WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmetallic mineral mining

  1. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Analysis of industry development of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材及非金属矿采选业行业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军生

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the growth of building materials production remained stable, industrial structure contiuned to optimise, economic porfits improved. In this paper, the author firstly discusses economic operation of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2011, to adjust the industrial structure of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals to impove the quality of the economic operation, predicts the development trend of industry of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2012. At last, the author puts forward to policy suggestions which accelerate industry deleopment of the building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材工业生产增长速度保持平稳,产业结构继续优化,经济效益提高.本文首先讨论了2011年建材工业经济及非金属矿采选行业经济运行情况,做到调整建材及非金属矿选行业产业结构,提高经济运行质量,预测了2012年建材及非金属矿选行业未来发展趋势,最后提出促进建材及非金属矿选行业发展的政策建议.

  4. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  5. Detection and discrimination of nonmetallic land mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoy, Dmitri M.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is further development of the nonlinear vibro- acoustic technique, first presented at the previous SPIE conference on Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Mineline Targets, Orlando '98. The present paper discusses the physical/mathematical model and experimental result of detection and discrimination of buried land mines. The mathematical model based on simplified 'mass-spring' approach. The effective spring has a nonlinear stiffness due to a nonlinear boundary condition at the soil-mine interface. Resulting nonlinear equation of motion and its solution in a good agreement with experimental observations. It has been demonstrated numerically and experimentally, that dynamically compliant mine cases exhibit strong nonlinear acoustic response, while less compliant false targets, such as rocks, solid pieces of wood and steel, and etc., behave as dynamically linear systems. The discovered nonlinear phenomenon has been used to develop the nonlinear vibro-acoustic method for land mine detection and discrimination. The experimental studies were performed with real inert plastic and wooden mines under laboratory and field conditions. First, the detection was performed with a contact sensor. Later, the method was tested using remote senors, such as a laser-doppler vibrometer and specially developed microwave vibrometers. These remote sensor demonstrated applicability for the developed nonlinear technique.

  6. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  8. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  9. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  10. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, (Quarry Name) GPS locations of Non-Metallic Mining Sites and their stockpiles, Published in 2002, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2002. It...

  12. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  13. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  14. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  15. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  17. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  18. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  19. 非金属矿物在医药行业的应用与前景%Medicinal Application and Prospect of Non-metallic Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍康德; 周春晖

    2012-01-01

    Deep procession of non-metallic mineral and application on bio-/medicinal area is a new high-technical industry. This paper summarizes the appl ication history and status in quo of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry; identification, classification and development tendency of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use. The focus is to introduce the development history of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use, and explore the application prospect of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry, so as to provide theory basis for sufficiently exploring the potential of non-metallic minerals.%非金属矿物深加工并被用于生物医药领域系高新技术产业.本文综述了非金属矿物的医药应用历史、现状;药用非金属矿物的鉴别、分类和发展趋势.重点介绍了非金属矿物的药用开发历程,并展望了非金属矿物在医药行业的应用前景,以期为充分发掘非金属矿物的潜能提供理论指导.

  20. Soil effects on GPR detection of buried non-metallic mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.H.; Miller, T.; Borchers, B.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Landmines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of landmine sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic landmines remains very difficult. The objective of this contribution is to synthesize our work related to the effects of soi

  1. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of China’s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Industry: Present State, Prospects and Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest non-metallic mineral producer in the world and one of the key consumers of four major non-metallic mineral products, including cement, refractories, plate glass and ceramics. The non-metallic mineral products industry’s rapid growth has brought about a large demand for energy. The present study provides an overview of China’s non-metallic mineral products industry in terms of production, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. In this industry, the energy efficiency is relatively low and the level of carbon dioxide emission is much higher than developed countries’ average. This study interprets the effects of some newly issued policies and analyses the influential factors in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction goals. It also discusses the prospects for saving energy and emission reduction in the industry. Retrofitting facilities and using new production technologies is imperative. Additionally, implementing market-based policies, promoting industrial transformation and effective international cooperation would help decrease carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

  2. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  3. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  4. 13. Freiberg colloquium on nonmetallic minerals. Proceedings; 13. Freiberger Steine-und-Erden-Kolloquium. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This conference report outlines the history of Freiberg Mining University and then proceeds to discuss problems of long-term supply of raw materials, new geotechnical methods and equipment, rock mechanics, and brown coal supply. Two papers have been recorded separately in the ENERGY database. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Tagungsband widmet sich neben der geschichtlichen Entwicklung von Lehre und Forschung an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg Problemen der Rohstoffsicherung, neuen geotechnischen Methoden und Geraeten, der Bedeutung des Naturwerksteins sowie der Braunkohlenfoerderung. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zwei Beitraege einzeln aufgenommen.

