatal CPF exposure in the upper quartile range (n = 43) were more likely to exhibit mild or mild to moderate tremor (≥1) in either arm (p = 0.03), both arms (p = 0.02), the dominant arm (p = 0.01), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.055). Logistic regression analyses showed significant CPF effects on tremor in both arms, either arm, the dominant arm (p-values < 0.05), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.06), after adjustment for sex, age at testing, ethnicity, and medication. Conclusion Prenatal CPF exposure is associated with tremor in middle childhood, which may be a sign of the insecticide's effects on nervous system function. PMID:26385760

  7. A pragmatic approach to assess the exposure of the honey bee (Apis mellifera when subjected to pesticide spray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Poquet

    Full Text Available Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ. The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity. For the honey bee, the HQ calculation is not consistent because it corresponds to the ratio between the pesticide field rate (in mass of pesticide/ha and LD50 (in mass of pesticide/bee. Thus, in contrast to all other species, the HQ can only be interpreted empirically because it corresponds to a number of bees/ha. This type of HQ calculation is due to the difficulty in transforming pesticide field rates into doses to which bees are exposed. In this study, we used a pragmatic approach to determine the apparent exposure surface area of honey bees submitted to pesticide treatments by spraying with a Potter-type tower. The doses received by the bees were quantified by very efficient chemical analyses, which enabled us to determine an apparent surface area of 1.05 cm(2/bee. The apparent surface area was used to calculate the exposure levels of bees submitted to pesticide sprays and then to revisit the HQ ratios with a calculation mode similar to that used for all other living species. X-tomography was used to assess the physical surface area of a bee, which was 3.27 cm(2/bee, and showed that the apparent exposure surface was not overestimated. The control experiments showed that the toxicity induced by doses calculated with the exposure surface area was similar to that induced by treatments according to the European testing procedure. This new approach to measure risk is more accurate and could become a tool to aid the decision-making process in the risk assessment of pesticides.

  8. A pragmatic approach to assess the exposure of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) when subjected to pesticide spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Yannick; Bodin, Laurent; Tchamitchian, Marc; Fusellier, Marion; Giroud, Barbara; Lafay, Florent; Buleté, Audrey; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Cousin, Marianne; Pélissier, Michel; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2014-01-01

    Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ). The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity. For the honey bee, the HQ calculation is not consistent because it corresponds to the ratio between the pesticide field rate (in mass of pesticide/ha) and LD50 (in mass of pesticide/bee). Thus, in contrast to all other species, the HQ can only be interpreted empirically because it corresponds to a number of bees/ha. This type of HQ calculation is due to the difficulty in transforming pesticide field rates into doses to which bees are exposed. In this study, we used a pragmatic approach to determine the apparent exposure surface area of honey bees submitted to pesticide treatments by spraying with a Potter-type tower. The doses received by the bees were quantified by very efficient chemical analyses, which enabled us to determine an apparent surface area of 1.05 cm(2)/bee. The apparent surface area was used to calculate the exposure levels of bees submitted to pesticide sprays and then to revisit the HQ ratios with a calculation mode similar to that used for all other living species. X-tomography was used to assess the physical surface area of a bee, which was 3.27 cm(2)/bee, and showed that the apparent exposure surface was not overestimated. The control experiments showed that the toxicity induced by doses calculated with the exposure surface area was similar to that induced by treatments according to the European testing procedure. This new approach to measure risk is more accurate and could become a tool to aid the decision-making process in the risk assessment of pesticides.

  9. A Pragmatic Approach to Assess the Exposure of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) When Subjected to Pesticide Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Yannick; Bodin, Laurent; Tchamitchian, Marc; Fusellier, Marion; Giroud, Barbara; Lafay, Florent; Buleté, Audrey; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Cousin, Marianne; Pélissier, Michel; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ). The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity. For the honey bee, the HQ calculation is not consistent because it corresponds to the ratio between the pesticide field rate (in mass of pesticide/ha) and LD50 (in mass of pesticide/bee). Thus, in contrast to all other species, the HQ can only be interpreted empirically because it corresponds to a number of bees/ha. This type of HQ calculation is due to the difficulty in transforming pesticide field rates into doses to which bees are exposed. In this study, we used a pragmatic approach to determine the apparent exposure surface area of honey bees submitted to pesticide treatments by spraying with a Potter-type tower. The doses received by the bees were quantified by very efficient chemical analyses, which enabled us to determine an apparent surface area of 1.05 cm2/bee. The apparent surface area was used to calculate the exposure levels of bees submitted to pesticide sprays and then to revisit the HQ ratios with a calculation mode similar to that used for all other living species. X-tomography was used to assess the physical surface area of a bee, which was 3.27 cm2/bee, and showed that the apparent exposure surface was not overestimated. The control experiments showed that the toxicity induced by doses calculated with the exposure surface area was similar to that induced by treatments according to the European testing procedure. This new approach to measure risk is more accurate and could become a tool to aid the decision-making process in the risk assessment of pesticides. PMID:25412103

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in a pooled analysis of agricultural cohorts within the AGRICOH consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Schinasi, Leah; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Baldi, Isabelle; Lebailly, Pierre; Ferro, Gilles; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Schüz, Joachim; Leon, Maria E; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes methods developed to assess occupational exposure to pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups, harmonised across cohort studies included in the first AGRICOH pooling project, focused on the risk of lymph-haematological malignancies. METHODS: Three prospective

  11. Occupational exposure to pesticides and pregnancy outcomes in gardeners and farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hjollund, Niels H; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a follow-up study to examine whether exposure to pesticides during pregnancy had an adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes among Danish gardeners and farmers. METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Cohort in Denmark, we identified 226 pregnancies of gardeners and 214...... pregnancies of farmers during 1997 through 2003. Work activities and exposure to pesticides were reported in an interview (around 16 weeks of gestation). Totally, 62,164 other workers in the cohort served as a reference group. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Cox...... regression was applied to analyze late fetal loss and congenital malformations, and logistic regression was used to analyze preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the studied pregnancy outcomes between gardeners or farmers and all other workers, except...

  12. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the presence of the pesticides.

  13. Honey bee gut microbiome is altered by in-hive pesticide exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Kakumanu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g. immune system. The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  14. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  15. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11years together with 44 newly recruited...... children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  16. The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-02-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE pesticide exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow ( Spizella passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins ( Turdus migratorius) and gray catbirds ( Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species that are most appropriate.

  17. Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Krupke, Christian H.; Hunt, Greg J.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Gladys Andino; Krispn Given

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and seve...

  18. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes,Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by...

  19. Environmental monitoring of pesticide exposure and effects on mangrove aquatic organisms of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Scarlet, Perpetua; Halling, Maja; Kreuger, Jenny; Macia, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides in Mozambique is increasing along with the development of agriculture in the country. Mangroves along the coastlines are ecologically important areas and vital nursing grounds for many aquatic species, several of which are of high economic value in Mozambique. Barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus), Jarbua fish (Terapon jarbua), Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus) and the clam Meretrix meretrix were collected at three mangrove sites in the Maputo Bay area. This was complemented with samplings of the freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), which was collected from three sampling sites along rivers in the surroundings of Maputo and from three sites along the Olifants and Limpopo River. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is an established biomarker for organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, was measured in brain and liver tissue in fish, and hepatopancreas tissue in prawn and clam. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was also analyzed. Freshwater samples for pesticide analyses were collected in order to get an initial understanding of the classes and levels of pesticides present in aquatic systems in Mozambique. In addition to field samplings two 48-h exposure experiments were also conducted where the Indian white prawn and Barred mudskipper were exposed to malathion, and Mozambique tilapia exposed to malathion and diazinon. Field results show a significant decrease in AChE activity in fish from four of the sampling sites suggesting that pesticides present in water could be one stressor potentially affecting aquatic organisms negatively. The 48 h exposure experiment results showed a clear dose-response relationship of AChE activity in mudskipper and tilapia suggesting these species as suitable as sentinel species in environmental studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for lymphoproliferative disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E A; Hegazy, M M; El Khouley, E A

    2014-06-18

    In view of the widespread use of pesticides in Egypt and the increasing incidence of leukaemia and lymphoma we aimed to assess pesticide exposure and other selected variables as risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders (leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In a hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study in 2011-2012, adult cases of lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 130) were recruited from outpatient clinics in Menoufia, Egypt, while controls (n = 130) were age- and sex-matched fracture patients. Family history of cancer, exposure to X-rays, smoking and use of hair dyes were not risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in univariate analysis. History of exposure to pesticides and HCV infection were significant risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in multivariate analysis (OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.22-4.11 and OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.50-4.80 respectively). The risk was significant for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

  1. Assessment of a pesticide exposure intensity algorithm in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Coble, Joseph B; Hoppin, Jane A; Sheldon, Linda S; Chapa, Guadalupe; Croghan, Carry W; Jones, Paul A; Knott, Charles E; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C

    2010-09-01

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators who provided detailed questionnaire information on their use of specific pesticides. A field study was conducted for a subset of the applicators enrolled in the AHS to assess a pesticide exposure algorithm through comparison of algorithm intensity scores with measured exposures. Pre- and post-application urinary biomarker measurements were made for 2,4-D (n=69) and chlorpyrifos (n=17) applicators. Dermal patch, hand wipe, and personal air samples were also collected. Intensity scores were calculated using information from technician observations and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Correlations between observer and questionnaire intensity scores were high (Spearman's r=0.92 and 0.84 for 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos, respectively). Intensity scores from questionnaires for individual applications were significantly correlated with post-application urinary concentrations for both 2,4-D (r=0.42, P<0.001) and chlorpyrifos (r=0.53, P=0.035) applicators. Significant correlations were also found between intensity scores and estimated hand loading, estimated body loading, and air concentrations for 2,4-D applicators (r-values 0.28-0.50, P-values<0.025). Correlations between intensity scores and dermal and air measures were generally lower for chlorpyrifos applicators using granular products. A linear regression model indicated that the algorithm factors for individual applications explained 24% of the variability in post-application urinary 2,4-D concentration, which increased to 60% when the pre-application urine concentration was included. The results of the measurements support the use of the algorithm for estimating questionnaire

  2. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 9569 cases and 32 028 controls were included. No overall associations were found for either maternal or paternal exposures and TGCT risk in their sons, with ORs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.23) and of 1.03 (0.92 to 1.14), respectively. Country-specific estimates and stratification by birth cohorts...

  3. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  4. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  5. Pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez, Inmaculada; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Parrón, Tesifón; Lacasaña, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Childrens exposure to neurotoxic compounds poses a major problem to public health because oftheir actively developing brain that makes them highly vulnerable. However, limited information is available on neuropsychological effects in children associated with pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides. To evaluate the association between current and pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and their effects on neurodevelopment in children aged 6–11 years living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain. An ambispective study was conducted on 305 children aged 6–11 years randomly selected from public schools of the study area. Current exposure to organophosphate pesticides was assessed measuring children's urinary levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs). Both prenatal and postnatal residential exposure to pesticides was estimated by developing a geographical information system (GIS) technology-based index that integrated distance-weighted measure of agricultural surface, time-series of crop areas per municipality and year, and land-use maps. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The association of pre- and postnatal and current pesticide exposure with WISC-IV scale scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, respectively. Greater urinary DAP levels were associated with a poorer performance on intelligence quotient and verbal comprehension domain, with effects being more prominent in boys than in girls. The influence of an increase in 10 ha per year in crop surface around the child's residence during the postnatal period was associated with decreased intelligence quotient, processing speed and verbal comprehension scores. As regards prenatal exposure to pesticides, a poor processing speed performance was observed. These effects were also more prominent in boys than in girls. Our results suggest that

  6. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  7. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  8. Exploring cancer development in adulthood: cholinesterase depression and genotoxic effect from chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides among rural farm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Vivien; Hashim, Zailina; Ismail, Patimah; Md Said, Salmiah; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul

    2014-01-01

    Children are the vulnerable group in the agricultural community due to their early exposure to pesticides through the dynamic interplay between genetic predisposition, environment, and host-related factors. This study aims to identify the possible association between the depression in blood cholinesterase level and genotoxic effect among farm children. The results of micronuclei assay and comet assay showed that the reduced blood cholinesterase level from organophosphate pesticide exposure is significantly associated with an increase in chromosome breakage and DNA strand breaks. These genotoxicity end points suggest that farm children's cells experience early DNA damage that may lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation during their adulthood. Thus, farm children who grow up near pesticide-treated farmland have a higher probability of developing cancer than children with minimal or zero exposure to pesticides.

  9. Examining impacts of current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario using in situ exposures of the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Adrienne J; Struger, John; Grapentine, Lee C; Palace, Vince P

    2016-05-01

    In situ exposures with Hyalella azteca were used to assess impacts of current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario, Canada. Exposures were conducted over 2 growing seasons within areas of high pesticide use: 1 site on Prudhomme Creek and 3 sites on Twenty Mile Creek. Three sites on Spencer Creek, an area of low pesticide use, were added in the second season. Surface water samples were collected every 2 wk to 3 wk and analyzed for a suite of pesticides. Hyalella were exposed in situ for 1 wk every 4 wk to 6 wk, and survival and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured. Pesticides in surface waters reflected seasonal use patterns: lower concentrations in spring and fall and higher concentrations during summer months. Organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, azinphos methyl, diazinon) and acid herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D], mecoprop) were routinely detected in Prudhomme Creek, whereas neutral herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor) dominated the pesticide signature of Twenty Mile Creek. Spencer Creek contained fewer pesticides, which were measured at lower concentrations. In situ effects also followed seasonal patterns: higher survival and AChE activity in spring and fall, and lower survival and AChE activity during summer months. The highest toxicity was observed at Prudhomme Creek and was primarily associated with organophosphates. The present study demonstrated that current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario were linked to in situ effects and identified sites of concern requiring further investigation.

  10. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  11. How does exposure to pesticides vary in space and time for residents living near to treated orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hie Ling; Garthwaite, David G; Ramwell, Carmel T; Brown, Colin D

    2017-09-25

    This study investigated changes over 25 years (1987-2012) in pesticide usage in orchards in England and Wales and associated changes to exposure and risk for resident pregnant women living 100 and 1000 m downwind of treated areas. A model was developed to estimate aggregated daily exposure to pesticides via inhaled vapour and indirect dermal contact with contaminated ground, whilst risk was expressed as a hazard quotient (HQ) based on estimated exposure and the no observed (adverse) effect level for reproductive and developmental effects. Results show the largest changes occurred between 1987 and 1996 with total pesticide usage reduced by ca. 25%, exposure per unit of pesticide applied slightly increased, and a reduction in risk per unit exposure by factors of 1.3 to 3. Thereafter, there were no consistent changes in use between 1996 and 2012, with an increase in number of applications to each crop balanced by a decrease in average application rate. Exposure per unit of pesticide applied decreased consistently over this period such that values in 2012 for this metric were 48-65% of those in 1987, and there were further smaller decreases in risk per unit exposure. All aggregated hazard quotients were two to three orders of magnitude smaller than one, despite the inherent simplifications of assuming co-occurrence of exposure to all pesticides and additivity of effects. Hazard quotients at 1000 m were 5 to 16 times smaller than those at 100 m. There were clear signals of the impact of regulatory intervention in improving the fate and hazard profiles of pesticides used in orchards in England and Wales over the period investigated.

  12. Estimated Maternal Pesticide Exposure from Drinking Water and Heart Defects in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Swartz, Michael D; Langlois, Peter H; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter; Mitchell, Laura E; Luben, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Meyer, Robert E; Winston, Jennifer J; Reefhuis, Jennita; Blossom, Sarah J; Bell, Erin; Agopian, A J

    2017-08-08

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between estimated maternal exposure to pesticides in public drinking water and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to analyze data from 18,291 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and 4414 randomly-selected controls delivered in Texas from 1999 through 2005. Water district-level pesticide exposure was estimated by linking each maternal residential address to the corresponding public water supply district's measured atrazine levels. We repeated analyses among independent subjects from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1620 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects and 1335 controls delivered from 1999 through 2005). No positive associations were observed between high versus low atrazine level and eight CHD subtypes or all included heart defects combined. These findings should be interpreted with caution, in light of potential misclassification and relatively large proportions of subjects with missing atrazine data. Thus, more consistent and complete monitoring and reporting of drinking water contaminants will aid in better understanding the relationships between pesticide water contaminants and birth defects.

  13. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutris, J M; How, V; Sumeri, S A; Muhammad, M; Sardi, D; Mohd Mokhtar, M T; Muhammad, H; Ghazi, H F; Isa, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7%) showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm) than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm). There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide) and length of residence in (exposure) the study area.

  14. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Sutris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Results: Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7% showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm. There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. Conclusion: The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide and length of residence in (exposure the study area.

