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Sample records for nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization

  1. Non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes in two orchids of Kaiga forest (Western Ghats), India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naga M. Sudheep; Kandikere R. Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    We used standard isolation protocols to explore the endophytic fungal communities in three tissue types of two dominant orchids (Bulbophyllum neilgherrense and Vanda testacea) of the Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats.We surface sterilized and assessed 90 segments of each orchid for the occurrence and diversity of endophytic fungal taxa.The 118 fungal isolates were obtained from root,bulb and leaves of B.neilgherrense,consisting of 17 anamorphic taxa (range,10-15 taxa) with 1.3 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.2-1.4 taxa).Four taxa (Aspergillus flavus,A.niger,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 ) belonged to the core group (11.1%-32.2%).The relative abundance ofA.flavus and morpho sp.1 was more than 10%.A total of 130 fungal isolates from roots,stems and leaves of V.testacea yielded 20 anamorphic taxa (range,11-15 taxa)with 1.4 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.4-1.5 taxa).Aspergillusflavus,A.niger,A.ochraceus,Gliocladium viride,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 belonged to the core group.Relative abundance exceeded 10% for A.flavus,A.niger,and morpho sp.1.The Simpson and Shannon diversity indices were higher in leaf than root or bulb/stem of both orchids.Jaccard's similarity coefficient was higher between root and leaf in both orchids (56.3%-60%) than between other pairs.Our study revealed that the endophytic fungal assemblage and diversity ofB.neilgherrense and V.testacea of Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats were relatively similar between orchids and their tissues.

  2. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

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    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  3. Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots.

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    Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M

    2011-04-01

    Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients.

  4. Bioreceptivity of dolostones to fungal colonization

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    Ascaso, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In many historic monuments in which signs of biodeterioration have been frequently reported, dolostones were used as dimension stone for their construction. In an effort to assess the influence of the texture of dolostones on their potential bioreceptivity, we characterized microbial colonization strategies in dolostone samples of predictably different textural features by scanning electron microscopy in back scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE, low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM, transmission light microscopy (TLM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. Fungi were the predominant microorganisms in the dolostones examined and their colonization showed three well defined stages with the final consequence of complete rock disaggregation. The results of this study indicate that porosity differences (mainly the extent and type were particularly relevant for determining the presence and extent of each colonization stage. As a determinant of bioreceptivity, the porosity of dolostones will also condition the decay processes associated with this colonization. These findings highlight the fact that the intrinsic properties of dolostones, such as texture, need to be considered when selecting this type of stone for future construction projects.La dolomía ha sido empleada como piedra de fábrica en la construcción de muchos monumentos históricos en los que se han detectado fenómenos de biodeterioro en numerosas ocasiones. En este trabajo se evalúa cómo influye la textura de las dolomías en las estrategias adoptadas por los microorganismos para colonizar estos materiales pétreos. Para ello se han caracterizado muestras de dolomías con diferentes texturas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido en modo de electrones retrodispersados (SEM-BSE, microscopía electrónica de barrido a bajas temperaturas (LTSEM, microscopía de luz transmitida (TLM y porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio (MIP. De estas observaciones se deduce que

  5. Inhibition of fungal colonization by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata provides a competitive advantage during surface colonization.

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    Franks, A; Egan, S; Holmström, C; James, S; Lappin-Scott, H; Kjelleberg, S

    2006-09-01

    The marine epiphytic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces a range of extracellular secondary metabolites that inhibit an array of common fouling organisms, including fungi. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the ability to inhibit fungi provides P. tunicata with an advantage during colonization of a surface. Studies on a transposon-generated antifungal-deficient mutant of P. tunicata, FM3, indicated that a long-chain fatty acid-coenzyme A ligase is involved in the production of a broad-range antifungal compound by P. tunicata. Flow cell experiments demonstrated that production of an antifungal compound provided P. tunicata with a competitive advantage against a marine yeast isolate during surface colonization. This compound enabled P. tunicata to disrupt an already established fungal biofilm by decreasing the number of yeast cells attached to the surface by 66% +/- 9%. For in vivo experiments, the wild-type and FM3 strains of P. tunicata were used to inoculate the surface of the green alga Ulva australis. Double-gradient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that after 48 h, the wild-type P. tunicata had outcompeted the surface-associated fungal community, whereas the antifungal-deficient mutant had no effect on the fungal community. Our data suggest that P. tunicata is an effective competitor against fungal surface communities in the marine environment.

  6. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

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    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  7. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

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    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  8. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  9. Mycetoma fungal infection: multiple organisms as colonizers or pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, Florian H; Augenbraun, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with mycetoma or Madura foot, in which histopathological stains of the bone and surface cultures suggested three different organisms including Nocardia species as the cause. Criteria for the diagnosis of the organisms, differentiation between colonizer and pathogen, and significance of mixed infections are discussed.

  10. Anti-colon cancer activity of endophytic fungal strains from Terminalia chebula Rezt

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    Mohammad Shoeb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms are fungi or bacteria that live inside the healthy tissues of the host plants causing no apparent symptoms of diseases. Five endophytic fungal strains labeled as IR-1, IR-2, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 (identified as Penicillium thiomii were isolated from the medicinal plant of Terminalia chebula Retz by culture and sub-culture. The ethyl acetate extract of fungal strains, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 inhibited the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines in MTT assay with IC50 values of 55, 44 and 67 µg/mL, respectively.

  11. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

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    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Who's on First? Part II: Bacterial and fungal colonization of fresh soil minerals

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    Whitman, T.; Neurath, R.; Zhang, P.; Yuan, T.; Weber, P. K.; Zhou, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization by soil minerals is an important mechanism influencing soil C cycling. Microbes make up only a few percent of total SOM, but have a disproportionate impact on SOM cycling. Their direct interactions with soil minerals, however, are not well characterized. We studied colonization of fresh minerals by soil microbes in an Avena barbata (wild oat) California grassland soil microcosm. Examining quartz, ferrihydrite, kaolinite, and the heavy fraction of the native soil, we asked: (1) Do different minerals select for different communities, or do random processes drive the colonization of fresh minerals? (2) What factors influence which taxa colonize fresh minerals? After incubating mesh bags (<18 μm) of minerals buried next to actively growing plant roots for 2 months, we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S and ITS2 genes to characterize the microbial communities colonizing the minerals. We found significant differences between the microbial community composition of different minerals and soil for both bacteria and fungi. We found a higher relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhial fungi with ferrihydrite and quartz, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging of these minerals suggests that some fungal hyphae are moving C directly from roots to mineral surfaces. The enriched presence of both nematode-associated fungi (Pochonia sp.) and bacteria (Candidatus Xiphinematobacter) in the minerals suggests that these minerals may be a habitat for nematodes. Bacteria of the family Chitinophagaceae and genus Janthinobacterium were significantly enriched on both ferrihydrite and quartz minerals, both of which may interact with colonizing fungi. These findings suggest that: (1) Microbial colonization of fresh minerals is not a fully passive or neutral process. (2) Mineral exploration by plant-associated fungi and soil fauna transport may be factors in determining the initial colonization of minerals and subsequent C

  13. A case of asymptomatic fungal and bacterial colonization of an intragastric balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halil Coskun; Suleyman Bozkurt

    2009-01-01

    Intragastric balloon therapy, as a part of a multidisciplinary weight management program, is an effective short-term intervention for weight loss. Although the insertion procedure is easy and generally well tolerated by patients, a few complications can occur. We report here a heavy smoker with intragastric balloon insertion complicated by colonization with opportunistic organisms. The 27-year-old female, body mass index 35.5 kg/m2, had a BioEnterics. Intragastric Balloon inserted under conscious sedation without any perioperative complications. Six months later, when the standard removal time arrived, the balloon was seen to be covered with a necrotic white-gray material. Microbiological examination revealed Enterobacter cloacae and Candida species yeast colonies. We recommend that asymptomatic fungal and/or bacterial colonization should be considered among the complications of the intragastric balloon procedure, despite its rarity.

  14. Leaf Barriers to Fungal Colonization and Shredders (Tipula lateralis) Consumption of Decomposing Eucalyptus globulus.

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    Canhoto; Graça

    1999-04-01

    > Abstract Herein we assess the importance of leaf cuticle, polyphenolic, and essential oils contents of Eucalyptus globulus leaves to hyphomycete colonization and shredder consumption. Optical and electron microscopy revealed that, at least during the first 5 weeks of conditioning, the cuticle remains virtually intact. Stomata provide the main access for hyphae to internal leaf tissues and, eventually, for spore release. We suggest that in E. globulus leaves, fungal decomposition progresses predominantly in and from the eucalyptus leaf mesophyll to the outside. Malt extract agar media supplemented with either eucalyptus essential oils or tannic acid completely inhibited (Articulospora tetracladia, Lemonniera aquatica, and Tricladium gracile) or depressed (Heliscus lugdunensis, Lunulospora curvula, and Tricladium angulatum) aquatic hyphomycetes growth. The transference of both secondary compounds to alder leaves induced similar and significant reduction in Tipula lateralis larval consumption. Results consistently indicate that eucalyptus oils are stronger deterrents than polyphenols. The waxy cuticle of E. globulus appears to be a key physical factor delaying fungal colonization during decomposition. We hypothesize that the relative influence of leaf phenols and essential oils to aquatic hyphomycetes and shredders may be related to three main factors: (a) initial distribution of such compounds in the leaves; (b) possibility of their decrease through decomposition; and (c) consumption strategies of detritivores.

  15. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

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    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  16. Fungal endophytes associated with three South American Myrtae (Myrtaceae) exhibit preferences in the colonization at leaf level.

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    Vaz, Aline B M; da Costa, Andre G F C; Raad, Lucélia V V; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-03-01

    Fungal endophytes associated with Myrtaceae from Brazil and Argentina were isolated at three levels of nesting: leaf, individual host trees, and site collection. The alternating logistic regression (ALR) was used to model the data because it offers a computationally convenient method for fitting regression structures involving large clusters. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) whether the colonization pattern is influenced by environmental variables, (ii) if there is some leaf part they prefer to colonize; (iii) if there is some fungal endophyte aggregation between hierarchical levels; (iv) what the distance effect is on the fungal association. The environmental variables were statistically significant only for Xylaria, i.e., when the elevation and water precipitation increase and the temperature decreases, the odds ratio of finding another fungal endophyte of that genus previously found increases. Sordariomycetes, Xylariales, and Xylaria exhibited leaf fragment preference to petiole and tip. Fungal endophytes showed association within leaf. The horizontal transmission mode and the dispersal limitation may explain this association at the leaf level. Moreover, our results suggest that when a fungal endophyte infects a leaf or host tree individual, the odds ratio of dispersal inside them is greater.

  17. Demographic population structure and fungal associations of plants colonizing High Arctic glacier forelands, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

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    Jakub Těšitel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in Arctic glacier forelands has been described as unidirectional, non-replacement succession characterized by the gradual establishment of species typical for mature tundra with no species turnover. Our study focused on two early colonizers of High Arctic glacier forelands: Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae and Braya purpurascens (Brassicaceae. While the first species is a common generalist also found in mature old growth tundra communities, the second specializes on disturbed substrate. The demographic population structures of the two study species were investigated along four glacier forelands in Petuniabukta, north Billefjorden, in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Young plants of both species occurred exclusively on young substrate, implying that soil conditions are favourable for establishment only before soil crusts develop. We show that while S. oppositifolia persists from pioneer successional stages and is characterized by increased size and flowering, B. purpurascens specializes on disturbed young substrate and does not follow the typical unidirectional, non-replacement succession pattern. Plants at two of the forelands were examined for the presence of root-associated fungi. Fungal genus Olpidium (Fungus incertae sedis was found along a whole successional gradient in one of the forelands.

  18. Fungal colonization - an additional risk factor for diseased dogs and cats?

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    Biegańska, Małgorzata; Dardzińska, Weronika; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented mini-review is to review the literature data referring to opportunistic mycoses in pet dogs and cats suffering from other concurrent diseases, comparable to human medical disorders with high risk of secondary mycoses. This review also presents the preliminary results of a project aimed at understanding the fungal colonization and occurrence of secondary mycoses in pets suffering from metabolic disorders, neoplasms and viral infections. The incidence of opportunistic mycoses is higher in such individuals, mostly because of their impaired immunity. The main risk factors are primary and secondary types of immunodeficiency connected with anti-cancer treatment or neoplastic disease itself. Moreover, literature data and the results of our investigations show that Candida yeasts are prevalent among diabetic animals and indicate that these fungi are the main etiological agents of secondary infections of the oral cavity, GI and urogenital tracts. Other important conditions possibly favoring the development of mycoses are concurrent infections of cats with FeLV and FIV viruses. Thus, in all cases of the mentioned underlying diseases, animals should be carefully monitored by repeated mycological examination, together with inspection of other parameters. Also, the prophylaxis of opportunistic mycoses should be carefully considered alike other factors influencing the prognosis and the outcome of primary diseases.

  19. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic bioma

  20. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic

  1. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

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    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  2. Interactive physiological response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plants to fungal colonization and Potato virus Y (PVY infection

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    Dominika Thiem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato plants can be colonized by various viruses and by symbiotic, saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. However, the significance of interactions of viral infection and fungal colonization is hardly known. This work presents a model experiment in which the influence of three different types of fungal associations on the growth and physiology of the potato variety Pirol was tested individually or in combination with infection by PVY. It was hypothesized that simultaneous viral and fungal infections increase the biotic stress of the host plant, but mutualistic plant-fungal associations can mask the impact of viral infection. In the present study, a symbiotic arbsucular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, significantly stimulated the growth of plants infected with PVY. In contrast, two saprophytic Trichoderma spp. strains either did not influence or even inhibited the growth of PVY-infected plants. Also, inoculation of PVY-infected potato plants with a pathogenic strain of Colletotrichum coccodes did not inhibit the plant growth. Growth of the PVY-free potato plants was not promoted by the symbiotic fungus, whereas T. viride, T. harzianum and C. coccodes had an evident inhibitory effect. The strongest growth inhibition and highest concentration of H2O2, as an indicator of biotic stress, was observed in PVY-free potato plants inoculated with T. harzianum and C. coccodes strains. Surprisingly, ultrastructural analysis of PVY-infected plant roots colonized by G. intraradices showed virus-like structures in the arbuscules. This pointed to the possibility of mycorrhizal-mediated transmission of virus particles and has to be further examined by testing with immunoassays and real transmission to uninfected plants. In conclusion, although mycorrhiza formation might decrease the impact of PVY infection on plants, a possible role of mycorrhizal fungi as virus vectors is discussed.

  3. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

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    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity...

  5. Autophagy provides nutrients for nonassimilating fungal structures and is necessary for plant colonization but not for infection in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Lone; Droce, Aida; Søndergaard, Teis

    2012-01-01

    The role of autophagy in necrotrophic fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. We have studied autophagy in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum in relation to development of nonassimilating structures and infection. We identified an ATG8 homolog F. graminearum...... a pivotal role for supplying nutrients to nonassimilating structures necessary for growth and is important for plant colonization. This also indicates that autophagy is a central mechanism for fungal adaptation to nonoptimal C/N ratios....

  6. Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

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    Hu, Hua-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of probiotics on fungal infection in preterm neonates. The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Meta-analysis (fixed-effects model) showed that probiotic supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of Candida colonization (2 RCTs, n = 329; relative risk (RR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.67; p = 0.0002; I(2) = 0%), and invasive fungal sepsis (7 RCTs, n = 1371; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88; p = 0.006; I(2) = 13%). After excluding one study with a high baseline incidence (75%) of fungal sepsis, the effect of probiotics on invasive fungal sepsis became statistically insignificant (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.78; p = 0.72; I(2) = 15%). When using the random-effects model, the effect of probiotics remained favorable for Candida colonization (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p = 0.0002; I(2) = 0%) but not for fungal sepsis (RR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.38-1.08; p = 0.10; I(2) = 13%). Current evidence indicates that probiotics can reduce the risk of Candida colonization in preterm neonates in NICUs. Limited data support that probiotic supplementation prevents invasive fungal sepsis in preterm neonates. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Bajc, Marko; Robek, Robert; Humar, Miha; Sinjur, Iztok; Kadunc, Aleš; Oven, Primož; Rep, Gregor; Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kraigher, Hojka; Jurc, Dušan; Pohleven, Franc

    2011-11-01

    The influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and on fungal community structure was studied. The experiments were performed on an organically poor fly ash deposit covered with a 10 cm layer of beech wood chips inoculated with P. ostreatus isolate ZIM76. Compared to non-inoculated wood chips, inoculation increased the temperatures and relative humidities and, in the first 6 months, accelerated Klason lignin degradation by 9% and also, after 17 months, increased iron translocation into wood chips by 30%. After 6 months, PCR-DGGE showed 22-28 and 13-21 fungal taxa in non-inoculated and P. ostreatus-inoculated beech chips, respectively. The differences in number of taxa and in the fungal community structure (based on Dice coefficient) between non-inoculated and inoculated wood chips diminished with time. The results indicate that the naturally occurring processes of wood degradation are as efficient as those occurring in sites inoculated with P. ostreatus.

  8. Estimation of AM fungal colonization - Comparability and reliability of classical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzy, Anna; Biró, Ibolya; Kovács, Ramóna; Takács, Tünde

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of mycorrhizal status in hosts can be a good indicator of symbiotic associations in inoculation experiments or in ecological research. The most common microscopic-based observation methods, such as (i) the gridline intersect method, (ii) the magnified intersections method and (iii) the five-class system of Trouvelot were tested to find the most simple, easily executable, effective and objective ones and their appropriate parameters for characterization of mycorrhizal status. In a pot experiment, white clover (Trifolium repens L.) host plant was inoculated with 6 (BEG144; syn. Rhizophagus intradices) in pumice substrate to monitor the AMF colonization properties during host growth. Eleven (seven classical and four new) colonization parameters were estimated by three researchers in twelve sampling times during plant growth. Variations among methods, observers, parallels, or individual plants were determined and analysed to select the most appropriate parameters and sampling times for monitoring. The comparability of the parameters of the three methods was also tested. As a result of the experiment classical parameters were selected for hyphal colonization: colonization frequency in the first stage or colonization density in the later period, and arbuscular richness of roots. A new parameter was recommended to determine vesicule and spore content of colonized roots at later stages of symbiosis.

  9. Alfalfa snakin-1 prevents fungal colonization and probably coevolved with rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Araceli Nora; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Fox, Ana Romina; Gómez, María Cristina; Diéguez, María José; Pagano, Elba María; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Soto, Gabriela

    2014-09-17

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is a common defense strategy of living cells against a wide range of pathogens. Plant snakin peptides inhibit bacterial and fungal growth at extremely low concentrations. However, little is known of their molecular and ecological characteristics, including origin, evolutionary equivalence, specific functions and activity against beneficial microbes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize snakin-1 from alfalfa (MsSN1). Phylogenetic analysis showed complete congruence between snakin-1 and plant trees. The antimicrobial activity of MsSN1 against bacterial and fungal pathogens of alfalfa was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic alfalfa overexpressing MsSN1 showed increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains. However, MsSN1 did not affect nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains only when these had an alfalfa origin. The results reported here suggest that snakin peptides have important and ancestral roles in land plant innate immunity. Our data indicate a coevolutionary process, in which alfalfa exerts a selection pressure for resistance to MsSN1 on rhizobial bacteria. The increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains without altering the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis observed in MsSN1-overexpressing alfalfa transgenic plants opens the way to the production of effective legume transgenic cultivars for biotic stress resistance.

  10. Impact of Bacterial-Fungal Interactions on the Colonization of the Endosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Research on different endophyte taxa and the related scientific disciplines have largely developed separately, and comprehensive community-level studies on bacterial and fungal interactions and their importance are lacking. Here, we discuss the transmission modes of bacteria and fungi and the nat

  11. Uptake of 32P from labelled organic matter by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    to partially avoid isotopic exchange and adsorption. Mycorrhizal colonization influenced specific activity of P-32 in plants from three of the nine combinations of P and labelled organic matter: At the lowest level of P the specific activity was highest in non-mycorrhizal plants, and at the intermediate level...... of P there was one treatment where mycorrhizal plants had the highest specific activity. These differences are discussed. Plant dry weight and P concentration did not respond to addition of organic matter, though soil extracts consistently contained higher amounts of inorganic P as a result of organic...

  12. Inhibition of fungal colonization on the rhizoplane of the CS2 - producing plant, Mimosa pudica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Feng; P.G. Hartel; R.W. Roncadori; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1998-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless, volatile, foul-smelling, fungicidal liquid that is produced by some plants. The authors determined the ability of a model CS2-producing plant, Mimosa pudica, to affect the rhizoplane colonization of six species of soil fungi. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  13. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Johnson, Bart R; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  14. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bart R.; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization. PMID:27280074

  15. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  16. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    Full Text Available Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin

  17. Biodeterioration of Pompeian mural paintings: fungal colonization favoured by the presence of volcanic material residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Hector; Marcaida, Iker; Castro, Kepa; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Osanna, Massimo

    2017-07-05

    This work was focused on the study of the biodegradation processes jeopardizing a mural painting conserved in the basement of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy). The fresco stood out for its peculiar state of preservation: the upper part, recovered in 1988, was just barely colonized by microorganisms. On the contrary, the lower part (excavated in 2005) was almost completely covered by extensive biological patinas. The genomic characterization carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) highlighted the presence of seven different fungi strains on the mural surface. Beside, in situ and laboratory analyses were performed with the purpose of identifying the causes of the heterogeneous spatial distribution of the biopatinas. The in situ Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy measurements excluded any link between the heterogeneous colonization and the original materials present in the wall. On the other side, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on microsamples proved the presence of a thin volcanic material layer overlying the lower part of the fresco. Considering that most of the biofilms of the studied mural painting only growth over these residues, it was confirmed the role of volcanic material as a suitable support for biological colonization. Thanks to the obtained results, this research helped to understand more in depth an important degradation pathway threatening the artworks from one of the most important archaeological sites in the world.

  18. Inoculation effects on root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities spread beyond directly inoculated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Krak, Karol; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules. We addressed this topic in a greenhouse experiment based on the soil and native AMF community of a post-mining site. Plants were cultivated in compartmented pots with substrate containing the native AMF community, where AMF extraradical mycelium radiating from directly inoculated plants was allowed to inoculate neighboring plants. The abundances of the inoculated isolate and of native AMF taxa were monitored in the roots of the directly inoculated plants and the neighboring plants by quantitative real-time PCR. As expected, inoculation suppressed root colonization of the directly inoculated plants by other AMF taxa of the native AMF community and also by native genotypes of the same species as used for inoculation. In the neighboring plants, high abundance of the inoculant and the suppression of native AMF were maintained. Thus, we demonstrate that inoculation effects on native AMF propagate into plants that were not in direct contact with the introduced inoculum, and are therefore likely to persist at the site of inoculation.

  19. Suppression of allene oxide synthase 3 in potato increases degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Rafael Jorge León; Navarrete, María Isabel Tamayo; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Monguio, Salomé Prat; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2016-01-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) is a mutually beneficial interaction among higher plants and soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. Numerous studies have pointed that jasmonic acid plays an important role in the development of the intraradical fungus. This compound belongs to a group of biologically active compounds known as oxylipins which are derived from the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies of the regulatory role played by oxylipins in AM colonization have generally focused on jasmonates, while few studies exist on the 9-LOX pathway of oxylipins during AM formation. Here, the cDNA of Allene oxide synthase 3 (AOS3), a key enzyme in the 9-LOX pathway, was used in the RNA interference (RNAi) system to transform potato plants in order to suppress its expression. Results show increases in AOS3 gene expression and 9-LOX products in roots of wild type potato mycorrhizal plants. The suppression of AOS3 gene expression increases the percentage of root with mycorrhizal colonization at early stages of AM formation. AOS3 RNA interference lead to an induction of LOXA and 13-LOX genes, a reduction in AOS3 derived 9-LOX oxylipin compounds and an increase in jasmonic acid content, suggesting compensation between 9 and 13-LOX pathways. The results in a whole support the hypothesis of a regulatory role for the 9-LOX oxylipin pathway during mycorrhization.

  20. Shifting fungal endophyte communities colonize Bouteloua gracilis: effect of host tissue and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José; Khidir, Hana H; Eudy, Douglas M; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Natvig, Donald O; Sinsabaugh, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Communities of root-associated fungi (RAF) commonly have been studied under the auspices of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or ectomycorrhizal fungi. However many studies now indicate that other groups of endophytic RAF, including dark septate endophytes (DSE) are more abundant in some plants and environments. The common forage grass, Bouteloua gracilis, was used as a model to examine whether RAF also colonize different organs within the same plant and to compare RAF communities from sites across North America, spanning the latitudinal range of B. gracilis (from Canada to Mexico). We compared the RAF communities of organs within individual plants at one site and within plant roots among six sites. With the possible exception of one group related to genus Paraphaeosphaeria there was little evidence that RAF colonized vertically beyond the crowns. Furthermore, although there was some variation in the constitution of rare members of the RAF communities, several taxonomically related groups dominated the RAF community at all sites. These dominant taxa included members in the Pleosporales (related to the DSE, Paraphaeosphaeria spp.), Agaricales (related to Moniliophthora spp., or Campanella spp.) and Hypocreales (related to Fusarium spp.). AMF were notable by their near absence. Similar phylotypes from the dominant groups clustered around adjacent sites so that similarity of the RAF communities was negatively correlated to site inter-distance and the RAF communities appeared to group by country. These results increase the possibility that at least some of these common and widely distributed core members of the RAF community form important, intimate and long lasting relationships with grasses.

  1. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bruez

    Full Text Available Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD, is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP, and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period.

  2. Fungal colonization of seeds of three lupine species in different regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of seeds of three lupine species (white lupine, narrow-leaved lupine, and yellow lupine from different regions of Poland was investigated. Seeds were analyzed by microscopic method and PCR. The examined lupine seeds were colonized by saprotrophic fungi of the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium, and pathogenic fungi of the genera Fusarium, Botrytis, Mycosphaerella, and Colletotrichum. The relative frequency (RF of fungi detected on lupine seeds from the regions of Kujawy, Wielkopolska, Lower Silesia, and Warmia and Mazury was determined. The highest RF values of pathogenic fungi were noted in Lower Silesia in 2012 and 2013, and in Warmia and Mazury in 2011. The RF values of pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi on lupine seeds harvested in different regions of Poland were affected by weather conditions. PCR analyses revealed the presence of Tri genes in the seeds of narrow-leaved lupine. The analyzed seeds were relatively free of pathogenic fungi and could be used for sowing and feed production.

  3. Influence of phylogenetic conservatism and trait convergence on the interactions between fungal root endophytes and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Sevda Haghi; Glynou, Kyriaki; Nau, Thomas; Thines, Marco; Piepenbring, Meike; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2017-03-01

    Plants associate through their roots with fungal assemblages that impact their abundance and productivity. Non-mycorrhizal endophytes constitute an important component of such fungal diversity, but their implication in ecosystem processes is little known. Using a selection of 128 root-endophytic strains, we defined functional groups based on their traits and plant interactions with potential to predict community assembly and symbiotic association processes. In vitro tests of the strains' interactions with Arabidopsis thaliana, Microthlaspi erraticum and Hordeum vulgare showed a net negative effect of fungal colonization on plant growth. The effects partly depended on the phylogenetic affiliation of strains, but also varied considerably depending on the plant-strain combination. The variation was partly explained by fungal traits shared by different lineages, like growth rates or melanization. The origin of strains also affected their symbioses, with endophytes isolated from Microthlaspi spp. populations being more detrimental to M. erraticum than strains from other sources. Our findings suggest that plant-endophyte associations are subject to local processes of selection, in which particular combinations of symbionts are favored across landscapes. We also show that different common endophytic taxa have differential sets of traits found to affect interactions, hinting to a functional complementarity that can explain their frequent co-existence in natural communities.