  5. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  6. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  7. A study on the preparation of value-added products from the nonmetallic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite): For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic sericite and muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study is the high purification and the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. 2) Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use: Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. (author). 71 refs., 45 tabs., 84 figs.

  8. Biotesting as a Method of Evaluating Waste Hazard in Metallic Mineral Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovaya, Y. R.; Orlova, K. N.; Litovkin, S. V.; Malchik, A. G.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    As the result of identifying content of each chemical element it has been revealed that metallic mineral wastes have a considerable amount of valuable useful metals. Thus, large-tonnage inorganic wastes are considered to be an additional raw source of metal production. This paper highlights the necessity of supplementary biotesting metallic mineral wastes in order to bring into correlation with corresponding hazard classes and facilitate efficient recycling of these wastes in future. It has been found out that determined in this way waste class can be dumped or used after recycling. It has been also indicated that mill tailings are to be stored according to contained metals without messing up dissimilar metal-containing wastes. After winning metals these wastes are similar to the group of inorganic non-metallic wastes and can be used in building material production, for filling mined-out spaces, in road construction etc.

  9. A study on the preparation of value-added products from the nonmetallic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 4 subjects. (1) preparation of value-added products for limestone : The purpose of this study is to develop the process of grade up by economical processes with low and/or middle grade of domestic limestone and of powder coating by dry base. In this year, first of all, we investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Taeback, Uljin, Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. (2) development of value added technology of pyrophyllite ore : Considering the value added technology for pyrophyllite ore, the study was carried out for development of manufacturing technology to produce paint's filler from pyrophyllite ore reserved at Bunam mine in Cheongsong, Kyungsangbuk-do. The objective of the study is to develop a technology for not only creating an added value of pyrophyllite but also substituting the imported pyrophyllite product. (3) manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use : For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional propertied to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. In this year, scale up test(30 l/batch) were carried out to stand firm the process of graphite surface control and modification for mass produce and to appraise characteristics of surface modified graphite powders. To arrange in order the test sample for actual apply in related company. (4) manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (sericite, muscovite) : During the past three years, we studied on the processing technology and treatment process for recovery of concentrated sericite and muscovite, fine grinding characterization and classification of purified sericite and muscovite and the basic study of surface modification which are used as a source material of

  10. MINING INDUSTRY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The trends of World and European mine industry is presented with introductory short review. The mining industry is very important in economy of Croatia, because of cover most of needed petroleum and natural gas quantity, total construction raw materials and industrial non-metallic raw minerals. Detail quantitative presentation of mineral raw material production is compared with pre-war situation. The value of annual production is represented for each raw mineral (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  12. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  13. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  14. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  15. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  16. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  17. Mining hydrogeological data from existing AEM datasets for mineral Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Viezzoli, Andrea; Teatini, Pietro; Cattarossi, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    resistivity model thus produced has allowed us to detect some alignments of conductive dykes, perforating the greenstone belt (made by volcanic Mafic and Ultramafic rocks or Metasedimentary formations), and correlated with the gold mineralization. Moreover, the conductive response of the basal serpentine-chloritized Ultramafic volcanic rocks, has allowed reconstructing the deeper structural features of the area. Therefore, the advantage in re-processing existing AEM data has been twofold, i.e. for both hydrogeological and geological-structural (hence mining) purposes. Concluding, we advocate for re-using of existing AEM datasets covering wide areas in underdeveloped and developing countries in to improve the hydrogeological characterizations of these nations where groundwater resources could cope with need of providing fresh / safe water to the population.

  18. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  19. Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mine plants and operations for commodities monitored by the Minerals Information Team of the USGS. Operations included are those considered active in 2003 and...