  15. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  16. Immediate and lag effects of pesticide exposure on parasite resistance in larval amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-01-11

    Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. Northern leopard frogs exposed to 1 mg L-1 of carbaryl had 61% higher parasite loads compared with unexposed individuals, while there was no immediate effect of carbaryl on parasite encystment in American toads. However, when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl and moved to freshwater for 14 days before the parasite challenge, we recovered 37 and 63% more parasites from carbaryl-exposed northern leopard frogs and American toads, respectively, compared with the control. No effects on clearance were found for either species. Collectively, our results suggest that pesticide exposure can reduce the ability of amphibians to resist parasite infections and that these effects can persist weeks following exposure. It is critical for researchers to incorporate species interactions into toxicity studies to improve our understanding of how contaminants affect ecological communities.

  17. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  18. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  19. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  20. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, G. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Panzone, L. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Butler-Ellis, M.C. [Silsoe Spray Applications Unit, NIAB, Building 42, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HP (United Kingdom); Capri, E. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. [TNO Innovation for Life, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands); Machera, K. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Spanoghe, P. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Glass, R. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Marchis, A. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Doanngoc, K. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hart, A. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Frewer, L.J., E-mail: Lynn.Frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  1. A systematic review on human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadboorestan, Amir; Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Goharbari, Mohammad Hadi; Khanjani, Narges

    2016-07-02

    Human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is a serious health challenge. We conducted a systematic review by searching international and national databases for published literature on any human exposure to OPs in Iran from 1990 to March 2015. Qualified papers were in two categories including studies in which biomarkers of exposure were assessed (n = 13; total no. of subjects = 759) and studies that had reported prevalence of OPs-induced poisoning (OPP) and mortality (n = 26; total no. of subjects = 5428). The mean level of activity of acetyl-cholinesterase and butyryl-cholinesterase were 68.65% and 74.2%, respectively. Overall proportion (%) of OPP was estimated (16; 95% CI, 14 to 19).

  2. Derivation of single layer clothing penetration factors from the pesticide handlers exposure database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John; Mihlan, Gary; Lunchick, Curt; Landenberger, Bryce

    2007-11-01

    Quantitative characterization of the penetration of chemical residues through various types and configurations of clothing is an important underpinning of mitigation strategies to reduce dermal exposure to occupational cohorts. The objective of the evaluation presented herein is the development of pesticide clothing penetration (or conversely protection) factors for single layer clothing (i.e., long-sleeved shirt, long pants; gloves are not included) based on dermal exposure monitoring data (passive dosimetry) included in the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database (PHED). The analysis of penetration per replicate was conducted by comparison of the inside and outside (total deposition), expressed as mug/cm(2), for each replicate pair of dermal dosimeters. Clothing penetration was investigated as a function of job classification, dosimetry sampling method, body part, application method, and type of formulation. Grand mean single layer clothing penetration values for patch (n=2029) and whole-body (n=100) dosimeter samples from PHED were 12.12 (SE=0.33; SD=15.02) and 8.21 (SE=1.01; SD=10.14) percent, respectively. Linear regression was used to evaluate clothing penetration as a function of outer dosimeter loading. The regression analysis supports the hypothesis that single layer clothing penetration increases with decreasing outer dosimeter loading.

  3. Occupational exposure of workers to pesticides: Toxicogenetics and susceptibility gene polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adad, Lúcia Maria de Miranda; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues; Kvitko, Kátia; Lehmann, Mauricio; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Farm workers are often exposed to pesticides, which are products belonging to a specific chemical group that affects the health of agricultural workers and is mostly recognized as genotoxic and carcinogenic. The exposure of workers from Piauí, Brazil, to these hazardous chemicals was assessed and cytogenetic alterations were evaluated using the buccal micronucleus assay, hematological and lipid parameters, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, such as PON1, as well as of the DNA repair system (OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC4). Two groups of farm workers exposed to different types of pesticides were evaluated and compared to matched non-exposed control groups. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of micronuclei, kariorrhexis, karyolysis and binucleated cells in the exposed groups (n = 100) compared to controls (n = 100). No differences were detected regarding the hematological parameters, lipid profile and BChE activity. No significant difference was observed either regarding DNA damage or nuclear fragmentation when specific metabolizing and DNA repair genotypes were investigated in the exposed groups. PMID:26500434

  4. Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann

    2006-01-01

    A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticide exposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticide exposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females in pesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88).

  5. Investigating the impacts of field-realistic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide on bumblebee foraging, homing ability and colony growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A; Russell, Avery L; Morrison, Sarah J; Rogers, Catherine; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-10-01

    The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services.We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5-43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying bumblebee colonies.Individual foragers from pesticide-exposed colonies carried out longer foraging bouts than untreated controls (68 vs. 55 min). Pesticide-exposed bees also brought back pollen less frequently than controls indicating reduced foraging performance.A higher proportion of bees from pesticide-exposed colonies returned when released 1 km from their nests; this is potentially related to increased orientation experience during longer foraging bouts. We measured no impact of pesticide exposure on homing ability for bees released from 2 km, or when data were analysed overall.Despite a trend for control colonies to produce more new workers earlier, we found no overall impacts of pesticide exposure on whole colony size. Synthesis and applications. This study shows that field-realistic neonicotinoid exposure can have impacts on both foraging ability and homing success of bumblebees, with implications for the success of bumblebee colonies in agricultural landscapes and their ability to deliver crucial pollination services. Pesticide risk assessments should include bee species other than honeybees and assess a range of behaviours to elucidate the impact of sublethal effects. This has relevance for reviews of neonicotinoid risk assessment and usage policy world-wide.

  6. Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: The case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo, E-mail: camilo.lesmes@geographie.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Geography, University of Munich, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Institute for Systems Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Merangase 18/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Garcia-Santos, Glenda [Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Leuenberger, Fanny [Institute of Geology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nuyttens, David [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Technology and Food Science Unit, Agricultural Engineering, Burg. van Gansberghelaan 115 bus 1, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Binder, Claudia R. [Department of Geography, University of Munich, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Institute for Systems Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Merangase 18/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries is of special interest for the estimation of potential health risks, especially when there is a lack of occupational hygiene regulations. In this paper we present the results of a dermal exposure assessment for the potato farming system in the highlands of Colombia, where farmers apply pesticides with hand pressure sprayers without any personal protective equipment. The fractioning of the pesticide, in terms of potential and actual dermal exposure, was determined via the whole-body dosimetry methodology, using the tracer uranine as pesticide surrogate, and luminescence spectrometry as analytical method. We assessed the three activities involved in pesticide management: preparation, application, and cleaning; analyzed three types of nozzles: one with a standard discharge and two modified by farmers to increase the discharge; and derived the protection factor given by work clothing. Our results suggest that to reduce the health risk, three aspects have to be considered: (i) avoiding the modification of nozzles, which affects the droplet size spectrum and increases the level of dermal exposure; (ii) using adequate work clothing made of thick fabrics, especially on the upper body parts; and (iii) cleaning properly the tank sprayer before the application activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed dermal exposure to pesticides in the potato farming system in Colombia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High potential exposure was found in lower body parts during the application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High actual exposure was found in arms and back due to inadequate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high health risk of using Metamidophos under current working conditions.

  7. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blair

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (n = 88 and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17. Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and a decrease in the weight for mixing relative to the new weights assigned for application methods. The weighting factors for the revised algorithm now incorporate exposure measurements taken on Agricultural Health Study (AHS participants for the application methods and personal protective equipment (PPE commonly reported by study participants.

  8. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  9. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and childhood neurodevelopment in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Lin; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Caifeng; Ding, Guodong; Chen, Limei; Kamijima, Michihiro; Ueyama, Jun; Gao, Yu; Tian, Ying

    2017-08-23

    Although studies in laboratory animals demonstrate neurodevelopmental deficits caused by prenatal or postnatal organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, there is limited evidence on effects induced by not only prenatal but also postnatal exposure of children to OPs. We measured diethylphosphate (DE), dimethylphosphate (DM), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in maternal and child urine at 12 and 24months of age and examined their relationship with developmental quotients (DQs) in 12-month-old infants and 24-month-old children in Shandong, China. The median concentrations of total DAP metabolites (DAPs) in child urine [371.97nmol/g creatinine (12-month-old infants), 538.64nmol/g creatinine (24-month-old children)] were higher than those in maternal urine (352.67nmol/g creatinine). Prenatal OP exposure was negatively associated with 24-month-old children's DQs, especially among boys. A 10-fold increase in prenatal DEs and DAPs was associated with a 2.59- and 2.49-point decrease in social domain DQ scores in 24-month-old children (n=262), respectively. However, positive association of postnatal exposure to OPs and 24-month-old children's DQs was observed (n=237). Neither prenatal nor postnatal exposure to OPs was related to 12-month-old infants' DQs. These data suggested that prenatal OP exposure could adversely affect children's neurodevelopment at 24months of age, especially among boys. The prenatal period might be a critical window of OP exposure. In view of the positive association with postnatal OP exposure, it is necessary to interpret findings with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  11. Household exposure to pesticides and bladder exstrophy in a newborn baby boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Marlene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bladder exstrophy is a rare urogenital abnormality. Other urogenital malformations have been associated with exposure to hormonal pesticide disruptors during critical developmental periods. This is the first report in the literature to associate household exposure to pesticides with bladder exstrophy. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a newborn baby boy with isolated bladder exstrophy. In this case the pediatric environmental history includes the constitutional, genealogical, genetic and environmental factors related to bladder exstrophy, which revealed a cockroach infestation in the parents' home and the daily use of bug spray to kill them. The mother used one bottle of spray every 2 days (1000cc and more in the summer, when the problem was worse. During gestational weeks 0-12, the mother intensively used a domestic pesticide consisting of a mixture of pyrethroids (cyfenothrin 0.5%, and tetramethrin 0.31% and pyriproxyfen (0.01%. She described repeated episodes of mild to moderate poisoning that are associated with the use of household pesticides. The mother is a housewife and the father works as a fumigator of fruit fields and he reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the use of occupational pesticides. However, he did not believe he carried traces of these products into the home and his wife washed his work clothes separately. The pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were detected in a urine sample obtained from the child 4 months after he was born. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and carefully conducted pediatric environmental history, which includes information about home pesticide use, should be carried out for all children with bladder exstrophy. Domestic exposure to pesticides during critical developmental periods may have deleterious effects for the fetus.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  13. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Ana [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Cerrillo, Isabel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Granada, Alicia [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Olea-Serrano, Fatima [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: folea@ugr.es

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p < 0.045) and red meat (p < 0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p < 0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p < 0.038) and poultry (p < 0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p < 0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p < 0.001), red meat (p < 0.001) and white and oily fish (p < 0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p < 0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health.

  14. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  15. Progress in pesticide and POPs hair analysis for the assessment of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tutudaki, Maria

    2004-10-29

    The present paper reviews the work that has been done in the field of pesticide and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) hair analysis during the last 15 years. It summarizes the compounds of interest, the methods of analyte extraction from the hair matrix, the analytical techniques employed and the results obtained. The most widely studied POPs are the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), the dibenzofurans (PCDFs) the co-planar biphenyls (co-PCBs) and total biphenyls (PCBs). The most widely studied pesticides are the organochlorine ones, like the hexachlorocyclohexanes and the DDTs, which nowadays are only found as environmental pollutants, some organophosphates, selected pyrethroids and the carbamate methomyl. The most widely applied technique was gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Other detectors like the ECD in the case of organochlorine analysis and the NPD in the case of organophosphate analysis were also used. The presented data concern human and animal studies. The levels of DDTs detected in hair were between 19 and 400 ng/g, of co-PCBs 0.27 and 0.45 ng/g, of total PCBs 5-13 ng/g of PCDDs and PCDFs 0.1-10 pg/g of lindane 20-400 ng/g of HCHs 14-40 ng/g of diazinon 110-520 ng/g and of methomyl 900-1800 ng/g. These results strongly support the possibility of using hair as a suitable indicator for the assessment of long-term exposure to POPs and pesticides.

  16. Memory impairment due to fipronil pesticide exposure occurs at the GABAA receptor level, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Antonio Francisco; de Oliveira Souza, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Caio Cristóvão; Horta, Daniel França; De Fraia, Daniel; Anselmo, Fabio; Chaguri, João Leandro; Faria, Caique Aparecido

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil (F) a pesticide considered of second generation cause various toxic effects in target and non-target organisms including humans in which provoke neurotoxicity, having the antagonism of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) as their main mechanism for toxic action. GABAergic system has been involved in processes related to the memory formation and consolidation. The present work studied the importance of GABA to the mechanisms involved in the very early development of fipronil-induced memory impairment in rats. Memory behavior was assessed using new object recognition task (ORT) and eight radial arm maze task (8-RAM) to study effects on cognitive and spatial memory. Locomotor behavior was assessed using open field task (OF). The dose of fipronil utilized was studied through a pilot experiment. The GABA antagonist picrotoxin (P) was used to enhance fipronil effects on GABAergic system. Fipronil or picrotoxin decrease memory studied in ORT and 8-RAM tasks. Additionally, F and P co-exposure enhanced effects on memory compared to controls, F, and P, suggesting strongly a GABAergic effect. Weight gain modulation and fipronil in blood were utilized as animal's intoxication indicators. In conclusion, here we report that second-generation pesticides, such as fipronil, can have toxic interactions with the CNS of mammals and lead to memory impairment by modulating the GABAergic system.

  17. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  18. Bioaccessibility of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from house dust: in-vitro methods and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Harald; Butte, Werner

    2012-11-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals like pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) tend to accumulate in house dust. This may result in residues of some parts per million (p.p.m.), closely associated with health impairments and diseases like cancer. To explain these associations, we must establish whether a relevant absorption from house dust into human organisms occurs, and most crucially the release of chemicals, that is, their bioaccessibility. Digestive as well as dermal bioaccessibilities were examined using in-vitro methods. On average, the digestive bioaccessibility was ~40% for the pesticides and ~60% for the PCB. The dermal penetration availability reached ~60% for the pesticides and ~70% for the PCB (percentages of the concentrations in the dust). Based on the bioaccessibility, an estimate of internal exposure was calculated and expressed as percentages of acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values. Exposure via the respiratory tract proved to be very low. Exposure via the digestive tract had maximum values of 4% for pesticides and 12% for PCB. Dermal exposure was much higher. Even for average concentrations in house dust (≈0.5 p.p.m.), children exposed to DDT and PCB showed up to 300% of the ADI/TDI values, and adults about 60%. With high concentrations of contaminants in house dust, the maximum doses absorbed through the skin reached 5000%.

  19. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  20. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  1. Evolution determines how global warming and pesticide exposure will shape predator-prey interactions with vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam T; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong V; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2016-07-01

    How evolution may mitigate the effects of global warming and pesticide exposure on predator-prey interactions is directly relevant for vector control. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we addressed how 4°C warming and exposure to the pesticide endosulfan shape the predation on Culex pipiens mosquitoes by damselfly predators from replicated low- and high-latitude populations. Although warming was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates on these prey. Possibly, under warming escape speeds of the mosquitoes increased more than the attack efficiency of the predators. Endosulfan imposed mortality and induced behavioral changes (including increased filtering and thrashing and a positional shift away from the bottom) in mosquito larvae. Although the pesticide was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates by the low-latitude predators. This can be explained by the combination of the evolution of a faster life history and associated higher vulnerabilities to the pesticide (in terms of growth rate and lowered foraging activity) in the low-latitude predators and pesticide-induced survival selection in the mosquitoes. Our results suggest that predation rates on mosquitoes at the high latitude will be reduced under warming unless predators evolve toward the current low-latitude phenotype or low-latitude predators move poleward.

  2. STRUCTURAL AND METABOLIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPENSATORY-ADAPTIVE PROCESSES IN THE HEPATOBILIARY SYSTEM WITH ACETATE GASTRIC AND EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

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    M. A. Shakhnazarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. To study the structural and metabolic features of the hepatobiliary system for chronic oral exposure to pesticides in combination with acetate gastric ulcer. Methods. After playing acetate stomach ulcers spent histomorphologically and histoenzymatic research cryostatic and paraffin tissue sections of the liver of experimental and control animals. Set response to succinate dehydroge nase, lactate dehydrogenase, which is glitserofosfatdegidrogenazy, nicotineinduced  diaphorase, monoamine oxi dase, acid and alkaline phosphatase; determined the content of glycogen and RNA in the liver with subsequent com puter flow cytometric evaluation. Results. When injecting pesticides at 1 exposure limit values (ELV to animals there increase metabolic and protec tiveadaptive processes both in ulcer border zone and in remote fraction of the liver. Increasing doses of pesticides up to 50 ELV and above cause aggressive course of ulcer with penetration into the liver and development of second ary hepatitis, hepatosclerosis and dysfunction of the hepatobiliary system. Main conclusions. When combined pathology with gastric ulcers modeling (OkabePfeiffer and chronic oral expo sure of hexachlorocyclohexane, CuSO4, chlorophos pathomorphological changes in the liver are caused by both dose of pesticides and ulcers morphogenesis. The most toxic for the liver from the studied pesticides is hexachloro cyclohexane. 