  4. Elucidating biotic factors that influence assembly of fungal endophyte communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most plants harbor a diverse assemblage of non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. These fungi can directly influence the host plant, and can instigate trophic cascades that affect surrounding communities of herbivores, plants, and animals. Despite this, biotic mechanisms that influence assembly of funga...

  5. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down....... To place the belowground results into an ecosystem context we also investigated how plant cover and nutrient concentrations in leaves responded to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming. The ErM colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs increased under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations......, but did not respond to warming following 6 years of treatment. This suggests that the higher ErM colonization under elevated CO2 might be due to increased transport of carbon belowground to acquire limiting resources such as N, which was diluted in leaves of ericaceous plants under enhanced CO2...

  6. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  7. Anti-proliferative effect of fungal taxol extracted from Cladosporium oxysporum against human pathogenic bacteria and human colon cancer cell line HCT 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul Raj, K.; Manikandan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Pandi, M.

    2015-03-01

    Cladosporium oxysporum a new taxol producing endophytic fungus was identified and production of taxol were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), infrared (IR) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR (13C and 1H)) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The taxol biosynthetic gene (dbat) was evaluated for new taxol producing fungus. Antibacterial activity against six different human pathogenic bacteria was done by agar well diffusion method. The anticancer efficacy of isolated fungal taxol were also evaluated in human colon cancer cell HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), cytotoxicity and nuclear morphology analysis. The isolated fungal taxol showed positive towards biosynthetic gene (dbat) and effective against both Gram positive as well as Gram negative. The fungal taxol suppress growth of cancer cell line HCT 15 with an IC50 value of 3.5 μM concentration by 24 h treatment. Thus, the result reveals that C. oxysporum could be a potential alternative source for production of taxol and have antibacterial as well as anticancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  8. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  9. A recombinant fungal compound induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Lili; Spivak, Orly; Tal, Dana; Schälling, Dominik; Peri, Irena; Graeve, Lutz; Salame, Tomer M.; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Finding intracellular pathways and molecules that can prevent the proliferation of colon cancer cells can provide significant bases for developing treatments for this disease. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a protein found in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, and we have produced a recombinant version of this protein (rOly). We measured the viability of several colon cancer cells treated with rOly. Xenografts and syngeneic colon cancer cells were injected into in vivo mouse models, which were then treated with this recombinant protein. rOly treatment induced a significant reduction in viability of human and mouse colon cancer cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the viability of normal epithelial cells from the small intestine. In the search for cellular targets of rOly, we showed that it enhances the anti-proliferative activity of drugs targeting cellular tubulin. This was accompanied by a reduction in the weight and volume of tumours in mice injected with rOly as compared to their respective control mice in two in vivo models. Our results advance the functional understanding of rOly as a potential anti-cancer treatment associated with pro-apoptotic activities preferentially targeting colon cancer cells. PMID:28416764

  10. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  11. Effects of shading on photosynthesis, plant organic nitrogen uptake and root fungal colonization in a subarctic mire ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Hanna Maria Kerstin; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    deciduous and evergreen plant species decreased. Species dominance was correlated with uptake of 13C, i.e., the most productive species also took up the highest amount of glycine. The ecosystem exhibited a tendency towards lower colonization by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in hair...

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 mutant with enhanced competitive colonization ability and improved biocontrol activity against fungal root pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-08-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible.

  13. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Mutant with Enhanced Competitive Colonization Ability and Improved Biocontrol Activity against Fungal Root Pathogens ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible. PMID:21685161

  14. Direct and indirect influences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus uptake by two root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species: do the fungal partners matter at low colonization levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Rong; Guan, Kai-Yun; Stonor, Rebecca; Smith, Sally E.; Smith, F. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Because most parasitic plants do not form mycorrhizal associations, the nutritional roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in them have hardly been tested. Some facultative root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species form AM associations and hence are ideal for testing both direct and indirect effects of AM fungi on their nutrient acquisition. The aim of this study was to test the influence of AM inoculation on phosphorus (P) uptake by Pedicularis rex and P. tricolor. Methods 32P labelling was used in compartmented pots to assess the contribution of the AM pathway and the influence of AM inoculation on P uptake from a host plant into the root hemiparasites. Laboratory isolates of fungal species (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and the host species (Hordeum vulgare ‘Fleet’) to which the two Pedicularis species showed obvious responses in haustorium formation and growth in previous studies were used. Key Results The AM colonization of both Pedicularis spp. was low (<15 % root length) and only a very small proportion of total plant P (<1 %) was delivered from the soil via the AM fungus. In a separate experiment, inoculation with AM fungi strongly interfered with P acquisition by both Pedicularis species from their host barley, almost certainly because the numbers of haustoria formed by the parasite were significantly reduced in AM plants. Conclusions Roles of AM fungi in nutrient acquisition by root parasitic plants were quantitatively demonstrated for the first time. Evidence was obtained for a novel mechanism of preventing root parasitic plants from overexploiting host resources through AM fungal-induced suppression of the absorptive structures in the parasites. PMID:23946322

  15. The effects of biological control on fungal communities colonizing eggplant (Solanum melongena L. organs and the substrate used for eggplant cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplants, cv. Black Beauty, were grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. During the growing season, the plants were sprayed three times with Asahi SL, Biochikol 020 PC and Bravo 500 SC, they were watered with Polyversum, and a mycorrhizal inoculum was applied to the roots of seedlings. Unprotected plants, treated with distilled water, served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of the substrate used for eggplant cultivation, eggplant stems and roots were collected, and fungi were isolated in the laboratory. The fungal soil community was more abundant and diverse than the communities colonizing the stems and roots of eggplants. The applied biological and chemical control agents effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, in the organs of eggplants and the substrate used for eggplant cultivation. Potential pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium species were isolated in high numbers from eggplant stems in the control treatment and in the Polyversum treatment (67%. The lowest number of potential pathogenic species were isolated from plants treated with the biostimulator Asahi SL, the fungicide Bravo 500 SC and the mycorrhizal inoculum. The population size of pathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum coccodes and Fusarium isolated from eggplant roots was smaller, compared with stems, particularly in the treatments with the fungicide Bravo 500 SC and the biostimulator Biochikol 020 PC. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (over 60% of all isolates. Fungi known as potential causal agents of diseases were found in low abundance, and they were not detected in substrate samples collected from under fungicide-treated eggplant plants.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  17. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  18. Convergence of a specialized root trait in plants from nutrient-impoverished soils: phosphorus-acquisition strategy in a nonmycorrhizal cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, A; Lambers, H; Sawaya, A C H F; Mazzafera, P; Oliveira, R S

    2014-10-01

    In old, phosphorus (P)-impoverished habitats, root specializations such as cluster roots efficiently mobilize and acquire P by releasing large amounts of carboxylates in the rhizosphere. These specialized roots are rarely mycorrhizal. We investigated whether Discocactus placentiformis (Cactaceae), a common species in nutrient-poor campos rupestres over white sands, operates in the same way as other root specializations. Discocactus placentiformis showed no mycorrhizal colonization, but exhibited a sand-binding root specialization with rhizosheath formation. We first provide circumstantial evidence for carboxylate exudation in field material, based on its very high shoot manganese (Mn) concentrations, and then firm evidence, based on exudate analysis. We identified predominantly oxalic acid, but also malic, citric, lactic, succinic, fumaric, and malonic acids. When grown in nutrient solution with P concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 μM, we observed an increase in total carboxylate exudation with decreasing P supply, showing that P deficiency stimulated carboxylate release. Additionally, we tested P solubilization by citric, malic and oxalic acids, and found that they solubilized P from the strongly P-sorbing soil in its native habitat, when the acids were added in combination and in relatively low concentrations. We conclude that the sand-binding root specialization in this nonmycorrhizal cactus functions similar to that of cluster roots, which efficiently enhance P acquisition in other habitats with very low P availability.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots enhances plant biomass, phosphorus uptake and concentration of root secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongLing LIU; Yong TAN; Monika NELL; Karin ZITTER-EGLSEER; Chris WAWSCRAH; Brigitte KOPP; ShaoMing WANG; Johannes NOVAK

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi penetrate the cortical cells of the roots of vascular plants, and are widely distributed in soil. The formation of these symbiotic bodies accelerates the absorption and utilization of min-eral elements, enhances plant resistance to stress, boosts the growth of plants, and increases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. We studied the effects of various arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on the growth and devel-opment of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Several species of AM, such as Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and a mixture of fungi (G. mosseae, G. intraradices, G. cladoideum, G. microagregatum, G. caledonium and G. etunica-tum) were used in our study. Licorice growth rates were determined by measuring the colonization rate of the plants by the fungi, plant dry biomass, phosphorus concentration and concentration of secondary metabolites. We estab-lished two cloned strains of licorice, clone 3 (C3) and clone 6 (C6) to exclude the effect of genotypic variations. Our results showed that the AM fungi could in fact increase the leaf and root biomass, as well as the phosphorus con-centration in each clone. Furthermore, AM fungi significantly increased the yield of certain secondary metabolites in clone 3. Our study clearly demonstrated that AM fungi play an important role in the enhancement of growth and development of licorice plants. There was also a significant improvement in the secondary metabolite content and yield of medicinal compounds from the roots.

  20. Green Fluorescent Detection of Fungal Colonization and Endopolygalacturonase Gene Expression in the Interaction of Alternaria citri with Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, A; Ohtani, K; Kyo, M; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Alternaria citri, a postharvest pathogen, produces endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) and causes black rot on citrus fruit. We previously described that an endoPG-disrupted mutant of Alternaria citri was significantly reduced in its ability to macerate plant tissue and cause black rot symptoms on citrus. In order to investigate colonization of citrus fruit tissues by Alternaria citri, pTEFEGFP carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was introduced into wild-type Alternaria citri and its endoPG-disrupted mutant (M60). Green fluorescence was observed in spores, germ tubes, appressoria, and infection hyphae of transformants G1 (derived from wild type) and GM4 (derived from M60). Hyphae of G1 but not GM4 vertically penetrated the peel, but the hyphae of both G1 and GM4 spread equally in the juice sac area of citrus fruit. Green fluorescence of Alternaria citri transformant EPG7 carrying a GFP gene under control of the endoPG gene promoter of Alternaria citri was induced by pectin in the peel during the infection stage, but repressed completely in the juice sac area, likely by carbon catabolite repression by sugars in the juice.

  1. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  2. The effect of H. pylori infection, aging and consumption of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs on fungal colonization in the stomach of dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eMassarrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of coinfection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and Candida albicans (C. albicans in the development of gastric diseases is not known. In this study, the frequency of concurrent infection of H. pylori and C. albicans in dyspeptic patients was assessed while considering age, gender and PPI consumption of patients. Methods: Gastric biopsies were taken from 74 yeast-positive dyspeptic patients and gastric disease, age, gender and proton pump inhibitor (PPI consumption of subjects were recorded. One antral biopsy was used for rapid urease test (RUT and one for H. pylori and yeast cultivation and smear preparation. Bacterial isolates were identified according to spiral morphology and the biochemical characteristics. Yeast isolates were identified on Chromagar and by the Nested-PCR amplification of C. albicans-specific topoisomerase II gene. Twenty seven biopsy smears were Gram-stained and examined by the light microscope for observing H. pylori and yeast cells.Results: Fifty four (73% of patients were >40 yr. Of 68 patients with PPI consumption record, 46 (67.6% consumed PPI (p=0. Comparison of patients in peptic ulcer group (12, 16.2% with (6, 8.1% or without (6, 8.1% H. pylori or in gastritis group (62, 83.8% with (25, 33.8% or without (37, 50% H. pylori showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Of the 46 patients who consumed PPI, 13 (17.5% were H. pylori-positive and 33 (44.6% H. pylori-negative (p=0. Ten out of 27 smears showed the occurrence of H. pylori cells, including three with yeast cells. Of the 17 H. pylori-negative smears, three showed the occurrence of yeast cells only. Yeasts stained Gram- positive or Gram- negative and appeared as single or budding cells.Conclusion: The older age and PPI consumption could favor fungal colonization in the human stomach. The occurrence of a considerable number of H. pylori-positive or H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis or peptic ulcer shows that co-infection of

  3. Fungal Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Fungal Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested ... sinusitis results. There Are Four Types Of Fungal Sinusitis: Mycetoma Fungal Sinusitis produces clumps of spores, a " ...

  4. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia; Monteiro, Filipa; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; Silva, Anabela; Roepstorff, Peter; Pais, Maria Salomé; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2017-02-01

    An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level. However, the protein profile of 34 unique oak proteins was altered in the roots. Consistent with the results of the biochemical analysis, the proteome analysis of the mycorrhizal roots suggests a decreasing utilization of sucrose for the metabolic activity of mycorrhizal roots which is consistent with an increased allocation of carbohydrates from the plant to the fungus in order to sustain the symbiosis. In addition, a promotion of protein unfolding mechanisms, attenuation of defense reactions, increased nutrient mobilization from the plant-fungus interface (N and P), as well as cytoskeleton rearrangements and induction of plant cell wall loosening for fungal root accommodation in colonized roots are also suggested by the results. The suggested improvement in root capacity to take up nutrients accompanied by an increase of root biomass without apparent changes in aboveground biomass strongly re-enforces the potential of mycorrhizal inoculation to improve cork oak forest resistance capacity to cope with coming climate change.

  5. Hyphae colonizing bacteria associated with Penicillium bilaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodsalavi, Behnoushsadat

    shown that mycorrhizal helper bacteria presenting in mycorrhizal fungi could stimulate fungal growth, promote establishment of root-fungus symbiosis and enhance plant production. But it is unknown if the comparable relationship exist between the non-mycorrhizal fungus P. bilaii and its hyphae associated...... bacteria. In the current PhD thesis, we assumed that hyphae-associated microbiome of P. bilaii might harbor helper bacteria with ability to improve fungal growth and P solubilization performance. Therefore, we aimed to isolate bacteria associated with the P. bilaii hyphae and identify the fungal growth...... stimulating bacteria with the perspective of promoting efficiency of Jumpstart in soil – plant system. For this purpose, most of the work within the current project was carried out by development of suitable model systems by mimicking the natural soil habitat to reach to the reliable performance in soil...

  6. 普通血液病房恶性血液病患者念珠菌定植及侵袭性真菌感染的观察%Candida colonization and invasive fungal infection in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖悦云; 鲍立; 卢锡京; 路瑾; 余进; 李若瑜; 黄晓军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate thee status of Candida colonization and the risk factors of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies. Methods 114 patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the hematology wards from May 2004 to April 2005 underwent fungal culture of their samples of urine, feces, and saliva once a week until the end of the sixth week of hospitalization or they were discharged. Culture of blood, sputum, or sterile body fluids were carried out when the patients were suspected to have IFI. Results 165 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 46 of the 114 patients, C. albicans accounting for 78. 8% and non-albicans Candida for 21.2% respectively. Candida was found in 38 patients (35. 3% ) were found to have colonization of Candida, chiefly C. albicans (76. 3% ). The risk factors of Candida colonization included long duration of leucopenia (WBC 10 d是IFI的危险因素.

  7. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000444.htm Fungal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint ...

  8. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  9. The presence of amino acids affects inorganic N uptake in non-mycorrhizal seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelken, Gunda; Simon, Judy; Ehlting, Barbara; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the impact of organic N compounds for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the rhizosphere, we fed ammonium nitrate with or without amino acids (i.e., glutamine or arginine) to the roots of non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under controlled conditions at different levels of N availability. Uptake of individual N sources was determined from ¹⁵N (inorganic N) and ¹⁵N ¹³C (organic N) accumulation in the roots. In addition, gene fragments encoding proteins involved in N uptake and metabolism were cloned from beech for gene expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR in the roots. Generally, ammonium was preferred over nitrate as N source. Organic N sources were taken up by beech roots as intact molecules. Uptake of organic N was significantly higher than inorganic N uptake, thus contributing significantly to N nutrition of beech. Depending on the level of N availability, inorganic N uptake was negatively affected by the presence of organic N sources. This result indicates an overestimation of the contribution of inorganic N uptake to N nutrition of beech in previous studies. Apparently, association with mycorrhizal fungi is not essential for organic N uptake by beech roots. Gene expression analyses showed that transcriptional regulation of the amino acid transporters FsCAT3, FsCAT5, FsAAT and FsAAP and the ammonium transporter FsAMT1.2 in the roots is involved in N nutrition of beech.

  10. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.;

    1995-01-01

    was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite......An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...... fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments...

  11. Fungal rhinosinusitis: what every allergist should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, C A; Douglas, R G

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between fungi and the sinonasal tract results in a diverse range of diseases with an equally broad spectrum of clinical severity. The classification of these interactions has become complex, and this review seeks to rationalize and simplify the approach to fungal diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. These conditions may be discussed under two major headings: non-invasive disease (localized fungal colonization, fungal ball and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis) and invasive disease (acute invasive rhinosinusitis, chronic invasive rhinosinusitis and granulomatous invasive rhinosinusitis). A diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis is established by combining findings on history, clinical examination, laboratory testing, imaging and histopathology. The immunocompetence of the patient is of great importance, as invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. With the exception of localized fungal colonization, treatment of all forms of fungal rhinosinusitis relies heavily on surgery. Systemic antifungal agents are a fundamental component in the treatment of invasive forms, but are not indicated for the treatment of the non-invasive forms. Antifungal drugs may have a role as adjuvant therapy in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, but evidence is poor to support recommendations. Randomized controlled trials need to be performed to confirm the benefit of immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. In this article, we will summarize the current literature, addressing the controversies regarding the diagnosis and management of fungal rhinosinusitis, and focussing on those aspects which are important for clinical immunologists and allergists.

  12. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-02-15

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  13. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal richness declines towards the host species' range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Richard A; Keymer, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Plant range boundaries are generally considered to reflect abiotic conditions; however, a rise in negative or decline in positive species interactions at range margins may contribute to these stable boundaries. While evidence suggests that pollinator mutualisms may decline near range boundaries, little is known about other important plant mutualisms, including microbial root symbionts. Here, we used molecular methods to characterize root-associated fungal communities in populations of two related temperate tree species from across the species' range in the eastern United States. We found that ectomycorrhizal fungal richness on plant roots declined with distance from the centre of the host species range. These patterns were not evident in nonmycorrhizal fungal communities on roots nor in fungal communities in bulk soil. Climatic and soil chemical variables could not explain these biogeographic patterns, although these abiotic gradients affected other components of the bulk soil and rhizosphere fungal community. Depauperate ectomycorrhizal fungal communities may represent an underappreciated challenge to marginal tree populations, especially as rapid climate change pushes these populations outside their current climate niche.

  15. [Fungal keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, T; Sauer, A; Letscher-Bru, V; Candolfi, E

    2011-10-01

    Fungal keratitis (keratomycosis) is a rare but severe cause of infectious keratitis. Its incidence is constant, due to steroids or immunosuppressive treatments and contact lenses. Pathogens often invade corneas with chronic diseases of the ocular surface but fungal keratitis is also observed following injuries with plant foreign objects. The poor prognosis of these infections is related both to fungal virulence, decreased host defense, as well as delays in diagnosis. However, new antimycotic treatments allow better management and prognosis.

  16. ICU留置尿管患者尿路真菌定植与感染的研究%Research of urinary tract fungal colonization and pathogenicity in ICU patients with indwelling catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宁; 骆雪萍; 黄巍

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the types of urinary tract fungal colonization and pathogenicity status in intensive care unit (ICU ) patients with indwelling catheter , to provide reasonable basis for clinical prevention and treatment .METHODS A retrospective study was conducted involving 81 patients with positive results of midstream urine fungus culture in ICU during Jun .2011 to Dec .2012 .Patients were divided into the colonization group and the pathogenicity group according to the fungal colony count .The type of fungal infections ,incidence of complications were analyzed and compared between the two groups .Data were processed by SPSS 13 .0 software . RESULTS Totally 81 strains of fungi were isolated ,among them ,47 strains were Candida albicans accounting for 58 .02% ,24 strains were C . tropicalis accounting for 29 .62% ,and 7 were C . glabrata (8 .64% ) .The main fungus type in the pathogenicity group was C .tropicalis(17/31 ,54 .8% ) ,while the main fungus in the coloniza-tion group was C .albicans (36/50 ,72% ) .The incidence of bloody urine of two groups was high (64 .5% and 62 .0% respectively) .There were significant differences in combined urinary tract bacterial infections or infections in other sites ,however ,the incidence of combined multi-site infections was high in both groups (the pathogenicity group 90 .32% ,the colonization group 82 .00% ) .The rate of combined multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial in-fection was significantly higher in the pathogenicity group than in the colonization group(P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The type of urinary tract fungi was associated with infection status in ICU patients with indwelling catheter .Fun-gal urinary tract infection often co-existed with bacterial infection ,the incidence of combined MDR was higher in pathogenic status ,active prevention and treatment was beneficial to control systemic infections for patients .%目的:研究重症监护病房(IC U )留置尿管患者尿路感染的真菌类型和定植状况,

  17. Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eHruska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP, in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36 to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays. Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (up to 73% suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus.

  18. Colonización radical por endófitos fúngicos en Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae de ecosistemas semiáridos del centro de Argentina Root colonization by fungal endophytes in Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae from semiarid ecosystems from Central Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Lugo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas áridos y semiáridos las raíces de las plantas suelen formar simbiosis con hongos, los que les proporcionan nutrientes y agua. Poco se conoce sobre los hongos asociados a palmeras nativas y cómo éstos podrían estar relacionados entre ellos. Se describe y cuantifica la colonización radical de los simbiontes de Trithrinax campestris en poblaciones leve y fuertemente afectadas por el fuego. T. campestris fue colonizada por hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (HMA y endófitos septados oscuros (ESO. La colonización por HMA fue del tipo intermedio entre los tipos Arum y Paris. La colonización por HMA y ESO y la producción de pelos radicales, presentó diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren que en T. campestris la relación entre hongos simbiontes/producción de pelos radicales podrían estar relacionada con su alta tolerancia al fuego y la aridez.In arid and semiarid ecosystems, roots frequently form symbiosis with fungi that provides access to nutrients and water. Knowledge regarding the study of fungal symbionts colonizing native palms roots is still scarce. We described, quantified and compared fungal colonization in roots of Trithrinax campestris from two environmental situations: population with weak-burning-signs and population with strong-burning-signs. T. campestris was colonized by arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF and dark-septate-endophytes (DSE. AMF colonization was an intermediate type between Arum and Paris. The AMF and DSE colonization and root hair production differed between populations. Our results suggest that in T. campestris the relation between fungal-symbionts and root-hair-production might be related to tolerance to burning and aridity.

  19. Fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netkovski, J; Shirgoska, B

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are a major part of the ecosystem. In fact, over 250 fungal species have been reported to produce human infections. More than ever, fungal diseases have emerged as major challenges for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The aim of this study was to summarize the diagnostic procedures and endoscopic surgical treatment of patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. Eleven patients, i.e. 10% of all cases with chronic inflammation of paranasal sinuses, were diagnosed with fungal rhinosinusitis. Ten of them were patients with a noninvasive form, fungus ball, while only one patient was classified in the group of chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis which was accompanied with diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent nasal endoscopic examination, skin allergy test and had preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of the sinuses in axial and coronal plane. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 10 patients with fungus ball, while a combined approach, endoscopic and external, was done in the immunocompromised patient with the chronic invasive form of fungal rhinosinusitis. Most cases (9/11) had unilateral infection. In 9 cases infection was restricted to a single sinus, and here the maxillary sinus was most commonly affected (8/9) with infections in other patients being restricted to the sphenoid sinus (1/9). Two patients had infections affecting two or more sinuses. In patients with an invasive form of the fungal disease there was involvement of the periorbital and orbital tissues. In patients with fungus ball the mycelia masses were completely removed from the sinus cavities. Long-term outcome was positive in all the operated patients and no recurrence was detected. The most frequent fungal agent that caused rhinosinusitis was Aspergillus. Mucor was identified in the patient with the invasive form. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and CT scanning of paranasal sinuses followed by endoscopic sinus surgery were represented as valuable

  20. Does fungal infection is the main cause for persistent middle ear otorrhea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazama Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The incident of fungal colonization in persistent otorrhea is low (7%. The fungal isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Candida parapsilosis and Penicillium spp. Bacteria are still the most common microorganism in persistent otorrhea.

  1. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  2. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change.

  3. Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis correlates to increasing chloride channel accessory 1 (hCLCA1 suggesting a pathway for up-regulation of airway mucus responses, in infant lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis is associated with increased airway mucus in infants during their primary Pneumocystis infection, and to severity of COPD in adults. The pathogenic mechanisms are under investigation. Interestingly, increased levels of hCLCA1 – a member of the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins that drives mucus hypersecretion – have been associated with increased mucus production in patients diagnosed with COPD and in immunocompetent rodents with Pneumocystis infection. Pneumocystis is highly prevalent in infants; therefore, the contribution of Pneumocystis to hCLCA1 expression was examined in autopsied infant lungs. Respiratory viruses that may potentially increase mucus, were also examined. hCLCA1 expression was measured using actin-normalized Western-blot, and the burden of Pneumocystis organisms was quantified by qPCR in 55 autopsied lungs from apparently healthy infants who died in the community. Respiratory viruses were diagnosed using RT-PCR for RSV, metapneumovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza viruses; and by PCR for adenovirus. hCLCA1 levels in virus positive samples were comparable to those in virus-negative samples. An association between Pneumocystis and increased hCLCA1 expression was documented (P=0.028. Additionally, increasing Pneumocystis burden correlated with increasing hCLCA1 protein expression levels (P=0.017. Results strengthen the evidence of Pneumocystis-associated up-regulation of mucus-related airway responses in infant lungs. Further characterization of this immunocompetent host-Pneumocystis-interaction, including assessment of potential clinical significance, is warranted.

  4. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  5. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  6. Root fungal associations in some non-orchidaceous vascular lithophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant roots in natural ecosystems are colonized by a diverse group of fungi among which the most common and widespread are arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungi. Though AM and DSE fungal associations are well reported for terricolous plant species, they are rather poorly known for lithophytic plant species. In this study, we examined AM and DSE fungal association in 72 non-orchidaceous vascular plant species growing as lithophytes in Siruvani Hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, India. Sixty-nine plant species had AM and 58 species had DSE fungal associations. To our knowledge, we report AM fungal association in 42 and DSE fungal association in 53 plant species for the first time. There were significant differences in total root length colonization and root length colonized by different AM and DSE fungal structures among plant species. In contrast, the differences in AM and DSE fungal colonization among plants in various life-forms and lifecycles were not significant. AM morphology reported for the first time in 56 plant species was dominated by intermediate type AM morphology. A significant negative relationship existed between total root length colonized by AM and DSE fungi. These results clearly suggest that AM and DSE fungal associations are widespread in lithophytes.

  7. AM and DSE colonization of invasive plants in urban habitat: a study of Upper Silesia (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Chmura, Damian; Sokołowska, Kamila

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between invasive plants and root endophytes may contribute to the exploration of plant invasion causes. Twenty plant species of alien origin differing in invasiveness were studied in terms of status and typical structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in urban habitats in Silesia Upland (southern Poland). We observed that 75 % of investigated plant species were mycorrhizal. The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) of most plant species was of the Arum morphology. The nearly 100 % mycorrhizal frequency, high intensity of AM colonization within root cortex and the presence of arbuscules in all mycorrhizal plant species indicate that the investigated species are able to establish AM associations in the secondary range and urban habitats. DSE were present in all mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal species. The frequency of DSE was significantly lower in non-mycorrhizal group of plants, however, sclerotia of DSE were found mainly in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant species. The group of species native to North America including three Solidago congeners have the highest values of all AM mycorrhization and DSE indices. Moreover, we observed that most mycorrhizal invasive species belonged to the family Asteraceae. In turn, representatives of Poaceae had the lowest values of AM mycorrhization. Nevertheless, quite high values of DSE frequency were also encountered in roots of Poaceae species. The high invasiveness of the representatives of the Asteraceae family from North America support theory that both taxonomic pattern, and the fact of root endophytes colonization contribute to invasion success. While, the taxa of Reynoutria also represent successful invaders but they are of Asiatic origin, non-mycorrhizal and weakly colonized by DSE fungi.