  20. The challenges of reusing mining and mineral-processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Miao, Xiexing; Lei, Shaogang; Chen, Shen-en; Wang, Wenfeng; Struthers, Sue

    2012-08-10

    Mining and mineral-processing wastes are one of the world's largest chronic waste concerns. Their reuse should be included in future sustainable development plans, but the potential impacts on a number of environmental processes are highly variable and must be thoroughly assessed. The chemical composition and geotechnical properties of the source rock determine which uses are most appropriate and whether reuse is economically feasible. If properly evaluated, mining waste can be reused to reextract minerals, provide additional fuel for power plants, supply construction materials, and repair surface and subsurface land structures altered by mining activities themselves.

  1. Zhangpeishanite, a new mineral discovered in Baiyun Obo mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Hidehiko National Shimazaki and his colleagues from Japan Museum of Nature and Science collaborated with Yang Zhuming, researcher of Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, discovered a new type of mineral in Baiyun Obo mine in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region one year ago. This new mineral, reviewed and approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of International Mineralogical Association (IMA), was named Zhangpeishanite.

  2. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  3. Monte Carlo simulations as a feasibility tool for non-metallic land-mine detection by thermal-neutron backscattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M; de Meijer, RJ

    2002-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations is presented for modelling a simplified land-mine detector system with thermal neutron backscattering (TNB) analysis based on a Cf-252-neutron source. Different aspects and a variety of external conditions, related to localisation and identification of a buried obj

  4. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  5. APPLICATION OF MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY TO MINERAL PROCESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has been reviewed with respect to the bioleaching of metals from minerals, the influence of biotreatment on flotation, the biobene ficiation of nonmetallic minerals, and the biotreatment for mine waste reclamation.The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has shown the advantages of high efficiency, low energy and reagent consumption, low capital and operating costs, and low pollution of the environment.

  6. Breaking new ground: mining, minerals and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Society's continuing need for minerals is clear. However, the way in which minerals are extracted, processed, used and recycled - in the context of sustainable development - is less than clear and often bitterly controversial. This publication presents the principal conclusions of the IIED/WBCSD project Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) - the most ambitious study yet undertaken on the role of minerals in sustainable development carried out by the IIED and World Bank Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Drawing on the project's two-year process of consultation and research, Breaking New Ground describes the minerals sector and its relationship with concepts of sustainable development, and offers an 'Agenda for Change' for immediate and future actions. The report is based on four regional processes, activities in 16 countries and over 200 pieces of commissioned research contained in an accompanying CD-ROM. The report calls for elaboration of an industry protocol for sustainable development; a commitment to address the negative legacy of the past; support for legalization of artisanal and small-scale mining; integrated management of the full mineral chain (exploration, extraction, smelting, refining, fabrication, manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling and disposal); more effective government management of mineral investment; and a more equitable international trade regime for minerals.

  7. FORMULATION OF EXPANSIVE MORTAR TO TILL THE STONES USING NON-METALLIC MINERALS OF NORTHEAST OF COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant methods of advanced technology for mining, the rock massif is employing expansive mortar for cutting of Rock. Furthermore, the entire expansive mortar commercialized in the Brazilian domestic market are imported, as well as those in industrialized country. Both have components from the external market. The aim of this work is to develop expansive mortar with raw materials that have regional and pressure sufficient to remove the rocks of granite and marble type expansion. For this, expansive grout formulations using calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, carboxymethylcellulose are used - CMC (Portland cement, and from the chemical analysis by means of thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry compared the results with a commercial mortar. The results indicated that the formulations showed characteristics similar to the commercial mortar.

  8. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, E. J.

    Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

  9. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey mineral databases; MRDS and MAS/MILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaul, E.J.; Mason, G.T.; Ferguson, W.B.; Lipin, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    These two CD-ROM's contain the latest version of the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database and the Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System (MAS/MILS) database for coverage of North America and the world outside North America. The records in the MRDS database each contain almost 200 data fields describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, deposits, and commodities. The records in the MAS/MILS database each contain almost 100 data fields describing mines and mineral processing plans.