  3. Pesticide exposure and sprayer's task goals: comparison between vineyards and greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mandy; Richardson, James; Grimbuhler, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. The field study took place in greenhouses and vineyards where operators are involved in high levels of pesticide spraying. The objective of this intervention was to identify factors explaining the influence of task factors on the exposure of greenhouse growers and vineyard workers. Thirteen operators were selected for detailed observations during one session of spraying. Video recordings provide counts of physical contacts between the operator and all the surrounding surfaces during the spraying operation. Both in vineyards and in greenhouses, physical and temporal constraints are the predominant factors in establishing a specific spraying procedure. Every action taken by the operator is a result of a compromise between safety, task performance and quality.

  4. Decreased Reelin Expression and Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Alters Mouse Behaviour and Brain Morphology

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    Brian R. Mullen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon. Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  5. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees.

  6. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides: assessment of endocrine disruption and hepatotoxicity in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, A; Rovedatti, M G; Sabino, G; Magnarelli, G G

    2012-06-01

    In utero exposure is the first point of contact with environmental xenobiotics that may affect the maternal-placental-fetal balance. Considering that maternal pathophysiological changes affect intrauterine development, this pilot study was conducted to address how environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) during pregnancy may contribute to maternal endocrine disruption and disturbed hepatic function. A prospective study was carried out with pregnant women (n=97) living in a rural area of the Rio Negro province where OPs are intensively applied throughout 6 months of the year. Blood samples were obtained and biomarkers of OPs exposure (cholinesterases and β-glucuronidase), cortisol (CT) and progesterone (PG) levels, as well as glycemia, were determined. Parameters of liver injury were assayed by measuring aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); liver function was assayed by measuring albumin. Biomonitoring carried out during the pre-spraying period (PreS) and spraying period (SP) showed that the population studied was exposed to OPs, proven by the fact that plasma (PCh) and erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) decreased very significantly (pnormal values for the general population, the increase in CT in the maternal compartment may lead to impaired newborn health later in life.

  7. Decreased reelin expression and organophosphate pesticide exposure alters mouse behaviour and brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Brian R; Khialeeva, Elvira; Hoffman, Daniel B; Ghiani, Cristina A; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2012-02-18

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders). In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism--reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon). Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  8. Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim G; Bouchard, Maryse; Bradman, Asa; Boyd-Barr, Dana; Johnson, Caroline; Holland, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides remain widely used in agriculture. Previously, we reported that PON1 genotype was directly associated with neurodevelopment at age two, and that PON1 genotype may increase susceptibility to OP exposure. We examined the relationships of maternal and child PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels and neurodevelopment at school age and examined their interaction with maternal dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels to investigate differential susceptibility to OP-related neurotoxicity. Participants were from the CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort of Latino families in an agricultural region of California. We measured DAP metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal and child urine samples, and analyzed PON1192 and PON1-108 genotypes and enzyme activity [arylesterase (ARYase), paraoxonase (POase)] in maternal and child blood. We examined their association with children׳s performance on the Conners׳ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years (n=296) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at 7 years (n=327). Maternal and child PON1 genotype was not related to performance on K-CPT or WISC, although WISC scores tended to be lowest in children and children of mothers who carried the PON-108TT genotype. Pregnancy ARYase levels were positively associated with all WISC subscales (e.g., 4.0 point increase in Full Scale IQ per standard deviation increase in ARYase, 95% CI=1.6, 6.4), while pregnancy POase levels were positively associated with WISC Processing Speed only. Maternal PON1-108 weakly modified the relationship of maternal DAPS and K-CPT scores (pinteraction=0.21) and WISC verbal IQ (pinteraction=0.71). The association between DAPs and Full-Scale IQ was strongest for children of mothers with lowest-tertile ARYase levels (pinteraction=0.27). This relationship held for both diethyl and dimethyl DAPs and for all subscales of the WISC. We extend our previous findings that PON1 genotype and enzyme levels may be

  9. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G Harley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal organophosphorus (OP pesticide exposure is associated with poorer fetal growth, but findings are inconsistent. We explored whether paraoxonase (PON1, a key enzyme involved in detoxification of OPs, could be an effect modifier in this association. METHODS: The study population included 470 pregnant women enrolled in the CHAMACOS Study, a longitudinal cohort study of mothers and children living in an agricultural region of California. We analyzed urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy for dialkyl phosphate (DAP metabolites of OP pesticides. We analyzed maternal and fetal (cord blood samples for PON1 genotype (PON1(192 and PON1(-108 and enzyme activity (paraoxonase and arylesterase. Infant birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Infants' PON1 genotype and activity were associated with birth outcome, but mothers' were not. Infants with the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype had shorter gestational age (β = -0.5 weeks, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: -0.9, 0.0 and smaller head circumference (β = -0.4 cm, 95% CI: -0.7, 0.0 than those with the PON1(-108CC genotype. Infants' arylesterase and paraoxonase activity were positively associated with gestational age. There was some evidence of effect modification with DAPs: maternal DAP concentrations were associated with shorter gestational age only among infants of the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype (p-value(interaction = 0.09. However, maternal DAP concentrations were associated with larger birth weight (p-value(interaction = 0.06 and head circumference (p-value(interaction<0.01 in infants with non-susceptible genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Infants whose PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels suggested that they might be more susceptible to the effects of OP pesticide exposure had decreased fetal growth and length of gestation. PON1 may be another factor

  10. Detection of Exposure to Environmental Pesticides During Pregnancy by the Analysis of Maternal Hair Using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posecion, N; Ostrea, E; Bielawski, D; Corrion, M; Seagraves, J; Jin, Y

    2006-12-01

    Several classes of pesticides were extracted from maternal hair by solid-liquid extraction. Analysis of their selected metabolites involved a methanolic/hydrochloric acid methyl ester derivatization and liquid-liquid extraction. Gas chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify the pesticides and metabolites. Recovery of parent compounds and metabolites from the analysis of spiked hair ranged from 87 to 112% with coefficients of variation less than 11%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.031 to 5.88 μg g(-1). Analysis of hair samples from pregnant women in the Philippines showed maternal exposure during pregnancy to bioallethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, pretilachlor and malathion.

  11. Does the Honey Bee "Risk Cup" Runneth Over? Estimating Aggregate Exposures for Assessing Pesticide Risks to Honey Bees in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-13

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are uniquely vulnerable to nontarget pesticide impacts because, as ubiquitous managed pollinators, they are deliberately transported into areas where crops are grown with pesticides. Moreover, attributes making them excellent managed pollinators, including large long-lived colonies and complex behavior, also make them challenging subjects for toxicity bioassays. For over 150 years, improvements in formulation and delivery of pesticides, increasing their environmental and temporal presence, have had unintended consequences for honey bees. Since 1996, the Environmental Protection Agency has used "aggregate risk"--exposure risks to all possible sources--to set tolerances; once a "risk cup" is filled, no new pesticide or use can be approved unless risks are reduced elsewhere. The EPA now recommends a modeling approach for aggregating all exposure risks for bees, with differential lifestage sensitivity and exposure probabilities. Thus, the honey bee is the first insect with its own "risk cup"--a technological innovation that may not have unintended consequences for this beleaguered beneficial species.

  12. Assessment of exposure to pesticides during mixing/loading and spraying of tomatoes in the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Bosi, Anna; Manara, Michele; Mazzocchi, Barbara; Pompini, Alessandra; Sormani, Francesca; Lunghini, Liana; Sciarra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Some evidence of exposure-response of metolachlor and pendimethalin for lung cancer and an association of metribuzin with risk of glioma have been reported. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate exposure and occupational risk during mixing/loading of pesticides and during their application to tomatoes cultivated in open fields. Sixteen farmers were sampled. Respiratory exposure was estimated by personal air sampling using fiberglass filters in a IOM device. Dermal exposure was assessed using skin pads and hand washing. Absorbed doses were estimated assuming 100% lung retention, and 50% or 10% skin absorption for metribuzin, and pendimethalin and metolachlor, respectively. The three pesticides were quantified by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in all matrices. Metolachlor was used as a tracer of contamination of clothes and tractors unrelated to the exposure monitored. Respiratory exposure to metribuzin, used in granular form, was on average more than one order of magnitude higher than exposure to pendimethalin, used in the form of microencapsulated liquid. The actual doses were 0.067-8.08 µg/kg bw, 0.420-12.6 µg/kg bw, and 0.003-0.877 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. Dermal exposure was about 88% of the actual dose for metribuzin and more than 95%, for pendimethalin and metolachlor. For risk assessment, the total absorbed doses (sum of respiratory and skin absorbed doses) were compared with the AOEL for each compound. The actual and absorbed doses of the three pesticides were always lower than the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), which are reported to be 234 µg/kg bw, 20 µg/kg bw, and 150 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. In any case, personal protective equipment and spraying devices should be chosen with care to minimize exposure.

  13. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  14. Monitoring exposure of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: enzyme activity, reactivations, and indicators of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Farris, Jerry L

    2005-07-01

    Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) frequently use agricultural field edges in northeast Arkansas, USA, and may be at risk of exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides. We monitored northern cardinal exposure to ChE-inhibiting pesticides by comparing plasma total ChE (TChE) activity to reference-derived benchmarks and TChE reactivations. Total ChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured for 128 plasma samples from 104 northern cardinals from nine study sites. Of birds sampled from sites treated with ChE-inhibiting pesticides, 4.3% of the samples had TChE activities below the diagnostic threshold (2 standard deviations [SD] below the reference mean) and 8.7% of the samples had TChE reactivations. No difference was found in TChE (p = 0.553) and AChE (p = 0.288) activity between treated and reference sites; however, activity varied among treated sites (p = 0.003). These data do not suggest uniform exposure to individuals, but rather exposure was variable and likely influenced by mitigating factors at individual and site scales. Furthermore, monitoring of TChE reactivation appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than the diagnostic threshold. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was greater at agricultural sites than reference sites (p = 0.016), supporting the hypothesis that FA may be useful for assessing a combination of habitat- and contaminant-related environmental stress.

  15. HER-2/neu and CD117 (c-kit overexpression in patients with pesticide exposure and extensive stage small cell lung carcinoma (ESSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of detection of HER-2/neu and CD117 (c-kit overexpression in small cell lung cancer (SCLC has varied widely; between 5–35% and 21–70% respectively. Methods To evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and HER-2/neu and CD117 overexpression in extensive stage SCLC (ESSCLC, we identified patients with ESSCLC and assessed pesticide exposure using a predetermined questionnaire. An exposure index (hours/day × days/year × years ≥ 2400 hours was considered as 'exposed.' HER-2/neu overexpression was evaluated on archival tissue using the DAKO Hercep test, and CD117 testing was performed using immunohistochemistry (A4052 polyclonal antibody. Results 193 ESSCLC patients were identified. Pesticide exposure data could be obtained on 174 patients (84 females and 109 males with a mean age of 68.5 years. 53/174 (30.4% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression. 54/174 (31.03% specimens showed CD117 overexpression by IHC. On multivariate analysis, HER-2/neu overexpression was associated with diminished survival (p neu overexpression and 47/121 (38.8% patients without overexpression had exposure to pesticides (odds ratio: 5.38; p Conclusion Pesticide exposure affects HER-2/neu but not CD117 overexpression. Future studies are needed to determine specific pesticide(s/pesticide components that are responsible for HER-2/neu overexpression in ESSCLC, and to validate our findings in other solid tumors that overexpress HER-2/neu.

  16. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Fritschi, Lin; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Glass, Deborah C; Miligi, Lucia; Dockerty, John D; Lightfoot, Tracy; Clavel, Jacqueline; Roman, Eve; Spector, Logan G; Kaatsch, Peter; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Simpson, Jill; Rudant, Jérémie; Sidi, Vasiliki; Rondelli, Roberto; Orsi, Laurent; Kang, Alice Y; Petridou, Eleni; Schüz, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    Maternal occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy and/or paternal occupational pesticide exposure around conception have been suggested to increase risk of leukemia in the offspring. With a view to providing insight in this area we pooled individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled individual analyses were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Using exposure data from mothers of 8,236 cases, and 14,850 controls, and from fathers of 8,169 cases and 14,201 controls the odds ratio (OR) for maternal exposure during pregnancy and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.30] and for paternal exposure around conception 1.20 (95% 1.06, 1.38). For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the OR for maternal exposure during pregnancy was 1.94 (CI 1.19, 3.18) and for paternal exposure around conception 0.91 (CI 0.66, 1.24.) based on data from 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers, and 1,231 case and 11,383 control fathers. Our finding of a significantly increased risk of AML in the offspring with maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports. We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of 5 years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms.

  17. Use of cholinesterase activity in monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure of cattle produced in tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, V T; Ibarra, N; Rodríguez, M A; Waliszewski, K N

    2001-12-01

    The use of cholinesterase activity as a biochemical method for monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure in cattle is described herein. Determination of cholinesterase activity of whole blood, erythrocyte, and plasma was carried out according to the Ellman modified kinetic method. The mean baseline acetylcholinesterase activities of 9.549 +/- 3.619 IU/mL in whole blood, 9.444 +/- 3.006 IU/mL in erythrocytes, and 0.149 +/- 0.063 IU/mL in plasma were estimated for steers from the control group. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the general responses between the control and experimental groups (in vivo, monitoring and case studies) treated with Coumaphos and Fenthion were statistically different, and the general responses of these experimental groups were statistically different over time as well. Among the fractions that were analyzed, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity could be adequate for the diagnosis of exposure or acute poisoning in cattle as it showed a good within-run and between-run precision with CVs <10% better than those in plasma.

  18. Human fetal testis Leydig cell disruption by exposure to the pesticide dieldrin at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Abramovich, David R; Haites, Neva E; Cash, Phillip; Groome, Nigel P; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Murray, Tessa J; Lea, Richard G

    2007-11-01

    Declining human reproductive health over the last 60 years has been proposed to be due to effects of environmental chemicals, especially endocrine disrupting compounds, on fetal development. We investigated whether a model pesticide, dieldrin, at concentrations within both maternal circulation and environmental ranges (1 pmol/l = 0.0004 p.p.b. = 380.9 pg/l), could disrupt the human fetal testis. Human fetal testes were collected during the second trimester, a critical period of male sexual differentiation (development and masculinization). Testis explants were cultured for 24 h in the presence and absence of LH (10-1000 IU LH/l) and dieldrin (1 pmol and 1 nmol/l). Endocrine, immunohistological and proteome characteristics of the tissues were investigated. Exposure to dieldrin reduced LH-induced testosterone secretion (P Dieldrin altered proteins associated with cancer, apoptosis, transcription and development. Wnt-2b was reduced 3-fold and immunolocalized to Leydig and Sertoli cells. Dieldrin also reversed some LH-induced changes in protein expression, supporting the conclusion that Leydig cell function is at risk from environmental chemicals. Our findings indicate that exposure to very low, biologically relevant, concentrations of environmental chemicals could affect the fetal human Leydig cell, reducing testosterone secretion and potentially leading to subtle dysregulation of reproductive development and adult fecundity.

  19. Effects of a sublethal pesticide exposure on locomotor behavior: a video-tracking analysis in larval amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Libon, Sylvie; Kestemont, Patrick; Brasseur, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as endosulfan have been shown to have both lethal and sublethal effects on amphibians. In this context, behavioral endpoints have proved their usefulness in evidencing impacts of such chemicals at environmental concentrations that do not necessarily cause mortality. The recent development of video-tracking technologies now offers the possibility of accurately quantifying locomotor behaviors. However, these techniques have not yet been applied to evaluating the toxicity of pesticides in amphibians. We therefore aimed at determining the potential toxicity of endosulfan on endpoints associated with locomotion after short-term environmental endosulfan exposure in Rana temporaria tadpoles and at using these data as warning systems for survival alterations after a longer exposure. To this end, we analyzed video-tracks of 64 tadpoles (two pesticide treatments: 5 and 50 μg L(-1), one control and one solvent-control) with Ethovision XT 7 software. The highest endosulfan concentration had a significant effect on all four behavioral endpoints. Contaminated tadpoles traveled shorter distances, swam less often, at a lower mean speed, and occupied a less peripherical position than control tadpoles. The lowest endosulfan concentration had similar but lower effects, and did not affect mean speed during swimming. Survival was reduced only after a long-term exposure to endosulfan and was associated with short-term behavioral dysfunctions. These results show that endosulfan strongly affects the behavioral repertory of amphibian tadpoles, but in different ways depending on concentration, thus suggesting that the pesticide has complex modes of action. Given the importance of locomotion and space use in tadpole success in their aquatic environment, these results confirm the toxic action of endosulfan. By highlighting effects before mortality markers, video-tracking systems also show their potential as sentinels of sublethal effects of pesticides.