  8. Fungal prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Gemma L; Tuite, Mick F

    2012-01-01

    For both mammalian and fungal prion proteins, conformational templating drives the phenomenon of protein-only infectivity. The conformational conversion of a protein to its transmissible prion state is associated with changes to host cellular physiology. In mammals, this change is synonymous with disease, whereas in fungi no notable detrimental effect on the host is typically observed. Instead, fungal prions can serve as epigenetic regulators of inheritance in the form of partial loss-of-function phenotypes. In the presence of environmental challenges, the prion state [PRION(+)], with its resource for phenotypic plasticity, can be associated with a growth advantage. The growing number of yeast proteins that can switch to a heritable [PRION(+)] form represents diverse and metabolically penetrating cellular functions, suggesting that the [PRION(+)] state in yeast is a functional one, albeit rarely found in nature. In this chapter, we introduce the biochemical and genetic properties of fungal prions, many of which are shared by the mammalian prion protein PrP, and then outline the major contributions that studies on fungal prions have made to prion biology.

  9. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  10. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  11. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia arabica under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promita Datta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the individual and mixed mycorrhizal effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM isolates on growth and biochemical status of Acacia arabica under salinity stress gradients. Salt treatment provided in soil hampered legume growth and its biochemical status. But, mycorrhizal colonizations in plant root system reduced the extent of deleterious salt effect and also helped in plant growth enhancement. Additionally, mixed mycorrhizal association (Glomus mosseae + Glomus fasciculatum responded better towards osmolyte accumulation and in salt stress alleviation. Due to individual and mixed mycorrhizal colonizations in A. arabica; protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar acquisitions were found maximum at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m over corresponding non-mycorrhizal plant. However, mixed AM inoculation accumulated proline content and improved dry biomass to a higher magnitude at the highest soil salinity level. Mixed AM (G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum colonization improved maximum amount of total chlorophyll (20.94%, protein (19.72%, carbohydrate (23.83%, reducing sugar (17.60% at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m and dry biomass (20.35%, proline content (10.99% at salinity level of 8.26 dS/m when compared with non-mycorrhizal counterpart. Greater magnitude of AM root colonization was found in mixed AM treated plant and may be responsible for more improvement in growth and biochemical status and consequently mitigated adverse salt effect better.

  13. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus–cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Thingstrup, Ida; Jakobsen, Iver

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of benomyl on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdeman associated with Cucumis sativus L. were studied by measuring effects on fungal P transport and on fungal alkaline phosphatase activity. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in three...... compartment systems where nylon mesh was used to separate n root-free hyphal compartment (HC) and a root + hyphal compartment(RHC) from The main root compartment (RC). Non-mycorrhizal control plants were grown in similar growth units. After 6 wk benomyl was applied to the plants in three ways: as soil...... drenches to RHC or HC, or as u spray to the leaves. Benomyl was added in three concentrations. Equal amounts of 32P and 33P were added to the HC and to the RHC respectively, immediately after the application of benomyl. Plants were harvested 4–6 d later. Hyphal transport of 32P from the HC was inhibited...

  14. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections.

  15. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. T

  16. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  17. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment & Outcomes Statistics More Resources Fungal Nail Infections Histoplasmosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ... CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis Histoplasmosis ... Resistance Resources Laboratory Submission Information Reportable Fungal ...

  18. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level. However, the protein profile of 34 unique oak proteins was altered...... accommodation in colonized roots are also suggested by the results. The suggested improvement in root capacity to take up nutrients accompanied by an increase of root biomass without apparent changes in aboveground biomass strongly re-enforces the potential of mycorrhizal inoculation to improve cork oak forest...

  19. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  20. Foliar and fungal 15N:14N ratios reflect development of mycorrhizae and nitrogen supply during primary succession: testing analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Erik A; Jumpponen, Ari; Trappe, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N ratios, expressed as delta15N values) are useful markers of the mycorrhizal role in plant nitrogen supply because discrimination against 15N during creation of transfer compounds within mycorrhizal fungi decreases the 15N/14N in plants (low delta15N) and increases the 15N/14N of the fungi (high delta15N). Analytical models of 15N distribution would be helpful in interpreting delta15N patterns in fungi and plants. To compare different analytical models, we measured nitrogen isotope patterns in soils, saprotrophic fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, and plants with different mycorrhizal habits on a glacier foreland exposed during the last 100 years of glacial retreat and on adjacent non-glaciated terrain. Since plants during early primary succession may have only limited access to propagules of mycorrhizal fungi, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal plants would initially be similar to nonmycorrhizal plants in delta15N and then decrease, if mycorrhizal colonization were an important factor influencing plant delta15N. As hypothesized, plants with different mycorrhizal habits initially showed similar delta15N values (-4 to -6 per thousand relative to the standard of atmospheric N2 at 0 per thousand), corresponding to low mycorrhizal colonization in all plant species and an absence of ectomycorrhizal sporocarps. In later successional stages where ectomycorrhizal sporocarps were present, most ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal plants declined by 5-6 per thousand in delta15N, suggesting transfer of 15N-depleted N from fungi to plants. The values recorded (-8 to -11 per thousand) are among the lowest yet observed in vascular plants. In contrast, the delta15N of nonmycorrhizal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants declined only slightly or not at all. On the forefront, most ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were similar in delta15N (-1 to -3 per thousand), but the host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus Cortinarius tenebricus had values of up to 7

  1. Mycorrhizal colonization and lead distribution in root tissues of Norway spruce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentschke, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik]|[Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenbiologie; Fritz, E.; Marschner, P.; Godbold, D.L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik; Rapp, C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Waldbau; Wolters, V. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie

    1997-12-01

    Non-inoculated spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) and spruce seedlings colonized with Lactarius rufus Fr., Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch or Paxillus involutus Fr. were grown for 35 to 37 weeks in a microscosm system on two types of natural forest humus differing in Pb content. Using X-ray microanalysis, the distribution and content of Pb in the tissues of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips were compared. No significant difference in the Pb contents of root cortex cell walls of non-mycorrhizal and seedlings colonized by Lactarius rufus, Pisolithus tinctorius, or indigenous mycorrhizal fungi (mainly Tylospora sp.) was found. However, in root tips of seedlings colonized by Paxillus involutus, due to a higher binding capacity for cations, the Pb content in cell walls of the root cortex were higher than in non-mycorrhizal roots. Pb contents in cell walls of the cortex of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots were 3 times higher in plants growing in humus with a high Pb content than in plants growing in humus with a low Pb content. It is concluded that increasing contents of Pb in the organic matter may lead to an increased loading of the apoplast with Pb. The mycobionts tested in this investigation did not exclude Pb from root tissues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nichtmykorrhizierte und mit Lactarius rufus Fr., Pisolithus tinctorius Coker und Couch oder Paxillus involutus Fr. beimpfte Fichtenkeimlinge (Picea abies Karst.) wurden in Kuturgefaesse gepflanzt, die mit Humusmaterial aus zwei unterschiedlich mit Blei belasteten Waldoekosystemen gefuellt waren. Nach 35 bzw. 37 Wochen wurde mittels Roentgenmikroanalyse der Bleigehalt in den Geweben mykorrhizierter und nichtmykorrhizierter Wurzelspitzen gemessen. Die Bleitgehalte in den Cortexzellwaenden der Mykorrhizen von L. rufus, P. tinctorius oder Tylospora sp. (gebildet durch spontane Infektion) unterschieden sich nicht signifikant von denen nichtmykorrhizierter Wurzelspitzen. Aufgrund einer hoeheren

  2. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  3. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.; Favriel, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches.

  4. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such device

  5. Isolamento, armazenamento e determinação da colonização por fungos “dark septate” a partir de plantas de arroz. = Isolation, storage and determination of fungal colonization “dark septate” from rice plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Gonçalves Ribeiro; Gilmara Maria Duarte Pereira; Cátia Aparecida Mosqueira; Alexandre Cardoso Baraúna; Marcos José Salgado Vital; Krisle da Silva; Jerri Édson Zilli

    2011-01-01

    Endophyte fungi known as DSEF can be plant-growth-promoting. Aiming to improve a methodology for the isolation, storage and determine the rice roots colonization by “dark septate”, a study was developed based on the achievement of these microorganisms in Oryza glumaepatula plants collected in Amazon region. The plant roots of twelve O. glumaepatula samples were sectioned, disinfected, and placed in plates with agar-malte medium added of chloramphenicol, sulphametazole and trimetropin. The iso...

  6. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  7. The Prevalence of fungal infections in children with hematologic malignancy in Ali-Asghar Children Hospital between 2005 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Sh.; Shirzadi, E; Elahi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background A fungal infection represents a growing problem in children with hematologic malignancies, during chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Fungal colonization is considered a major risk factor for subsequent fungal infections. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate prevalence of fungal infection among children admitted to hospital between 2005 and 2010 in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods 617 hematological patients in the age range of neoteric to 19 years old were enrolled ...

  8. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  9. Mycelial colonization by bradyrhizobia and azorhizobia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamini Seneviratne; H S Jayasinghearachchi

    2003-03-01

    This study examines mycelial colonization of common soil fungi by bradyrhizobia and an azorhizobial strain, resulting in the forming of biofilms. The effects of the fungal exudates on a bradyrhizobial strain have also been investigated. Bradyrhizobia gradually colonized the mycelia for about 18 days, after which the biofilm structures collapsed with the release of the rhizobial cell clusters to the culture medium. The azorhizobial strain showed differential colonization of the mycelia. In general, there were no considerable mycotoxin effects of the fungal exudates on the bradyrhizobial strain used, instead the rhizobial strain utilized the exudates as a source of nutrition. This study indicates that the present microbial association with biofilm formation has important implications in the survival of rhizobia under adverse soil conditions devoid of vegetation. Further, it could have developed an as yet unidentified nitrogen fixing system that could have contributed to the nitrogen economy of soils.

  10. Triggers for driving treatment of at-risk patients with invasive fungal disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drgona, L.; Colita, A.; Klimko, N.; Rahav, G.; Ozcan, M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Timing of treatment for invasive fungal disease (IFD) is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions. Historically, many centres have treated at-risk patients prior to disease detection to try to prevent fungal colonization or in response to antibiotic-resistant fever. Many studies have indic

  11. Mycetoma fungal infection: multiple organisms as colonizers or pathogens? Infecção fúngica por micetoma: organismos múltiplos como patógenos ou colonizadores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian H. Pilsczek

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with mycetoma or Madura foot, in which histopathological stains of the bone and surface cultures suggested three different organisms including Nocardia species as the cause. Criteria for the diagnosis of the organisms, differentiation between colonizer and pathogen, and significance of mixed infections are discussed.Descrevemos um paciente com micetoma ou maduromicose de pé, no que colorações histopatológicos de osso e de culturas superficiais sugeriram três organismos diferentes, incluindo espécies de Nocardia como causador. Os critérios de diagnóstico dos organismos, a diferenciação entre colonizador e patógeno, e a significância das infecções mistas são discutidos.

  12. Colonic Lipomas Mimicking Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna AYTAÇ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colonic lipomas are uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of these tumors are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally during colonoscopy or laparotomy and do not require treatment. Large lipomas are usually symptomatic and may mimic clinic manifestations of colonic carcinoma. Here we studied seven cases of submucosal and intramuscular colonic lipomas to evaluate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.Material and Method: Seven patients who were diagnosed with colonic lipoma between 1999 and 2006 were evaluated as regards age, gender, size of tumor, anatomic site, symptoms, location and treatment modality.Result: The mean age was 57.8± 14.7 years. Five patients were male and two were female. The size of the lipomas ranged from 1 to 5.5 cm and all were symptomatic except one patient. Five of the gastrointestinal lipomas were located submucosally and 2 intramurally. Five lipomas arose from the ascending colon, 1 from the hepatic flexure and 1 from the splenic flexure. Four large GI lipomas were removed by subtotal resection and one case underwent hemicolectomy while two pedunculated lipomas were resected by polypectomy. No recurrence was found after at least one year follow-up with endoscopic examination.Conclusion: Colonic lipomas may mimic malignancy with their clinical manifestations. Appropriate radiological and colonoscopic evaluation is essential to avoid unnecessary wide resections.

  13. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  14. Differential responses of three fungal species to environmental factors and their role in the mycorrhization of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Miren K; Hormilla, Susana; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I; Txarterina, Kepa; Arteche, Unai; Becerril, Jose M

    2004-02-01

    Three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus, R. roseolus and Scleroderma citrinum were found to differ markedly in their in vitro tolerance to adverse conditions limiting fungal growth, i.e. water availability, pH and heavy metal pollution. S. citrinum was the most sensitive, R. luteolus intermediate and R. roseolus the most tolerant species. Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings were inoculated in the laboratory and in a containerised seedling nursery with spore suspensions of the three ECM species. Colonisation percentage was considerably lower under nursery conditions, probably due to competition by native fungi. The effects of nursery ECM inoculation on seedling growth depended on the fungal species. Only R. roseolus-colonised plants showed a significantly higher shoot growth than non-mycorrhizal plants. All three fungi induced significantly higher root dry weights relative to control plants. Despite the low mycorrhizal colonisation, mycorrhization with all three species improved the physiological status of nursery-grown seedlings, e.g. enhanced root enzyme activity, shoot nutrient and pigment content, net photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency. Of the three fungal species, R. roseolus was the most effective; this species was also the most adaptable and showed the greatest range of tolerance to adverse environmental conditions in pure culture. It is, therefore, proposed as a promising fungal species for ECM inoculation of P. radiata in the nursery.

  15. Fungal propagules and DNA in feces of two detritus-feeding amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Beaton, Margaret; Bärlocher, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic shredders (leaf-eating invertebrates) preferentially ingest and digest leaves colonized by aquatic hyphomycetes (fungi). This activity destroys leaf-associated fungal biomass and detritial resources in streams. Fungal counter-adaptations may include the ability to survive passage through the invertebrate's digestive tract. When fecal pellets of Gammarus tigrinus and Hyalella azteca were incubated with sterile leaves, spores of nine (G. tigrinus) and seven (H. azteca) aquatic hyphomycete species were subsequently released from the leaves, indicating the presence of viable fungal structures in the feces. Extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from feces revealed numerous fungal phylotypes, two of which could be assigned unequivocally to an aquatic hyphomycete. The estimated contributions of major fungal groups varied depending on whether 18S or ITS sequences were amplified and cloned. We conclude that a variable proportion of fungal DNA in the feces of detritivores may originate from aquatic hyphomycetes. Amplified DNA may be associated with metabolically active, dormant, or dead fungal cells.

  16. A shift from arbuscular mycorrhizal to dark septate endophytic colonization in Deschampsia flexuosa roots occurs along primary successional gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Markkola, A M

    2017-02-01

    Soil fungal community and dominant mycorrhizal types are known to shift along with plant community changes during primary succession. However, it is not well understood how and why root fungal symbionts and colonization types vary within the plant host when the host species is able to thrive both at young and at old successional stages with different light and nutrient resource availability. We asked (i) how root fungal colonization of Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) changes along a postglacial primary successional land uplift gradient. As neighboring vegetation may play a role in root fungal colonization, we also asked (ii) whether removal of the dominant neighbor, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum (Ericaceae), affects root fungal colonization of Deschampsia. We also studied whether (iii) foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration of Deschampsia is related to successional changes along a land uplift gradient. AM colonization decreased (-50 %), DSE colonization increased (+200 %), and foliar C declined in Deschampsia along with increasing successional age, whereas foliar N was not affected. Empetrum removal did not affect AM colonization but increased DSE sclerotial colonization especially at older successional stages. The observed decrease in foliar C coincides with an increase in canopy closure along with increasing successional age. We suggest that the shift from an AM-dominated to a DSE-dominated root fungal community in Deschampsia along a land uplift successional gradient may be related to different nutritional benefits gained through these root fungal groups.

  17. Colon Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains. Reduce your fat intake. Limit alcohol consumption. Don't use tobacco. Stay physically active and maintain a healthy body weight. Talk to your doctor about calcium. Studies have shown that increasing your consumption of calcium may help prevent recurrence of colon ...

  18. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  19. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  20. Isolamento, armazenamento e determinação da colonização por fungos “dark septate” a partir de plantas de arroz. = Isolation, storage and determination of fungal colonization “dark septate” from rice plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophyte fungi known as DSEF can be plant-growth-promoting. Aiming to improve a methodology for the isolation, storage and determine the rice roots colonization by “dark septate”, a study was developed based on the achievement of these microorganisms in Oryza glumaepatula plants collected in Amazon region. The plant roots of twelve O. glumaepatula samples were sectioned, disinfected, and placed in plates with agar-malte medium added of chloramphenicol, sulphametazole and trimetropin. The isolates were evaluated in relation of dark septate characteristics and stored in distilled water, and in distilled water added of glycerol. Five isolates considered dark septate were re-inoculated in O. glumaepatula and O. sativa, and also analyzed through amplification and sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. The agar-malte medium was efficient to isolate dark septate, and more than 50 isolates were obtained. The distilled water and also distilled water added of glycerol were efficient to maintain the fungus culture at least 12 months. The five isolates re-inoculated were able to colonize both O. glumaepatula and O. sativa, without pathogenic symptoms observed. The molecular approach reveled that these fungus are not similar to each other and also to others dark septate already described. These results show that the proposed methodology was efficient to obtain distinct fungus species and O. glumaepatula is a host to high diversity of this fungus group.=Os fungos endofíticos conhecidos como DSEF ou “dark septate” podem ser promotores de crescimento vegetal. Com o objetivo de aperfeiçoar uma metodologia para o isolamento, armazenamento e determinação da colonização de raízes de arroz por fungos “dark septate” desenvolveu-se um estudo a partir da obtenção destes microrganismos em plantas de Oryza glumaepatula coletadas em ambientes amazônicos. As raízes das plantas de doze amostras de O. glumaepatula foram seccionadas, desinfestadas e

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Seerangan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats.

  2. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    are produced by the studied fungal species, both in cork medium or in cork medium added with C. sitophila extracts. However, the addition of C. sitophila extract to the cork medium enhanced the growth of the other studied fungal isolates and altered the respective exo-metabolome profile, leading...... they can be dependent of the remains of former colonizers. In fact, the production of the exo-metabolites by the studied fungal isolates suggests that, under the used experimental conditions, they appear to play an important role in fungal interactions amongst the cork mycoflora....

  3. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  4. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  5. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  6. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  7. Pulmonary mycoses diagnosed using exfoliative cytology: infection or colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lavleen; Jain, Deepali; Madan, Karan; Mathur, Sandeep R; Chatterjee, Priti; Guleria, Randeep; Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2013-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy with exfoliative cytology is an important tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections. The question of colonization versus true fungal infection is of critical importance. A 5-year retrospective analysis of all cases of pulmonary fungal infection diagnosed using exfoliative cytology was performed. Clinical, radiological, bronchoscopy and histopathology findings were recorded. A total of 69 cases of mycoses were retrieved. The most common fungal organism identified was Aspergillus followed by Candida and Pneumocystis. Most cases of Aspergillus and Candida in cytological specimens presented as a pulmonary mass or endobronchial growth and were diagnosed as carcinomas in biopsy specimens, thus representing colonization. All cases of Pneumocystis with bilateral ground glass infiltrates and cryptococcosis with parenchymal mass lesion in radiology represented true infection. Histoplasma was identified in pleural fluid from a known case of lung carcinoma. Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal organisms. Most of these represent colonization of malignant growths. However, true fungal infections may also present as mass lesions and may masquerade malignancy clinically. Fluid cytological examination is an important diagnostic modality for pulmonary mycoses; however, it is important to correlate results with clinical, bronchoscopy and biopsy findings for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  8. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  9. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children.

  10. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  11. Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Behr, Melissa; Meteyer, Carol U; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Darling, Scott R; Gargas, Andrea; Niver, Robyn; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Rudd, Robert J; Stone, Ward B

    2009-01-09

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychrophilic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  12. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  13. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  14. Impact of imipenem treatment on colonic mycobiota in rats with double-hit sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jun; LIU Shao-ze; LIN Zhao-fen; LI Wen-fang; LIU Xue-feng; CHEN De-chang

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad-spectrum antibiotic administration promotes intestinal colonization of exogenous fungal pathogens in healthy animals and has been recognized as one of the risk factors of invasive fungal infection in clinical settings.It is unclear whether broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment would change the intestinal mycobiota without exogenous fungal challenge in the context of sepsis.Methods We established a rat model of double-hit sepsis using burn injury and endotoxin challenge.Rats with burn injury or double-hit sepsis received imipenem treatment for 3 days or 9 days,and their colon contents were sampled for selective fungal culture and isolation counts.Results Imipenem treatment promoted the overgrowth of the commensal fungus Geotrichum capitatum in rats with burn injury.Imipenem treatment also promoted colon colonization by exogenous fungi in rats with burn injury and double-hit sepsis,including Trichosporon cutaneum,Candida albicans,Candida krusei,and Candida glabrata.A longer duration of imipenem treatment had a stronger impact on colon colonization by exogenous fungi.Conclusion Imipenem treatment facilitates the overgrowth of commensal fungi and colonization by exogenous,potentially pathogenic fungi in the colons of rats with burn injury or double-hit sepsis.

  15. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  16. A novel plant-fungal mutualism associated with fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Melissa; Newcombe, George; Dixon, Linley; Castlebury, Lisa; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, or cheatgrass, is native to Eurasia and widely invasive in western North America. By late spring, this annual plant has dispersed its seed and died; its aboveground biomass then becomes fine fuel that burns as frequently as once every 3-5 y in its invaded range. Cheatgrass has proven to be better adapted to fire there than many competing plants, but the contribution of its fungal symbionts to this adaptation had not previously been studied. In sampling cheatgrass endophytes, many fire-associated fungi were found, including Morchella in three western states (New Mexico, Idaho, and Washington). In greenhouse experiments, a New Mexico isolate of Morchella increased both the biomass and fecundity of its local cheatgrass population, thus simultaneously increasing both the probability of fire and survival of that event, via more fuel and a greater, belowground seed bank, respectively. Re-isolation efforts proved that Morchella could infect cheatgrass roots in a non-mycorrhizal manner and then grow up into aboveground tissues. The same Morchella isolate also increased survival of seed exposed to heat typical of that which develops in the seed bank during a cheatgrass fire. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurasian and North American Morchella revealed that this fire-associated mutualism was evolutionarily novel, in that cheatgrass isolates belonged to two phylogenetically distinct species, or phylotypes, designated Mel-6 and Mel-12 whose evolutionary origin appears to be within western North America. Mutualisms with fire-associated fungi may be contributing to the cheatgrass invasion of western North America. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research.

  18. Fungal endophytes – the hidden inducers of volatile terpene biosynthesis in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntana, Fani; Jensen, Birgit; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    and herbivores. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop, often challenged by fungal pathogens and insect pests. The wide variety of secondary metabolites produced by the plant, and especially terpenes, play a crucial role in plant defence, helping in repelling possible enemies. This project is focused...... on establishing a balanced interaction between S. indica and tomato in vitro, as well as reliable detection methods that show fungal colonization of inoculated plant roots. The effect of root colonization by S. indica on host specialized metabolism is also determined, by comparing volatile terpene profiles of S....... indica-inoculated and S. indica-free tomato plants. Preliminary data suggest that fungal colonization results in increased production of specific volatile terpenes. A transcriptome analysis on fungus-associated and fungus-free plant tissues is currently ongoing to elucidate in depth the mechanisms...

  19. Studies on mycoflora colonizing raw keratin wastes in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present studies showed that feathers placed in soil demonstrated the succesion of physiologically differentiated communities of micromycetes. The first colonizers were sugar fungi. The second phase of feather colonization showed the prevalence of nutritively undeveloped polyphages and "root" celulolytic fungi. The final phase of colonization was dominated by keratinophilic fungi together with microflora that involved the forms known mainly for their strong proteolytic abilities. It was found that both the Chemical structure of substrate and soil properties with its pH determined the qualitative composition of fungal flora.

  20. A New Fungal Endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, Promotes Tomato Growth under Organic Nitrogen Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Rola S.; Kazuhiko Narisawa

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-...

  1. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  2. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  3. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  4. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  5. Evaluation and a predictive model of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Karen H; Kennedy, Susan M; Brauer, Michael; Van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Exposure to airborne fungal products may be associated with health effects ranging from non-specific irritation of the respiratory tract or mucus membranes to inflammation provoked by specific fungal antigens. While concentrations of airborne fungi are frequently measured in indoor air quality investigations, the significance of these measurements in the absence of visual mold colonization is unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms within a defined geographic location in British Columbia, Canada, and to build a model to clarify determinants of airborne fungal concentration. All elementary schools within one school district participated in the study. Classrooms examined varied by age, construction and presence or absence of mechanical ventilation. Airborne fungal propagules were collected inside classrooms and outdoors. Variables describing characteristics of the environment, buildings and occupants were measured and used to construct a predictive model of fungal concentration. The classrooms studied were not visibly contaminated by fungal growth. The data were evaluated using available guidelines. However, the published guidelines did not take into account significant aspects of the local environment. For example, there was a statistically significant effect of season on the fungal concentrations and on the proportional representation of fungal genera. Rooms ventilated by mechanical means had significantly lower geometric mean concentrations than naturally ventilated rooms. Environmental (temperature, outdoor fungal concentration), building (age) and ventilation variables accounted for 58% of the variation in the measured fungal concentrations. A methodology is proposed for the evaluation of airborne fungal concentration data which takes into account local environmental conditions as an aid in the evaluation of fungal bioaerosols in public buildings.

  6. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  7. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions.

  8. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome ePouzoulet; Alexandria ePivovaroff; Louis eSantiago; Philippe Eric Rolshausen

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different ...

  9. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  10. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Oral Yeast Colonization in Hemopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Steven D.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Freytes, Cesar O.; Toro, Juan J.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Redding, Spencer W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We monitored the epidemiology and microbiology of oral yeast colonization in patients undergoing hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) to examine associations between yeast colonization and oral mucositis. Study Design One hundred twenty-one consecutive HPCT patients were sampled for oral yeasts prior to fluconazole (FLC) prophylaxis, at transplant, and weekly until discharge. Clinical oral mucositis screenings were performed tri-weekly. Results Yeast colonization was evident at 216 of 510 total visits. Candida albicans and C. glabrata were the predominate organisms. Eight patients showed elevated MICs to FLC. One patient developed fungal septicemia. Patients with OMAS mucositis scores <20 had higher colonization rates than those with higher scores. Conclusions FLC is very effective in controlling a variety of oral yeasts in HPCT recipients. FLC resistant yeasts do emerge and can be the source of fungal sepsis. A positive association was not shown between yeast colonization and presence or severity of oral mucositis. PMID:23312542

  11. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in response to restoration practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Catherine; York, Robert A; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with soil microbiota determine the success of restoring plants to their native habitats. The goal of our study was to understand the effects of restoration practices on interactions of giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota). Natural regeneration of Sequoiadendron is threatened by the absence of severe fires that create forest canopy gaps. Generating artificial canopy gaps offers an alternative tool for giant sequoia restoration. We investigated the effect of regeneration practices, including (i) sapling location within gaps, (ii) gap size and (iii) soil substrate, on AM fungal colonization of giant sequoia sapling roots in a native giant sequoia grove of the Sierra Nevada, California. We found that the extent of AM fungal root colonization was positively correlated with sapling height and light availability, which were related to the location of the sapling within the gap and the gap size. While colonization frequency by arbuscules in saplings on ash substrate was higher relative to saplings in mineral soil, the total AM fungal root colonization was similar between the substrates. A negative correlation between root colonization by Glomeromycota and non-AM fungal species indicated antagonistic interactions between different classes of root-associated fungi. Using DNA genotyping, we identified six AM fungal taxa representing genera Glomus and Ambispora present in Sequoiadendron roots. Overall, we found that AM fungal colonization of giant sequoia roots was associated with availability of plant-assimilated carbon to the fungus rather than with the AM fungal supply of mineral nutrients to the roots. We conclude that restoration practices affecting light availability and carbon assimilation alter feedbacks between sapling growth and activity of AM fungi in the roots.