  11. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  12. Automated Mineral Analysis to Characterize Metalliferous Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Vossen, Peter; Langenberg, Lukas C.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of automated QEMSCAN® mineral analysis combined with bulk geochemical analysis to evaluate the environmental risk of non-acid producing mine waste present at the historic Albertsgrube Pb-Zn mine site, Hastenrath, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Geochemical analyses revealed elevated average abundances of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn and near neutral to slightly alkaline paste pH values. Mineralogical analyses using the QEMSCAN® revealed diverse mono- and polymineralic particles across all samples, with grain sizes ranging from a few μm up to 2000 μm. Calcite and dolomite (up to 78 %), smithsonite (up to 24 %) and Ca sulphate (up to 11.5 %) are present mainly as coarse-grained particles. By contrast, significant amounts of quartz, muscovite/illite, sphalerite (up to 10.8 %), galena (up to 1 %), pyrite (up to 3.4 %) and cerussite/anglesite (up to 4.3 %) are present as fine-grained (<500 μm) particles. QEMSCAN® analysis also identified disseminated sauconite, coronadite/chalcophanite, chalcopyrite, jarosite, apatite, rutile, K-feldspar, biotite, Fe (hydr) oxides/CO3 and unknown Zn Pb(Fe) and Zn Pb Ca (Fe Ti) phases. Many of the metal-bearing sulphide grains occur as separate particles with exposed surface areas and thus, may be matter of environmental concern because such mineralogical hosts will continue to release metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Sb, Zn) at near neutral pH into ground and surface waters. QEMSCAN® mineral analysis allows acquisition of fully quantitative data on the mineralogical composition, textural characteristics and grain size estimation of mine waste material and permits the recognition of mine waste as “high-risk” material that would have otherwise been classified by traditional geochemical tests as benign.

  13. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  14. Neutron induced autoradiography of some minerals from the Allchar mine

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaru, A; Skvarc, J; Kristof, E S; Stafilov, T

    1999-01-01

    The mineral lorandite from the Allchar mine (Kavadarci, Macedonia) will be used to estimate the average solar neutrino flux. Here, the amount of sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb isotope induced by the sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Tl(nu sub e , e sup -) sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb reaction is measured and converted to neutrino flux. To determine the few sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb atoms that are produced by solar neutrinos in the Tl ore it is necessary to know all the interfering reactions and/or impurities producing sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb. The concentration and/or spatial distribution of some impurities such as U in lorandite should be known as accurately as possible. In the present work uranium and boron concentrations in some minerals from the Allchar mine (lorandite, realgar, stibnite, orpiment and dolomite) were measured by neutron induced autoradiography. The tracks of sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n, f) reaction products were recorded by CR-39 and phosphate glass (PSK-50) etched track detectors, respectively. Results showed...

  15. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Demo: Using RapidMiner for Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this demo the basic text mining technologies by using RapidMining have been reviewed. RapidMining basic characteristics and operators of text mining have been described. Text mining example by using Navie Bayes algorithm and process modeling have been revealed.

  17. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine, Hemlo, and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU HUANZHANG(卢焕章); JAYANTA. GUHA; DON. C. HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that it is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As, Hg, Sb, Ba, V and Mo. The genetic concepts range from syngenetic to epigenetic types of mineralization. This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationship of Hg-As minerals with respect to fluid inclusions in the Williams mine (formerly known as the Page Williams mine) covering the A and C ore zones.

  18. THE SURFACE MINER SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION FOR OIL-SHALE MINING IN ESTONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Oleg; Väli, Erik; Sabanov, Sergei; Pastarus, Jyri-Rivaldo

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces a high-selective oil-shale mining technology and the first results of surface miner Wirtgen 2500SM tests. The technology allows to decrease oil-shale loses from 10-15% up to 5-7%. Mining process of the surface miner has a lower disturbing impact, which is topical in open pits and quarries especially in densely populated areas. The low level of dust and noise emissions and also very’ low vibration are arguments to mine oil shale with surface miner instead of drilling-blast...