  20. [Using atomic force microscopy to analyze morphological changes and mechanical properties caused by cellular exposure to low doses of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbate, N; Lasalvia, M; Perna, G; D'Antonio, P; Quartucci, G; Gallo, C; Capozzi, V

    2012-01-01

    A commercial pesticide is usually composed of active ingredients and formulants. Among the active ingredients, Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid chemical widely used for synthesizing pesticides products which are very effective in damaging the central nervous system of pests. In this work, we analyze, by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), cellular morphological changes induced by exposure to a Deltamethrin-based commercial pesticide (Decaflow). AFM microscopy, in addition to the well-known characterization of the cellular topography, has the ability to monitor interesting biomechanical parameters of the surface as roughness and elastic modulus. In particular, we exposed normal human keratinocytes for 24 hours at different solutions of Decaflow, well below the threshold of cytotoxicity. The AFM images of exposed cells show alterations of surface cell shape. Moreover exposed cells are characterized by an increase of the value of membrane roughness. The mechanical properties of cells are also modified after Decaflow exposure, as confirmed by a decrease of the elasticity modulus with increasing the concentration of pesticide.

  1. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA: RESULTS FROM THE AGGREGATE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid development and more likely to engage in activities in which they directly contact contaminated surfaces. As a result, children may be more exposed to pesticides through normal daily activitie...

  2. Combined exposure to low doses of pesticides causes decreased birth weights in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased birth weight is a common effect of many pesticides in reproductive toxicity studies, but there are no empirical data on how pesticides act in combination on this endpoint. We hypothesized that a mixture of six pesticides (cyromazine, MCPB, pirimicarb, quinoclamine, thiram, and ziram......) would decrease birth weight, and that these mixture effects could be predicted by the Dose Addition model. Data for the predictions were obtained from the Draft Assessment Reports of the individual pesticides. A mixture of equi-effective doses of these pesticides was tested in two studies in Wistar rats......, showing mixture effects in good agreement with the additivity predictions. Significantly lower birth weights were observed when compounds were present at individual doses below their no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs). These results emphasize the need for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides...

  3. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for myelodysplastic syndromes: a meta-analysis based on 1,942 cases and 5,359 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jin

    Full Text Available Pesticide exposure has been linked to increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS is still unclear. A meta-analysis of studies published through April, 2014 was performed to investigate the association of pesticide exposure with the risk of MDS.Studies were identified by searching the Web of Science, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random- or fixed-effect models.This meta-analysis included 11 case-control studies, all of which demonstrated a correlation between pesticide exposure and a statistically significant increased risk of MDS (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.23-3.09. In subgroup analyses, patients with pesticide exposure had increased risk of developing MDS if they were living in the Europe or Asia and had refractory anemia (RA or RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS. Moreover, in the analysis by specific pesticides, increased risk was associated with exposure to insecticides (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.40 but not exposure to herbicides or fungicides.This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of developing MDS. Further prospective cohort studies are warranted to verify the association and guide clinical practice in MDS prevention.

  4. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    OpenAIRE

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-01-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrat...

  5. Evolution determines how global warming and pesticide exposure will shape predator‐prey interactions with vector mosquitoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tam H.; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2016-01-01

    How evolution may mitigate the effects of global warming and pesticide exposure on predator–prey interactions is directly relevant for vector control. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we addressed how 4°C warming and exposure to the pesticide endosulfan shape the predation on Culex...... pipiens mosquitoes by damselfly predators from replicated low- and high-latitude populations. Although warming was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates on these prey. Possibly, under warming escape speeds of the mosquitoes increased more than the attack efficiency of the predators...... at the high latitude will be reduced under warming unless predators evolve toward the current low-latitude phenotype or low-latitude predators move poleward...

  6. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  7. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bro, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.bro@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Millot, Florian, E-mail: florian.millot@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Decors, Anouk, E-mail: anouk.decors@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Devillers, James, E-mail: j.devillers@ctis.fr [Centre de Traitement de l' Information Scientifique (CTIS), 3 chemin de la Gravière, 69140 Rillieux La Pape (France)

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥ 1 AS and 67% to ≥ 2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April–June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TER{sub lt}) < 5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TER{sub lt} < 5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1–4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. - Highlights: • 71% of clutches and 13% of coveys are exposed to active substances. • Partridge clutches/coveys are mostly exposed to 32/3 substances. • Fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) dominate. • Some substances have the

  8. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Clethodim is not registered for any... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  9. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural

  11. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hore, Paromita [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[New York City Department of Health, 253 Broadway New York, New York 10007 (United States); Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Robson, Mark; Georgopoulos, Panos [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Sheldon, Linda [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Needham, Larry Barr, Dana [Contemporary Pesticide Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Freeman, Natalie [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lioy, Paul J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]. E-mail: plioy@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2006-08-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found

  12. Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, R. K.; Larsen, S. B.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171...... mean intake of single commodities, such as rice, potato, and pork meat. The current individual dietary intake of 40 pesticides was estimated using food frequencies and generalized serving size data in combination with data on pesticide concentrations in food commodities as obtained from the National...... Danish Food Monitoring Program. The estimated pesticide intake was significantly lower among farmers of group H, but for all three groups of farmers the average dietary intake of 40 pesticides was at or below 1% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) except for the dithiocarbamates (max = 0.21 mu g/kg day...

  13. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.

  14. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of exposure to organochlorine pesticides and levels of DNA damage in mother-infant pairs of an agrarian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Hernandez, Diana Lorena; Montero-Montoya, Regina; Serrano-García, Luis; Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to organochlorine pesticides was studied in a group of mother-infant pairs living in a rural area where agriculture is the main economic activity. Fumigation in this zone is performed with airplanes, thus affecting the inhabited areas around them, including schools. Heparinized venous blood of mothers and umbilical cords was used to evaluate the olive tail moment in the comet assay, and micronuclei, chromatin buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cord blood samples were taken at the moment of birth only from natural and normal parturitions. Determinations of hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxichlordane, t and c-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, mirex, alpha and beta-endosulfan, alpha, beta and gamma hexachlorocyclohexane, and p'p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE were conducted to establish the differential distribution of the toxicants between compartments, i.e., mother and umbilical cord. Significantly higher pesticide levels were found in umbilical cord plasma than in mothers' plasma for almost all compounds tested, except DDE and oxychlordane. Significantly higher olive tail moments were found in umbilical cords than in mothers, whereas micronuclei frequencies were higher in mothers than in umbilical cords. However, neither the levels of micronuclei nor the olive tail moment were correlated with pesticide levels. Given that no other exposure to toxic compounds has been identified in this region, the lack of correlation between genotoxicity biomarkers and pesticide levels may be due to the variability of the exposure and to endogenous processes related to lipid mobility during pregnancy, the metabolism of the compounds, and individual susceptibilities.

  16. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  17. Exposure to Pesticides in Residents or the Banks of the Río Bogotá (Suesca and the Capitan Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Forero Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Considering the high use of pesticides in Colombia and the harmful effects resulting fromexposure to these substances on human health and the environment, a study for the determinationof biomarkers of exposure and effect of pesticides in population of the banks of the Río Bogotáin Suesca, the levels of pesticides in river water samples taken in the same city and in samples offish, “Capitán de la Sabana” (Eremophylus mutisii caught in this area. Materials and methods:We measured for organophosphates, carbamates, dithiocarbamates and organochlorines. We alsoexplored through a survey of occupational exposure to pesticides in the population and knowledgeand use of personal protective measures in their work. Additionally, we explored the habit offishing for captain and consumption in the diet of the inhabitants of the riverbank. Results: Theresults show the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in the river and infish tissue and organochlorine and ethylene thiourea in human biological samples. Participated inthe study workers directly exposed to pesticides, highly toxic handlers, most know and use personalprotective measures and industrial hygiene. Conclusions: Pollution such as pesticides in the upperbasin of Bogotá that affects wildlife and coastal populations. Best action is necessary to promoteenvironmental care, protection and self-care of persons using pesticides in the area.

  18. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Jeffrey J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000 and post-announcement periods (2001–2007. The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action.

  19. Levels of chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U. S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, J.W.; Hammons, A.S.

    1978-08-01

    Data are presented on the levels of all chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissues including blood, urine, breast milk, and tissue samples obtained at autopsy. Most data results from specific surveys to determine health hazards. The roles of trace elements and recognition of the need to determine baseline levels of chemicals introduced into the environment are factors which have motivated surveys by individual investigators. Thus, most data on chemicals in human tissues record levels of pesticides (e.g., DDT and metabolites), levels of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, or levels of nutritionally essential elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and fluoride. Data available on iron and calcium are not presented as their presence in the environment is generally not considered hazardous. Data on several uncommon chemicals, such as indium and ytterbium, are included basically as items of interest and to further document their presence in healthy individuals. Baseline data were presented where available to provide perspective as to chemical levels which might be expected under conditions where exposure could be considered normal or not directly related to a pollutant source. Nearly 600 cited surveys or investigations, most of which were reported within the past decade, are listed. Ninety-four different chemical contaminants, primarily trace metals and organochlorine pesticides, are reported. It is estimated that over 75% of the data published during the past 30 years on chemical contaminants derived from environmental pollution and found in human tissue in the United States are represented in this report.

  20. Sex-dependent effects of developmental exposure to different pesticides on spatial learning. The role of induced neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Giménez, Belén; Llansola, Marta; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Malaguarnera, Michele; Agusti, Ana; Felipo, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment in children. The aims of this work were to assess: 1) the effects on spatial learning of developmental exposure to pesticides 2) if the effects are sex-dependent and 3) if hippocampal neuroinflammation is associated with the impairment of spatial learning. We analyzed the effects of developmental exposure to four pesticides: chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, endosulfan and cypermethrin. Exposure was from gestational day 7 to post-natal day 21 and spatial learning and memory was assessed when the rats were young adults. The effects of pesticides on spatial learning were pesticide and gender-dependent. Carbaryl did not affect spatial learning in males or females. Endosulfan and chlorpyrifos impaired learning in males but not in females. Cypermethrin improved spatial learning in the Morris water maze both in males and females while impaired learning in the radial maze only in males. Spatial learning ability was lower in control female rats than in males. All pesticides induced neuroinflammation, increasing IL-1b content in the hippocampus and there is a negative correlation between IL-1b levels in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Neuroinflammation would contribute to the effects of pesticides on spatial learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to the mixture of organophosphorus pesticides is embryotoxic and teratogenic on gestational rats during the sensitive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Liu, Xiaofei; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Yang, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Mixture of organophosphorus pesticides (MOPs) has been used worldwide to increase food production. The MOPs are harmful, and the exposure to them is both agricultural and nonagricultural through contaminated food. The neurotoxicity of MOPs has received more consideration recently due to the increased cases of malformed fetuses suspected to be caused by the MOPs exposure during gestation; however, relevant studies in animal model are rare. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis and demonstrated potential perinatal embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MOPs exposure. As results, we found that MOPs decreased in utero fetal growth and alter the ratio of organs to whole body weight of the pregnant rats. MOPs also had been shown to disturb the balance of sex hormones and affect the reproduction of rats. Furthermore, we found various significantly elevated deformities in MOPs exposed embryos, confirming the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of maternal exposure to MOPs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 139-146, 2017.

  2. Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JODEL S. ALVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agricultural workers involved in the harvest of tobacco crops are regularly exposed to large quantities of pesticides. In order to determine how this exposure to pesticides induces genetic alterations in these workers, blood samples were obtained from 77 exposed individuals, as well as from 60 unexposed subjects. DNA damage was analyzed by the Comet assay and by the micronucleus (MN test. The antioxidant profile was evaluated by activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the polymorphism of gene PON1 was used as a susceptibility biomarker. The content of inorganic elements in the blood samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Our results demonstrated that the damage frequency, damage index, the MN frequency, and the SOD activity were significantly elevated in the exposed relative to the unexposed group. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. The concentrations of inorganic elements in the exposed group were higher compared to those of the unexposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

  3. Exposure to pesticides and heterozygote genotype of GSTP1-Alw26I are associated to Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Longo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study aimed to analyze the frequency of GSTP1-Alw26I polymorphism and to estimate its association with toxic substances in Parkinson's disease (PD.MethodsA study group with 154 patients - subdivided into familial and sporadic PD groups - and 158 elderly individuals without the disease (control group were evaluated. GSTP1-Alw26I polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.ResultsPatients were significantly more exposed to pesticides compared with the control group (p=0.0004, and the heterozygote genotype associated to exposure to pesticides also prevailed in patients (p=0.0001. Wild homozygote genotype was related to tobacco use (p=0.043 and alcoholism (p=0.033 in familial PD patients.ConclusionExposure to pesticides is associated to PD, whose effect can be enhanced when combined with the heterozygote genotype of GSTP1-Alw26I. Also, large genetic and environmental studies considering tobacco use, alcoholism, GSTP1 and PD are necessary to confirm our findings.

  4. Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouget Florence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. Methods A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006 through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Results Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002. Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10. Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6 or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4 were grown. Conclusions Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were

  5. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Fenske, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce ("conventional consumers"), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs.

  6. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development......, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Consequently, we have initiated a large project where the purpose is to study mixture effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides at low doses. In the initial range-finding mixture studies, rats...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...

  7. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  8. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  9. Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Van Maele-Fabry, G; Willems, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To summarise recent literature on the risk of prostate cancer in pesticide related occupations, to calculate the meta-rate ratio, and to compare it to data from meta-analyses previously published.

  10. Cholinesterase activity as a device for biomonitoring pesticide exposure in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A die-off of freshwater mussels in 1990, attributed to anticholinesterase pesticide contamination of a North Carolina stream, has led the National Biological Service...

  11. Genetic Variation in Base Excision Repair Pathway Genes, Pesticide Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathryn Hughes Barry; Stella Koutros; Sonja I. Berndt; Gabriella Andreotti; Jane A. Hoppin; Dale P. Sandler; Laurie A. Burdette; Meredith Yeager; Laura E. Beane Freeman; Jay H. Lubin; Xiaomei Ma; Tongzhang Zheng; Michael C. R. Alavanja

    2011-01-01

    .... OBJECTIVES: Because base excision repair (BER) is the predominant pathway involved in repairing oxidative damage, we evaluated interactions between 39 pesticides and 394 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  12. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease--a population-based case-control study evaluating the potential for recall bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne; Shen, Hui; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Teschke, Kay

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pesticide exposure was associated with Parkinson's disease in a population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada. Patients reimbursed for anti-parkinsonian agents were identified and screened for eligibility as cases. Controls were selected from the universal health insurance database, frequency-matched to the case sample on birth year, gender, and geographic region. A total of 403 cases and 405 controls were interviewed about their job, medical and personal habits histories, and beliefs about disease risk factors. Among those reporting pesticide exposure, an occupational hygiene review selected participants exposed "beyond background" (ie, above the level expected in the general population). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations for different pesticide categories. Of the cases, 74 (18%) self-reported pesticide exposure and 37 (9%) were judged to be exposed beyond background. Self-reported exposure was associated with increased risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-2.70], however the risk estimate was reduced following the hygiene review when restricted to those considered exposed (OR, 1.51, 95% CI, 0.85-2.69). When agricultural work was added to the model, the risk for hygiene-reviewed pesticide exposure was not elevated (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.43-1.61), but agricultural work was (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.18-5.15). More than twice as many cases as controls thought chemicals cause Parkinson's disease. Discussion This study provides little support for pesticide exposure as a cause of Parkinson's disease. The observed pattern of step-wise decreases in risk estimates might indicate differential recall by case status. The relationship to agricultural jobs suggests that farming exposures--other than pesticides--should be considered as risk factors for Parkinson's disease.

  13. Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Variants, Pesticide Exposure, and Increased Risk of DNA Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chieh Chen; Chun-Huang Huang; Man-Tzu Marcie Wu; Chia-Hsuan Chou; Chia-Chen Huang; Tzu-Yen Tseng; Fang-Yu Chang; Ying-Ti Li; Chun-Cheng Tsai; Tsung-Shing Wang; Ruey-Hong Wong

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administ...

  14. RESPIRATORY STATUS RELATED TO PESTICIDES EXPOSURE IN A RURAL AREA OF TRANSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disease is today an important clinical problem for agricultural workers. Several studies have reported increased risk of respiratory problems, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, among agricultural workers. In order to determine the extent of the problems related to pesticide use, a study was performed on the rural population of Sâncraiu, Romania, during 2011. Out of the group of 100 subjects investigated on the basis of a questionnaire in the study that started in 2011, 27 subjects agreed to participate in the respiratory status assessment based on performing some respiratory functional tests by using a portable spirometer. For all the explored functional respiratory parameters there are differences between the group that apply pesticides and the group that do not apply pesticides, but they do not reach the limit of statistical significance. There is a special situation in the case of the predicted lung age that is with 4.59 years higher for those exposed to pesticides and smoking in relation to those not exposed thereupon there is no difference. In general the subjects prepare and apply pesticides and afterwards wash the utensils without using full protective equipment. The most commonly used applicators are those in the form of spray devices, especially for insecticides used on crops. In this context we consider that, as shown by the test results, the respiratory status of the subjects that use pesticides may be affected.