  13. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    composition and root colonization, with weaker influences of plant identity and soil nutrients. These two studies across scales suggest prevailing effects of climate on AM fungal distributions. Thus, incorporating climate when forecasting future ranges of AM fungi will enhance predictions of AM fungal abundance and associated ecosystem functions.

  14. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  15. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  16. The dawn of fungal pathogen genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang; Dickman, Martin B; Sharon, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to a remarkable increase in the number of sequenced fungal genomes. Several important plant pathogenic fungi are among those that have been sequenced or are being sequenced. Additional fungal pathogens are likely to be sequenced in the near future. Analysis of the available genomes has provided useful information about genes that may be important for plant infection and colonization. Genome features, such as repetitive sequences, telomeres, conserved syntenic blocks, and expansion of pathogenicity-related genes, are discussed in detail with Magnaporthe oryzae (M. grisea) and Fusarium graminearum as examples. Functional and comparative genomic studies in plant pathogenic fungi, although still in the early stages and limited to a few pathogens, have enormous potential to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in host-pathogen interactions. Development of advanced genomics tools and infrastructure is critical for efficient utilization of the vast wealth of available genome sequence information and will form a solid foundation for systems biology studies of plant pathogenic fungi.

  17. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  18. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  19. Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

    2011-08-01

    Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species.

  20. Culturable fungal endophytes in roots of Enkianthus campanulatus (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yosuke

    2014-11-01

    Roots of plants in the genus Enkianthus, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage in the Ericaceae, are commonly colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We documented the community of fungal root endophytes associated with Enkianthus species using a culture-based method for better understanding the members of root-colonizing fungi, except for AM fungi. Fungal isolates were successfully obtained from 610 out of 3,599 (16.9 %) root segments. Molecular analysis of fungal cultures based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences yielded 63 operational taxonomical units (OTUs: 97 % sequence similarity cutoff) from 315 representative isolates. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that most (296 isolates) belonged to Ascomycota and were either members of Helotiales (Dermataceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Phialocephala and Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate), Oidiodendron, or other Pezizomycotina. Twenty-three out of 63 OTUs, which mainly consisted of Leotiomycetes, showed high similarities with reference sequences derived from roots of other ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron. The results indicated that Enkianthus houses variable root mycobionts including putative endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi in addition to AM fungi.

  1. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation.

  2. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  3. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  4. Abundant and diverse fungal microbiota in the murine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scupham, Alexandra J; Presley, Laura L; Wei, Bo; Bent, Elizabeth; Griffith, Natasha; McPherson, Michael; Zhu, Feilin; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Rao, Nagesh; Braun, Jonathan; Borneman, James

    2006-01-01

    Enteric microbiota play a variety of roles in intestinal health and disease. While bacteria in the intestine have been broadly characterized, little is known about the abundance or diversity of enteric fungi. This study utilized a culture-independent method termed oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG) to describe the compositions of fungal and bacterial rRNA genes from small and large intestines (tissue and luminal contents) of restricted-flora and specific-pathogen-free mice. OFRG analysis identified rRNA genes from all four major fungal phyla: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. The largest assemblages of fungal rRNA sequences were related to the genera Acremonium, Monilinia, Fusarium, Cryptococcus/Filobasidium, Scleroderma, Catenomyces, Spizellomyces, Neocallimastix, Powellomyces, Entophlyctis, Mortierella, and Smittium and the order Mucorales. The majority of bacterial rRNA gene clones were affiliated with the taxa Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acinetobacter, and Lactobacillus. Sequence-selective PCR analyses also detected several of these bacterial and fungal rRNA genes in the mouse chow. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with a fungal small-subunit rRNA probe revealed morphologically diverse microorganisms resident in the mucus biofilm adjacent to the cecal and proximal colonic epithelium. Hybridizing organisms comprised about 2% of the DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride)-positive organisms in the mucus biofilm, but their abundance in fecal material may be much lower. These data indicate that diverse fungal taxa are present in the intestinal microbial community. Their abundance suggests that they may play significant roles in enteric microbial functions.

  5. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  6. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  7. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors o

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana model system reveals a continuum of responses to root endophyte colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyam, Keerthi G; Roe, Judith; Jumpponen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    We surveyed the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana microscopically for its ability to form dark septate endophyte (DSE) symbioses in field, greenhouse, and laboratory studies. The laboratory studies were also used to estimate host growth responses to 34 Periconia macrospinosa and four Microdochium sp. isolates. Consistent with broad host range observed in previous experiments, field-, greenhouse-, and laboratory-grown A. thaliana were colonized by melanized inter- and intracellular hyphae and microsclerotia or chlamydospores indicative of DSE symbiosis. Host responses to colonization were variable and depended on the host ecotype. On average, two A. thaliana accessions (Col-0 and Cvi-0) responded negatively, whereas one (Kin-1) was unresponsive, a conclusion consistent with our previous analyses with forbs native to the field site where the fungi originate. Despite the average negative responses, examples of positive responses were also observed, a conclusion also congruent with earlier studies. Our results suggest that A. thaliana has potential as a model for more detailed dissection of the DSE symbiosis. Furthermore, our data suggest that host responses are controlled by variability in the host and endophyte genotypes.

  9. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Fungal contributions to Stable Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, L. M.; Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal organic carbon (OC) can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2-month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota were among the dominant fungal groups involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycota. At the end of the 2-month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibited varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16, C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue while others maintained steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (C18) or increased in concentration throughout the degradation sequence (C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to rapidly and significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker

  10. Fungal communities associated with degradation of polyester polyurethane in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lee; McGeechan, Paula L; Robson, Geoff D; Handley, Pauline S

    2007-09-01

    Soil fungal communities involved in the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) were investigated. PU coupons were buried in two sandy loam soils with different levels of organic carbon: one was acidic (pH 5.5), and the other was more neutral (pH 6.7). After 5 months of burial, the fungal communities on the surface of the PU were compared with the native soil communities using culture-based and molecular techniques. Putative PU-degrading fungi were common in both soils, as soil, and only a few species in the PU communities were detectable in the soil, indicating that only a small subset of the soil fungal communities colonized the PU. Soil type influenced the composition of the PU fungal communities. Geomyces pannorum and a Phoma sp. were the dominant species recovered by culturing from the PU buried in the acidic and neutral soils, respectively. Both fungi degraded Impranil and represented >80% of cultivable colonies from each plastic. However, PU was highly susceptible to degradation in both soils, losing up to 95% of its tensile strength. Therefore, different fungi are associated with PU degradation in different soils but the physical process is independent of soil type.

  11. Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Carol A

    2014-03-01

    When the terms funguria or fungal urinary tract infection are used, most physicians are referring to candiduria and urinary tract infections due to Candida species. Other fungi, including yeasts and molds can involve the kidney during the course of disseminated infection, but rarely cause symptoms referable to the urinary tract. Candida species appear to be unique in their ability to both colonize and cause invasive disease in the urinary tract. This overview focuses only on candiduria and Candida urinary tract infection because they are common and many times present perplexing management issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lamabam Peter; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-02-01

    Fungal symbionts have been found associated with every plant studied in natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely in the internal tissues of their host plant or partially. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress, heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered.

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Mediation of Plant-Plant Interactions in a Marshland Plant Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate aerobic AMF taxa have high species richness under waterlogged conditions, but their ecological role remains unclear. Here we focused on AM fungal mediation of plant interactions in a marshland plant community. Five cooccurring plant species were chosen for a neighbor removal experiment in which benomyl was used to suppress AMF colonization. A Phragmites australis removal experiment was also performed to study its role in promoting AMF colonization by increasing rhizosphere oxygen concentration. Mycorrhizal fungal effects on plant interactions were different for dominant and subdominant plant species. AMF colonization has driven positive neighbor effects for three subdominant plant species including Kummerowia striata, Leonurus artemisia, and Ixeris polycephala. In contrast, AMF colonization enhanced the negative effects of neighbors on the dominant Conyza canadensis and had no significant impact on the neighbor interaction to the dominant Polygonum pubescens. AM colonization was positively related to oxygen concentration. P. australis increased oxygen concentration, enhanced AMF colonization, and was thus indirectly capable of influencing plant interactions. Aerobic AM fungi appear to be ecologically relevant in this wetland ecosystem. They drive positive neighbor interactions for subdominant plant species, effectively increasing plant diversity. We suggest, therefore, that AM fungi may be ecologically important even under waterlogged conditions.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mediation of plant-plant interactions in a marshland plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Qixiang; Koide, Roger T; Peng, Zhenhua; Zhou, Jinxing; Gu, Xungang; Gao, Weidong; Yu, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Obligate aerobic AMF taxa have high species richness under waterlogged conditions, but their ecological role remains unclear. Here we focused on AM fungal mediation of plant interactions in a marshland plant community. Five cooccurring plant species were chosen for a neighbor removal experiment in which benomyl was used to suppress AMF colonization. A Phragmites australis removal experiment was also performed to study its role in promoting AMF colonization by increasing rhizosphere oxygen concentration. Mycorrhizal fungal effects on plant interactions were different for dominant and subdominant plant species. AMF colonization has driven positive neighbor effects for three subdominant plant species including Kummerowia striata, Leonurus artemisia, and Ixeris polycephala. In contrast, AMF colonization enhanced the negative effects of neighbors on the dominant Conyza canadensis and had no significant impact on the neighbor interaction to the dominant Polygonum pubescens. AM colonization was positively related to oxygen concentration. P. australis increased oxygen concentration, enhanced AMF colonization, and was thus indirectly capable of influencing plant interactions. Aerobic AM fungi appear to be ecologically relevant in this wetland ecosystem. They drive positive neighbor interactions for subdominant plant species, effectively increasing plant diversity. We suggest, therefore, that AM fungi may be ecologically important even under waterlogged conditions.

  15. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  16. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  17. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  18. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  19. Nosocomial fungal infections: candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyn Lunel, F M; Meis, J F; Voss, A

    1999-07-01

    Candida species are frequently encountered as part of the human commensal flora. Colonization mostly precedes candidemia and is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Genotyping methods showed the similarity between colonizing and infecting strains, thus making endogenous origin likely, though exogenous sources like total parenteral nutrition also have been described. Health care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the transmission of yeasts. Candida species are frequently isolated from the hands of HCWs and can be transmitted from hands to patients. Granulocytopenia and damage of the mucosal lining resulting from intensive chemotherapy due to cancer, the increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and the use of intravenous catheters are other important risk factors for the development of candidemia. Candidemia is associated with a high mortality and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, and because of the high frequency of dissemination, all candidemias should be treated. Amphotericin B was considered the standard drug for the systemic treatment of candidemia. Fluconazole has been shown to be an effective and safe alternative in non-neutropenic patients. 5-Fluorocytosine has been used in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and other new antifungal drugs currently are under investigation. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species, although the proportion of infections caused by non-C. albicans species is increasing. Also, there are reports of development of resistance to amphotericin B. C. lusitaniae is known for primary resistance and the development of resistance to amphotericin B. Development of resistance to fluconazole is mainly seen in AIDS patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis who receive longer courses of therapy.

  20. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These types of infections are called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Hospital staff and healthcare providers do everything they can ... IV tube) can increase your risk for fungal infection. During your hospital stay you may need a central venous catheter, ...

  1. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi, including two of the most widely studied, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorok...

  2. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  3. Mycorrhizal status of Cyperaceae from New Caledonian ultramafic soils: effects of phosphorus availability on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Costularia comosa under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; L'huillier, Laurent; Amir, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    Plants from the Cyperaceae family (sedges), usually considered as non-mycorrhizal, constitute almost exclusively the herbaceous stratum of the ultramafic maquis in New Caledonia. These plants are pioneers and are important for the ecological restoration of mined areas. Costularia comosa, one of the most common sedges in this environment, was grown under field conditions on ultramafic soil, fertilized or not with phosphate and/or nitrogen. Results showed that the addition of phosphate to the soil induced a clear increase in mycorrhizal colonization of C. comosa and an increase in arbuscule abundance, reflecting the establishment of a functional mycorrhizal symbiosis. Significant positive correlations were found among mycorrhizal parameters and plant or soil phosphorus concentrations. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C. comosa. The improvement in mycorrhizal colonization by phosphate fertilization did not influence significantly nickel concentrations in the roots and shoots of plants. This study demonstrated that phosphate fertilization of ultramafic soil improved mycorrhizal colonization of C. comosa, with formation of a functional symbiosis under field conditions.

  4. LEAKAGE OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS AFTER COLON RESECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanellos I; Pramateftakis MG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To present the diagnosis and management of anastomotic leakage after colon resection. Methods Early diagnosis and urgent therapeutic intervention are required in order to avert life-threatening conditions that may be caused by anastomotic leakage. Results The diagnosis of anastomotic leakage is based on clinical features, peripheral blood investigations and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. Major leaks are defined by symptoms of peritonitis and septicaemia due to leakage. Major leaks should be managed operatively. Minor leaks can be managed conservatively with successful outcomes. Conclusion Leakage of colonic anastomosis remains the most serious complication after colon resection. It is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required in order to detect early, nonspecific signs of a leakage and urgent surgical intervention is usually required to avert life-threatening events.

  5. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  6. Shaping of the fungal communities isolated from yellow lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. throughout storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment were seeds of two traditional cultivars of yellow lupin (Juno and Amulet cultivated in 1999 in two crop-rotation with 20% and 33% yellow lupine contribution. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the fungal community colonizing the seeds were determined in the laboratory conditions after 0.5-, 1.5- and 2.5-year of storage time. In total 1077 fungal colonies were isolated from the lupin seeds. Fungi representing the species of Penicillium - 29.3%, Alternaria alternata - 26.7% and Rhizopus nigricans - 12.7% were isolated most widely. Among the fungi pathogenic to lupin, the species of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (16.3% isolates was dominant. The crop rotation with 20% lupin reduced the number of fungal colonies colonizing the seeds including the pathogens from the species of C. gloeosporioides. Seed disinfection decreased the total number of fungal colonies isolated from both cultivars. Higher number of C. gloeosporioides isolates was found in the combination with disinfected seeds. More fungal colonies were obtained from seeds of cv. Amulet than from those of cv. Juno. The storage duration had an effect on the population and the composition of species of fungi isolated from seeds of yellow lupine. With longer storage population of Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp. increased, whereas the population of C. gloeosporioides decreased.

  7. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  8. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in Pb-Zn mine sites of central south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Nara, Kazuhide; Lian, Chunlan; Zong, Kun; Peng, Kejian; Xue, Shengguo; Shen, Zhenguo

    2012-11-01

    To advance our understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in mining areas, the diversity and composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and soil chemistry were investigated in Taolin lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine tailings (TLT), two fragmented forest patches in a Huayuan Pb-Zn mineland (HY1 and HY2), and a non-polluted forest in Taolin in central south China. Ectomycorrhizal fungal species were identified by morphotyping and sequence analyses of the internally transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The two study sites in the Huayuan mineland (HY1 and HY2) were significantly different in soil Pb, Zn, and cadmium (Cd) concentrations, but no significant difference was observed in ectomycorrhizal colonization, ectomycorrhizal fungal richness, diversity, or rank-abundance. In addition, the similarity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities between HY1 and HY2 was quite high (Sørensen similarity index = 0.47). Thus, the concentration of heavy metals may not be determining factors in the structure of these communities. In the tailings, however, significantly lower ectomycorrhizal colonization and ectomycorrhizal fungal richness were observed. The amounts of Pb and Zn in the tailing sand were higher than the non-polluted forest but far lower than in HY1. Thus, these heavy metals did not account for the reduced colonization and ectomycorrhizal fungal richness in TLT. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in TLT was dominated by four pioneer species (Rhizopogon buenoi, Tomentella ellisii, Inocybe curvipes, and Suillus granulatus), which collectively accounted for 93.2 % of root tip colonization. The immature soil conditions in tailing (low N and P, sand texture, and lack of organic matter) may only allow certain pioneer ectomycorrhizal fungal species to colonize the site. When soil samples from four sites were combined, we found that the occurrences of major ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa were not clearly related to the

  10. CT findings of colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  11. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  12. Cat scratch colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rebollo, M Lourdes; Velayos-Jiménez, Benito; Prieto de Paula, José María; Alvarez Quiñones, María; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term "cat scratch colon." This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  13. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  14. Colon cancer - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  16. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  17. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  18. Mycorrhiza-plant colonization patterns on a subalpine glacier forefront as a model system of primary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares, Efrén; Trappe, James M; Jumpponen, Ari

    2005-09-01

    Lyman glacier in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington has a subalpine forefront characterized by a well-developed terminal moraine, inconspicuous successional moraines, fluting, and outwash. These deposits were depleted of symbiotic fungi when first exposed but colonized by them over time after exposure. Four major groups of plant species in this system are (1) mycorrhiza-independent or facultative mycotrophic, (2) dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) (3) dependent on ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) or ectomycorrhizae (EM), and (4) colonized by dark-septate (DS) endophytes. We hypothesized that availability of mycorrhizal propagules was related to the success of mycorrhiza-dependent plants in colonizing new substrates in naturally evolved ecosystems. To test this hypothesis roots samples of 66 plant species were examined for mycorrhizal colonization. The plants were sampled from communities at increasing distances from the glacier terminus to compare the newest communities with successively older ones. Long established, secondary successional dry meadow communities adjacent to the glacier forefront, and nearby high alpine communities were sampled for comparison. DS were common on most plant species on the forefront. Nonmycorrhizal plants predominated in the earlier successional sites, whereas the proportion of mycorrhizal plants generally increased with age of community. AM were present, mostly at low levels, and nearly absent in two sites of the forefront. ERM were present in all species of Ericaceae sampled, and EM in all species of Pinaceae and Salicaceae. Roots of plants in the long established meadow and heath communities adjacent to the forefront and the high alpine community all had one or another of the colonization types, with DS and AM predominating.

  19. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  20. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  1. Selective feeding by shredders on leaf-colonizing stream fungi: comparison of macroinvertebrate taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuffi, T L; Suberkropp, K

    1989-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of fungal species composition of leaf detritus on the feeding of distantly related macroinvertebrate shredders. Preferences of shredders representing three orders of insects (Diptera: Tipulidae; Plecoptera: Pteronarcidae; Trichoptera: Limnephilidae and Calamatoceridae) and one each of gastropods (Basommatophora: Planorbidae) and crustaceans (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) were compared. Shredder preferences were based on consumption of leaves separately colonized by one of eight species of aquatic hyphomycetes. The feeding patterns of the invertebrates ranged from lack of feeding to heavy consumption of fungal-colonized leaves. Where consumption occurred, rank orders of preference and degree of selectivity differed among invertebrate shredders. Differences in preferences together with relationships between degree of selectivity and the relative mobility and digestive specializations exhibited by shredders suggest that the exploitation of fungal-colonized leaf detritus by different taxa is affected by phylogenetic constraints. Our results suggest that fungal species composition affects the feeding of a variety of shredders and that fungal species composition may be as important as degree of conditioning in determining food selection by shredders.

  2. Specialized mycorrhizal colonization pattern in achlorophyllous Epirixanthes spp. (Polygalaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, S

    2007-11-01

    Roots of the achlorophyllous Epirixanthes papunana and E. elongata were sectioned in complete series in order to reconstruct the three-dimensional mycorrhizal colonization pattern within their tissues. Hyphal morphology, vesicles, as well as the exclusively intracellular mode of colonization indicate a PARIS-type of arbuscular mycorrhiza showing a hitherto unknown colonization pattern: (1) the outer cortex is colonized by persistent straight-growing hyphae which branch in a cascading manner, (2) a specific layer (called layer 2) is inhabited by persistent hyphal coils, (3) in the cells of the anatomically distinct inner cortex parenchyma layer (called layer 1) the hyphae immediately degenerate, and (4) the layer outside to layer 2 (called layer 3) is either transitional layer 2 when penetrated from the outer cortex or the fungal material degenerates when colonized from the layer 2. This complex colonization pattern is a reasonable adaptation to the particular demands of Epirixanthes as a myco-heterotrophic plant. It not only allows a sustained benefit from the fungal symbiont but also provides a two-level distribution system of hyphae within the roots. The outer cortex hyphae function as a permanent intraradical resource of living fungi providing connection to the external mycelium as well as a coarse distribution of hyphae within the root. Layer 2 represents the fine scale distribution of hyphae, having access to all potentially digesting cells of the layers 1 and 3. Common structural features of mycorrhizae in myco-heterotrophic plants are pointed out in order to find putative prerequisites for their heterotrophic mode of life.

  3. Fungi of the colon of the Yukagir Mammoth and from stratigraphically related permafrost samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aptroot, A.; van Geel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal remains from the contents of the colon of the Yukagir Mammoth, and from two other dung samples, preserved in permafrost in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and dated ca 18,560 BP, were recorded, illustrated and interpreted. Three identifiable Ascomycetes species were found on plant remains insid

  4. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Svensson, T.; Bastviken, D.; Oberg, G.; Del Rio, J.C.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced a

  5. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Mi Yun; Choi, Byung Hun; Kim, Keum Won; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sung Soo; Choi, Chang Ho [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  6. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  7. Fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background With thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (SM) clusters 30–80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this SM wealth. Results Here we describe a novel system-level methodology for unbiased cloning of intact large SM clusters from a single fungal genome for one-step transformation and expression in a model host. All 56 intact SM clusters from Aspergillus terreus were individually captured in self-rep...

  8. Symbiosis-related pea genes modulate fungal and plant gene expression during the arbuscule stage of mycorrhiza with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Seddas-Dozolme, Pascale M A; Arnould, Christine; Tollot, Marie; van Tuinen, Diederik; Borisov, Alexey; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2010-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhiza association results from a successful interaction between genomes of the plant and fungal symbiotic partners. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inactivation of late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes on symbiosis-associated fungal and plant molecular responses in order to gain insight into their role in the functional mycorrhizal association. The expression of a subset of ten fungal and eight plant genes, previously reported to be activated during mycorrhiza development, was compared in Glomus intraradices-inoculated wild-type and isogenic genotypes of pea mutated for the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 genes where arbuscule formation is inhibited or fungal turnover modulated, respectively. Microdissection was used to corroborate arbuscule-related fungal gene expression. Molecular responses varied between pea genotypes and with fungal development. Most of the fungal genes were downregulated when arbuscule formation was defective, and several were upregulated with more rapid fungal development. Some of the plant genes were also affected by inactivation of the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 loci, but in a more time-dependent way during root colonization by G. intraradices. Results indicate a role of the late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes not only in mycorrhiza development but also in the symbiotic functioning of arbuscule-containing cells.

  9. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats" formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in Western Oregon to investigate whether there was an incremental increase in respiration from mat soils, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the incremental increase in respiration averaging 16 % across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When air-filled pore space was low (high soil moisture, soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This suggests that the elevated activity of fungal mats may be related to consumption or turnover of chitinous fungal cell-wall materials. We found Piloderma mats present across 57 % of the soil surface in the study area, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9 % of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, was estimated to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  10. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  11. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  12. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely oc...

  13. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes......, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+ and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon....

  14. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thorough evaluation by a surgeon qualified in laparoscopic colon resection in consultation with your primary ... Olympic Blvd., Suite 600 Los Angeles, CA 90064 Tel: (310) 437-0544 Fax: (310) 437- ...

  15. Contrasting preferences of arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate fungi colonizing boreal and subarctic Avenella flexuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, M; Raveala, K; Wäli, P R; Ruotsalainen, A L

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi are ubiquitous in grass roots, but their colonizations may vary according to latitudinal gradient and site conditions. We investigated how vegetation zone (boreal vs. subarctic), humus thickness, and site openness affect root fungal colonizations of the grass Avenella flexuosa. More precisely, we hypothesized that AM and DSE fungal colonizations would have different responses to environmental conditions such that AM fungi could be more common in boreal zone, whereas we expected DSE fungi to be more affected by the amount of humus. We found site openness to affect AM and DSE fungi in a contrasting manner, in interaction with the vegetation zone. AM colonization was high at open coastal dunes, whereas DSE fungi were more common at forested sites, in the boreal zone. Humus thickness affected AM fungi negatively and DSE fungi positively. To conclude, the observed AM and DSE fungal colonization patterns were largely contrasting. AM fungi were favored in seashore conditions characterized by thin humus layer, whereas DSE fungi were favored in conditions of higher humus availability.

  16. Carbohydrate Markers in Colon Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp. If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases.

  17. Fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A; Prasanna Kumar, S; Somu, L; Sudhir, B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of fungal laryngitis is often overlooked in immunocompetent patients because it is commonly considered a disease of the immunocompromised. Further confusion is caused by clinical and histological similarity to more common conditions like Leukoplakia. Demonstration of hyperkeratosis particularly if associated with intraepithelial neutrophils on biopsy should trigger a search for fungus using specialized stains. These patients usually present with hoarseness of voice. Pain is present inconsistently along with dysphagia and odynophagia. We present three cases of fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients out of which one underwent microlaryngeal surgery with excision biopsy. All these patients responded well with oral antifungal therapy.

  18. Adenocarcinoma in Colonic Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Grunner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female with dysphagia presented to our clinic. In childhood, she underwent colonic interposition due to anastomotic stricture after a previous proximal gastrectomy for gastric ulcer perforation. Imaging studies revealed a space-occupying lesion obstructing the distal interposed colon. At surgery, completion gastrectomy with segmental colectomy was carried out, and Roux-en-Y coloenterostomy and enteroenterostomy were performed.

  19. Cohort Study of Airway Mycobiome in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Differences in Community Structure between Fungi and Bacteria Reveal Predominance of Transient Fungal Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Heilborn, Annette; Welte, Tobias; Guzman, Carlos A.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Höfle, Manfred G.

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory mycobiome is an important but understudied component of the human microbiota. Like bacteria, fungi can cause severe lung diseases, but their infection rates are much lower. This study compared the bacterial and fungal communities of sputum samples from a large cohort of 56 adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) during nonexacerbation periods and under continuous antibiotic treatment. Molecular fingerprinting based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed fundamental differences between bacterial and fungal communities. Both groups of microorganisms were taxonomically classified by identification of gene sequences (16S rRNA and internal transcript spacer), and prevalences of single taxa were determined for the entire cohort. Major bacterial pathogens were frequently observed, whereas fungi of known pathogenicity in CF were detected only in low numbers. Fungal species richness increased without reaching a constant level (saturation), whereas bacterial richness showed saturation after 50 patients were analyzed. In contrast to bacteria, a large number of fungal species were observed together with high fluctuations over time and among patients. These findings demonstrated that the mycobiome was dominated by transient species, which strongly suggested that the main driving force was their presence in inhaled air rather than colonization. Considering the high exposure of human airways to fungal spores, we concluded that fungi have low colonization abilities in CF, and colonization by pathogenic fungal species may be considered a rare event. A comprehensive understanding of the conditions promoting fungal colonization may offer the opportunity to prevent colonization and substantially reduce or even eliminate fungus-related disease progression in CF. PMID:26135861

  20. Changes in fungal community composition in response to experimental soil warming at the alpine treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Bjorn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Souza, Romulo; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-04-01

    data and the colonization of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Several fungal taxa known to be involved in needle degradation responded positively to the warming treatment by increasing in their relative abundance. These findings provide novel insights into the spatial distribution of functional groups of fungi both vertically in the soil and between different rhizospheres of trees. Moreover, they indicate that traits related to nitrogen utilization are important in determining responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to warming in cold regions, such as high-elevation ecosystems, with low N availability. Shifts in the overall fungal community composition in response to higher temperatures may alter fungal-driven processes with potential feedbacks on ecosystem nitrogen cycling and carbon storage at the alpine treeline.