  19. Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Perry David

    Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and

  20. Conservation and rational use of mineral resources at Donetsk mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyov, N.N.; Shevchenko, N.F. [UkrNIMI, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    The closing down of a large number of old mines in the Donbass (liquidated) has brought forward the problem of permanent and accelerated improvement of the mines of coal amalgamation. Only the Donetsk Production Amalgamation on Coal Mining 'Donuglo' provides more than 10% of the whole coal production in the Ukraine. The construction of two new mines, the reconstruction of eight operating mines as well as technical renovation of eight mines have been planned for 10-12 years. Large capital investments would be justified only under conditions of increased improvements in technical and economic progress of mine operation, development of guidelines to reduce negative consequences on the environment when liquidating mines using the ecologic and geologic model 'Mine-City', and definition of expense for specific measures. 2 refs.

  1. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute: Semi-annual report, 1 July 1987--31 December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markuszewski, R.; Pedrick, J.

    1988-02-01

    This semi-annual report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, for the period of July 1, 1987 to December 31, 1987. Thirteen graduate research projects in the areas of Mineral Processing, Mining Engineering, Mineral Characterization, and Mined-Land Reclamation, and Fuel Science are described. The graduate students are associated with several different academic departments and are all minoring in Mineral Resources.

  3. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  4. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  5. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were

  6. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  7. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A monostatic amplitude and phase stepped-frequency radar approach have been proposed to detect small non-metallic buried anti-personnel (AP) mines. An M-56 AP-mine with a diameter of 54 mm and height of 40 mm, only, has been successfully detected and located in addition to small metallic mine...

  8. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  9. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-12-01

    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  10. The minerals industry of Colombia. Mining of coal; Die Rohstoffwirtschaft Kolumbiens. Der Bergbau auf Kohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft (LMBV), Berlin (Germany); Hermann, J. [DMT-Montan Consulting GmbH, Essen (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Colombia's topography in the Northwest of Latin America is characterised by the Andes-Cordillera. At the slopes of these mountains, coal deposits formed during the Cretaceous and Tertiary which were tectonically stressed as a result of the Andean orogeny. Colombia's hard coal reserves coming to approximately 22 billion t SKE (hard coal equivalent) are the largest in Latin America. More than 6.5 billion t of it are proven mineral reserves. In 2000, 38 Mt of steam and pulverised injection coal with low sulphur and ash content were extracted, 34 Mt of were predominantly exported to Europe. Since 1985, large opencast mines with shovel and truck are operated at the Caribbean coast as well as underground mines with room and pillar are operated by national and international consortia. The transportation to the ports is hereby the bottleneck and increases the extraction costs strongly. Small- and medium-scale mines in the inland produce for the local markets (power generation, industrial heating). The low technical equipment and simple safety standards enable an economic mining mostly in drift mines. Difficult topographic conditions badly influencing the road transportation and the neglected railway system raise the prices of minerals considerably. Small-scale operations (for example family type or artisanal) for mining minerals near to the surface are out of state influence and control. Apart from several safety problems caused by Guerrilla groups, Colombia meets all requirements to become one of the important mining countries in the world. (orig.)

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System (MAS) data set. Most of the information is from the Minerals Industry System Location (MILS) table., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System...

  12. Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions I Canbulat and JN van der Merwe Research agency : CSIR : Division of Mining Technology Project..., including changing the organisation of work and the design of safe systems of work, necessary to (a) eliminate any recorded risk; (b) control the risk at source; (c) minimise the risk; and (d) in so far as the risk remains (i) provide for personal...

  13. Determination of Health Protection Zone Standard for Nonmetallic Mineral Production%非金属矿物制品制造业卫生防护距离研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婵; 张文勇; 郭嘉昒; 李举