  15. Levels od PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of the non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant, comparison with a background level for the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, M.; Kratenova, J.; Maly, M.; Volf, J.; Smid, J.; Zejglicova, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic); Bajgar, L.; Kozak, J. [Regional Inst. of Public Health, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic); Crhova, S.; Grabic, R. [Inst. of Public Health, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The Czech Republic ranks among to the countries with a relatively high body burden of PCBs that used to be produced in former Czechoslovakia, more precisely in Slovakia, until 1984 when the production was abolished. In 1994, nation-wide Environmental Health Monitoring System was implemented in the Czech Republic. Indicator PCB congeners and selected chlorinated pesticides started to be monitored in human body fluids and tissues of the Czech population. The indicator PCB levels in breast milk samples showed a significant downward trend in time with regional inter- and intra-individual variability. However, to measure the population body burden of dioxins, blood is considered to be more appropriate than other body fluids. Little has been known about body burden of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Czech population. Sporadic data are only available on level of dioxins in the breast milk, or for several pooled blood samples analyzed within the Environmental Health Monitoring System. More than 35 years ago, approximately 80 Czech workers were occupationally exposed to 2,3,7,8- TCDD in a chemical factory producing chlorinated herbicides and pesticides in Central Bohemia. Still in 1996, they showed a mean 2,3,7,8-TCDD plasma level of 256 pg/g fat. It was supposed that also the residents living surrounding the plant might be at increased exposure risk. The objective of this study was (a) to investigate concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant and (b) to compare the results with the background concentrations available for PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from the evidently non-exposed Czech population.

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  17. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  18. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  20. Pesticide potential dermal exposure during the manipulation of concentrated mixtures at small horticultural and floricultural production units in Argentina: the formulation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; March, Hugo; Rojic, Guillermo; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2014-02-15

    Potential dermal exposure measurements of horticultural and floricultural field operators that handled concentrated pesticides showed a correlation with the types of formulations used (liquid or solid) during the mix and load stage. For liquid formulations, hand exposure was 22-62 times greater than that for solid ones. The dermal exposure mechanism was studied for this formulation under laboratory conditions, finding that the rupture of the aluminum seal of the pesticide container and the color of the liquid formulation are important factors. Additionally, significant external surface contamination of pesticide containers collected at horticultural farms was found. This could partially account for the differences between the exposure levels of field and laboratory experiments for liquid formulations.

  1. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  2. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. On the contrary to the adult population exposed to pesticides, mostly on occupational basis, rural children are mostly exposed to pesticides deposited in the environment. However, even this constant, distributed in time exposure to low concentrations of pesticides may led to permanent health disorders and limit children’s harmonious development. Objective. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of aacetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE activity determination as a marker of children’s environmental exposure to pesticides. An additional aim was to evaluate the usefulness of sweat patches as a novel, non-invasive method of detection of pesticides in sweat as a measure of pesticide exposure. Materials and method. A total of 108 children living in areas of intense pesticide use, and as a control group, 92 children living in an agro-tourist area were enrolled in the study. The AChE and BuChE activity was assayed colorimetricaly in diluted whole blood or plasma, respectively. In addition, selected pesticides were measured by GC/MS analysis in samples of the subject’s sweat absorbed onto a sorbent. Results. The study demonstrated significantly lower AChE and BuChE activity, respectively, in the diluted whole blood and plasma of children exposed to pesticides, compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively. The measured mean level of AChE activity was 241.63 ± 26.76 and 348.0±46.95 mU/µmolHb in the exposed and the control group, respectively, whereas the mean activity of BuChE was 424.1±81.1 and 458.6 ± 86.5 mmol/L/min. In addition, pesticide metabolites were detected in 19 (17.6% sweat samples collected from exposed children. Conclusions. Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the

  3. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo

    2015-01-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitorin...

  4. Pesticide hair analysis: development of a GC-NCI-MS method to assess chronic exposure to diazinon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutudaki, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to improve the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, already developed in our laboratory, for trace analysis of diazinon in hair. Furthermore, it aimed to compare the disposition of the pesticide in the hair of two different animal species, one susceptible to diazinon toxicity and one resistant, under identical experimental conditions. Sprague Dawley rats were systemically exposed to two dose levels (6 mg/kg/day and 3 mg/kg/day) of the pesticide, through their drinking water, for a period of one and a half months. Hair samples from the back of the rats were removed before commencing the experiment and at the end of the dosing period. Diazinon was selectively isolated from pulverized hair, sample or spiked, by stepwise consequent extractions with methanol and ethyl acetate and quantified by GC-negative chemical ionization-MS. It was found that the concentration of diazinon in the hair of exposed animals was dose dependent and was found to be 0.24 +/- 0.01 ng/mg (n = 5) and 0.53 +/- 0.05 ng/mg (n = 5) for the low and high dosage, respectively. The concentration in both dose groups was much higher than the corresponding rabbit hair (rabbits were exposed to the pesticide under similar experimental conditions) as previously reported. Our results strongly point to the possibility of using hair analysis for low-level exposure monitoring of diazinon.

  5. Occupational exposure to pesticides and pregnancy outcomes in gardeners and farmers: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, AM;

    2006-01-01

    regression was applied to analyze late fetal loss and congenital malformations, and logistic regression was used to analyze preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the studied pregnancy outcomes between gardeners or farmers and all other workers, except...... for an increased risk of very preterm birth for gardeners and a favorable birth weight for farmers. With the exception of biologic approach used in gardening, neither work activities nor exposure to pesticides showed a significant increased risk of adverse birth outcomes among gardeners or farmers. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor..., herbaceous plants, and woody shrubs and vines. There are no new residential uses with this petition; however... primary use pattern of triforine to control diseases on roses and other ornamental plants, children...

  7. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...%; cotton 5%; flax 35%; garlic 70%; mint 25%; oats 5%; onion 70%; rye 1%; sorghum 2.5%; and wheat 35%. The... as follows: Alfalfa 1%; barley 20%; corn 2.5%; cotton 2.5%; flax 35%; garlic 50%; mint 25%; oats 5... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest...

  8. 78 FR 65565 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... vertical activity and time in central quadrant) in males. Chronic dietary (All populations) NOAEL= 0.25 mg... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor... motor activity (horizontal and vertical activity and time in central quadrant) was observed at the...

  9. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... navigation menu. C. Can I File an Objection or Hearing Request? Under section 408(g) of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a... to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest...

  10. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... of prenatal or postnatal sensitivity or increased susceptibility in developmental studies in rats and... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Pyriproxyfen is currently registered...

  11. Concordant signaling pathways produced by pesticide exposure in mice correspond to pathways identified in human Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gollamudi

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease in which the etiology of 90 percent of the patients is unknown. Pesticide exposure is a major risk factor for PD, and paraquat (PQ, pyridaben (PY and maneb (MN are amongst the most widely used pesticides. We studied mRNA expression using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq in the ventral midbrain (VMB and striatum (STR of PQ, PY and paraquat+maneb (MNPQ treated mice, followed by pathway analysis. We found concordance of signaling pathways between the three pesticide models in both the VMB and STR as well as concordance in these two brain areas. The concordant signaling pathways with relevance to PD pathogenesis were e.g. axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as pathways not previously linked to PD, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and role of macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Human PD pathways previously identified by expression analysis, concordant with VMB pathways identified in our study were axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, IL-6 signaling, ephrin receptor signaling, TGF-β signaling, PPAR signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Human PD pathways concordant with the STR pathways in our study were Wnt/β-catenin signaling, axonal guidance signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (Ppard and G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs were common genes in VMB and STR identified by network analysis. In conclusion, the pesticides PQ, PY and MNPQ elicit common signaling pathways in the VMB and STR in mice, which are concordant with known signaling pathways identified in human PD, suggesting that these pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. The analysis of these networks and pathways may therefore lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis, and potential novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgard, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate...... prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype...... was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex...

  13. Alteration of hedgehog signaling by chronic exposure to different pesticide formulations and unveiling the regenerative potential of recombinant sonic hedgehog in mouse model of bone marrow aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaklader, Malay; Law, Sujata

    2015-03-01

    Chronic pesticide exposure-induced downregulation of hedgehog signaling and its subsequent degenerative effects on the mammalian hematopoietic system have not been investigated yet. However a number of concurrent studies have pointed out the positive correlation between chronic pesticide exposure induced bone marrow failure and immune suppression. Here, we have given an emphasis on the recapitulation of human marrow aplasia like condition in mice by chronic mixed pesticide exposures and simultaneously unravel the role of individual pesticides in the said event. Unlike the effect of mixed pesticide, individual pesticides differentially alter the hedgehog signaling in the bone marrow primitive hematopoietic compartment (Sca1 + compartment) and stromal compartment. Individually, hexaconazole disrupted hematopoietic as well as stromal hedgehog signaling activation through inhibiting SMO and facilitating PKC δ expression. On contrary, both chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin increased the sequestration and degradation of GLI1 by upregulating SU(FU) and βTrCP, respectively. However, cypermethrin-mediated inhibition of hedgehog signaling has partly shown to be circumvented by non-canonical activation of GLI1. Finally, we have tested the regenerative response of sonic hedgehog and shown that in vitro supplemented recombinant SHH protein augmented clonogenic stromal progenitors (CFU-F) as well as primitive multipotent hematopoietic clones including CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM of mixed pesticide-induced aplastic marrow. It is an indication of the marrow regeneration. Finally, our findings provide a gripping evidence that downregulated hedgehog signaling contribute to pesticide-mediated bone marrow aplasia but it could be recovered by proper supplementation of recombinant SHH along with hematopoietic base cocktail. Furthermore, SU(FU) and GLI1 can be exploited as future theradiagnostic markers for early marrow aplasia diagnosis.

  14. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  15. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  17. Dermal Danger? Estimating Pesticide Exposure and Accumulation in Terrestrial Phase Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registration is required in the US. The EPA must ensure, when used according to label directions: reasonable certainty of no harm to human health, wildlife, fish, and plants, including endangered and non-target species, as well as surface and groundwater.

  18. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide-use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg layin...

  19. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    to five pesticides, i.e. procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and prochloraz. Common features for the three azole fungicides are that they increase gestational length possibly because of an increase in progesterone levels in dams. Groups of 8 time-mated Wistar rats (HanTac:WH) were gavaged...

  20. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediatin...

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide exposure in a wintering population of razorbills (Alca torda) from the southwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2010-08-01

    Sixteen organochlorine pesticides (OC) were analyzed in several tissue types (abdominal and subcutaneous fat, liver and brain) from juvenile (n=14), immature (n=9), subadult (n=7) and adult (n=20) razorbill (Alca torda) collected from the southwestern Mediterranean coastline, in the East of Spain (La Marina, Elche, Alicante, Spain). These razorbills had drowned in fishing nets (most probably) while searching for food. The objective was to assess the exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues in this wintering population of marine birds. This paper presents, as far as we are aware, the first published data on OC concentrations in razorbills. The highest levels were found in abdominal fat followed by subcutaneous fat, liver and brain. A significant positive relationship was found between age and OC levels in tissues, and with the highest levels in adults. The group of sigma Drins had the highest concentrations, followed by sigma DDT, sigma Endosulfan, sigma HCH and sigma Heptachlor, with endrin aldehyde being the compound which reached the highest levels. The p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in fatty tissues suggests exposure to non-degraded DDT and thus is present in the environment despite its prohibition. The OC levels detected were higher than those found in other studies on Alcidae, which may be explained by the Mediterranean habitat in which the birds were found. However, these levels are below concentrations for which any observable effect has been described.

  2. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  3. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...... to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach...

  4. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  5. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, J.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C.; Husby, S.

    2016-01-01

    ) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat% (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p ... (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p ... circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android fat deposition, independent of puberty. Girls appeared more susceptible than boys. Furthermore, the association depended on maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype....

  6. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and plays a key role...... exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can...

  7. Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W

    2012-06-01

    The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently.

  8. Modeling the contribution of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes to the recovery of Gammarus pulex populations after exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Ashauer, Roman; Baveco, Hans; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Barsi, Alpar; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Because aquatic macroinvertebrates may be exposed regularly to pesticides in edge-of-the-field water bodies, an accurate assessment of potential adverse effects and subsequent population recovery is essential. Standard effect risk assessment tools are not able to fully address the complexities arising from multiple exposure patterns, nor can they properly address the population recovery process. In the present study, we developed an individual-based model of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex to evaluate the consequences of exposure to 4 compounds with different modes of action on individual survival and population recovery. Effects on survival were calculated using concentration-effect relationships and the threshold damage model (TDM), which accounts for detailed processes of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Delayed effects as calculated by the TDM had a significant impact on individual survival and population recovery. We also evaluated the standard assessment of effects after short-term exposures using the 96-h concentration-effect model and the TDM, which was conservative for very short-term exposure. An integration of a TKTD submodel with a population model can be used to explore the ecological relevance of ecotoxicity endpoints in different exposure environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael; Wang, Minzheng; Dean, E Danielle; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity. At 12 wk of age, protein and mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were increased by perinatal dieldrin exposure in a dose-related manner. We then administered MPTP (2 x 10 mg/kg s.c) at 12 wk of age and observed a greater reduction of striatal dopamine in dieldrin-exposed offspring, which was associated with a greater DAT:VMAT2 ratio. Additionally, dieldrin exposure during development potentiated the increase in GFAP and alpha-synuclein levels induced by MPTP, indicating increased neurotoxicity. In all cases there were greater effects observed in the male offspring than the female, similar to that observed in human cases of PD. These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life.

  10. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  11. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhsohale ND

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 8-15 years in adjoining villages of Taluka Chalisgaon, district Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Various neurological symptoms like muscarinic (diarrhea, urinary incontinence, lacrimation, excessive salivation, nicotinic (tremors, muscle weakness, tachycardia and general symptoms (headache, insomnia, numbness in legs, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy were assessed by a specially designed Q16 questionnaire. Exposure index (EI was calculated by multiplying the number of hours exposed to OP pesticides and the number of years of exposure. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms found in children in study group were muscarinic [diarrhea (12%, lacrimation (26% and urinary incontinence (12%]; nicotinic [muscle weakness (42%] and general symptoms [pallor (58%, fatigue (34%, headache (30%, numbness in legs (24%, lethargy (20%]. Also, the cognition and psychological function was more impaired in children exposed to OP pesticides than the non-exposed children. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that neurologic symptoms involved both central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting from occupational and environmental exposure to OP pesticides. The high prevalence of neurologic symptoms could be attributed to chronic effects of OP pesticides on the central nervous system.

  12. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen R; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille R; Hass, Ulla; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-07-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and plays a key role in the initiation of puberty. In the adult, Kiss1 gene expression occurs in two hypothalamic nuclei, namely the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which are differentially regulated by peripheral sex steroid hormones. In this study we determined the effects on puberty onset and Kiss1 mRNA levels in each of the two nuclei after long-term perinatal exposure of rats to ethinyl oestradiol (EE2) or to five different pesticides, individually and in a mixture. Rat dams were per orally administered with three doses of EE2 (5, 15 or 50 μg/kg/day) or with the pesticides epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole, and procymidone, alone or in a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses. Kiss1 mRNA expression was determined in the AVPV and in the ARC of the adult male and female pups in the EE2 experiment, and in the adult female pups in the pesticide experiment. We find that perinatal EE2 exposure did not affect Kiss1 mRNA expression in this study designed to model human exposure to estrogenic compounds, and we find only minor effects on puberty onset. Further, the Kiss1 system does not exhibit persistent changes and puberty onset is not affected after perinatal exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can be affected by environmental pollutants through multiple mechanisms.

  13. Effects of exposure to pesticides during pregnancy on placental maturity and weight of newborns: a cross-sectional pilot study in women from the Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Maldonado, Brenda; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2009-08-01

    It is known that pesticides cross the placental barrier and can cause alterations in the development of placental structures resulting in adverse effects in reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy on placental maturity and to evaluate the relationship between placental maturity, gestational age and birth weight. We collected the placentas from singleton pregnancies from women exposed (n = 9) and non-exposed (n = 45 full-term and n = 31 preterm) to pesticides as evaluated geographically, by questionnaire and by acetylcholinesterase levels. Placental morphometry from the central and peripheral regions was examined by microscopy and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The placental maturity index (PMI) was estimated by dividing the number of epithelial plates in terminal villi to their thickness in 1 mm(2) of the placental parenchyma. Gestational age, birth weight and the following characteristics of the mother were also recorded: pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin concentrations. Birth weight and the gestational age were correlated with PMI (r = .54 and r = .44, respectively; p < .01). Pesticide exposure was associated with a higher PMI (beta = 7.38, p = .01) after adjusting by variables related to placental maturity. In conclusion, the results suggest a relationship between prenatal exposure to pesticides and placental maturity and may potentially affect the nutrient transport from the mother to the fetus.

  14. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  15. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  16. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2009-02-01

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage.