  1. Variation of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities across land use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moora, M.; Davison, J.; Metsis, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (phylum Glomeromycota) colonize the roots of most terrestrial plants, facilitating mineral nutrient uptake from soil in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon. While investigating functional aspects of plant-AM fungi interactions has been a major focus of research, there is increasing interest in describing and explaining the distribution of AM fungal diversity. Different management practices has been shown to influence the AM fungal communities while more intense management can bring along the loss of AM fungal diversity. Such a loss may have negative consequences on ecosystem service delivery, primary production and soil sustainability. However, due to cryptic lifestyle of AM fungi, relatively few information is available about variability of diversity and composition of AM fungal communities in the soils from differently managed ecosystems. To study the variation of soil AM fungal communities in response to the land use intensity, replicated soil samples were collected along land use gradient from intensively managed agricultural fields, organic fields, forest plantations and managed natural forest to primeval forest in Estonia. Soil AM fungal communities were described using molecular tools: DNA extraction, amplicon isolation and 454 large scale parallel pyrosequencing. Glomeromycota sequences were amplified using the SSU rDNA primers NS31 and AML2. We shall analyse and describe AM fungal community changes along land use intensity gradient and seek finding indicator taxa characteristic to particular land use types. We shall also address changes in the diversity of AM fungal taxa and check whether the decrease of diversity along land use intensity is a ubiquitous phenomenon.

  2. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  3. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  4. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  5. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  6. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  7. Colonic mucormycosis presented with ischemic colitis in a liver transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Gi Won; Jung, Seok Won; Jun, Jae-Bum; Seo, Jae Hee; Nah, Yang Won

    2013-06-14

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection with high mortality in liver transplant recipients. Mucormycosis of the gastrointestinal tract can manifest with features similar to ischemic colitis. Typically signs and symptoms of non-gangrenous ischemic colitis resolve spontaneously within 24-48 h. On the other hand, the clinical course of the mucormycosis is commonly fulminant. We encountered a case of invasive fungal colitis presenting with abdominal pain and hematochezia in a liver transplant recipient. Endoscopic examination showed multiple shallow ulcerations and edema with mucosal friabilities on the sigmoid and distal descending colon, which was consistent with ischemic colitis. However, the histological examination obtained from endoscopic biopsies showed fungal hyphae with surrounding inflammatory cells and mucosal necrosis. The patient was successfully managed with antifungal agent without surgical treatment. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment is essential for improving the prognosis of invasive fungal infection after liver transplantation.

  8. Linking the occurrence of cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders with elemental concentrations in false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Marnel; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Postma, Ferdinand; Thornton, Meredith; Archer, Edward; Botha, Alfred

    2015-10-01

    Cetaceans, occupying the top levels in marine food chains, are vulnerable to elevated levels of potentially toxic trace elements, such as aluminium (Al), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni). Negative effects associated with these toxic metals include infection by opportunistic microbial invaders. To corroborate the link between the presence of cutaneous fungal invaders and trace element levels, skin samples from 40 stranded false killer whales (FKWs) were analysed using culture techniques and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-two skin samples yielded 18 clinically relevant fungal species. While evidence for bioaccumulation of Hg in the skin of the FKWs was observed, a strong link was found to exist between the occurrence of opportunistic fungal invaders and higher Al : Se and Al : Zn ratios. This study provides indications that elevated levels of some toxic metals, such as Al, contribute to immunotoxicity rendering FKWs susceptible to colonization by cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders.

  9. Redefining the Chronic-Wound Microbiome: Fungal Communities Are Prevalent, Dynamic, and Associated with Delayed Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Kalan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nonhealing wounds have been heralded as a silent epidemic, causing significant morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, diabetic, and obese populations. Polymicrobial biofilms in the wound bed are hypothesized to disrupt the highly coordinated and sequential events of cutaneous healing. Both culture-dependent and -independent studies of the chronic-wound microbiome have almost exclusively focused on bacteria, omitting what we hypothesize are important fungal contributions to impaired healing and the development of complications. Here we show for the first time that fungal communities (the mycobiome in chronic wounds are predictive of healing time, associated with poor outcomes, and form mixed fungal-bacterial biofilms. We longitudinally profiled 100, nonhealing diabetic-foot ulcers with high-throughput sequencing of the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 locus, estimating that up to 80% of wounds contain fungi, whereas cultures performed in parallel captured only 5% of colonized wounds. The “mycobiome” was highly heterogeneous over time and between subjects. Fungal diversity increased with antibiotic administration and onset of a clinical complication. The proportions of the phylum Ascomycota were significantly greater (P = 0.015 at the beginning of the study in wounds that took >8 weeks to heal. Wound necrosis was distinctly associated with pathogenic fungal species, while taxa identified as allergenic filamentous fungi were associated with low levels of systemic inflammation. Directed culturing of wounds stably colonized by pathogens revealed that interkingdom biofilms formed between yeasts and coisolated bacteria. Combined, our analyses provide enhanced resolution of the mycobiome during impaired wound healing, its role in chronic disease, and impact on clinical outcomes.

  10. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  11. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

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    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  12. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-06

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  13. Impact of catheter antimicrobial coating on species-specific risk of catheter colonization: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov Aleksey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial catheters have been utilized to reduce risk of catheter colonization and infection. We aimed to determine if there is a greater than expected risk of microorganism-specific colonization associated with the use of antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVCs. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 21 randomized, controlled trials comparing the incidence of specific bacterial and fungal species colonizing antimicrobial CVCs and standard CVCs in hospitalized patients. Results The proportion of all colonized minocycline-rifampin CVCs found to harbor Candida species was greater than the proportion of all colonized standard CVCs found to have Candida. In comparison, the proportion of colonized chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine CVCs specifically colonized with Acinetobacter species or diphtheroids was less than the proportion of similarly colonized standard CVCs. No such differences were found with CVCs colonized with staphylococci. Conclusion Commercially-available antimicrobial CVCs in clinical use may become colonized with distinct microbial flora probably related to their antimicrobial spectrum of activity. Some of these antimicrobial CVCs may therefore have limited additional benefit or more obvious advantages compared to standard CVCs for specific microbial pathogens. The choice of an antimicrobial CVC may be influenced by a number of clinical factors, including a previous history of colonization or infection with Acinetobacter, diphtheroids, or Candida species.

  14. Using Bayesian modelling to investigate factors governing antibiotic-induced Candida albicans colonization of the GI tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Jyoti; Solis, Norma V; Mounaud, Stephanie; Szpakowski, Sebastian; Liu, Hong; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C; Filler, Scott G

    2015-02-03

    Receipt of broad-spectrum antibiotics enhances Candida albicans colonization of the GI tract, a risk factor for haematogenously-disseminated candidiasis. To understand how antibiotics influence C. albicans colonization, we treated mice orally with vancomycin or a combination of penicillin, streptomycin, and gentamicin (PSG) and then inoculated them with C. albicans by gavage. Only PSG treatment resulted in sustained, high-level GI colonization with C. albicans. Furthermore, PSG reduced bacterial diversity in the colon much more than vancomycin. Both antibiotic regimens significantly reduced IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22 and IFN-γ mRNA levels in the terminal ileum but had limited effect on the GI fungal microbiome. Through a series of models that employed Bayesian model averaging, we investigated the associations between antibiotic treatment, GI microbiota, and host immune response and their collective impact on C. albicans colonization. Our analysis revealed that bacterial genera were typically associated with either C. albicans colonization or altered cytokine expression but not with both. The only exception was Veillonella, which was associated with both increased C. albicans colonization and reduced IL-21 expression. Overall, antibiotic-induced changes in the bacterial microbiome were much more consistent determinants of C. albicans colonization than either the GI fungal microbiota or the GI immune response.

  15. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  16. Congenital Pouch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gharpure

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Face The Examiner:QUESTIONS1. What are the diagnostic features of congenital pouch colon (CPC?Ans: A male patient with CPC often have a wide colovesical fistula and present with anorectal malformation and meconuria; on plain abdominal film, a single large bowel loop occupying more than 50% of the abdominal cavity is also a diagnostic sign. Girls (persistent cloaca/vestibular fistula/anteriorly placed anus etc. often present late with intractable constipation or multiple episodes of enterocolitis and persistent abdominal distension with common cloaca or anterior ectopic anus/ rectovestibular fistula. The congenital pouch colon can be identified as replacement of a part or entire colon in the configuration of pouch that lacks taenia coli, haustrations, appendices epiploicae, abnormal blood supply and a wide fistula with genitourinary system in a patient of anorectal malformation.

  17. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  18. Recent trend of colonic diverticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yae Soon; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Chang Yul; Lee, Kwan Seh [Inje Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Colonic Diverticulosis is once thought to be a rare disease in Korea compared with western countries, but the incidence has been increasing with passage of time. Authors reviewed 151 cases of colon study with new double contrast method performed from November, 1986 to March, 1987 at Paik Hospital Inje college. The results were as follow: 1. The colonic diverticulosis was found in 39 cases out of 151 colon study (25.8%). 2. Colonic Diverticulosis were located at right and transvercolon in 54% and left and sigmoid colon in 18%. 3. Increasing occurrence in younger age group predilection; 4th decade was observed.

  19. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School; Mizutani, Masaru [and others

    1998-11-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  20. Sex-specific responses of Populus deltoides to Glomus intraradices colonization and Cd pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianghua; Zhang, Danju; Yang, Wanqin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Gao, Shun

    2016-07-01

    The positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) on the survival, growth and physiology of plants under various stress conditions have been widely recognized. However, whether sex-dependent susceptibility to AM colonization exists, which can induce a differential tolerance between the sexes to stress conditions, is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Glomus intraradices on Cd-stressed males and females of Populus deltoides (spiked with 10 mg Cd per kg dry substrate) in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure, and toxin storage and translocation. Exposure to Cd promoted the colonization by G. intraradices in males, but not in females. Generally, females suffered more impairments than males in response to Cd stress, reflected by leaf symptoms, the extent of lipid peroxidation, and integrity of the cellular ultrastructure, whether they were inoculated or not. Inoculation with G. intraradices alleviated the phytotoxic effects of Cd in females by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, decreasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restricting Cd transfer to the shoots. In contrast, these beneficial effects induced by AM were not detected in mycorrhizal males compared to non-mycorrhizal males, based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and cellular ultrastructure. Inoculation with AM promoted Cd accumulation in males but not in females, and caused the sequestration of more toxic Cd in the root systems in both sexes. Therefore, our results suggest that inoculated males of P. deltoides are suitable candidates for phytostabilization in Cd-polluted soils, due to their higher accumulation ability and greater tolerance relative to inoculated females.

  1. Fungal keratitis in Lattice dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Samrat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis occurring in a patient with lattice dystrophy. A 57-year-old farmer presented with a corneal ulcer following probable entry of paddy husk in the right eye, of one month duration. Corneal scraping revealed pigmented fungal filaments while culture grew Alternaria alternata. Treatment with 5% natamycin eye drops and 1% atropine healed the infection in four weeks. We would like to draw attention to the fact that the cornea in lattice dystrophy is prone to frequent erosions and is a compromised epithelial barrier to invasion by microorganisms. Patients must be made aware of this fact and should seek attention at the earliest following any trivial trauma. Management of minor corneal abrasions in them should be directed at healing the epithelium with adequate lubricants and preventing infection with topical antibiotic prophylaxis.

  2. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  3. Fungal metabolites with anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Covering: 1964 to 2013. Natural products from bacteria and plants have played a leading role in cancer drug discovery resulting in a large number of clinically useful agents. In contrast, the investigations of fungal metabolites and their derivatives have not led to a clinical cancer drug in spite of significant research efforts revealing a large number of fungi-derived natural products with promising anticancer activity. Many of these natural products have displayed notable in vitro growth-inhibitory properties in human cancer cell lines and select compounds have been demonstrated to provide therapeutic benefits in mouse models of human cancer. Many of these compounds are expected to enter human clinical trials in the near future. The present review discusses the reported sources, structures and biochemical studies aimed at the elucidation of the anticancer potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  4. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

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    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  5. Molecular characterization of the skin fungal microbiome in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Akemi; Cho, Otomi; Morohoshi, Yuka; Sugita, Takashi; Muto, Masahiko

    2015-02-01

    The skin surface is colonized by a wide variety of fungi and bacteria. While many of these organisms, including Malassezia, Candida, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species, are associated with provocation and/or exacerbation of psoriasis, a detailed analysis of the cutaneous fungal microbiome in psoriatic patients has yet to be performed. To identify the disease-specific fungal microbiota on psoriatic scale samples, fungal rRNA gene sequences from 12 psoriatic patients and 12 healthy controls were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 317 806 high-quality sequences were obtained, representing 142 genera. Malassezia species were the most abundant sequences in both populations (46.9 ± 14.0% in psoriasis vs. 76.0 ± 14.6% for healthy controls). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the fungal microbiomes were independent. Although an association between the cutaneous fungal microbiome and psoriasis has yet to be established, our data indicate that the microbiome in patients with psoriasis is independent of that in healthy controls.

  6. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (Pstructure (Psoil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands.

  7. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  8. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  9. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  10. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

  11. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Ali, Elouer Mohamed; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome.

  12. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  13. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH. Purpose of This Summary This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of colon cancer. It is meant to inform and help ...

  14. Carbohydrate Markers in Colon Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Dariusz Szajda; Anna Jankowska; Krzysztof Zwierz

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50–65 ye...

  15. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  16. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collection below explain colon cancer risk factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from ... Colon Cancer Risk Play Play Colon Cancer: Screening Tests Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Colonoscopy Play ...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource for Patients Play Play Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Play Play Lowering Colon ...

  18. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  19. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Full Article What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collection below explain colon cancer risk factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from ... Colon Cancer Risk Play Play Colon Cancer: Screening Tests Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Colonoscopy Play ...

  1. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Δ5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. Conclusions/Significance Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of

  2. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  3. Atypical morphology of dark septate fungal root endophytes of Bouteloua in arid southwestern USA rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, J R

    2003-10-01

    Native grasses of semi-arid rangelands of the southwestern USA are more extensively colonized by dark septate endophytes (DSE) than by traditional mycorrhizal fungi. Roots of dominant grasses ( Bouteloua sp.) native to arid southwestern USA rangelands were prepared and stained using stains specific for fungi (trypan blue) and for lipids (sudan IV). This revealed extensive internal colonization of physiologically active roots by atypical fungal structures that appear to function as protoplasts, without a distinguishable wall or with very thin hyaline walls that escape detection by methods staining specifically for fungal chitin. These structures were presumed to be active fungal stages that progressed to form stained or melanized septate hyphae and microsclerotia characteristic of DSE fungi within dormant roots. The most conspicuous characteristic of these fungi were the unique associations that formed within sieve elements and the accumulation of massive quantities of lipids. This interface suggests a biologically significant location for carbon transfer between the plant and fungus. The continuous intimate association with all sieve elements, cortical and epidermal cells as well as external extension on the root surface and into the soil indicates that they are systemic and considerably more prevalent than previously thought. A fungal network associated with a mucilaginous complex observed on the root surface and its potential role in root function in dry soil is discussed. It is suggested that those fungi that non-pathogenically and totally colonize plant cells be classed as systemic endophytic fungi (SEF). This would refine the broad designation of DSE fungi. The potential mutualistic benefit of SEF for native plants in arid ecosystems based on the extent of lipid accumulation and its apparent distribution is discussed.

  4. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  5. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  6. Neighboring Deschampsia flexuosa and Trientalis europaea harbor contrasting root fungal endophytic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejesvi, Mysore V; Sauvola, Tiina; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytic communities and potential host preference of root-inhabiting fungi of boreal forest understory plants are poorly known. The objective of this study was to find out whether two neighboring plant species, Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) and Trientalis europaea (Primulaceae), share similar root fungal endophytic communities and whether the communities differ between two sites. The study was carried out by analysis of pure culture isolates and root fungal colonization percentages. A total of 84 isolates from D. flexuosa and 27 isolates from T. europaea were obtained. The roots of D. flexuosa harbored 16 different isolate types based on macromorphological characteristics, whereas only 4 isolate types were found in T. europaea. The root colonization by dark septate and hyaline septate hyphae correlated with isolate numbers being higher in D. flexuosa compared to T. europaea. The different isolate types were further identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer sequence and phylogenetic analysis. An isolate type identified as dark septate endophyte Phialocephala fortinii colonized 50 % of the T. europaea and 21 % of the D. flexuosa specimens. In addition, Meliniomyces variabilis, Phialocephala sphaeroides, and Umbelopsis isabellina were found colonizing the grass, D. flexuosa, for the first time and Mycena sp. was confirmed as an endophyte of D. flexuosa. Site-specific differences were observed in the abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of both study plants, but the differences were not as predominant as those between plant species. It is concluded that D. flexuosa harbors both higher amount and more diverse community of endophytic fungi in its roots compared to T. europaea.

  7. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  8. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study ...

  9. Reconstructing fungal natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, C M; Williams, K; Bailey, A M

    2014-10-01

    Large scale fungal genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential natural product biosynthetic pathways that remain uncharted. Here we describe some of the methods that have been used to explore them via heterologous gene expression. We focus on filamentous fungal hosts and discuss the technological challenges and successes behind the reconstruction of fungal natural product pathways. Optimised, efficient heterologous expression of reconstructed biosynthetic pathways promises progress in the discovery of novel compounds that could be utilised by the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.

  10. Root Infection and Systemic Colonization of Maize by Colletotrichum graminicola▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukno, Serenella A.; García, Verónica M.; Shaw, Brian D.; Thon, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola is a filamentous ascomycete that causes anthracnose disease of maize. While the fungus can cause devastating foliar leaf blight and stalk rot diseases, little is known about its ability to infect roots. Previously published reports suggest that C. graminicola may infect maize roots and that root infections may contribute to the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, leading to disease. To determine whether C. graminicola can infect maize roots and whether root infections can result in the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, we developed a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain and used it to study the plant root colonization and infection process in vivo. We observed structures produced by other root pathogenic fungi, including runner hyphae, hyphopodia, and microsclerotia. A mosaic pattern of infection resulted from specific epidermal and cortical cells becoming infected by intercellular hyphae while surrounding cells were uninfected, a pattern that is distinctly different from that described for leaves. Interestingly, falcate conidia, normally restricted to acervuli, were also found filling epidermal cells and root hairs. Twenty-eight percent of plants challenged with soilborne inoculum became infected in aboveground plant parts (stem and/or leaves), indicating that root infection can lead to asymptomatic systemic colonization of the plants. Many of the traits observed for C. graminicola have been previously reported for other root-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that these traits are evolutionally conserved in multiple fungal lineages. These observations suggest that root infection may be an important component of the maize anthracnose disease cycle. PMID:18065625

  11. Root infection and systemic colonization of maize by Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukno, Serenella A; García, Verónica M; Shaw, Brian D; Thon, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola is a filamentous ascomycete that causes anthracnose disease of maize. While the fungus can cause devastating foliar leaf blight and stalk rot diseases, little is known about its ability to infect roots. Previously published reports suggest that C. graminicola may infect maize roots and that root infections may contribute to the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, leading to disease. To determine whether C. graminicola can infect maize roots and whether root infections can result in the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, we developed a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain and used it to study the plant root colonization and infection process in vivo. We observed structures produced by other root pathogenic fungi, including runner hyphae, hyphopodia, and microsclerotia. A mosaic pattern of infection resulted from specific epidermal and cortical cells becoming infected by intercellular hyphae while surrounding cells were uninfected, a pattern that is distinctly different from that described for leaves. Interestingly, falcate conidia, normally restricted to acervuli, were also found filling epidermal cells and root hairs. Twenty-eight percent of plants challenged with soilborne inoculum became infected in aboveground plant parts (stem and/or leaves), indicating that root infection can lead to asymptomatic systemic colonization of the plants. Many of the traits observed for C. graminicola have been previously reported for other root-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that these traits are evolutionally conserved in multiple fungal lineages. These observations suggest that root infection may be an important component of the maize anthracnose disease cycle.

  12. Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2013-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H. crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H. crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC.

  13. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  14. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon source-induced reprogramming of the cell wall proteome and secretome modulates the adherence and drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, I.V.; Heilmann, C.J.; Sorgo, A.G.; Walker, L.A.; de Koster, C.G.; Munro, C.A.; Klis, F.M.; Brown, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The major fungal pathogen Candida albicans can occupy diverse microenvironments in its human host. During colonization of the gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts, mucosal surfaces, bloodstream, and internal organs, C. albicans thrives in niches that differ with respect to available nutrients and l

  16. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research.

  17. Nonobstructing Colonic Dilatation and Colon Perforations Following Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Baburao; Selby, Rick; O’Hair, Daniel P.; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Hakala, Thomas R.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonobstructing colonic dilatation has not been commonly reported following renal transplantation, and colon perforations carry a high morbidity and mortality in this population. During a 7-year period, nonobstructing colonic dilatation developed in 13 adults 1 to 13 days after renal transplantation. Twelve (92%) of the 13 had poorly functioning allografts. Five (83%) of the 6 with and 2 (29%) of the 7 without colonoscopy had resolution of nonobstructing colonic dilatation. Of the seven right-sided colon perforations during this period, six were associated with nonobstructing colonic dilatation. An additional 4 patients had diverticular perforations in the left colon. Of a total of 11 patients with colon perforation, 7 had surgery within 24 hours of the perforation and 6 (86%) of these survived. Only 1 (25%) of the 4 having surgery more than 24 hours later survived. Six of the survivors retained functioning allografts. Nonobstructing colonic dilatation seems to be a potential complication of poor graft function after renal transplantation, and colonoscopy is effective in its treatment. In patients with colon perforations, early surgery and reduced immunosuppression are essential in decreasing mortality. PMID:2331220

  18. 5.5.Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930234 Penicilliosis marneffei report of a caseand review of literatures.KANG Xiaoming (康晓明),et al.Nanjing Army General Hosp,210002.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(6):336—338.Penicilliosis marneffei is a rare deep fungal in-fection.Southeast Asia is the endemic area.Inthe literatures before 1990,29 cases were re-ported and most of them were diagnosed patho-logically from autopsy.Since 1989 there havebeen more reports of P.marneffei in the HIV in-fected individuals or graft recipient,so far as

  19. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  20. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Barbui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper diagnostic strategy of invasive fungal infections (IFI is a very important component in the management of infectious complications in hematological patients. A good diagnostic approach should be adapted to the patient in relation to the underlying disease, stage of disease, localization of infection and immune status. None of the diagnostic markers can be entirely adopted for medical decision making, and sometimes it’s useful to use the combination of several microbiological tests.The diagnosis of IFI must therefore have a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical suspicion, microbiological results and radiological evidence.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in field-collected terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns (Osmundaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Plagiogyriaceae, Cyatheaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Hirayama, Yumiko; Sakoda, Aki; Suzuki, Ayako; Ebihara, Atsushi; Morita, Nana; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status of pteridophyte gametophytes in diverse taxa, the mycorrhizal colonization of wild gametophytes was investigated in terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns, i.e., one species of Osmundaceae (Osmunda banksiifolia), two species of Gleicheniaceae (Diplopterygium glaucum, Dicranopteris linearis), and four species of Cyatheales including tree ferns (Plagiogyriaceae: Plagiogyria japonica, Plagiogyria euphlebia; Cyatheaceae: Cyathea podophylla, Cyathea lepifera). Microscopic observations revealed that 58 to 97% of gametophytes in all species were colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Fungal colonization was limited to the multilayered midrib (cushion) tissue in all gametophytes examined. Molecular identification using fungal SSU rDNA sequences indicated that the AM fungi in gametophytes primarily belonged to the Glomeraceae, but also included the Claroideoglomeraceae, Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Archaeosporales. This study provides the first evidence for AM fungal colonization of wild gametophytes in the Plagiogyriaceae and Cyatheaceae. Taxonomically divergent photosynthetic gametophytes are similarly colonized by AM fungi, suggesting that mycorrhizal associations with AM fungi could widely occur in terrestrial pteridophyte gametophytes.

  2. Giant colon lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy.

  3. Neoplasia de colon

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    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de colon es un tumor que se desarrolla por degeneración maligna de las células del intestino grueso, desde la válvula ileocecal hasta la flexura recto sigmoidea. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, de 75 años, con astenia anorexia y pérdida de peso; al examen físico: mucosas hipocoloreadas, abdomen blando no doloroso a la palpación superficial ni profunda. Se palpa aumento de volumen a nivel de la fosa ilíaca derecha, fija, de consistencia dura, ruidos hidroaereos normales. Se realizaron exámenes hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos para el diagnóstico. Se tuvo la confirmación diagnóstica por anatomía patológica de adenocarcinoma de colon derecho, bien diferenciado. Se aplicó tratamiento primario, consistente en una amplia resección quirúrgica del cáncer del colon y el drenaje linfático regional, posteriormente se aplicó quimioterapia. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  5. Linking fungal communities to wood density loss after 12 years of log decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubartová, Ariana; Ottosson, Elisabet; Stenlid, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biodiversity might alter decomposition processes and, consequently, carbon and nutrient cycling. We examined fungal diversity and density loss in experimental Norway spruce logs after 12 years of decay in a hemiboreal forest. Between 28 and 50% of the original wood biomass remained, depending on the fungal community composition in the log, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness had only a minor effect on the log biomass. Although the communities were OTU rich (190-340 OTUs per log), the majority of OTUs were infrequent or rare; wood degradation therefore depended mostly on the most abundant OTUs and their decomposing abilities. The least decayed logs were characterized by continuous dominance of an earlier colonizer and by high within-log community diversity, which was significantly related to sample variables (position in log, density and moisture). In the most decayed logs, the earlier colonizers were generally replaced by white-rot species able to exploit the highly decomposed wood. The communities were relatively spatially uniform within whole logs, independent of the sample variables, whereas among-log diversity was high. Importance of fungal community composition in decomposition processes should be taken into account when studying and modeling carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  6. Imaging O2 changes induced in tomato roots by fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, S.; Turco, E.; Rodeghiero, M.; Bellin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, planar optodes have demonstrated to be a useful non-invasive tool to monitor real time oxygen concentrations in a wide range of applications. However, only limited investigations have been carried out to explore the use of optodes in plant respiration studies. In particular, their use to study plant-pathogen interactions has been not deeply investigated. Here, we present for the first time an in vitro experimental setup capable to depict the dynamical effects of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato roots by the use of a recently developed optical non-invasive optode oxygen sensor (Visisens, Presens, Germany). Fol is a soil-borne pathogen and the causal agent of wilt in tomato plants, a destructive worldwide disease. The interaction Fol-tomato is widely accepted as a model system in plant pathology. In this work, oxygen concentrations are monitored continuously in time and considered a proxy for root respiration and metabolic activity. The experimental procedure reveals three different dynamic stages: 1) a uniform oxygen consumption in tomato roots earlier before pathogen colonization, 2) a progressive decrease in the oxygen concentration indicating a high metabolic activity as soon as the roots were surrounded and colonized by the fungal mycelium, and 3) absence of root respiration, as a consequence of root death. Our results suggest the ability of the fungal mycelium to move preferentially towards and along the root as a consequence of the recognition event.

  7. Identification of two fungal endophytes associated with the endangered orchid Orchis militaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Elena; Gastaldo, Andrea; Tondello, Alessandra; Baldan, Barbara; Villani, Mariacristina; Squartini, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    A survey of the endangered orchid Orchis militaris populations was carried out in north-eastern Italy. The occurrence of fungal root endophytes was investigated by light and electron microscopies and molecular techniques. Two main sites of presence were individuated in the Euganean Hills, differing as to the percentage of flowering individuals and of capsules completing maturity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an intracellular cortical colonization by hyphal pelotons. Two ITS PCR products co-amplified. Sequencing revealed for the former an identity and a high similarity (99%) with a Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota) fungus found within tissues of the same host in independent studies in Hungary and Estonia, suggesting an interesting case of tight specificity throughout the Eurosiberian home range. The second amplicon had 99% similarity with Tetracladium species (Ascomycota) recently demonstrated as potential endophytes. TEM revealed two different hyphal structures. Double fungal colonization appears to occur in Orchis militaris and the possible requirement of a specific fungal partner throws light on the causes of this plant's rarity and threatened status.