  17. Home Use of a Pyrethroid-Containing Pesticide and Facial Paresthesia in a Toddler: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Perkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paresthesias have previously been reported among adults in occupational and non-occupational settings after dermal contact with pyrethroid insecticides. In this report, we describe a preverbal 13-month-old who presented to his primary care pediatrician with approximately 1 week of odd facial movements consistent with facial paresthesias. The symptoms coincided with a period of repeat indoor spraying at his home with a commercially available insecticide containing two active ingredients in the pyrethroid class. Consultation by the Northwest Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit and follow-up by the Washington State Department of Health included urinary pyrethroid metabolite measurements during and after the symptomatic period, counseling on home clean up and use of safer pest control methods. The child’s symptoms resolved soon after home cleanup. A diagnosis of pesticide-related illness due to pyrethroid exposure was made based on the opportunity for significant exposure (multiple applications in areas where the child spent time, supportive biomonitoring data, and the consistency and temporality of symptom findings (paresthesias. This case underscores the vulnerability of children to uptake pesticides, the role of the primary care provider in ascertaining an exposure history to recognize symptomatic illness, and the need for collaborative medical and public health efforts to reduce significant exposures in children.

  18. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  19. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  20. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers— A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Aroonvilairat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+ were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively. There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted.

  1. Effect of pesticide exposure on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters in thai orchid farmers- a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-05-27

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32±1165.48 U/L, 11.61±4.09% and 312.26±164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85±1139.40 U/L, 14.32±4.23%, 420.34±195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031±0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018±0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted.

  2. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  3. Interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and a common polymorphism in the PON1 gene on DNA methylation in genes associated with cardio-metabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Declerck, Ken; Remy, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However......, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that epigenetics might be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in blood cells were related to prenatal pesticide exposure level, PON1 Q192R genotype, and associated...... metabolic effects observed in the children. Methods: Whole blood DNA methylation patterns in 48 children (6–11 years of age), whose mothers were occupationally unexposed or exposed to pesticides early in pregnancy, were determined by Illumina 450 K methylation arrays. Results: A specific methylation profile...

  4. Exposure of small water bodies to pesticides and their transformation products in a lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Based on the European Directive 2009/128/EC (2009), all member states were obliged to set up National Action Plans for the sustainable use of pesticides. In the German National Action Plan (GNAP), the status of small water bodies (swb) defined as water bodies with a catchment pesticide contamination of swbs is insufficient, a monitoring of 10 swbs in the catchment of the lowland river Kielstau was carried out in summer and autumn 2015 for selected herbicides and their transformation products (TP). METHODS Grab samples of the water phase were collected once at the end of the spring/summer application period and a screening was carried out for 102 pesticides and 6 TPs. During autumn application, the rape herbicide metazachlor and the winter grain herbicide flufenacet as well as their TPs oxalic acid (OA) and sulfonic acid (ESA) were in the focus of the study. The sampling was carried out event based after the first and second relevant rainfall events after application. The third sample was collected four weeks after the second sampling to observe the occurrence of the TPs. The target compounds were quantified by LC-MSMSMS. RESULTS For all swbs, the pesticide screening after the spring application showed pesticide/TP concentrations below the quantification limits (0.01-0.05 μg L-1) except of the corn herbicdes metolachlor, terbuthylazine and its TP desethylterbuthylazine. These findings were independent from the time elapsed since the last application of these compounds took place which was partly 4 years ago. After autumn application, the samples were analyzed for the herbicides metazachlor, flufenacet and their TPs which were sprayed on the fields where the swb are located in. These results showed that TPs of both herbicides remained from the year before and reached concentrations up to 1.9 μg L-1 for metazachlor ESA, 0.55 μg L-1 for metazachlor OA, 0.16 μg L-1 for flufenacet OA and 0.04 μg L-1 for flufenacet ESA. After autumn application, maximum

  5. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  6. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  7. Cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure in Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms living in apple orchards under different management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyelle, Renaud; Rault, Magali; Mazzia, Christophe; Mascle, Odile; Capowiez, Yvan

    2007-12-01

    The present study used cholinesterase (ChE) activity in earthworms as a biomarker of pesticide exposure at 17 apple orchards using different pest protection strategies (organic, integrated pest management [IPM], conventional, and abandoned) located within a 300-km(2) subregion near Avignon in southeastern France). The most common earthworm species in the 17 orchards was Allolobophora chlorotica. We examined inherent variability in ChE activity that might be attributable to soil characteristics and found that differences in soil structure or type did not significantly influence ChE activity. Furthermore, there was no relation between ChE specific activity and earthworm weight, and thus activity does not require correction for weight. Ten earthworms were collected in two successive months (April and May 2003) from each of the 17 orchards. Compared to the activity in worms from the control abandoned orchards, ChE activity was significantly decreased in earthworms from half the IPM and conventional orchards in April and all these orchards in May. Notably, ChE activity was also lower in earthworms from three organic orchards during May. No relation was observed between ChE decrease and the number of treatments (total or only organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides). Cholinesterase activity in earthworms from abandoned orchards varied between the two collecting periods, illustrating the difficulty in obtaining reference values for the use of ChE as a biomarker in field studies.

  8. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shuangying, E-mail: shuangying.yu@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Tang, Song, E-mail: song.tang@usask.ca [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Cobb, George P., E-mail: george_cobb@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, One Bear Place #97266, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • Responses included induction of DNA photo-adducts and DNA damage and repair genes. • Elevated DNA adduct levels occurred for co-exposures compared to UVB alone. • One mechanism is that pesticides may alter nuclear excision repair gene expression. - Abstract: Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: Summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we develop

  10. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  11. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine......). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides...

  12. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action.

  13. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  14. Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of chronic exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Can; Zeng, Yan; Shi, Haidan; Yang, Shuang; Bao, Wei; Qi, Lei; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiujun

    2016-09-01

    1. A metabonomics approach was performed to investigate the effect of quercetin on the toxicity of chronic exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides (OPs) at their corresponding no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). The rats were divided into six groups (n = 10/group): control, two different doses of quercetin, OPs mixture and different doses of quercetin plus OPs mixture-treated groups. 2. Nine metabolites, including two quercetin metabolites and seven endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma. The intensities of metabolites significantly changed in the OP mixture-treated group compared with the control group (p quercetin-treated group compared with the OP mixture-treated group (p quercetin elicited partial protective effects against the toxicity induced by a mixture of OPs, which include regulation of lipid metabolism, improvement of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle disorders, enhancement of antioxidant defence system to protect the liver.

  15. Subacute developmental exposure of zebrafish to the organophosphate pesticide metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, results in defects in Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Saskia M.; Birkholz, Denise A.; McNamara, Marcy L.; Bharate, Sandip B.; George, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are environmental toxicants known to inhibit the catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in hypercholinergic toxicity symptoms. In developing embryos, OPs have been hypothesized to affect both cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways. In order to understand the neurological pathways affected by OP exposure during embryogenesis, we developed a subacute model of OP developmental exposure in zebrafish by exposing embryos to a dose of the OP me...

  16. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-07-12

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (exposure and CES-D score. Forty-one percent of the sample reported some solvent exposure. The mean CES-D score was 6.5 (SD 6.4; median 5; range 0-44); 92% of the sample had a score below 16. After adjusting for covariates, statistically significant associations were observed between ever-use of any solvent, long duration of any solvent exposure, ever-use of gasoline, ever-use of petroleum distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  17. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the control fish. The result of acetylcholinesterase study revealed significant difference between acetylcholinesterase levels in the exposed fish and control, with reduction in the acetylcholineterase level in fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force. Haematological studies revealed an increase in WBC, RBC, PCV and platelets in the exposed fish. Histopathology of the gills showed shortened primary lamellae, loss of secondary lamellae and loss of ceratobrachial bones. In the acute toxicity studies, respiratory stress, erratic swimming and instant death of fish were observed in the exposed fish. This study reveals that changes in histopathology and acetylcholinesterase level are good biomarkers and can be successfully used to detect exposure to organophosphates pesticides in fish.

  18. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  19. Genetic damage and exposure to pesticides among agricultural workers from Valle de San Quintín, Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zúñiga Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown the ability of pesticides to induce genetic damage (GD that can cause health effects. In the present work, a genotoxicological study was conducted monitoring residents from the agricultural region of the San Quintin Valley (SQV, Baja California, Mexico. The objective was to determine if occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in the region of the SQV is a factor in GD, and to find out if women are more vulnerable to this effect. A questionnaire was administered to 88 residents of the SQV to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study; of these, 40 agreed to participate (25 occupationally exposed to pesticides and 15 environmentally exposed to them, with similar numbers of men and women. All participants signed an informed consent form. The micronuclei technique (MN was used, which blocks cytokinesis in peripheral blood samples, to evaluate GD by counting the number of MN and Chromatin Bridges in 1000 bi-nucleated cells (BNC. The results of this measure of genetic damage were then correlated with the degree of occupational pesticide exposure of the participants. Environmentally exposed men had less GD than women with MN means of 8.1± (1.83 and 13.1(±1.7 respectively, whereas occupational exposure affected both sexes, men with a mean of MN equal to 15.9 (± 2.9, and women with 18.12 (± 1.7. Based on our results, it can be concluded that occupational exposure to pesticides is a factor in GD, with women showing greater vulnerability than men. The time of exposure at work was shown to be directly related to the increased number of MN.

  20. Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, F; Azzopardi, M; Pfennig, S; Ruepert, C; Tedengren, M; Castillo, L E; Gunnarsson, J S

    2014-01-01

    In Costa Rica, thousands of tones of agricultural pesticides have been used for decades and their use is continuously increasing due to intensive and expanding production of coffee, pineapple, rice, ornamental plants and bananas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether choline esterase (ChE) activity could be used as a biomarker of exposure to pesticides in the Costa Rican native fish Astyanax aeneus (characidae). Three methods used in order to evaluate the ChE biomarker were as follows: Laboratory studies where A. aeneus was exposed to organophosphate pesticide (ethoprophos); In situ 48 hr exposure assessment using caging experiments with fish exposed upstream and downstream of banana plantations and ChE activity estimation of in fish captured directly at sites with different degrees of pesticide exposure. Results from the laboratory studies showed that ChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue was significantly lower in fish exposed to ethoprophos than in controls. Fish from the caging experiments showed no difference in ChE activity neither in brain nor in muscle tissue between the four tested sites and was attributed to the short duration of the exposure. Asignificant difference in ChE activity was determined in muscle of fish captured from Laguna Madre de Dios compared to fish from Canal Batán. Although our laboratory results revealed that ChE activity in A. aeneus was highly responsive to ethoprophos, results from field experiments were less conclusive and showed that the captured fish showed large variability in ChE activity and that more research is needed before ChE activity can be used as reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  1. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng‑1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng‑1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  2. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P; Gill, Richard J; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-13

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng(-1) bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng(-1)) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  3. Risk Factors for Non-Occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China, 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning can be fatal but is preventable. From October 2010 to February 2011, Anshan Prefecture reported 57 cases of non-occupational CO poisoning in District A, with two deaths. We conducted an investigation to identify risk factors and recommend preventive measures.We defined a possible case of non-occupational CO poisoning as onset of at least two of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma, and shock from October 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, in a resident of Anshan Prefecture with non-occupational exposure to CO poisoning. We defined a probable case as onset of at least one of the following symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma and shock, plus at least one of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, among possible cases. A confirmed CO poisoning case was a possible case or probable case plus hemoglobin (Hb CO higher than 10%. We searched for cases by reviewing medical records and records of hyperbaric oxygen tank usage. In a case-control investigation, we compared home heating practices of 30 case-persons and 120 control-persons who were individually matched to each case by neighborhood.Overall, 56% (39/70 of case-patients' households burned coal for home-heating. In the case-control investigation, 40% (12/30 of case-persons' households compared with 5.8% (7/120 of control-persons' households placed stoves in bedrooms (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORM-H] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-41; 53% (16/30 of case-patients' households and 33% (40/120 of control-patients' households did not extinguish the fire before sleeping (ORM-H = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-12; 13% (4/30 of case-patients' households and 3% (4/120 of control-patients' households had not installed the ventilation pipe vertically (ORM-H = 7.3, 95% CI = 1.0-56. Overall, 77% (23/30 of case-patients' households and 39% (47/120 of control

  4. Impaired terrestrial and arboreal locomotor performance in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) after exposure to an AChE-inhibiting pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuRant, Sarah E. [Wildlife Ecotoxicology and Physiological Ecology Program, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 444 Latham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, PO Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [Wildlife Ecotoxicology and Physiological Ecology Program, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 444 Latham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States) and University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, PO Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkinsw@vt.edu; Talent, Larry G. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    We examined the effects of a commonly used AChE-inhibiting pesticide on terrestrial and arboreal sprint performance, important traits for predator avoidance and prey capture, in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Lizards were exposed to carbaryl (2.5, 25, and 250 {mu}g/g) and were raced before and 4, 24, and 96 h after dosing. In the terrestrial setting, exposure to low concentrations of carbaryl had stimulatory effects on performance, but exposure to the highest concentration was inhibitory. No stimulatory effects of carbaryl were noted in the arboreal environment and performance in lizards was reduced after exposure to both the medium and highest dose of carbaryl. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to high concentrations of carbaryl can have important sublethal consequences on fitness-related traits in reptiles and that arboreal locomotor performance is a more sensitive indicator of AChE-inhibiting pesticide poisoning than terrestrial locomotor performance. - Exposure to an acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide alters locomotor performance in western fence lizards.

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, Jacob D; Boon, Polly E

    2009-12-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we developed an electronic platform of food consumption and chemical concentration databases harmonised at raw agricultural commodity level. In this platform the databases are connected to probabilistic software to allow probabilistic modelling of dietary exposure in a standardised way. The usefulness of this platform is demonstrated in two papers, which describe the exposure to pesticides and glycoalkaloids in several European countries. Furthermore, an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model was developed: a new tool to integrate exposure and effect modelling, including uncertainty analyses. The use of this model was shown in a paper on the cumulative exposure to anti-androgen pesticides. Combined with a health impact prioritization system, developed within this work package to compare heath risks between chemicals, the IPRA tool can also be used to compare health risks between multiple chemicals in complex risk assessment situation such as risk-benefit and risk trade-off analyses. Both the electronic platform of databases as the IPRA model may proof to be powerful tools to tackle the challenges risk managers are or will be faced with in the future.

  6. Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, R. K.; Larsen, S. B.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171...... traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers, overall participation rate: 32%) who were selected from central registers. Each farmer delivered one semen sample before the spraying season started. The farmers were divided into three groups where the commodities from organic production contributed no (N, 0......%), medium (M, 1-49%), or a high (H, 50-100%) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed. Farmers having a high relative intake of organically grown fruit and vegetables also had a high relative consumption of organically produced meat, milk, and bread, and differences were observed comparing the actual...

  7. The use of a lacertid lizard as a model for reptile ecotoxicology studies: part 2--biomarkers of exposure and toxicity among pesticide exposed lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria José; Bicho, Rita C; Carretero, Miguel A; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Faustino, Augusto M R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Mann, Reinier M

    2012-05-01

    As part of a wider study examining the impacts of corn pesticides on lacertid lizards in north-western Portugal, we examined various physiological, biochemical, and histological biomarkers of exposure and effect among field populations of Podarcis bocagei. Biomarkers included body condition index, standard metabolic rate, locomotor performance, parasitization, glutathione oxidative pathways and related enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and liver and testis histology. Few of the various biomarkers investigated provided statistically significant evidence of toxic effect. However, using a weight of evidence approach, we conclude that pesticides are affecting lizards living in the vicinity of pesticide exposed corn agriculture sites. Lizards from these locations present a profile of animals under metabolic stress with reduced condition indices, increased standard metabolic rate, lower incidence of hepatocyte vacuolation, altered iron metabolism, increased activation of GSH oxidation pathways, and even increased prevalence of hemoparasites.

  8. Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases.

  9. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  10. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  11. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Pierluigi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.

  12. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  13. Community duplicate diet methodology: a new tool for estimating dietary exposures to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; McCombs, Michelle; Brown, G Gordon; Raymer, James; Nishioka, Marcia; Buehler, Stephanie; Freeman, Natalie; Michael, Larry C

    2012-01-01

    An observational field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a community duplicate diet collection method; a dietary monitoring tool that is population-based. The purpose was to establish an alternative procedure to duplicate diet sampling that would be more efficient for a large, defined population, e.g., in the National Children's Study (NCS). Questionnaire data and food samples were collected in a residence so as not to lose the important component of storage, preparation, and handling in a contaminated microenvironment. The participants included nine Hispanic women of child bearing age living in Apopka, FL, USA. Foods highly consumed by Hispanic women were identified based on national food frequency questionnaires and prioritized by permethrin residue concentrations as measured for the Pesticide Data Program. Participants filled out questionnaires to determine if highly consumed foods were commonly eaten by them and to assess the collection protocol for the food samples. Measureable levels of permethrin were found in 54% of the samples. Questionnaire responses indicated that the collection of the community duplicate diet was feasible for a defined population.