  8. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Interaction between the endophytic fungus Epichloe bromicola and the grass bromus erectus: effects of endophyte infection, fungal concentration and environment on grass growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe; Steinger; Sanders; Schmid; Wiemken; Boller

    1999-11-01

    Epichloe bromicola is an endophytic fungal species that systemically and perennially colonizes intercellular spaces of leaf blades, leaf sheaths and culms of Bromus grass species. E. bromicola causes choke disease in B. erectus, suppressing maturation of most, if not all, host inflorescences. In an investigation of the interaction between fungus and host, we used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to estimate the amount of fungal DNA, and thereby fungal concentration, in host plants. Fungal concentration was directly correlated with vegetative vigour of the plant, as measured by longest leaf length, number of tillers and vegetative above-ground biomass, suggesting that, during vegetative growth, the endophytic fungus is most beneficial for the plant when present in high concentrations. In contrast, the reproduction of the plant, as measured by the number of functional inflorescences, was inversely correlated with fungal concentration: the majority of infected plants, and all that were associated with high concentrations of fungi, were diseased. Thus, the benefit of endophyte infection for the plant is coupled with the disadvantages of infertility. Fungal concentration was shown to be at least in part genetically determined because fungal concentration differed significantly in different plant-endophyte genotype combinations (symbiotum). In a field experiment with normal and CO2-enriched environments, elevated CO2 levels favoured fungal reproductive vigour over host reproductive vigour, suggesting that these plant endophytes would be at a selective advantage in a corresponding environmental-change scenario. We conclude that a dynamic and complex relationship between fungal endophyte infection, fungal concentration, genotype and environment affects growth and fecundity of B. erectus and should contribute to the evolution of these plant-fungal interactions.

  10. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  11. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  12. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Roux

    Full Text Available In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes, that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth.

  13. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal spore bank recovery after a severe forest fire: some like it hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Levine, Carrie R; DiRocco, Angela M; Battles, John J; Bruns, Thomas D

    2016-05-01

    After severe wildfires, pine recovery depends on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spores surviving and serving as partners for regenerating forest trees. We took advantage of a large, severe natural forest fire that burned our long-term study plots to test the response of ECM fungi to fire. We sampled the ECM spore bank using pine seedling bioassays and high-throughput sequencing before and after the California Rim Fire. We found that ECM spore bank fungi survived the fire and dominated the colonization of in situ and bioassay seedlings, but there were specific fire adapted fungi such as Rhizopogon olivaceotinctus that increased in abundance after the fire. The frequency of ECM fungal species colonizing pre-fire bioassay seedlings, post-fire bioassay seedlings and in situ seedlings were strongly positively correlated. However, fire reduced the ECM spore bank richness by eliminating some of the rare species, and the density of the spore bank was reduced as evidenced by a larger number of soil samples that yielded uncolonized seedlings. Our results show that although there is a reduction in ECM inoculum, the ECM spore bank community largely remains intact, even after a high-intensity fire. We used advanced techniques for data quality control with Illumina and found consistent results among varying methods. Furthermore, simple greenhouse bioassays can be used to determine which fungi will colonize after fires. Similar to plant seed banks, a specific suite of ruderal, spore bank fungi take advantage of open niche space after fires.

  15. Contrasting impacts of defoliation on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Cahill, J F

    2014-05-01

    Individual plants typically interact with multiple mutualists and enemies simultaneously. Plant roots encounter both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, while the leaves are exposed to herbivores. AMF are usually beneficial symbionts, while the functional role of DSE is largely unknown. Leaf herbivory may have a negative effect on root symbiotic fungi due to decreased carbon availability. However, evidence for this is ambiguous and no inoculation-based experiment on joint effects of herbivory on AM and DSE has been done to date. We investigated how artificial defoliation impacts root colonization by AM (Glomus intraradices) and DSE (Phialocephala fortinii) fungi and growth of Medicago sativa host in a factorial laboratory experiment. Defoliation affected fungi differentially, causing a decrease in arbuscular colonization and a slight increase in DSE-type colonization. However, the presence of one fungal species had no effect on colonization by the other or on plant growth. Defoliation reduced plant biomass, with this effect independent of the fungal treatments. Inoculation by either fungal species reduced root/shoot ratios, with this effect independent of the defoliation treatments. These results suggest AM colonization is limited by host carbon availability, while DSE may benefit from root dieback or exudation associated with defoliation. Reductions in root allocation associated with fungal inoculation combined with a lack of effect of fungi on plant biomass suggest DSE and AMF may be functional equivalent to the plant within this study. Combined, our results indicate different controls of colonization, but no apparent functional consequences between AM and DSE association in plant roots in this experimental setup.

  16. Wetland dicots and monocots differ in colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishampel, Peter A; Bedford, Barbara L

    2006-10-01

    As an initial step towards evaluating whether mycorrhizas influence composition and diversity in calcareous fen plant communities, we surveyed root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic fungi (DSE) in 67 plant species in three different fens in central New York State (USA). We found colonization by AMF and DSE in most plant species at all three sites, with the type and extent of colonization differing between monocots and dicots. On average, AMF colonization was higher in dicots (58+/-3%, mean+/-SE) than in monocots (13+/-4%) but DSE colonization followed the opposite trend (24+/-3% in monocots and 9+/-1% in dicots). In sedges and cattails, two monocot families that are often abundant in fens and other wetlands, AMF colonization was usually very low (<10%) in five species and completely absent in seven others. However, DSE colonization in these species was frequently observed. Responses of wetland plants to AMF and DSE are poorly understood, but in the fen communities surveyed, dicots appear to be in a better position to respond to AMF than many of these more abundant monocots (e.g., sedges and cattails). In contrast, these monocots may be more likely to respond to DSE. Future work directed towards understanding the response of these wetland plants to AMF and DSE should provide insight into the roles these fungal symbionts play in influencing diversity in fen plant communities.

  17. [Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Chen, Di; Zhao, Dandan; Jin, Hang; Li, Lingfei

    2011-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonizing Panax notoginseng in three main producing areas in Wenshan Prefecture of Yunan province were investigated. The fungal colonization of 144 roots samples including healthy and rot roots of P. notoginseng with different age were observed by means of acid fuchsin stain. The results showed that P. notoginseng was the typical arbuscular mycorrhizal plant. Although there was no significant difference in AMF and DSE colonization among three sites, the total colonization of AMF was significantly higher than that of DSE. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the fresh weight of P. notoginseng root was positively significantly correlated with the colonization of AMF, but not with the colonization of DSE. These results suggest that AMF may play more important role than DSE in improving the yield and quality of P. notoginseng. Furthermore, AMF colonization of healthy P. notoginseng was higher than that of plant with root rot, which suggested that AMF could defend P. notoginseng against root rot pathogens. AMF have great potentiality and broad prospect to control root rot of P. notoginseng.

  18. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database an

  19. Allergic fungal sinusitis causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles; Kacker, Ashutosh; Chee, Ru-Ik; Lelli, Gary J

    2013-04-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to represent a chronic autoimmune reaction directed against fungal elements within the sinuses, and is commonly seen in individuals with a history of chronic sinusitis that is refractory to medical therapy. The authors present a case of allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal drainage system. A 54-year-old woman initially presented with recurrent erythema and induration of the left nasolacrimal sac due to dacryocystitis, which was unresponsive to treatment with topical and systemic antibiotics. Radiological evaluation demonstrated the presence of multiple soft tissue masses along the medial canthi. During subsequent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, significant amounts of allergic mucin were found within the sinuses and marked eosinophilia was present within tissue obtained from the lacrimal sac, findings highly suggestive of allergic fungal sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis should be considered in patients presenting with epiphora in the appropriate clinical context. However, involvement of the lacrimal drainage system is an exceedingly unusual presentation.

  20. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  1. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    . However, in rare occasions fungal symbionts might come into contact with symbionts from other colonies. I showed that in both leaf-cutting ant genera incompatibility reactions between fungal strains can avoid intermixing of different strains, and that these reactions strengthen when genetic distance...... successful. To understand the evolutionary development of domestication of the fungus over the phylogeny of the Attine ants, I compared the average number of nuclei per cell for the fungal symbionts, for each of the different groups of fungus-growing ants. I found that the fungal symbionts of the paleo...... is increased. This pattern, however, becomes distorted when fungal symbionts are contested across ant genera. The most important mechanism in the succession of this mutualism of leaf-cutting ants is the controlled degradation of plant material. I show that in the area of Gamboa, Panama, the two leaf...

  2. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  3. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  4. Intestinal colonization by Candida albicans alters inflammatory responses in Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Strijbis

    Full Text Available The commensal yeast Candida albicans is part of the human intestinal microflora and is considered a "pathobiont", a resident microbe with pathogenic potential yet harmless under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. albicans on inflammation of the intestinal tract and the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk. Btk is an enzyme that modulates downstream signaling of multiple receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity, including the major anti-fungal receptor Dectin-1. Colitis was induced in wild type and Btk-/- mice by treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS and the gastrointestinal tract of selected treatment groups were then colonized with C. albicans. Colonization by C. albicans neither dampened nor exacerbated inflammation in wild type mice, but colon length and spleen weight were improved in Btk-deficient mice colonized with C. albicans. Neutrophil infiltration was comparable between wild type and Btk-/- mice, but the knockout mice displayed severely reduced numbers of macrophages in the colon during both DSS and DSS/Candida treatment. Smaller numbers and reduced responsiveness of Btk-/- macrophages might partially explain the improved colon length of Btk-/- mice as a result of Candida colonization. Surprisingly, DSS/Candida-treated Btk-/- animals had higher levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β were reduced compared to wild type. A clustering and correlation analysis showed that for wild type animals, spleen TGF-β and colon IL-10 and for Btk-/- spleen and colon levels of IL-17A best correlated with the inflammatory parameters. We conclude that in Btk-/- immunocompromised animals, colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by the commensal yeast C. albicans alters inflammatory symptoms associated with colitis.

  5. Intestinal colonization by Candida albicans alters inflammatory responses in Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbis, Karin; Yilmaz, Omer H; Dougan, Stephanie K; Esteban, Alexandre; Gröne, Andrea; Kumamoto, Carol A; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-01-01

    The commensal yeast Candida albicans is part of the human intestinal microflora and is considered a "pathobiont", a resident microbe with pathogenic potential yet harmless under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. albicans on inflammation of the intestinal tract and the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is an enzyme that modulates downstream signaling of multiple receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity, including the major anti-fungal receptor Dectin-1. Colitis was induced in wild type and Btk-/- mice by treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and the gastrointestinal tract of selected treatment groups were then colonized with C. albicans. Colonization by C. albicans neither dampened nor exacerbated inflammation in wild type mice, but colon length and spleen weight were improved in Btk-deficient mice colonized with C. albicans. Neutrophil infiltration was comparable between wild type and Btk-/- mice, but the knockout mice displayed severely reduced numbers of macrophages in the colon during both DSS and DSS/Candida treatment. Smaller numbers and reduced responsiveness of Btk-/- macrophages might partially explain the improved colon length of Btk-/- mice as a result of Candida colonization. Surprisingly, DSS/Candida-treated Btk-/- animals had higher levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β were reduced compared to wild type. A clustering and correlation analysis showed that for wild type animals, spleen TGF-β and colon IL-10 and for Btk-/- spleen and colon levels of IL-17A best correlated with the inflammatory parameters. We conclude that in Btk-/- immunocompromised animals, colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by the commensal yeast C. albicans alters inflammatory symptoms associated with colitis.

  6. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  7. Feasibility of Coloring Bamboo with the Application of Natural and Extracted Fungal Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal pigments in bamboo (Phyllostachys spp., and compares the difference between natural spalting and the direct application of extracted fungal pigments of three known spalting fungi: Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, and Chlorociboria aeruginosa. Bamboo was significantly spalted by S. cuboideum under live inoculation, while the other two fungi did not colonize. For the direct application of fungal pigments, bamboo did not develop internal pigmentation with any pigment, but did develop visible surface color for S. cuboideium and C. aeruginosa. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of hyphae in bamboo vessels and parenchyma. An HPLC analysis for simple sugars showed the presence of glucose but no sucrose. Results indicate that the extracted pigments of the aforementioned fungi are ideal for the surface treatment of bamboo, while only direct inoculation of S. cuboideum is appropriate for internal coloration.

  8. Ecological constraints limit the fitness of fungal hybrids in the Heterobasidion annosum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbelotto, Matteo; Gonthier, Paolo; Nicolotti, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    The ability of two closely related species to maintain species boundaries in spite of retained interfertility between them is a documented driving force of speciation. Experimental evidence to support possible interspecific postzygotic isolation mechanisms for organisms belonging to the kingdom Fungi is still missing. Here we report on the outcome of a series of controlled comparative inoculation experiments of parental wild genotypes and F(1) hybrid genotypes between closely related and interfertile taxa within the Heterobasidion annosum fungal species complex. Results indicated that these fungal hybrids are not genetically unfit but can fare as well as parental genotypes when inoculated on substrates favorable to both parents. However, when placed in substrates favoring one of the parents, hybrids are less competitive than the parental genotypes specialized on that substrate. Furthermore, in some but not all fungus x plant combinations, a clear asymmetry in fitness was observed between hybrids carrying identical nuclear genomes but different cytoplasms. This work provides some of the first experimental evidence of ecologically driven postzygotic reinforcement of isolation between closely related fungal species characterized by marked host specificity. Host specialization is one of the most striking traits of a large number of symbiotic and parasitic fungi; thus, we suggest the ecological mechanism proven here to reinforce isolation among Heterobasidion spp. may be generally valid for host-specialized fungi. The validity of this generalization is supported by the low number of known fungal hybrids and by their distinctive feature of being found in substrates different from those colonized by parental species.

  9. Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ge, Xumeng; Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Li, Yebo

    2014-04-01

    Fungal pretreatment is an environmentally friendly process that has been widely studied to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, sterilization of feedstocks, a costly process, is generally required prior to the fungal pretreatment. In this study, fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings using yard trimmings pre-colonized with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as an inoculum was investigated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in yard trimmings during 30 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum/substrate ratios (1:19, 1:9 and 1:4) was 14.8-20.2%, 8.1-15.4%, 20.7-27.8%, and 9.8-16.2%, respectively. Methane yields of 34.9-44.6L/kg volatile solids were achieved during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of the pretreated yard trimmings, which were comparable to those obtained by using the traditional method requiring feedstock sterilization. The technology developed in this study can save about 501-789 kJ/kg of dry yard trimmings processed, which is about half of the total biogas energy produced by SS-AD.

  10. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to postharvest fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eAlkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to postharvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by postharvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening.

  11. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers' plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening.

  12. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  13. Identification and characterization of ethanol utilizing fungal flora of oil refinery contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The indigenous fungal flora of three oil refinery contaminated sites (Bharuch, Valsad and Vadodara) of India has been documented in the present investigation. A total seventy-five fungal morphotypes were isolated from these sites and out of them, only fifteen isolates were capable of utilizing ethanol (0-8%; v:v) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Ten percent ethanol was completely lethal for the growth of all the isolated fungus. Biochemical characterization of the potent ethanol utilizing fungal isolates was studied based on substrate utilization profiles using BIOLOG phenotype microarray plates. Based on the morphological characters and Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA, the fungal isolates were identified as Fusarium brachygibbosum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium acuminatum, Pencillium citrinum, Alternaria tenuissima, Septogloeum mori, Hypocrea lixii, Aureobasidium sp., Penicillium sp., and Fusarium sp. Intra-species genetic diversity among Fusarium sp. was evaluated by whole genome analysis with repetitive DNA sequences (ERIC, REP and BOX) based DNA fingerprinting. It was found that these fungus use alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes based metabolism pathway to utilize ethanol for their growth and colonization.

  14. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.).

  15. NUTRIENT TRANSFER IN VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAS: A NEW MODEL BASED ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ATPases ON FUNGAL AND PLANT MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. SMITH

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the membrane transport processes that are involved in the transfer of mineral nutrients and organic carbon between the symbiotic partners in mycorrhizas. In particular, we reassess the prevailing hypothesis that transfer in vesicular-arbuscular (VA mycorrhizas occurs simultaneously and bidirectionally across the same interface and that arbuscules are the main sites of transfer. Using cytochemical techniques, we and our collaborators have reexamined the distribution of ATPases in the arbuscular and intercellular hyphal interfaces in VA mycorrhizas formed between roots ofAllium cepa (onion and the fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that H +-ATPases have different localisation on plant and fungal membranes in arbuscular and hyphal interfaces (Gianinazzi-Pearson et al. 1991. While some arbuscular interfaces had H+-ATPase activity on both fungal and plant membranes, in most cases the fungal membrane lacked this activity. In contrast, the plasma membranes of intercellular hyphae always had H + -ATPase and the adjacent root cells did not. This suggests that the different interfaces in a VA mycorrhiza may have different functions. We propose that passive loss of P from the arbuscules is associated with active uptake by the energised (ATPase-bearing plant membrane and that passive loss of carbohydrate from the root cells is followed by active uptake by the intercellular hyphae. If this model is correct, then variations in "mycorrhizal efficiency" (i.e. the extent to which mycorrhizal plants grow better than non-mycorrhizal controls might be determined by differences in the numbers of active arbuscules as a proportion of the total fungal biomass within the root. As a first step towards investigating this possibility, we have developed methods for measuring the surface areas of arbuscular and hyphal interfaces in different fungus-host combinations, Glomus spp./ Allium porrum (leek. We have also measured fluxes of P from

  16. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola S Mahmoud

    Full Text Available A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  17. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rola S; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  18. Using molecular biology to study mycorrhizal fungal community ecology: Limits and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Bainard, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Molecular tools have progressively replaced morphological approaches to characterize microbial communities in nature. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are no exception to this rule. Yet, one challenge posed by these symbionts is that they colonize simultaneously both plant roots and soil, which complicates their detection and quantification. In most studies conducted to date, AM fungal communities have been characterized from roots only, soil only or spores only. Here, we discuss the pitfalls associated to drawing ecological inferences using such datasets. We also conclude by arguing that molecular biology will contribute most to advance knowledge in AM fungal ecology if it is integrated into broader perspectives taking into account the natural history of these organisms. This calls for a better merging of molecular and morphological approaches, and the establishment of intensive, long-term research programs.

  19. Effects of VA mycorrhiza formation on plant nitrogen uptake and rhizosphere bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal sorghum plants were grown in pots at three levels of fertilizer nitrogen ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) which had been enriched with /sup 15/N. Root colonization by Glomus mosseae did not affect plant growth or total N uptake, but significant reductions in mycorrhizal plant /sup 15/N:/sup 14/N ratios and increased 'A' values were found. This suggested that mycorrhizal plants had access to an N source which was less available to nonmycorrhizal plants. In two additional experiments, mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal celery plants were grown in pots which allowed VAM fungal hyphae, but not roots, to have direct access to /sup 15/N-enriched organic or inorganic N sources. Root dry weight was significantly reduced in mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants had significantly greater shoot and root /sup 15/N content than nonmycorrhizal plants. Number and length of VAM fungal hyphae crossing into the area of /sup 15/N placement were positively correlated with mycorrhizal plant /sup 15/N content in the inorganic-N but not organic-N treatment. In a fourth experiment, the effect of G. mosseae on the rhizosphere populations of five bacterial isolates associated with blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) was examined. No significant differences in bacterial populations were found in nonrhizosphere soil samples from pots of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. One bacterial isolate was significantly increased in number, while a different isolate and total bacterial populations were significantly reduced by the presence of the mycorrhizal fungus. The results suggest that root colonization by VAM fungi can alter rhizosphere bacterial populations.

  20. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  1. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  2. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  3. COLONIC ADENOCARCINOMA WITH MALAKOPLAKIA OF COLON - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati Bal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for malakoplakia outside the urinary tract. A variety of conditions co - exists with malakoplakia including inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, immunodeficiency and tuberculosis. Rarely, it is associated with colonic ad enocarcinoma or adenomas. We report a case of malakoplakia in association with colonic adenocarcinoma.

  4. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location......” and based on the recurring cabinet discussions, Welles understood that “Great Britain, Denmark and perhaps other powers would take them [the black population].” Since at least 1860, Denmark had encouraged the American government to send the “quite uncivilized (…) Africans liberated” from slave ships to St...... and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  5. Malacoplaquia intestinal Colonic malakoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  6. Carbohydrate markers in colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50-65 year of age. In Europe in 2006 colorectal cancer consisted 12.9% of all cancers and caused 207,400 deaths. To laboratory detection and monitoring of colon cancer are used tumor markers. Tumor markers are substances produced by the body in response to cancer, or by cancer tissue itself. Glycoconjugate markers for colon cancer include aberrant: mucins covering the surface of the colon epithelial cells, cadherins, selectins and Ig-like adhesion molecules mediating cell-cell adhesion, integrins and integral membrane proteoglycans responsible for adhesion of colon epithelial cells to extracellular matrix, glycoconjugate components of ECM, as well as lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and exoglycosidases. Detection of colon cancer at early non malignant stage is crucial in its prevention and eradication. As colon cancer is the effect of accumulation many somatic mutations in oncogens, supressors, mismatch repair genes and many genes responsible for posttranslational modifications of proteins, multidirectional approach should be applied for its detection. A glycobiological approach to diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should be directed to detection changes in glycosylation accompanying every step of colon cancer progression, and correlation between changes in glycosylation and tumor progression.

  7. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor.

  8. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  9. Isolated secondary fungal infections of pleural cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Ergin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural fungal infections are rare, but the incidence has been increasing with immunosuppressant diseases and use of immunosuppressive medications. In this report, we present 6 patients with pleural effusions that have been determined fungal infection. Methods: The medical records of patients with followed and treated due to fungal infection of the pleural were retrospectively reviewed. Result: The 6 cases whom was 58 of the value median for age were treated as surgical and medical due to fungal infection of the pleural cavity. Dyspnea, cough and chest pain were the most common symptoms. Fever, night sweats and expectoration are relatively rare. In 4 patients, the infections of pleural cavity developed on the bases of rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, pleural mesothelioma and esophagopleural fistula. In two patients had isolated fungal infections. Cultural positivity was seen in 5 patients. Fungal hyphae were determined by cytopathology in all of the patients. As a surgical procedure, all of the patients underwent decortication or pleural biopsy and pleural irrigation. In all patients, antifungal agents were added to surgical procedures. Full recovery of infection was seen in 5 patients. One patient died. Conclusion: In immunosuppressive patients, the incidence of pleural effusions due to or associated with fungal infections are more common. Addition to culture of pleural fluid, histopathological evaluation of pleura will aid diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 443-446

  10. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  11. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2011-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant and often lethal problem in transplant patients. Infections caused by geographically limited endemic fungi are infrequent, and Aspergillus species, Mucorales species, Candida species, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the opportunistic fungi responsible for most such infections. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are nonspecific, particularly in their early stages. The high rates of mortality and graft loss owing to fungal infections render early diagnosis and treatment imperative in immunosuppressed patients. Current methods for the diagnosis of systemic fungal infections include imaging procedures, endoscopic methods and biopsies, microscopic and culture techniques, antibody and antigen-based serologic testing, and the detection (via polymerase chain reaction) of fungal deoxyribonucleic acid in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the careful analysis of signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy should be initiated early in patients with a suspected fungal infection (even before laboratory findings have confirmed that diagnosis) and should be administered with appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens. To manage fungal infections in patients with renal failure, optimizing the pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity is crucial.

  12. Co-existing ericaceous plant species in a subarctic mire community share fungal root endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, culture-independent identification tools have widened our knowledge of fungi colonizing ericaceous roots including ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. One focal interest has been to identify fungi, which simultaneously can establish ericoid and ectomycorrhiza, while knowledge about......, was studied. From each of these plants, in each of five plots, clone libraries were established using fungal specific ITS-PCR followed by cloning, PCR–RFLP and sequencing. The clone libraries were dominated by potential ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, particularly Rhizoscyphus ericae, fungi belonging...

  13. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tinoco Figueiredo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides such as α- and β-glucans, chitin and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors.

  14. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom. PMID:21496492

  15. Fungal mating pheromones: choreographing the dating game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

  16. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors into...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  18. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly ... re like most people, the thought of getting colon cancer or even going for a colon cancer test ...

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  1. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  2. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How. Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need to Know Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: Colostomies Play Play Advantages of Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery ...

  3. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  4. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  5. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  6. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fungal endophyte test. 201.58d Section 201.58d... REGULATIONS Examinations in the Administration of the Act § 201.58d Fungal endophyte test. A fungal endophyte test may be used to determine the amount of fungal endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses....

  7. Seasonality and mycorrhizal colonization in three species of epiphytic orchids in southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchids establish symbiosis with Rhizoctonia mycorrhizal fungi, forming the characteristic pelotons within the cells of the root cortex. Under natural conditions, terrestrial and epiphytic orchids have different levels of dependence upon the fungal symbiont, although various authors have mentioned that once orchid plants reach maturity the interaction becomes weaker and intermittent. Recent evidence shows that in some epiphytic orchid species mycorrhization is constant and systematic. In three species of wild orchids from southeast Mexico, we show that mycorrhization is systematically present in roots of different ages, in the wet and dry seasons. We demonstrate that the volume of the root that is colonized depends upon the quantity of rainfall and the diameter of the root, and that rainfall also determines the presence of fresh, undigested pelotons. In very thin roots, mycorrhizal colonization occupies a considerable proportion of the cortex, whereas in thicker roots the proportion of the volume of the root cortex colonized is lower.

  8. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality.

  9. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Practice ASTIDCo. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2013;13 Suppl 4: ... Michaels MG. Strategies for safe living after solid organ transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2013;13 Suppl 4: ...

  10. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  11. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  12. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  13. postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    the effect of some fungal species on the nutritional worth of tomatoes .... flask and then boiled for another 30minutes under the cold-finger condenser rotating the ..... mycotoxicoses, liver damage, suppression of the immune system and death ...

  14. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi.

  15. The structure and function of fungal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

  16. Fungal contaminants observed during micropropagation of Lilium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation is a rapid propagation technique, but the greatest problem is contamination with fungi and bacteria. ... Fungal contaminants formed during the culture were determined. ... Bulb scales rinsed in water were surface sterilized, then solutions containing chemotherapeutic substances (Benomyl, ... Article Metrics.

  17. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  18. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  19. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  20. Difference between resistant and susceptible maize to systematic colonization as revealed by DsRed-labeled Fusarium verticillioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Wu; Xiaoming; Wang; Rongqi; Xu; Hongjie; Li

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides was labeled with DsRed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to examine differences in colonization and reactions of resistant and susceptible inbred lines of maize(Zea mays L.). The extent of systemic colonization of F. verticillioides in roots from maize lines either resistant or susceptible to the fungus was studied by visualizing the red fluorescence produced by the fungus expressing DsRed. The difference in quantities of colony forming units(CFU) in roots and basal stems, production of fumonisin B1, and pH of root were determined. Although F. verticillioides colonized both resistant and susceptible lines, differences were observed in the pattern and extent of fungal colonization in the two types of maize lines. The fungus colonized the susceptible lines producing mosaic patterns by filling the individual root cells with hyphae. Such a pattern of colonization was rarely observed in resistant lines, which were less colonized by the fungus than the susceptible lines in terms of CFUs. The production of mycotoxin fumonisin B1 in roots from different lines was closely correlated with the amount of F. verticillioides colonization, rather than the pH or amylopectin concentrations in the root. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the defense mechanism in resistant maize lines to F. verticillioides.

  1. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  2. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, C.; Mueller, R.T.; Konermann, H.

    1989-06-09

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.).

  3. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Rachel M. Smith; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  4. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Deepe, G S

    1997-01-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require ...

  5. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    P Anitha Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic fa...