  14. Influence of pesticide exposure on carbonic anhydrase II from sheep stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Namık; İşgör, Mehmet Mustafa; Şengül, Bülent; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a widely distributed enzyme and has a crucial role in the cells, tissues and organs of living organisms. It is found that CA-II is one of the most abundant CA isoenzymes in the gastrointestinal system. It plays an important role in the gastric acid secretion in stomach. In this study, we purified CA-II isoenzyme from sheep stomach with a 615.2 purification fold, 78% purification yield and 5562.02 specific activity. Moreover, the in vitro effects of some commonly used pesticides including chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, glyphosate isopropylamine and lambda cyhalomethrin on the enzyme activity were investigated. Of these compounds, glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos showed an inhibition on CA-II esterase activity. They have IC50 values of 0.155 µM and 2.690 µM and Ki values of 0.329 µM and 3.654 µM, respectively. Both glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos inhibited CA-II isoenzyme in a noncompetitive manner.

  15. Non-occupational sedentary behaviors: Population changes in the Netherlands, 1975-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, H.P. van der; Venugopal, K.; Chau, J.Y.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Breedveld, K.; Merom, D.; Bauman, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence is accumulating that sedentary behaviors have detrimental health effects. Comprehensive data on population changes in various sedentary behaviors over time are scarce. Purpose: This study aimed to determine changes in non-occupational sedentary behaviors in the Dutch adult popul

  16. Xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum as marker of occupational pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    in detectable impacts on hormonal activity in the blood. Abbreviations: HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; E2, 17ß-oestradiol; PPE, personal protective equipment; RPE, relative proliferative effect; XE fraction, xeno-oestrogen fraction Exposure situations are often complex and involve several...

  17. A European model and case studies for aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Glass, C.R.; Bokkers, B.G.H.; Hart, A.D.M.; Hamay, P.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Boer, de W.J.; Voet, van der H.; Garthwaite, D.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) are assessed using risk analysis methods to protect public health. Traditionally, single sources, such as food or individual occupational sources, have been addressed. In reality, individuals can be exposed simultaneously to multiple sources. Improved re

  18. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  19. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  20. Potential exposure of bees, Apis mellifera L., to particulate matter and pesticides derived from seed dressing during maize sowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochi, Daniele; Biocca, Marcello; Fanigliulo, Roberto; Pulcini, Patrizio; Conte, Elisa

    2012-08-01

    This paper assessed the potential exposure of bees (Apis mellifera L.) to pesticides during maize (Zea mays L.) sowing with pneumatic drills. Data were derived from tests carried out in field tests, comparing two configurations of a pneumatic precision drill: conventional drill; drill with air deflectors. In addition, static tests simulating the sowing under controlled conditions, were performed on the drill equipped with an innovative system developed at CRA-ING. During the field tests, the concentrations in the air of the active ingredients of four insecticides used in maize seed dressing (imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and fipronil) were recorded. The concentrations of active ingredients in the air were used for assessing the quantities of active ingredients that a bee might intercept as it flies in a sort of virtual tunnel, the dimensions of which were dependent upon the bee body cross-section and the length of flight. The results of the field tests show that the air deflectors were not completely effective in reducing the amount of active ingredients dispersed in the air. The results of the static tests with drill equipped with the prototype indicated reductions of the active ingredient air concentrations ranging from 72 % up to 95 %, with reference to the conventional drill. Such ratios were applied to the amounts of active ingredients intercepted by the bees in the virtual tunnel contributing to a consistent reduction of the probability that sub-lethal effects can occur.

  1. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  2. Effects of Pesticide Exposure on Embryonic Development and Hatchling Traits of Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baofeng WU; Liang LIANG; Liang MA; Weiguo DU

    2016-01-01

    Deltamethrin is a widespread environmental hormone with endocrine-disrupting properties, but its effect on embryonic development of reptiles is largely unexplored. We investigated the effects of deltamethrin on embryonic development and offspring traits in two turtle species, one with parchment-shelled eggs and the other with rigid-shelled eggs. Deltamethrin exposure during egg incubation did not affect hatching success and hatchling body size in either species. However, embryonic exposure to deltamethrin resulted in reduced hatchling locomotor performance in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) with parchment-shelled eggs, but not in the Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii) with rigid-shelled eggs. These results suggest that parchment-shelled eggs are likely more vulnerable to deltamethrin than rigid-shelled eggs.

  3. Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eTimchalk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human

  4. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J; Smith, Jordan N

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject's true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations.

  5. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  6. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    , mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, were examined. Pregnant and lactating rat dams were dosed with a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses, or with the individual pesticides at one of two doses.Adverse effects were observed in young and adult male offspring from the group...

  7. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides Medindo a exposição a pesticidas organoclorados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.As investigações epidemiológicas sobre câncer ambiental permanecem, com raras exceções, inconclusivas. As dificuldades em se estabelecerem padrões de mensuração de exposição no corpo humano são algumas das limitações desses estudos. Os achados dos seis estudos epidemiológicos recentes que analisaram a associação entre compostos organoclorados e câncer de mama foram revistos, considerando os problemas de se medir a exposição ambiental por meio de marcadores biológicos. A evidência epidemiológica com base nesses estudos não indica risco de câncer de mama relacionado a organoclorados. Alguns aspectos que podem, parcialmente, explicar essa ausência de risco são discutidos considerando-se a investigação de agentes carcinogênicos ambientais em populações com níveis de exposição baixos, porém homogeneamente disseminados.

  8. Reproductive abnormalities in adult male mice following preimplantation exposures to estradiol or pesticide methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei Ya; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Amstislavsky, Vjacheslav S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Osipov, Kiril V; Eroschenko, Victor P

    2006-02-01

    Adult females of ICR strain of mice were bred, separated into different experimental groups, and treated as follows. On Days 2-4 of pregnancy, the mice received daily subcutaneous injections of either 0.05 ml sesame oil (vehicle) or same volume of 5.0mg of purified methoxychlor (MXC) suspended in the vehicle. Another group received a single subcutaneous injection of 1.0 microg of estradiol-17beta (E) on Day 2 of pregnancy only. Male offspring were tested at 3 and 6 months of age. At 3 months, E or MXC did not alter the weights of seminal vesicles, preputial glands, or testes, although after exposure for 30 min to a female in estrus behind a partition, testosterone levels were significantly reduced in treated males in comparison to control males exposed to the same partition test. At 6 months, the preputial glands and testes weight remained unchanged, while the seminal vesicles were significantly heavier in E- and MXC-treated males. Same partition tests again revealed that in E and MXC groups, testosterone levels remained significantly lower in comparison to control males. MXC or E exposures during preimplantation appear to induce long-term effects on the sexual development in 3 and 6 month-old-males by compromising their sexual arousal and altering seminal vesicles weights in the older group.

  9. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  10. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  11. [Multiple exposure to pesticides and impacts on health: a cross-section study of 102 rural workers, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Alberto José; de Lima, Jaime Silva; Moreira, Josino Costa; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Soares, Mônica de Oliveira; Monteiro, Marcos César Monassa; do Amaral, Alexandre Muza; Kubota, Alexandre; Meyer, Armando; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes; das Neves, Cesar; Markowitz, Steven

    2007-01-01

    A cross section study was carried out in a farming community from Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, to examine epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of multiple exposure to pesticides in a representative sample of 102 small farmers. Both males and females were submitted to an extensive protocol which included an occupation questionnaire, biological sample collection for toxicology analysis and clinical - general and neurological - evaluation. The toxicology test results showed light to moderate episodes of acute intoxication by organophosphorates either described by the farmers or observed during clinical examination. Thirteen cases of delayed neuropathies (12,8%) as well as 29 cases of neural behavioral syndromes and psychiatric disorders associated to the continued use of pesticides were diagnosed. These results indicate recurrent multiple overexposures to high concentrations of different chemicals, with serious damage to vital functions, especially considering their young age (average 35 +/- 11 years old) and the productive period in their lifetime. These results show how important it is to monitor multiple exposure to pesticides - a chain of events that may have major impacts on public health and the environment.

  12. Integration of biological monitoring, environmental monitoring and computational modelling into the interpretation of pesticide exposure data: introduction to a proposed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Claudio; Rubino, Federico M; Alegakis, Athanasios; Ariano, Eugenio; Brambilla, Gabri; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Metruccio, Francesca; Minoia, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Somaruga, Chiara; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Turci, Roberta; Vellere, Francesca

    2012-08-13

    Open field, variability of climatic and working conditions, and the use of complex mixtures of pesticides makes biological and environmental monitoring in agriculture, and therefore risk assessment and management, very complicated. A need of pointing out alternative risk assessment approaches, not necessarily based on measures, but simple, user-friendly and reliable, feasible also in the less advanced situations and in particular in small size enterprises, arises. This aim can be reached through a combination of environmental monitoring, biological monitoring and computational modelling. We have used this combination of methods for the creation of "exposure and risk profiles" to be applied in specific exposure scenarios, and we have tested this approach on a sample of Italian rice and maize herbicide applicators. We have given specific "toxicity scores" to the different products used and we have identified, for each of the major working phases, that is mixing and loading, spraying, maintenance and cleaning of equipment, the main variables affecting exposure and inserted them into a simple algorithm, able to produce "exposure indices". Based on the combination of toxicity indices and exposure indices it is possible to obtain semiquantitative estimates of the risk levels experienced by the workers in the exposure scenarios considered. Results of operator exposure data collected under real-life conditions can be used to validate and refine the algorithms; moreover, the AOEL derived from pre-marketing studies can be combined to estimate tentative biological exposure limits for pesticides, useful to perform individual risk assessment based on technical surveys and on simple biological monitoring. A proof of principle example of this approach is the subject of this article.

  13. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaches consumers how to control pests, choose, use, store, and dispose pesticides safely, reduce exposure when others use pesticides, prevent pesticide poisoning, handle an emergency, and how to choose a pest control company.

  14. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia T Budnik

    Full Text Available There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD but (mostly lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001. The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79 in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015. The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  15. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver; Preisser, Alexandra M; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD) but (mostly) lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment) and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001). The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79) in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015). The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001). Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  16. Simulating Human and Environmental Exposure from Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Application: Be-WetSpa-Pest, an Integrative, Spatially Explicit Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia R; García-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-05-25

    This paper presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato-producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops, or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easily to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  17. Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Köpp, H.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Brock, T.C.M.; Forbes, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of risks to aquatic organisms is important in the registration procedures for pesticides in industrialised countries. This risk assessment consists of two parts: (i) assessment of effects to these organisms derived from ecotoxicological experiments (=effect assessment), and (ii) assessmen

  18. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption.

  19. Detection of Exposure to Environmental Pesticides During Pregnancy by the Analysis of Maternal Hair Using GC–MS

    OpenAIRE

    Posecion, N.; Ostrea, E.; Bielawski, D.; Corrion, M.; Seagraves, J.; Jin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of pesticides were extracted from maternal hair by solid-liquid extraction. Analysis of their selected metabolites involved a methanolic/hydrochloric acid methyl ester derivatization and liquid–liquid extraction. Gas chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify the pesticides and metabolites. Recovery of parent compounds and metabolites from the analysis of spiked hair ranged from 87 to 112% with coefficients of variation less than 11%. Limi...

  20. Accounting for differing exposure patterns between laboratory tests and the field in the assessment of long-term risks of pesticides to terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David L

    2005-11-01

    Long-term risks of pesticides to birds and mammals are currently assessed by comparing effects thresholds determined in chronic laboratory studies to exposure levels expected to occur in the field. However, there is often a mismatch between exposure patterns tested in the laboratory tests (exposure levels held constant) and those experienced by animals in the field (exposure levels varying over time). Three methods for addressing this problem are presented and discussed. Time-weighted averaging (TWA) converts a variable field exposure regime to a single value that can be compared directly to the laboratory test results. Body-burden modeling (BBM) is applied to both laboratory and field exposure regimes allowing a straightforward comparison of body residue levels expected for each situation. Temporal analysis (TA) uses expert judgment to decide if the length of time exposure exceeds a toxicity threshold is long enough to cause biologically significant effects. To reduce uncertainty in long-term assessments, the conduct of specialized laboratory tests in which test subjects are administered a time-varying exposure that mimics what occurs in the field should be considered. Such tests may also be useful testing the validity of each of these assessment methods.

  1. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  2. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE: 0.11-2163ngg(-1) dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT: 0.36-345ngg(-1) dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02-34ngg(-1) dry wt.), ∑PCBs (0.03-16ngg(-1) dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01-0.13ngg(-1) dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p'-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑PCBs and ∑DDTs were significantly different among species (both p<0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p<0.03). Only ∑PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p<0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differed significantly (all p<0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p=0.22 for δ(13)C; p=0.50 for δ(15)N). Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p=0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p<0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ(13)C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in predatory birds should be further elucidated in future studies.

  3. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused...... no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects...

  4. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil Distúrbios do sistema reprodutivo humano e exposição a pesticidas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Koifman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.A observação de distúrbios reprodutivos em seres humanos e na vida animal tem sido relatada em diferentes países na última década, sendo apontada como possível explicação para tal fenômeno, a exposição a diversas substâncias químicas com possível interferência no sistema endócrino, incluindo pesticidas. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um estudo epidemiológico, com delineamento ecológico explorando dados de exposição a pesticidas durante os anos oitenta, em estados brasileiros selecionados e distúrbios reprodutivos observados nos anos noventa. Foram obtidos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre o volume de vendas de pesticidas em onze estados brasileiros em 1985 e indicadores diretos ou substitutos da ocorrência de distúrbios reprodutivos nas mesmas localidades. Coeficientes de correlação moderados e elevados foram observados para a

  5. Adverse health effects of children's exposure to pesticides : What do we really know and what can be done about it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurewicz, J.; Hanke, W.; Johansson, C.; Lundqvist, C.; Ceccatelli, S.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Saunders, M.; Zetterstrom, R.

    2006-01-01

    Children may be exposed to pesticides in several ways, such as by transplacental transfer during foetal life, by intake of contaminated breast milk and other nutrients, or by contact with contaminated subjects and areas in the environment such as pets treated with insecticides, house dust, carpets

  6. Pesticides in the Cagayan Valley (Phillipines): usage, drift patterns and exposure of farmers differing in income and market access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baurdoux, M.; Snelder, D.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the amount and number of different types of pesticides have increased significantly, which led to a growing concern about the possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. This is particularly true for countries where regulations are not strictly implemented

  7. Modeling the contribution of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes to the recovery of gammarus pulex populations after exposure to pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.G.; Ashauer, R.; Baveco, J.M.; Nyman, M.; Barsi, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aquatic macroinvertebrates may be exposed regularly to pesticides in edge-of-the-field water bodies, an accurate assessment of potential adverse effects and subsequent population recovery is essential. Standard effect risk assessment tools are not able to fully address the complexities arisi

  8. Pesticide exposure assessment in flowing waters – results for predicted environmental concentrations in some brooks in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, M.T.; Guerniche, D.G.; Bach, M.B.;

    2010-01-01

    The “Georisk”- project of the German Federal Environmental Agency forms the scientific basis for an integration of more realistic landscape based scenarios into the process of pesticide registration. Here, first results of geodata-based simulations are presented. The objective of the simulations...

  9. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values determin

  10. Adverse health effects of children's exposure to pesticides : What do we really know and what can be done about it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurewicz, J.; Hanke, W.; Johansson, C.; Lundqvist, C.; Ceccatelli, S.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Saunders, M.; Zetterstrom, R.

    2006-01-01

    Children may be exposed to pesticides in several ways, such as by transplacental transfer during foetal life, by intake of contaminated breast milk and other nutrients, or by contact with contaminated subjects and areas in the environment such as pets treated with insecticides, house dust, carpets a

  11. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  12. Gene expression and chemical exposure data for larval Pimephales promelas exposed to one of four pyrethroid pesticides.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Uploaded datasets are detailed exposure information (chemical concentrations and water quality parameters) for exposures conducted in a flow through diluter system...

  13. Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase T1, M1 and P1 Genes in a Shanghai Population: Patients With Occupational or Non-occupational Bladder Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Glutathione S-transferases are involved in the conjugation of xenobiotics. To explore whether GSTs polymorphisms are involved in the development of occupational or non-occupational bladder cancer, polymorphism frequencies of GSTT1, M1 and P1 were investigated in a normal population, which had been settled in a rural area in Shanghai suburb for at least 5 generations as well as in a group of patients with benzidine exposure related occupational bladder cancer in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of patients with non-occupational bladder cancer. Methods PCR based procedures were performed in the study populations to confirm the genotypes of GSTT1, M1 and P1. Results The polymorphisms at locus of GSTP1- A1578G in the normal population differed significantly from those in Caucasians or African Americans. All the subjects genotyped so far (n =118) bore only homogenous wild genotype (C2293/ C2293) at GSTP1 - C2293T locus. This locus seemed to be a monomorphic in Shanghai population. No significant difference in GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphic form frequencies could be confirmed among three groups of subjects. An overrepresentation of GSTP1 AG or GG genotype corresponding a less stable and less effective isozyme protein was detected in patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, compared with that in the normal population though a statistical significance was not yet reached (P=0.09, OR=1.96, 95% CI 0.89-4.32,). Conclusion This study suggests that GSTM1 or GSTT1 homozygous deficiency genotypes and their combination do not have a clear impact on bladder cancer incidence in a Shanghai population. It seems that GSTP1 polymorphism is not associated with non-occupational bladder cancer. GSTP1 AG or GG genotype has a higher frequency in the patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, and further work is needed to confirm if GSTP1 AG or GG genotype plays a role in the development of occupational bladder cancer.