  6. Association of fungal sepsis and galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjay; Bharti, Bhavneet; Inusha, P

    2010-06-01

    Galactosemia is one of the rare inborn errors of metabolism, which if detected early can be treated effectively. Galactosemic infants have a significant increased risk of developing sepsis. E. coli sepsis is a known entity, and also an important cause of early mortality in these children. But fungal sepsis in these patients is rarely reported. Here is a case of 45 day-old child who presented with fungal sepsis, which on investigation turned out to be galactosemia.

  7. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence fro...

  8. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome ePouzoulet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp. vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance towards vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

  9. AM fungal communities inhabiting the roots of submerged aquatic plant Lobelia dortmanna are diverse and include a high proportion of novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Eckstein, R Lutz

    2016-10-01

    While the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to be widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, there is growing evidence that aquatic plants also form the symbiosis. It has been suggested that symbiosis with AM fungi may represent an important adaptation for isoëtid plants growing on nutrient-poor sediments in oligotrophic lakes. In this study, we address AM fungal root colonization intensity, richness and community composition (based on small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing) in five populations of the isoëtid plant species Lobelia dortmanna inhabiting oligotrophic lakes in Southern Sweden. We found that the roots of L. dortmanna hosted rich AM fungal communities and about 15 % of the detected molecular taxa were previously unrecorded. AM fungal root colonization intensity and taxon richness varied along an environmental gradient, being higher in oligotrophic and lower in mesotrophic lakes. The overall phylogenetic structure of this aquatic fungal community differed from that described in terrestrial systems: The roots of L. dortmanna hosted more Archaeosporaceae and fewer Glomeraceae taxa than would be expected based on global data from terrestrial AM fungal communities.

  10. Superficial Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Ülgen Altay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermatophytes, yeasts and some moulds settle on the skin and mucosal surfaces in immunocompetent individuals as commensals. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV-positive patients, organ transplant recipients and the patients with malignancies are predisposed to develop superficial fungal infections. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical and mycological features of superficial fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies in this case-control study.Material and Method: Eighty patients with hematologic malignancies (49 men, 31 women and 50 healthy individuals (22 men, 28 women randomly selected at our clinical department as controls were included to this study between 2003 and 2004. The mean age was 52±1.85 years in patients and 41.56±2.04 years in controls. All patients were inspected for superficial fungal infections. Skin scrapings and mucosal swabs were obtained from the toe web, inguinal region, any suspicious lesion and oral mucosa. Nail samples were also collected. All samples were examined by direct microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA. The yeasts were established in germ-tube production. Results: Fifty-six (70% of 80 patients with hematologic malignancies had fungal colonization, whereas 21 (42% of 50 controls had. For both groups, oral mucosa was the predominant area that fungus was mostly isolated from. A rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds (26% was observed. Candida albicans was the predominant agent isolated from the culture.Conclusion: The prevalence of superficial fungal infection was higher in patients with hematologic malignancies (being immunosuppressed than in the normal population. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated agent that was found in our study. We observed oral mucosa candidal infection mostly. The rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds is attributed to long-term use of antibiotics, cytotoxic chemotherapies and antifungals.

  11. Beech leaf colonization by the endophyte Apiognomonia errabunda dramatically depends on light exposure and climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnweg, G; Heller, W; Stich, S; Knappe, C; Betz, G; Heerdt, C; Kehr, R D; Ernst, D; Langebartels, C; Nunn, A J; Rothenburger, J; Schubert, R; Wallis, P; Müller-Starck, G; Werner, H; Matyssek, R; Sandermann Jr, H

    2005-11-01

    Ozone and light effects on endophytic colonization by Apiognomonia errabunda of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) and their putative mediation by internal defence compounds were studied at the Kranzberg Forest free-air ozone fumigation site. A. errabunda colonization was quantified by "real-time PCR" (QPCR). A. errabunda-specific primers allowed detection without interference by DNA from European beech and several species of common genera of plant pathogenic fungi, such as Mycosphaerella, Alternaria, Botrytis, and Fusarium. Colonization levels of sun and shade leaves of European beech trees exposed either to ambient or twice ambient ozone regimes were determined. Colonization was significantly higher in shade compared to sun leaves. Ozone exhibited a marginally inhibitory effect on fungal colonization only in young leaves in 2002. The hot and dry summer of 2003 reduced fungal colonization dramatically, being more pronounced than ozone treatment or sun exposure. Levels of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic compounds were approximately twice as high in sun than in shade leaves. Acylated flavonol 3- O-glycosides with putatively high UV-B shielding effect were very low in shade canopy leaves. Ozone had only a minor influence on secondary metabolites in sun leaves. It slightly increased kaempferol 3- O-glucoside levels exclusively in shade leaves. The frequently prominent hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid, was tested for its growth inhibiting activity against Apiognomonia and showed an IC50 of approximately 8 mM. Appearance of Apiognomonia-related necroses strongly correlated with the occurrence of the stress metabolite, 3,3',4,4'-tetramethoxybiphenyl. Infection success of Apiognomonia was highly dependent on light exposure, presumably affected by the endogenous levels of constitutive phenolic compounds. Ozone exerted only minor modulating effects, whereas climatic factors, such as pronounced heat periods and drought, were dramatically overriding.

  12. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  13. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies.

  14. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  15. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  16. Modeling spatial characteristics in the biological control of fungi at leaf scale: competitive substrate colonization by Botrytis cinerea and the saprophytic antagonist Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, G.J.T.; Köhl, J.; Powell, J.A.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially explicit model describing saprophytic colonization of dead cyclamen leaf tissue by the plant-pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinereo and the saprophytic fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was constructed. Both fungi explore the leaf and utilize the resources it provides. Leaf tissue is

  17. Fungal diversity in adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ines BEN CHOBBA; Amine ELLEUCH; Imen AYADI; Lamia KHANNOUS; Ahmed NAMSI; Frederique CERQUEIRA; Noureddine DRIRA; Nji GHARSALLAH; Tatiana VALLAEYS

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especial y in harsh en-vironments, such as arid regions. This flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various trou-blesome host diseases. The present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of Tunisian date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera). Accordingly, 13 isolates from both root and leaf samples, exhibiting distinct colony morphology, were selected from potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and identified by a sequence match search wherein their 18S-28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared to those available in public databases. These findings revealed that the cultivable root and leaf isolates fel into two groups, namely Nectriaceae and Pleosporaceae. Additional y, total DNA from palm roots and leaves was further extracted and ITS fragments were amplified. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS from 200 fungal clones (leaves: 100; roots: 100) using HaeIII restriction enzyme revealed 13 distinct patterns that were further sequenced and led to the identification of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Davidiel a (Cladosporium teleomorph), Pythium, Curvularia, and uncharacterized fungal endophytes. Both approaches confirmed that while the roots were predominantly colonized by Fusaria (members of the Nectri-aceae family), the leaves were essential y colonized by Alternaria (members of the Pleosporaceae family). Overal , the findings of the present study constitute, to the authors’ knowledge, the first extensive report on the diversity of endophytic fungal flora associated with date palm trees (P. dactylifera).

  18. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  19. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  20. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Yul [Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom.

  1. Space Colonization: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krichevskiy S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Space colonization is the top priority of mankind and the strategic target of manned cosmonautics. It is necessary to comprehend the outcome of human space flights and to give a new impulse to space expansion, scientific and practical solving the problem of space colonization by human beings. The attention is also paid to key issues, potentials, restrictions, forecasts, and prospects of space colonization as well as to the transformation of a man into "a man of the future", "homo cosmicus", and "a universal man", to the formation of "space mankind".

  2. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  3. [Diversity and tissue distribution of fungal endophytes in Alpinia officinarum: an important south-China medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Chao; Huang, Juan; Li, Ze-En; Li, Shu-Bin

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique was applied to assess the diversity and tissue distribution of the fungal endophyte communities of Alpinia officinarum collected from Longtang town in Xuwen county, Guangdong province, China, at which the pharmacological effect of the medicine plant is traditional considered to be the significantly higher than that in any other growth areas in China. A total of 28 distinct Terminal-Restriction Fragment (T-RFs) were detected with HhaI Mono-digestion targeted amplified fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region sequences (rDNA ITS) from the root, rhizome, stem, and leaf internal tissues of A. officinarum plant, indicating that at least 28 distinct fungal species were able to colonize the internal tissue of the host plant. The rDNA ITS-T-RFLP profiles obtained from different tissues of the host plant were obvious distinct. And the numbers of total T-RFs, and the dominant T-RFs detected from various tissues were significantly different. Based on the obtained T-RFLP profiles, Shannon's diversity index and the Shannon's evenness index were calculated, which were significantly different among tissues (P endophyte communities of the host plant (P = 0, Pearson correlation coefficient ≤ -0.962), and significant positive correlations between both of the tested active components contents and 325 bp dominant T-RF linkage to Pestalotiopsis (P = 0, Pearson correlation coefficient ≥ 0.975). In conclusion, A. officinarum is colonized by diverse fungal endophytes communities. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was found in the A. officinarum varied with differences of the tissue types of the host plants and was closely correlated with the accumulation of main active components, total volatile oils and galangin contents in the host plant tissue.

  4. Fungal endophytes of Alpinia officinarum rhizomes: insights on diversity and variation across growth years, growth sites, and the inner active chemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Li; Juan, Huang; RenChao, Zhou; ShiRu, Xu; YuanXiao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique, combined with the use of a clone library, was applied to assess the baseline diversity of fungal endophyte communities associated with rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance, a medicinal plant with a long history of use. A total of 46 distinct T-RFLP fragment peaks were detected using HhaI or MspI mono-digestion-targeted, amplified fungal rDNA ITS sequences from A. officinarum rhizomes. Cloning and sequencing of representative sequences resulted in the detection of members of 10 fungal genera: Pestalotiopsis, Sebacina, Penicillium, Marasmius, Fusarium, Exserohilum, Mycoleptodiscus, Colletotrichum, Meyerozyma, and Scopulariopsis. The T-RFLP profiles revealed an influence of growth year of the host plant on fungal endophyte communities in rhizomes of this plant species; whereas, the geographic location where A. officinarum was grown contributed to only limited variation in the fungal endophyte communities of the host tissue. Furthermore, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis across all of the rhizome samples showed that the fungal endophyte community assemblages in the rhizome samples could be grouped according to the presence of two types of active indicator chemicals: total volatile oils and galangin. Our present results, for the first time, address a diverse fungal endophyte community is able to internally colonize the rhizome tissue of A. officinarum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes found in the A. officinarum rhizome appeared to be closely correlated with the accumulation of active chemicals in the host plant tissue. The present study also provides the first systematic overview of the fungal endophyte communities in plant rhizome tissue using a culture-independent method.

  5. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  6. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown...

  7. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-05-12

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  8. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  9. Spontaneous Perforation of Rectosigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Haj Sheikholeslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the sigmoid colon or rectom is definedas a sudden perforation of the colon in the absence of diseasessuch as tumors, diverticulosis or external injury. It is avery rare finding, and if neglected, results in severe peritonitisand high mortality. The causes of this rare condition are numerous,and in this case it might be due to the chronic constipationinduced by an anticholinergic antipsychotic.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 339-341.

  10. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  11. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-04

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation of crucifer leaf mustard induced by flavonoids apigenin and daidzein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Changjin; ZHAO Bin

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids from legume root secretion may probably act as signal molecules for expression of Rhizobial "nod" nodulation genes and AM fungal symbiotic gene. Leaf mustard is a non-mycorrhizal plant; it does not contain fiavonoids and other signal molecules. AM fungi could not infect the roots of leaf mustard and form a symbiont in nature,when it was treated with fiavonoids (apigenin or daidzein).The results of trypan blue staining showed that two kinds of AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) successfully infected the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard. AM fungi grew towards and colonized the roots of leaf mustard,producing young spores and completing the course of life.AM fungi are the only one kind of fungi with ALP activity.The result of ALP staining has also proved that AM fungi infected successfully the roots of leaf mustard. AM fungi (G.intraradices and G. mosseae) that existed in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard were probed by nested PCR and special molecular probes. The above-mentioned proof chains have fully proved that fiavonoids induced AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) to infect non-mycorrhizal plant and establish symbiotic relationship.

  13. Burden of serious fungal infections in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Van Even, Ellen; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to estimate the total number of serious fungal infections occurring yearly in Belgium. The number of cryptococcal infections was retrieved from the National Reference Center for Mycosis. Populations at risk and fungal infections frequencies in these populations were used to estimate incidence or prevalence of other fungal infections. The Belgian population consists of 11.10 million people. Cryptococcal meningitis is rare. In all, 15 of the 1227 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases presented with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This accounts for ±14% of total PCP cases (n = 120). The incidence of candidaemia is estimated as 5/100,000 resulting in 555 cases and 213 deaths. A total number of 675 invasive aspergillosis cases and ≥169 deaths attributed to this infection were calculated. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be prevalent in 662 cases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases were estimated to be 23,119 applying a 2.5% and 15% rate in adult asthma and cystic fibrosis patients respectively. Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation cases was estimated to be 30,402. There were 174,760 women with recurrent Candida vaginitis assuming a 6% rate in women aged between 15 and 50. Approximately 233,000 people of the Belgian population (2.1%) are estimated to suffer from a fungal infection on a yearly basis.

  14. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  15. Fungal infections in severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rakesh; Noor, Mohd Talha; Wig, Jaidev

    2011-06-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of deaths related to SAP are the result of infectious complications. Although bacterial infections are most commonly encountered, fungal infections are increasingly being recognized. Candida is the most common fungal infection. The occurrence of fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis adversely affects the clinical course, leading to a higher incidence of systemic complications, and possibly mortality as well. Important risk factors for fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis include broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged hospitalization and surgical/endoscopic interventions, use of total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation. Patients with higher severity of pancreatitis are at a greater risk. The pathogenesis of fungal infection in patients with acute pancreatitis is multifactorial. Translocation of microorganisms across the gut epithelium, lymphocyte dysfunction, and the virulence of the invading microorganisms play important roles. Histological demonstration of fungi remains the gold standard of diagnosis, but a positive biopsy is rarely obtained. The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis is being investigated. As early diagnosis and treatment can lead to improved outcome, a high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis. Limiting the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, early introduction of enteral nutrition, and timely change of vascular catheters are important preventive strategies. The role of antifungal prophylaxis remains controversial. Surgical necrosectomy with antifungal therapy is the most widely used treatment approach. Clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis are needed, and indications for surgical intervention need to be clearly defined.

  16. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  17. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  18. [Pulmonary fungal infection in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, B; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Fungal keratitis associated with ocular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Shome, Debraj; Sajnani, Manoj; Natarajan, Sundaram

    2010-06-01

    In order to report fungal keratitis in patients of ocular rosacea, a retrospective review of all cases of fungal keratitis was undertaken. Cases in which ocular rosacea coexisted were identified and included in the study. The clinical course of patients thus identified was studied from the medical records and outcomes were evaluated. A total of three cases of fungal keratitis with coexisting ocular rosacea were identified. All three patients were known cases of acne rosacea with an intermittent, irregular treatment for the same. Previous history of contact lens use, ocular surgery or trauma was not present in any of the cases. Microbiological evaluation revealed Aspergillus flavus as the causative organism in two patients and an unidentified hyaline fungus in the third. Patients received simultaneous therapy for fungal keratitis and ocular rosacea. The ocular surface completely stabilized and the infiltrate resolved in all three cases. The chronic ocular surface changes and induced inflammation in ocular rosacea, along with the instillation of topical steroids for therapy, may create an environmental milieu favorable for fungal keratitis. Microbiological evaluation should be considered, even in cases of suspected sterile keratitis, prior to treatment with topical steroids, so as to prevent the possible worsening of an associated infective corneal condition.

  20. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  1. Modelling combat strategies in fungal mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Graeme P

    2012-07-07

    Fungal mycelia have a well-established role in nutrient cycling and are widely used as agents in biological control and in the remediation of polluted landscapes. Competition and combat between different fungal communities is common in these contexts and its outcome impacts on local biodiversity and the success of such biotechnological applications. In this investigation a mathematical model representing mycelia as a system of partial differential equations is used to simulate combat between two fungal colonies growing into a nutrient-free domain. The resultant equations are integrated numerically and the model simulates well-established outcomes of combat between fungal communities. The outcome of pairwise combat is shown to depend on numerous factors including the suppression of advancing hyphae in rivals, the degradation of a rival's established biomass and the utilization and redistribution of available nutrient resources. It is demonstrated how non-transitive hierarchies in fungal communities can be established through switching mechanisms, mirroring observations reported in experimental studies, and how specialized defensive structures can emerge through changes in the redistribution of internal resources.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  3. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  4. Genetic and ontogenetic variation in an endangered tree structures dependent arthropod and fungal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Gosney

    Full Text Available Plant genetic and ontogenetic variation can significantly impact dependent fungal and arthropod communities. However, little is known of the relative importance of these extended genetic and ontogenetic effects within a species. Using a common garden trial, we compared the dependent arthropod and fungal community on 222 progeny from two highly differentiated populations of the endangered heteroblastic tree species, Eucalyptus morrisbyi. We assessed arthropod and fungal communities on both juvenile and adult foliage. The community variation was related to previous levels of marsupial browsing, as well as the variation in the physicochemical properties of leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy. We found highly significant differences in community composition, abundance and diversity parameters between eucalypt source populations in the common garden, and these were comparable to differences between the distinctive juvenile and adult foliage. The physicochemical properties assessed accounted for a significant percentage of the community variation but did not explain fully the community differences between populations and foliage types. Similarly, while differences in population susceptibility to a major marsupial herbivore may result in diffuse genetic effects on the dependent community, this still did not account for the large genetic-based differences in dependent communities between populations. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining the populations of this rare species as separate management units, as not only are the populations highly genetically structured, this variation may alter the trajectory of biotic colonization of conservation plantings.

  5. Disseminate Fungal Infection after Acute Pancreatitis in a Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rossetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections after kidney transplantation are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and Candida infection of the pancreas is considered an infrequent but important agent in necrotizing pancreatitis. We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian patient who underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation because of diabetes type I, and chronic renal failure with peritoneal dialysis. The postoperative course was complicated by acute pancreatitis due to the thrombosis of the splenic artery of the graft, the subsequent acute rupture of the external iliac artery caused by fungal arteritis (Candida glabrata, and peritonitis a few days later caused by sigmoid perforation with detection of Candida glabrata infection of the resected intestinal tract. The present case remarks that awareness and prevention of fungal infection are major issues in the transplant field. Important information can be added by systematic culture of conservation perfusates but, probably, the best way for early recognition of a critical level of infectious risk remains the routine application of the colonization index screening. In cases of positive results, preemptive antifungal therapy could be warranted.

  6. Fungal colonization of immersed wood in mangroves of the southwest coast of India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G L. Maria; K R. Sridhar

    2004-01-01

    .... Samples were retrieved at different intervals for up to 18 months. They were scanned for fungi following incubation in the laboratory for up to 6 months on a sand bath with sterile mangrove water collected on each sampling date...

  7. In vitro EVALUATION OF EUCALYPTUS ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON SUBSTRATE WITH PHOSPHORUS DOSES FOR FUNGAL PRE-SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiomar Soares Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefit promoted by ectomycorrhizal depends on the interaction between symbionts and phosphorus (P contents. Phosphorus effect on ectomycorrhizal formation and the effectiveness of these in promoting plant growth for fungal pre-selection were assessed under in vitro conditions. For P effect evaluation, Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings inoculated with four Pisolithus sp. isolates and others non-inoculated were grown on substrate containing 0.87, 1.16 and 1.72 mg P per plant. For evaluation of effectiveness and fungal pre-selection, other 30 isolates of Pisolithus sp., Pisolithus microcarpus ITA06 isolate, Amanita muscaria AM16 isolate, Scleroderma areolatum SC129 isolate were studied. D26 isolate promoted the highest plant heights for the three P doses, D51 at the lower dose and D72 at the intermediate dose. P doses did not influenced shoot fresh weight and fungal colonization. In the pre-selection of fungi, 14 isolates of Pisolithus sp., P. microcarpus ITA06 isolate and S. areolatum SC129isolate increased plant height and fresh weight. D82 isolate of Pisolithus sp. had effect singly on plant height while D17 and D58 on fresh weight. Of these, only D15, D17, D58 and ITA06 had typical ectomycorrhizae. The cultivation in vitro has shown adequate for pre-selection of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Colonization and benefits depend on species and isolate. D15, D17 and D58 of Pisolithus sp. and P. microcarpus isolate ITA06 are the most promising for nursery studies.

  8. Effects of fungal inocula and habitat conditions on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Javier; Galán, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how fungal decomposer (aquatic hyphomycetes) communities colonizing alder and eucalyptus leaf litter respond to changes in habitat characteristics (transplantation experiment). We examined the breakdown of leaf materials and the associated fungal communities at two contrasting sites, a headwater stream (H) and a midreach (M). Agroforestry increased from headwater to midreach. One month after the start of experiments at both sites, some leaf samples from the midreach site were transplanted to the headwater site (M-H treatment). Although both sites showed similar dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, eucalyptus leaves initially incubated at the midreach site (M, M-H) increased their breakdown rate compared to those incubated along the experiment at the headwater site (H). Alder breakdown rate was not enhanced, suggesting that their consumption was not limited by nutrient availability. Sporulation rates clearly differed between leaf types (alder > eucalyptus) and streams (H > M), but no transplantation effect was detected. When comparing conidial assemblages after transplantation, an inoculum effect (persistence of early colonizing species) was clear in both leaf species. Substrate preference and shifts in the relative importance of some fungal species along the process were also observed. Overall, our results support the determining role of the initial conditioning phase on the whole litter breakdown process, highlighting the importance of intrinsic leaf characteristics and those of the incubation habitat.

  9. Cytotoxic Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fungal Endophytes from Selected High Value Medicinal Plants of the Kashmir Valley - India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, R A; Qazi, P H; Saba, I; Rather, S A; Wani, Z A; Qazi, A K; Shiekh, A A; Manzoor, A; Hamid, A; Modae, D M

    2016-03-01

    The present study explores the fungal endophytes from selected high value medicinal plants to check their activities at in-vitro and in-vivo level. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of selected endophytes revealed potent growth inhibition against human cancer cell lines of leukemia (THP-1), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), colon (Caco-2), neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and breast (MCF-7) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Among them the endophytic strains I. e., IIIM2, IIIM3, IIIM7 and IIIM8 showed most significant growth inhibition against colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), lung (A549) and leukemia (THP-1) cancer cell lines. At the in-vivo level maximum (58.95%) tumor growth inhibition was documented with the extract of IIIM2 against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma mouse modal. All the potent fungal endophytic strains were characterized using ITS 4 and ITS 5 region sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was ascertained among them. This paper confirms the 2 elite endophytic fungal strains, IIIM2 and IIIM8, have the potential to act as a source of new anticancer compounds.

  10. The novel fungal-specific gene FUG1 has a role in pathogenicity and fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, John B; Bluhm, Burton H

    2017-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a globally important pathogen of maize, capable of causing severe yield reductions and economic losses. In addition, F. verticillioides produces toxic secondary metabolites during kernel colonization that pose significant threats to human and animal health. Fusarium verticillioides and other plant-pathogenic fungi possess a large number of genes with no known or predicted function, some of which could encode novel virulence factors or antifungal targets. In this study, we identified and characterized the novel gene FUG1 (Fungal Unknown Gene 1) in F. verticillioides through functional genetics. Deletion of FUG1 impaired maize kernel colonization and fumonisin biosynthesis. In addition, deletion of FUG1 increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial compound 2-benzoxazolinone and to hydrogen peroxide, which indicates that FUG1 may play a role in mitigating stresses associated with host defence. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) identified numerous fungal genes that were differentially expressed in the kernel environment following the deletion of FUG1, including genes involved in secondary metabolism and mycelial development. Sequence analysis of the Fug1 protein provided evidence for nuclear localization, DNA binding and a domain of unknown function associated with previously characterized transcriptional regulators. This information, combined with the observed transcriptional reprogramming in the deletion mutant, suggests that FUG1 represents a novel class of fungal transcription factors or genes otherwise involved in signal transduction. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepe, G S

    1997-10-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require recognition and aggressive management. The escalation in the incidence and prevalence of infection has prompted a renewed interest in vaccine development. Herein, I discuss the most recent developments in the search for vaccines to combat fungal infections. Investigators have discovered several inert substances from various fungi that can mediate protection in animal models. The next challenge will be to find the suitable mode of delivery for these immunogens.

  12. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi.

  13. Marsupialized fungal mycetoma masquerading as conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Fouad E; Karp, Carol L; Wong, James R; Weiss, Matthew J; Bermudez-Magner, J Antonio; Dubovy, Sander

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of a fungal mass misdiagnosed as a pigmented conjunctival melanoma. Case report. A 38-year-old woman was referred for a pigmented conjunctival lesion that was diagnosed as a melanoma. She had a history of a scleral buckle in that eye for retinal detachment 2 years before presentation. Slit-lamp examination revealed a pigmented mass from the 11- to 2-o'clock position. This was noted to be imbricated within the invagination of a conjunctival fold from the previous surgery. The mass was removed, cultured, and confirmed to be a fungal infection from Scytalidium sp. Scleral buckles can cause folds in the conjunctiva, which can be foci for fungal infection.

  14. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states.

  15. Overview: fungal infections in the transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Fungal infection remains a major hurdle in solid organ transplantation. A variety of new antifungal agents have become available and new diagnostic tools are in development. This conference was convened to review current approaches to the prevention and treatment of fungal infection in transplantation. Among the keys to successful management of fungal infection are identification of patients at risk for infection (stratification), eradication or control of established infection in advance of transplantation, the demonstration of cure by radiologic and histopathologic means, and the use of surgical debridement, reduction in immune suppression, and fungicidal therapies whenever possible. The absence of sensitive diagnostic tools and standardization of antifungal susceptibility testing for the filamentous fungi are identified as major impediments to care in this area.

  16. Evolutionary and structural diversity of fungal laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Brenda; Oliver, Patricia; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Fungal laccases have been extensively exploited for industrial purposes and there is a wealth of information available regarding their reaction mechanism, biological role and several molecular aspects, including cloning, heterologous expression and transcriptional analyses. Here we present the reconstruction of the fungal laccase loci evolution inferred from the comparative analysis of 48 different sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic trees indicate that a single monophyletic branch exists for fungal laccases and that laccase isozyme genes may have evolved independently, possibly through duplication-divergence events. Laccases are copper-containing enzymes generally identified by the utilization of substituted p-diphenol substrates. Interestingly, our approach permitted the assignment of two copper-containing oxidases, preliminarily catalogued as laccases, to a different evolutionary group, distantly related to the main branch of bona fide laccases.

  17. [Fungal infections in children with malignant disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, G

    2011-05-01

    Intensified chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation result in severe and prolonged granulocytopenia with an increased risk of invasive fungal infections. The major fungal species that cause serious infections in cancer patients are Candida species and Aspergillus species. The main features of Candida infection in this context are oropharyngeal candidiasis and Candida esophagitis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, also known as hepatosplenic candidiasis, and candidemia. Aspergillus can cause severe lung infection but also sinusal or CNS infection. Because invasive fungal infections are severe and often life-threatening, preventive and empirical managements have become standard practice. An increasing number of antifungal drugs is now available, notably lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B), new azoles with broad spectrum of activity and echinocandin.

  18. Inoculation of drought-stressed strawberry with a mixed inoculum of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on population dynamics of fungal species in roots and consequential plant tolerance to water deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Louisa Robinson; Brain, Philip; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Jeffries, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The effect of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and drought tolerance of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was studied. Three treatments (a single treatment either of Funneliformis mosseae BEG25, Funneliformis geosporus BEG11 or a 50:50 mixed inoculation treatment of both species) were compared to uninoculated plants. Species-specific primers for qPCR quantification of F. geosporus and F. mosseae DNA were developed to quantify the relative abundance of each fungus in roots of strawberry under different conditions of water stress. Co-occupation of the same root by both species was shown to commonly occur, but their relative abundance varied with water stress (reduced irrigation of up to 40%). Greater root colonisation was observed microscopically under water stress, but this increased colonisation was often accompanied with decreased amounts of fungal DNA in the root. F. mosseae tended to become more abundant under water stress relative to F. geosporus. There was significant correlation in the fungal colonisation measurements from the microscopic and qPCR methods under some conditions, but the nature of this relationship varied greatly with AMF inoculum and abiotic conditions. Single-species inoculation treatments gave similar benefits to the host to the mixed inoculation treatment regardless of irrigation regime; here, amount of colonisation was of greater importance than functional diversity. The addition of AMF inocula to plants subjected to reduced irrigation restored plant growth to the same or higher values as the non-mycorrhizal, fully-watered plants. The water use efficiency of plants was greater under the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regime and in AMF-inoculated plants, but there were no significant differences between plants inoculated with the single or combined inoculum. This study demonstrated that the increase in plant growth was directly influenced by an increase in root colonisation by AMF when

  19. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  20. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  1. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  2. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  3. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paolo Zuccarini

    2009-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review provides an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. After an introduction about the environmental implications of tropospheric ozone and plant responses to biotic stresses, the biochemistry of ozone stress is analysed, pointing out its similarities with plant responses to pathogens and its possible applications.

  4. Fungal and bacterial killing by neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Urban, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are essential to control bacterial and fungal infections. These cells engulf and kill invading microbes. Additionally, activated neutrophils are able to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These fibers consist of chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins to trap and kill microbes. Appropriate quantitative methods are required to understand the nature of interactions of neutrophils with pathogens. Here we present assays to measure killing mediated by phagocytosis, by NETs, by a combination of both, and by granular extract. As examples, we use Candida albicans for fungal and Shigella flexneri for bacterial pathogens.

  5. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  6. Enhanced nodulation of peanut when co-inoculated with fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari and bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Xie, Xing-Guang; Siddikee, Md Ashaduzzaman; Xu, Ri-Sheng; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    In peanut continuous cropping soil, the application of fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari B3 showed peanut pod yield promotion and root nodule number increase. P. liquidambari improved soil environment by degrading allelochemicals and thus promoted peanut pod yield. Furthermore, peanut yield promotion is in part due to the root nodule increase since nodular nitrogen fixation provides the largest source of nitrogen for peanut. However, it is unknown whether this nodule number increase is induced by fungal endophyte. We therefore conducted several pot experiments using vermiculite to investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on peanut-bradyrhizobium nodulation. Our results showed that P. liquidambari co-inoculated with bradyrhizobium increased root nodule number and shoot accumulated nitrogen by 28.25% and 29.71%, respectively. Nodulation dynamics analysis showed that P. liquidambari accelerated nodule initiation and subsequent nodule development. Meanwhile, P. liquidambari was able to colonize the peanut root as an endophyte. The dynamics of P. liquidambari and bradyrhizobial root colonization analysis showed that P. liquidambari inoculation significantly increased the rate of bradyrhizobial colonization. Furthermore, P. liquidambari inoculation significantly increased flavonoids synthesis-related enzymes activities, two common types of flavonoid (luteolin and quercetin-peanut rhizobial nod gene inducer) secretion and lateral root (peanut rhizobial infection site) formation, indicating that P. liquidambari altered the peanut nodulation-related physiological and metabolic activities. These obtained results confirmed the direct contribution of P. liquidambari in enhancing peanut-bradyrhizobium interaction, nodulation and yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.; Rodriguez, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record indicates that fungal symbionts have been associated with plants since the Ordovician period (approximately 400 million years ago), when plants first became established on land (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975; Redecker et al., 2000; Remy et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1993). Transitioning from aquatic to terrestrial habitats likely presented plants with new stresses, including periods of desiccation. Since symbiotic fungi are known to confer drought tolerance to plants (Bacon, 1993; Read and Camp, 1986), it has been suggested that fungal symbiosis was involved with or responsible for the establishment of land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975). Symbiosis was first defined by De Bary in 1879, and since that time, all plants in natural ecosystems have been found to be colonized with fungal and bacterial symbionts. It is clear that individual plants represent symbiotic communities with microorganisms associated in or on tissues below- and aboveground.There are two major classes of fungal symbionts associated with internal plant tissues: fungal endophytes that reside entirely within plants and may be associated with roots, stems leaves, or flowers; and mycorrhizal fungi that reside only in roots but extend out into the rhizosphere. In addition, fungal endophytes may be divided into two classes: (1) a relatively small number of fastidious species that are limited to a few monocot hosts (Clay and Schardl, 2002), and (2) a large number of tractable species with broad host ranges, including both monocots and eudicots (Stone et al., 2000). While significant resources and research have been invested in mycorrhizae and class 1 endophytes, comparatively little is known about class 2 endophytes, which may represent the largest group of fungal symbionts. This is partially because the symbiotic functionalities of class 2 endophytes have only recently been elucidated and shown to be responsible for the adaptation of some plants to high-stress environments (Redman

  8. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Microbial Contributions to Stable Soil OC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.; Egerton-Warburton, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal OC can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2 month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. Additionally, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes were among the dominant fungal species involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycetes. At the end of the 2 month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibit varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16 and C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue, others maintaining steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (e.g. C18), and some increasing in concentration throughout the degradation (e.g. C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties, including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker distributions, and OC turnover times.

  9. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Asuncion de los [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arios@ccma.csic.es; Camara, Beatriz [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia del Cura, Ma Angeles [Instituto de Geologia Economica CSIC-UCM, Laboratorio de Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada CSIC-UA, Alicante (Spain); Rico, Victor J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Galvan, Virginia [Facultad Patrimonio Cultural, Universidad SEK, Convento de Santa Cruz la Real, 40003 Segovia (Spain); Ascaso, Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martin, San Millan and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.

  10. [Colonic gallstone ileus: a rare cause of colonic obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, Khalid; Barsotti, Pierre; Elbouhaddouti, Hicham; Taleb, Khalid Ait

    2017-01-01

    Bile ileus with migration of the gallstone into the colon through cholecystocolonic fistula is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often late. We here report the case of a 89-year old patient with a history of sigmoid diverticular disease presenting with colonic obstruction associated with bile ileus caused by migration of a large gallstone through cholecystocolonic fistula. Abdominal CT scan allowed the diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical extraction of the gallstone with sigmoidotomy followed by sigmoidostomy with subsequent recovery of the digestive continuity. The cholecystocolonic fistula wasn't identified.

  11. Bacteria in a wood fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie eBruez; Rana eHaidar; Maryam eTidjani Alou; Jessica eVallance; Christophe eBertsch; Flore eMazet; Marc eFermaud; Alain eDeschamps; Lucia eGuerin-Dubrana; Stephane eCompant; Patrice eRey

    2015-01-01

    Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD) associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interactions have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic), different anatomical part (trunk and cordon) a...

  12. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  13. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    native fungal isolates against the lesser wax moth and assessing non target effect of one isolate of. Beauveria (IITA 18) and five ... widely distributed and devastating insect pest to ..... Non-Target. Invertebrates of Fungal Biocontrol Agents, PP.

  14. Fungal composition on leaves explains pollutant-mediated indirect effects on amphipod feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Stang, Christoph; Duester, Lars; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of leaves by microorganisms (=conditioning) caused by chemical stressors are rarely studied. Our laboratory experiments, therefore, investigated for the first time effects of a fungicide on the conditioning process of leaf material by means of food-choice experiments using Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Additionally, microbial analyses were conducted to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of the observed behavior. Gammarids significantly preferred control leaf discs over those conditioned in presence of the fungicide tebuconazole at concentrations of 50 and 500 μg/L. Besides the decrease of fungal biomass with increasing fungicide concentration, also the leaf associated fungal community composition showed that species preferred by gammarids, such as Alatospora acumunata, Clavariopsis aquatica, or Flagellospora curvula, were more frequent in the control. Tetracladium marchalianum, however, which is rejected by gammarids, was abundant in all treatments suggesting an increasing importance of this species for the lower leaf palatability--as other more palatable fungal species were almost absent--in the fungicide treatments. Hence, the food-choice behavior of G. fossarum seems to be a suitable indicator for alterations in leaf associated microbial communities, especially fungal species composition, caused by chemical stressors. Finally, this or similar test systems may be a reasonable supplement to the environmental risk assessment of chemicals in order to achieve its protection goals, as on the one hand, indirect effects may occur far below concentrations known to affect gammarids directly, and on the other

  15. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fungal role in post-fire ecosystem recovery in Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge; Martín Sánchez, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Fire effect on soil microorganisms has been studies for decades in several ecosystems and different microbial response can be found in the bibliography depending on numerous intrinsic and extrinsic soil factors. These factors will determine preliminary soil microbial community composition, subsequent pos-fire initial colonizers and even post-fire growth media characteristics that microbial community will find to start recolonisation. Fire-induced soil bacterial proliferation is a common pattern found after fire, usually related to pH and C availability increased. But when original soil pH is not altered by fire in acid soils, microbial response can be different and fungal response can be crucial to ecosystem recovery. In this study we have compile data related to high mountain soil from Sierra Nevada National park which was affected by a wildfire in 2006 and data obtained by laboratory heating experiment, trying to elucidate the ecological role of fungi in this fragile ecosystem. On the one hand we can observe fire-induced fungal abundance proliferation estimated by plate count method 8 and 32 months after wildfire and even in a short-term (21 d) after laboratory heating at 300 °C. Six years after fire, fungal abundance was similar between samples collected in burnt and unburnt-control area but we found higher proportion of species capable to degrade PAHs (lacase activity) in burnt soil than I the unburnt one. This finding evidences the crucial role of fungal enzymatic capacities to detoxify burnt soils when fire-induced recalcitrant and even toxic carbon compounds could be partially limiting total ecosystem recovery.

  17. RARE CASE OF COLONIC METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this case report, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the philtrum with extensive peritoneal and bowel involvement is presented. A 44 year old male presented with a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss . Diagnosed to have carcinoma rectum underwent Abdominoperenial resection (APR two y ears back. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Now presented with swelling over philtrum . Fine needle aspiration (FNAC was done suggestive of adenocarcinoma. This case presented for its uncommon presentation.

  18. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  19. An in situ inventory of fungi and their associated migrating bacteria in forest soils using fungal highway columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anaele; Hervé, Vincent; Al-Dourobi, Andrej; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Soils are complex ecosystems in which fungi and bacteria co-exist and interact. Fungal highways are a kind of interaction by which bacteria use fungal hyphae to disperse in soils. Despite the fact that fungal highways have been studied in laboratory models, the diversity of fungi and bacteria interacting in this way in soils is still unknown. Fungal highway columns containing two different culture media were used as a selective method to study the identity of fungi and bacteria able to migrate along the hyphae in three forest soils. Regardless of the soil type, fungi of the genus Mortierella (phylum Zygomycota) were selected inside the columns. In contrast, a diverse community of bacteria dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria was observed. The results confirm the importance of bacteria affiliated to Burkholderia as potentially associated migrating bacteria in soils and indicate that other groups such as Bacillus and Clostridium are also highly enriched in the co-colonization of a new habitat (columns) associated to Mortierella. The diversity of potentially associated migrating bacteria brings a novel perspective on the indirect metabolic capabilities that could be favored by r-strategist fungi and supports the fact that these fungi should be considered as crucial actors in soil functioning. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans chitooligomers affects multiple mechanisms required for fungal pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Silva, Fernanda D.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Araujo, Glauber de S.; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2015-01-01

    The principal capsular component of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), interacts with surface glycans, including chitin-like oligomers. Although the role of GXM in cryptococcal infection has been well explored, there is no information on how chitooligomers affect fungal pathogenesis. In this study, surface chitooligomers of C. neoformans were blocked through the use of the wheat germ lectin (WGA) and the effects on animal pathogenesis, interaction with host cells, fungal growth and capsule formation were analyzed. Treatment of C. neoformans cells with WGA followed by infection of mice delayed mortality relative to animals infected with untreated fungal cells. This observation was associated with reduced brain colonization by lectin-treated cryptococci. Blocking chitooligomers also rendered yeast cells less efficient in their ability to associate with phagocytes. WGA did not affect fungal viability, but inhibited GXM release to the extracellular space and capsule formation. In WGA-treated yeast cells, genes that are involved in capsule formation and GXM traffic had their transcription levels decreased in comparison with untreated cells. Our results suggest that cellular pathways required for capsule formation and pathogenic mechanisms are affected by blocking chitin-derived structures at the cell surface of C. neoformans. Targeting chitooligomers with specific ligands may reveal new therapeutic alternatives to control cryptococcosis. PMID:23608320

  1. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J.; Coad, Bryan R.

    2016-07-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others.

  2. The expression of a bean PGIP in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; Blechl, Ann E; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-02-01

    A possible strategy to control plant pathogens is the improvement of natural plant defense mechanisms against the tools that pathogens commonly use to penetrate and colonize the host tissue. One of these mechanisms is represented by the host plant's ability to inhibit the pathogen's capacity to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIP) are plant defense cell wall glycoproteins that inhibit the activity of fungal endopolygalacturonases (endo-PGs). To assess the effectiveness of these proteins in protecting wheat from fungal pathogens, we produced a number of transgenic wheat lines expressing a bean PGIP (PvPGIP2) having a wide spectrum of specificities against fungal PGs. Three independent transgenic lines were characterized in detail, including determination of the levels of PvPGIP2 accumulation and its subcellular localization and inhibitory activity. Results show that the transgene-encoded protein is correctly secreted into the apoplast, maintains its characteristic recognition specificities, and endows the transgenic wheat with new PG recognition capabilities. As a consequence, transgenic wheat tissue showed increased resistance to digestion by the PG of Fusarium moniliforme. These new properties also were confirmed at the plant level during interactions with the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. All three lines showed significant reductions in symptom progression (46 to 50%) through the leaves following infection with this pathogen. Our results illustrate the feasibility of improving wheat's defenses against pathogens by expression of proteins with new capabilities to counteract those produced by the pathogens.

  3. Diversity and dynamics of fungal endophytes in leaves, stems and roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Quan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jixiang; Qin, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to explore fungal endophyte communities inhabiting a toxic weed (Stellera chamaejasme L.) from meadows of northwestern China. The effects of plant tissue and growth stage on endophyte assemblages were characterized. Endophytes were recovered from 50 % of the samples, with a total of 714 isolates. 41 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) were identified, consisting of 40 OTUs belonging primarily to Ascomycota and 1 OTU belonging to Basidiomycota. Pleosporales and Hypocreales were the orders contributing the most species to the endophytic assemblages. The total colonization frequency and species richness of endophytic fungi were higher in roots than in leaves and stems. In addition, for the plant tissues, the structure of fungal communities differed significantly by growth stages of leaf emergence and dormancy; for the plant growth stages, the structure of fungal communities differed significantly by plant tissues. This study demonstrates that S. chamaejasme serves as a reservoir for a wide variety of fungal endophytes that can be isolated from various plant tissues.

  4. Fungal nutrient allocation in common mycorrhizal networks is regulated by the carbon source strength of individual host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellbaum, Carl R; Mensah, Jerry A; Cloos, Adam J; Strahan, Gary E; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2014-07-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil simultaneously provide multiple host plants with nutrients, but the mechanisms by which the nutrient transport to individual host plants within one CMN is controlled are unknown. Using radioactive and stable isotopes, we followed the transport of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the CMNs of two fungal species to plants that differed in their carbon (C) source strength, and correlated the transport to the expression of mycorrhiza-inducible plant P (MtPt4) and ammonium (1723.m00046) transporters in mycorrhizal roots. AM fungi discriminated between host plants that shared a CMN and preferentially allocated nutrients to high-quality (nonshaded) hosts. However, the fungus also supplied low-quality (shaded) hosts with nutrients and maintained a high colonization rate in these plants. Fungal P transport was correlated to the expression of MtPt4. The expression of the putative ammonium transporter 1723.m00046 was dependent on the fungal nutrient supply and was induced when the CMN had access to N. Biological market theory has emerged as a tool with which the strategic investment of competing partners in trading networks can be studied. Our work demonstrates how fungal partners are able to retain bargaining power, despite being obligately dependent on their hosts.

  5. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root-fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions.

  6. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U;

    2013-01-01

    -69), 6 out of 17 (35%) cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86%) IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve...

  7. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  8. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  9. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  10. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the prima

  11. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  12. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  13. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  14. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  15. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  16. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  17. Genetics of fungal resistance to systemic fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Since the introduction of the systemic fungicides, fungicide resistance has become a serious problem in plant disease control. This study was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge about the genetics of fungal resistance to fungicides both from a practical and a fundamental point of vie

  18. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, B.T.; Patton, D.; Ramsey, N.K.C.; Day, D.L.

    1988-02-01

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology.

  19. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  20. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.

  1. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  2. Invasive fungal infections in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya R; Viola, George M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is among the leading causes for morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia. In the past few decades, the incidence of IFI has increased dramatically. The certainty of diagnosis of IFI is based on host factors, clinical evidence, and microbiological examination. Advancement in molecular diagnostic modalities (e.g. non-culture-based serum biomarkers such as β-glucan or galactomannan assays) and high-resolution radiological imaging has improved our diagnostic approach. The early use of these diagnostic tests assists in the early initiation of preemptive therapy. Nonetheless, the complexity of IFI in patients with leukemia and the limitations of these diagnostic tools still mandate astute clinical acumen. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. zygomycosis) and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal pathogens. In addition, even though the antifungal armamentarium has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, the associated mortality remains high. The decision to initiate antifungal treatment and the choice of anti-fungal therapy requires careful consideration of several factors (e.g. risk stratification, local fungal epidemiologic patterns, concomitant comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, prior history of antifungal use, overall cost, and the pharmacologic profile of the antifungal agents). In order to optimize our diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFI in patients with acute leukemia, further basic research and clinical trials are desperately needed.

  3. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  4. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  5. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  6. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  7. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...

  8. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  9. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  10. Metabolic priming by a secreted fungal effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamei, Armin; Schipper, Kerstin; Rabe, Franziska; Ghosh, Anupama; Vincon, Volker; Kahnt, Jörg; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Feussner, Ivo; Feussner, Kirstin; Meinicke, Peter; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Schwarz, Heinz; Macek, Boris; Mann, Matthias; Kahmann, Regine

    2011-10-05

    Maize smut caused by the fungus Ustilago maydis is a widespread disease characterized by the development of large plant tumours. U. maydis is a biotrophic pathogen that requires living plant tissue for its development and establishes an intimate interaction zone between fungal hyphae and the plant plasma membrane. U. maydis actively suppresses plant defence responses by secreted protein effectors. Its effector repertoire comprises at least 386 genes mostly encoding proteins of unknown function and expressed exclusively during the biotrophic stage. The U. maydis secretome also contains about 150 proteins with probable roles in fungal nutrition, fungal cell wall modification and host penetration as well as proteins unlikely to act in the fungal-host interface like a chorismate mutase. Chorismate mutases are key enzymes of the shikimate pathway and catalyse the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, the precursor for tyrosine and phenylalanine synthesis. Root-knot nematodes inject a secreted chorismate mutase into plant cells likely to affect development. Here we show that the chorismate mutase Cmu1 secreted by U. maydis is a virulence factor. The enzyme is taken up by plant cells, can spread to neighbouring cells and changes the metabolic status of these cells through metabolic priming. Secreted chorismate mutases are found in many plant-associated microbes and might serve as general tools for host manipulation.

  11. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the

  12. Thigmo Responses: The Fungal Sense of Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana Cruz; Brand, Alexandra C

    2017-04-01

    The growth and development of most fungi take place on a two-dimensional surface or within a three-dimensional matrix. The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the switch to a new developmental state. Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by plant pathogens in response to topography; thigmonasty, where contact with a motile prey rapidly triggers its capture; and thigmotropism, where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment. Like plants and some bacteria, fungi grow as walled cells. Despite the well-demonstrated importance of thigmo responses in numerous stages of fungal growth and development, it is not known how fungal cells sense contact through the relatively rigid structure of the cell wall. However, while sensing mechanisms at the molecular level are not entirely understood, the downstream signaling pathways that are activated by contact sensing are being elucidated. In the majority of cases, the response to contact is complemented by chemical cues and both are required, either sequentially or simultaneously, to elicit normal developmental responses. The importance of a sense of touch in the lifestyles and development of diverse fungi is highlighted in this review, and the candidate molecular mechanisms that may be involved in fungal contact sensing are discussed.

  13. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  14. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  15. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  16. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  17. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  18. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  19. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008303 MicroRNA expression profiling in hydrox-ycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line by microarray.TONG Jinlu(童锦禄), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Sch, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai Instit Dig Dis, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Dig 2008;28(4):246-249.Objective To explore the role of a novel regulatory molecule-microRNA in the hydroxycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line SW1116/HCPTin order to provide a new reversal target for multidrug resistance.

  20. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of the skin fungal microbiota of astronauts during a half-year stay at the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Cho, Otomi; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2016-03-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a huge manned construct located approximately 400 km above the earth and is inhabited by astronauts performing space experiments. Because the station is within a closed microgravity environment, the astronauts are subject to consistent stress. This study analyzed the temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of 10 astronauts using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR assay before, during, and after their stay in the ISS. Lipophilic skin fungi, Malassezia predominated most samples regardless of the collection period, body site (cheek or chest), or subject. During their stay in the ISS, the level of Malassezia colonization changed by 7.6- ± 7.5-fold (mean ± standard deviation) and 9.5- ± 24.2-fold in cheek and chest samples, respectively. At the species level, M. restricta, M. globosa, and M. sympodialis were more abundant. In the chest samples, the ratio of M. restricta to all Malassezia species increased, whereas it did not change considerably in cheek samples. Fungal diversity was reduced, and the ratio of Malassezia to all fungal colonization increased during the astronauts' stay at the ISS. The ascomycetous yeast Cyberlindnera jadinii was detected in abundance in the in-flight sample of 5 of the 10 astronauts. The microorganism may have incidentally adhered to the skin during the preflight period and persisted on the skin thereafter. This observation suggests the ability of a specific or uncommon microorganism to proliferate in a closed environment. Our study is the first to reveal temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of ISS astronauts. These findings will provide information useful for maintaining the health of astronauts staying in the space environment for long periods and for preventing infection due to the human skin microbiota.

  2. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & ... Cancer: Don't Ignore Your Symptoms Play Play Personal Story: Lex Gilbert Play Play Personal Story: Karen ...

  3. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contrast Barium Enema(DCBE) Play Play Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need ... Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  4. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FOBT/FIT Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Double ... Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about your cancer.org website experience. If you ...

  6. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource ... Cancer About Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment ...

  7. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contrast Barium Enema(DCBE) Play Play Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need ... Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  8. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource ... Cancer About Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment ...

  9. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  10. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidija; Klampfer

    2014-01-01

    Calcitriol, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

  11. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010344 Serotonin transporter expression in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.SUN Chengcheng(孙程程),et al. Dept Gastroenterol,Peking Univ 1st Hosp,Beijing 100034.World Chin J Digestol 2010;18(14):1428-33. Objective To determine whether colonic serotonin transporter (SERT) expression is altered in rats with visceral hypersensitivity and to explore the

  12. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  13. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy.

  14. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  15. Multi-element fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing identify multiple elements that affect fungal communities in Quercus macrocarpa foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, Ari; Keating, Karen; Gadbury, Gary; Jones, Kenneth L; Mattox, J David

    2010-09-01

    Diverse fungal mutualists, pathogens and saprobes colonize plant leaves. These fungi face a complex environment, in which stochastic dispersal interplays with abiotic and biotic filters. However, identification of the specific factors that drive the community assembly seems unattainable. We mined two broad data sets and identified chemical elements, to which dominant molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the foliage of a native tree respond most extremely. While many associations could be identified, potential complicating issues emerged. Those were related to unevenly distributed OTU frequency data, a large number of potentially explanatory variables, and the disproportionate effects of outlier observations.

  16. A rare case of fungal maxillary sinusitis due to Paecilomyces lilacinus in an immunocompetent host, presenting as a subcutaneous swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish S Permi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces is a colonizing fungal species which usually causes keratitis, endocarditis, sinusitis, nephritis, fungemia, cutaneous, and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised host. Very rarely, it causes similar infection in immunocompetent host without any risk factors. We report a case of maxillary sinusitis due to Paecilomyces lilacinus in a 65-year-old immunocompetent male, who presented with a subcutaneous swelling below the left eye. The lesion was excised by surgery and treated with itraconazole for 6 months based on culture and sensitivity. After 1 year of follow up, he is free of symptoms with no evidence of recurrence.

  17. Modeling soil organic matter reallocation in soil enhanced by fungal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, G.; Falconer, R. E.; Otten, W.

    2012-04-01

    Soil, as a huge carbon reservoir having a large interface with the atmosphere, has a major role in understanding global carbon cycle. Yet, its structure gives rise to an extremely complex ecosystem in which chemical fluxes are difficult to describe. Amongst microbial organisms that inhabit soil, fungi represent an entire kingdom of life that has developed its own strategy to adapt its environment. They are thus known to have a particular importance for the reallocation of carbon (and other elements) as they are able to build a mycelium structure that can spread over several meters and through which nutrients can be translocated. This study, based on simulations, is dedicated to enlighten the role of fungal colonization to generate an ecosystem in which coexists disperse biological hotspots. The simulation environment is reconstructed from thresholded computed tomography images of soil samples. Soil organic matter acting as a resource for fungi is assumed to occur first in a particulate solid state (POM). It is degraded into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through enzymatic activity of fungi. Fungal uptake converts DOC into an internal resource that diffuses through the mycelium and helps it for further colonization. The fungal model is an adaptation of a previously developed model. In addition to internal resource, it accounts for two states of biomass: non-insulated and insulated. One is converted into the other by insulation which is the analog of an ageing process. Being insulated, the interaction rates of the biomass with the environment (degradation and uptake) become slower and the ability to diffuse in the pore space is lost. This aims at producing a more stable state of the mycelium when all resource has been consumed. Spatially simulations reveal a transient state in POM-fungi interaction characterized by a large spread of DOC in the pore space. It is then followed by an enhanced fungal growth toward these areas. Finally a steady state occurs in which DOC

  18. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  19. Different types of fungal sinusitis occurring concurrently: implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, V; Thomas, Meera

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and histopathological features, management and outcome of a series of patients with simultaneous occurrence of invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis (mixed fungal sinusitis). The histopathological records of patients with fungal sinusitis seen over the last 6 years were reviewed. The clinical, histopathological, treatment and follow up details of all cases with mixed fungal sinusitis were noted. Six cases of mixed fungal sinusitis with concurrent occurrence of chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) were seen during the study period. Most (83.3 %) had bilateral disease. All patients had undergone prior endoscopic sinus surgery at least once within the previous 2 years. Histopathological features showed predominance of invasive disease in half the patients. Except for one patient who did not report for follow up, all patients with predominant chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis received systemic antifungal therapy and inhaled steroids. Those with predominant features of AFS received oral and inhaled steroids. Five patients with mixed fungal sinusitis who had follow up ranging from 6 months to 5 years were disease free following treatment. Mixed fungal sinusitis should be recognized by the surgeon and pathologist as a separate category of fungal sinusitis whose treatment depends on accurate histological diagnosis. A good outcome may be expected with appropriate therapy.

  20. [Colonization and community structural features of AM fungi in urban ecosystem: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-jun; Diao, Zhi-kai; Liu, Run-jin

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, an important component of soil microbes, are of significance in maintaining the sustainable development of urban ecosystem. This paper summarized the characteristics of the colonization and community structure of AM fungi in urban ecosystems, and discussed the effects of urban ecological factors, e.g., human activities, vegetation re-establishment and maintenance, and urban soil status, on the colonization and community structure. It was considered that the researches on the community structure and function of AM fungi in urban ecosystems, such as the effects and mechanisms of the key urban ecological factors (e.g., water resource shortage and heat island effect) on the alternation of AM fungal community structure should be strengthened in the future.