  14. Increased N7-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts after occupational exposure to pesticides and influence of genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Altakroni, Bashar; Lozano-Paniagua, David; Margison, Geoffrey P; de Vocht, Frank; Povey, Andrew C; Hernández, Antonio F

    2015-06-01

    There are concerns about genetic risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides as these compounds may damage DNA, resulting in mutations that eventually lead to cancer, neurological, and reproductive adverse health effects. This study assessed DNA damage in intensive agricultural workers exposed to pesticides by determining the levels of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine (N7-MedG), an adduct known to be a robust biomarker of recent exposure to chemical methylating agents. A cohort of 39 plastic greenhouse workers was assessed for changes in lymphocyte DNA N7-MedG levels between low level and high level exposures during the course of a spraying season. The contributions of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolizing enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTM1 and GSTT1, on N7-MedG levels and other potential confounders were also assessed. N7-MedG increased in the period of high pesticide exposure as compared to the low exposure period (0.23 and 0.18 µmol N7-MedG/mol dG for the unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models, P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively). Significant decreased levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were observed in the high versus low exposure period in both the unadjusted (2.85 U/g hemoglobin and 213.13 U/L, respectively) and adjusted linear mixed models (2.99 U/g hemoglobin and 230.77 U/L, respectively), indicating pesticide intake. In intensive agriculture workers, higher pesticide exposure increased DNA alkylation levels, further demonstrating the genotoxicity of pesticides in man. In addition, pesticide-exposed individuals with inherited susceptible metabolic genotypes (particularly, null genotype for GSTM1 and the PON1 192R allele) appear to have an increased risk of genotoxic DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:437-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Review of Exposure Simulation Shells for Pesticide Ecological Risk Assessment%国内外农药生态风险评价暴露模拟外壳述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 周军英; 程燕; 单正军

    2012-01-01

    在阐明农药生态风险评价暴露模拟外壳的概念和功能的基础上,介绍了美国PE[ PRZM( pesticide root zone model)-EXAMS( exposure analysis modeling system)]系列外壳和EXPRESS( EXAMS - PRZM exposure simulation shell)系列外壳、欧盟SWASH(surface water scenarios help)外壳及中国PRAESS (pesticide risk assessment exposure simulation shell)外壳这几种已开发的农药生态风险评价暴露模拟外壳的开发目的、结构组成、输入参数、运行方式和输出结果等方面的内容,并比较分析了各暴露模拟外壳在包含模型、包含场景、模拟水体类型和主要输出结果方面的异同点,期望为我国农药生态风险评价,尤其是暴露评价研究提供有益借鉴.%Based on illustration of the concept and functions of the exposure simulation shell for pesticide eco-risk assessment , an introduction was presented to development purposes, configurations, input parameters, operation mode and output of the exposure simulation shells that are currently available for pesticide ecological risk assessment, such as PE [ PRZM(pesticide root zone model)- EXAMS(exposure analysis modeling system) ] , EXPRESS (EXAMS - PRZM exposure simulation shell) , SWASH ( surface water scenarios help) and PRAESS (pesticide risk assessment exposure simulation shell) , which were developed by the USA, EU( European Union) and China, separately. Furthermore, similarities of and differences between the shells in model, scenario, type of water body simulated and main output were analyzed, with the purpose of providing some helpful reference to the research of pesticide ecological risk assessment, especially the research of exposure assessment in China.

  16. Accumulation and half-lives of 13 pesticides in muscle tissue of freshwater fishes through food exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazartigues, Angélique; Thomas, Marielle; Banas, Damien; Brun-Bellut, Jean; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Feidt, Cyril

    2013-04-01

    Fish are often exposed to various molecules like pesticides. Some of these compounds get biomagnified within aquatic food web, inducing health hazards of consumers. However, behaviors of many pesticides are still unknown. This work aims to study the uptake and the elimination of some of them in muscle tissue of edible fish (azoxystrobin, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, carbendazim, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop, and thifensulfuron-methyl). Two freshwater fish species (Perca fluviatilis and Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to a mixture of these 13 pesticides, via multi-contaminated pellets, and then, eliminated. Compounds were measured in food, water and muscle tissue using multi-residues methods. Kinetics, biomagnification factors (BMFs) and half-lives (t1/2) were estimated and they did not show a large difference between the species. Muscular BMFs ranged from 2 × 10(-6) (mesosulfuron-methyl in perch) to 1 × 10(-3) (isoproturon and napropamid in perch) and t1/2 ranged from 0.8 (mesosulfuron-methyl in perch) to 40.3d (napropamid in carp). BMFs were also modeled as a function of Kow value. All BMF values were explained by the model, except for diflufenican which had a BMF lower than that expected by our modeling work, probably due to an efficient metabolism. Results led to the conclusion that none of these chemicals would probably be biomagnified within aquatic food webs.

  17. Changes in buccal micronucleus cytome parameters associated with smokeless tobacco and pesticide exposure among female tea garden workers of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha

    2014-03-01

    Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (ptea garden workers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; ptea garden workers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells.

  18. Effects of perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on total development in 10-month-old Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J.; Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned to use in late 1960s and in early 1970s in Japan, because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, their appearance in animal and human tissue, and their toxicity. However, these chemicals and their metabolites still have been contaminating our environment, food and human beings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs), highly toxic organochlorine compounds and so-called dioxins, are also determined in human beings. Consequently, the chemicals mentioned above and their metabolites have been measured in Japanese breast milk, which indicates Japanese mothers are also contaminated with these compounds. These compounds in Japanese mothers may cause some deleterious effects on the developmental condition of Japanese infants. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between perinatal exposure to the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins and the total developmental condition at about 10 months of age in Japanese male and female infants.

  19. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  20. The effects of exposure to pesticides on the fecundity status of farm workers resident in a rural region of Fars province, southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Neghab; Mohammadjafar Momenbella-Fard; Reza Naziaghdam; Narges Salahshour; Maryam Kazemi; Hamzeh Alipour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of fecundity and other reproductive problems among a group of farmers in Kavar district of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: A total of 268 randomly selected married male farm workers were investigated. A questionnaire was devised and validated [Cronbach’s α-coefficient (0.81)]. Subjects were directly interviewed and the questionnaire forms were completed for them. Results:The prevalence of current primary infertility among the studied population was about 7.4% (P=0.001). Similarly, 6.3% of farm workers had offsprings with congenital malformations. Finally, 1.5% and 9% of farmers’ wives had a history of stillbirth and abortion, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence of current primary infertility were higher among farm workers families than in the normal population (P Conclusions:These effects are likely to be attributed to the exposure of farm workers to pesticides.

  1. Cyto-architectural Alterations in the Corpuscles of Stannius of Stinging Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis after Exposure to a Botanical Pesticide (Nerium indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ManiRam Prasad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation describes the cyto-architectural alterations observed in the corpuscles of Stannius of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis after treatment with a botanical pesticide Nerium indicum. Methods: Heteropneustes fossilis were subjected to 11.27 and 2.81 mg/L of Nerium indicum leaf extract over short- and long-term exposure periods, respectively. Blood was collected for calcium analysis and corpuscles of Stannius (CS gland were fixed on 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the short-term experiment and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in the long-term experiment. Results: Serum calcium levels decreased from 48 h to 96 h. CS remains unaffected till 72 h. After the 96-hour treatment, increased granulation was observed in AF- positive cells. Nuclear volume of these cells exhibited no change throughout the short-term treatment. Slight increases in nuclear volume of AF-negative cells were recorded after 96 h. Nerium indicum caused decreases in serum calcium levels of H. fossilis from day 14 to 28. CS exhibited no alterations up to 14 days of exposure. AF-positive cells of CS depicted increased granulation after 21 days of treatment. Nuclear volume of these cells exhibited a slight decrease from day 21 to 28. Heavy accumulation of AF-positive granules was observed and few degenerating cells were noticed. Nuclear volume of AF-negative cells increased after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Vacuolization and degeneration occurred in certain places. Conclusion: It is inferred from the present study that the botanical pesticide Nerium indicum induced severe changes in the corpuscles of Stannius of catfish.

  2. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of aromatic and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for non-occupational indoor air application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Kun-Ho

    2004-11-01

    The current study evaluated the technical feasibility of applying TiO2 photocatalysis to the removal of low-ppb concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate five parameters (relative humidity (RH), hydraulic diameter (HD), feeding type (FT) for VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor material (RM), and inlet port size (IPS) of PCO reactor) in relation to the PCO destruction efficiencies of the selected target VOCs. None of the target VOCs exhibited any significant dependence on the RH, which is inconsistent with a previous study where, under conditions of low humidity and a ppm toluene inlet level, a drop in the PCO efficiency was reported with a decreasing humidity. However, the other four parameters (HD, RM, FT, and IPS) were found to be important for better VOC removal efficiencies as regards the application of TiO2 photocatalytic technology for cleansing non-occupational indoor air. The PCO destruction of VOCs at concentrations associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues was up to nearly 100%, and the CO generated during PCO was a negligible addition to indoor CO levels. Accordingly, a PCO reactor would appear to be an important tool in the effort to improve non-occupational indoor air quality.

  3. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  4. Exposición prenatal a los plaguicidas organoclorados y criptorquidia Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Patrícia Bustamante Montes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos en desarrollo y los niños son particularmente vulnerables a los tóxicos ambientales. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT y pp'DDE en lípidos séricos de madres de niños con criptorquidia y comparar los niveles con un grupo control de madres de niños con testículos descendidos. El grupo de los casos fue constituido por recién nacidos con diagnóstico de criptorquidia (n=41. El grupo control (n=41 se conformó por niños con testículos descendidos. A las madres de ambos grupos se les determinaron los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados. La criptorquidia fue diagnosticada al nacimiento por neonatólogo. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados fueron encontrados en lípidos séricos de ambos grupos. Los niveles de la mediana (mgkg-1 en base lipídica fueron mayores para los metabolitos pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 y ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 en el grupo con criptorquidia comparado con el grupo control. (pFetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41, and the controls (n=41 newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 and ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01. It

  5. Development of an analytical strategy based on LC-MS/MS for the measurement of different classes of pesticides and theirs metabolites in meconium: application and characterisation of foetal exposure in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Thierry; Mayhoub, Flora; Chardon, Karen; Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Lestremau, Francois; Bach, Véronique; Tack, Karine

    2014-07-01

    It is important to evaluate the impact of pesticides on human health because exposure to these compounds has been linked to harmful effects in many research studies. This exposure may be particularly harmful during the early stages of development (e.g. the prenatal period). The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical strategy for quantifying a number of pesticides and their metabolites in meconium (the neonate's first faeces), in order to characterize the extent of foetal exposure. The meconium sample was dried and grinded in order to homogenize the sample, prior to solid-liquid extraction and a purification by solid-phase extraction using a weak anion mixed-mode polymeric sorbent. Analyte separation and quantification was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Five pesticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids, phenylureas and phenoxy herbicides) and their metabolites could be quantified in meconium with limits of quantification ranging between 0.2 ng/g and 200 ng/g. This method was applied to a set of 171 meconium samples collected in the Picardie region of northern France. The highest prevalence was observed for metabolites of organophosphates and carbamates (57.9% and 22.8%, respectively). The parent pesticides were rarely present and were only found at very low concentrations, except for the pyrethroids cyfluthrin and cypermethrin, which were found in 7.6% of meconium samples at concentrations of between 43.8 and 480 ng/g. The most frequently detected contaminant was the organophosphate metabolite dimethyl thiophosphate detected in 49.1% of the samples and quantified with a median concentration of 344 ng/g. These data evidence significant foetal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, pyrethroids and carbamates.

  6. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents. Background: Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population’s working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness....... Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Methods: Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked...... to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. Results: In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days...

  7. 童工在农业活动中接触农药的危害%The Impact of Pesticide Exposure on Child Laborers in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余任跃

    2011-01-01

    本文以“鹿特丹公约”缔约方第五次会议为背景,主要介绍了联合国粮食农业组织(FAO)和国际劳工组织(ILO)共同组织的有关“童工在农业活动中接触农药的危害”专题会议内容和意义。同时,通过儿童会接触到农药的具体例子.说明儿童接触有毒物质比成年人更易受到危害。%Based on the fifth conference of the parties to the "Rotterdam Convention" background, this paper introduces briefly the contents and significance that the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) held a side event to highlight the impact of pesticide exposure on child laborers in agriculture. At the same time, the children more vulnerable to toxic exposures than adults are also described by concrete examples.

  8. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  9. 控制高毒农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中的意义%Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 赵江霞; 常秀丽; 周志俊

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. Methods The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. Results The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning.After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased(P<0.01 ). Parathion was also the most dangerous pesticide which caused nonoccupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. Conclusion The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.%目的 探讨控制危害最大的农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中所起的作用.方法 通过对某省某县医院既往中毒病例的分析,发现在农村中最易发生中毒的特危农药,假设在控制这些农药后,估测生产性农药中毒的发生和非生产性农药中毒病死率的变化趋势.结果 对硫磷(含甲基对硫磷)是某省某县引起生产性农药中毒危害最大的农药,在控制了对硫磷农药的使用之后,生产性农药中毒危害的大小[生产性农药中毒的例数(A)与非生产性农药中毒的例数(B)的比值]由控制前的0.63下降为0.32,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).对硫磷同样是引起非生产性农药中毒危害

  10. Subacute developmental exposure of zebrafish to the organophosphate pesticide metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, results in defects in Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Saskia M; Birkholz, Denise A; McNamara, Marcy L; Bharate, Sandip B; George, Kathleen M

    2010-10-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are environmental toxicants known to inhibit the catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in hypercholinergic toxicity symptoms. In developing embryos, OPs have been hypothesized to affect both cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways. In order to understand the neurological pathways affected by OP exposure during embryogenesis, we developed a subacute model of OP developmental exposure in zebrafish by exposing embryos to a dose of the OP metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) that is non-lethal and significantly inhibited AChE enzymatic activity compared to control embryos (43% at 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) and 11% at 2dpf). Phenotypic analysis of CPO-exposed embryos demonstrated that embryonic growth, as analyzed by gross morphology, was normal in 85% of treated embryos. Muscle fiber formation was similar to control embryos as analyzed by birefringence, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) cluster formation was quantitatively similar to control embryos as analyzed by α-bungarotoxin staining. These results indicate that partial AChE activity during the early days of zebrafish development is sufficient for general development, muscle fiber, and nAChR development. Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons exhibited aberrant peripheral axon extension and gene expression profiling suggests that several genes responsible for RB neurogenesis are down-regulated. Stability of CPO in egg water at 28.5 °C was determined by HPLC-UV-MS analysis which revealed that the CPO concentration used in our studies hydrolyzes in egg water with a half-life of 1 day. The result that developmental CPO exposure affected RB neurogenesis without affecting muscle fiber or nAChR cluster formation demonstrates that zebrafish are a strong model system for characterizing subtle neurological pathologies resulting from environmental toxicants.

  11. Highly Sensitive and Selective Immuno-capture/Electrochemical Assay of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Red Blood Cells: A Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-09

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBCs) is a useful biomarker for biomonitoring of exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. In this paper, we reported a new method for AChE activity assay based on selective immuno-capture of AChE from biological samples followed by enzyme activity assay of captured AChE using a disposable electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites (MWCNTs-Au) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Upon the completion of immunoreaction, the target AChE (including active and inhibited) is captured onto the electrode surface and followed by an electrochemical detection of enzymatic activity in the presence of acetylthiocholine. A linear response is obtained over standard AChE concentration range from 0.1 to 10 nM. To demonstrate the capability of this new biomonitoring method, AChE solutions dosed with different concentration of paraoxon were used to validate the new AChE assay method. AChE inhibition in OP dosed solutions was proportional to its concentration from 0.2 to 50 nM. The new AChE activity assay method for biomonitoring of OP exposure was further validated with in-vitro paraoxon-dosed RBC samples. The established electrochemical sensing platform for AChE activity assay not only avoids the problem of overlapping substrate specificity with esterases by using selective antibody, but also eliminates potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It offers a new approach for sensitive, selective, and rapid AChE activity assay for biomonitoring of exposures to OPs.

  12. Comparing South African occupational exposure limits for pesticides, metals, dusts and fibres with those of developed countries / Jason Peter Viljoen

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Jason Peter

    2014-01-01

    The ever-changing in