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解非金属矿物制品业无组织排放水平,制定非金属矿物制品业卫生防护距离标准.[方法]通过收集行业资料选择代表全国先进生产工艺水平的非金属矿物制品企业作为被测企业,选择工艺相似、原料相同、选址相近的可比性企业作为类比企业.现场监测无组织排放量(Qc),根据被测企业的特点分别选用地面浓度反推法计算水泥和石灰制品业的卫生防护距离,选用通量法计算石棉制造业的卫生防护距离,选用物料衡算法计算石墨炭素制品业的卫生防护距离,类比分析不同规模同类企业的卫生防护距离,结合被测企业周边人群健康状况流行病学调查统计学秩和检验结果,预测合理的卫生防护距离标准值.[结果]非金属矿物制品制造业卫生防护距离标准建议值按当地近五年平均风速分别为:水泥制造业300m、200m和200m;石灰制造业生产规模≤20×104t/a者分别为400m、300m和300m,生产规模> 20×104t/a者分别为500m、400m和300m;石棉制品制造业分别为400m、300m和200m;石墨炭素制品制造业超高功率石墨电极<3×104 t/a者分别为800m、700m和600 m;超高功率石墨电极≥3×104 t/a者分别为1 200m、1 200m和900m.人群健康状况流行病学调查回收有效问卷347份,秩和检验结果显示,人群出现的症状或体症例数总体分布在不同距离间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]设置卫生防护距离标准值应当综合考虑风速与规模的影响,分档给出标准建议值.以行业分类制定卫生防护距离标准具有可行性.%[ Objective ] To quantify the unorganized emission of nonmetallic mineral production and to propose the health protection zone standard for it. [ Methods ] The detected enterprises which represented the national advanced technology level of nonmetallic mineral production were selected through industry data. The analogic enterprises of similar production

  14. Non-Coal Mineral Production Mines in Iowa, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Registered noncoal mineral production sites within the State of Iowa, current to the year 2000. This shape file contains polygons representing the permitted...

  15. X3-Miner: Mining Patterns from XML Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.; Dillon, T.; Feng, L.; Chang, E.; Hadzic, F.

    2005-01-01

    An XML enabled framework for the representation of association rules in databases was first presented in [4]. In Frequent Structure Mining (FSM), one of the popular approaches is to use graph matching that use data structures such as the adjacency matrix [7] or adjacency list [8]. Another approach

  16. the african mining vision: perspectives on mineral resource

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    externally-driven revenue-first model, which has continued to mark mining regimes in ...... addresses loopholes for abusive transfer pricing and beneficial .... own the key capital assets.180 This leads to a rise in intangible assets as the value ...

  17. Functions of mineral dispersoids in the work environment of Slovak mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobro Milan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia has a long tradition in mining of iron ores, non-ferrous metals and magnesite. In addition to mining and raw material processing technologies, the environmental issues, especially the work subsystem environment, have been actively researched. The mining activity is generally connected with a high work risk rate. In the environment of mine, as well as during raw material processing it comes to the formation of harmful substances of which the solid mineral dust represents a dominant risk. Such a dust dispersed in air is called an aerosol. Dust and other components dispersed in the mine air medium produced within the technological mining and raw material processing and natural rock massive emanations, create the mine aerosol. Quartz is considered as the most dangerous mineral. If inhaled for a long period of time, it causes the incurable disease - pneumo-coniosis - silicosis. If quartz and other silicate minerals dominate in the dust deposited in the pulmonary organ, they cause fibrosis. The study of properties of quartz and quartz-like minerals enabled to evaluate the rate of risk in the individual mines. The experiments were carried out with various kinds of quartz and other minerals often occurring in the Slovak mines. A significant fact about the quartz was observed - the rate of fibrogenity is connected with the genetic properties of quartz. From the point of view of fibrogenity, the grain size and certain size class, which is often reposited in the pulmonary organ, also represent an important issue. The classes, representing a maximum fibrogenic effect have been determined. It is the case of particles of respirable character (< 5 µm, mainly those in the class range of 1 – 3 µm. These particles can get into the interstitium of lungs, initiating a creation of fibrogenic tissues. The movement of mineral individuals and their abidance in the mine air medium and mine aerosol is influenced by basic properties, which have been determined

  18. Characterization of geochemical alteration halo associated with gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine, northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2017-05-01

    Alteration halo geochemical study was carried out along one transect at the Buzwagi mine which is found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania. The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization is hosted in quartz veins that are cross-cutting strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites. Mineralogical studies within the shear zone reveal that sericite, silica and sulphides are the most important hydrothermal mineral assemblages responsible for Au mineralization at the Buzwagi mine. The geochemical alteration halo is characterized by the addition of Au, Cu, Fe, K, Rb, Sn, W and U to wall rocks and simultaneous removal of Na, Sr, Ba, LREE and MREE from the host rocks. The concentrations of Cu (130-870 ppm) which show strong positive correlation with Au (R2 = 0.99) are so high in the alteration halo indicating that Cu is a strong Au pathfinder at the Buzwagi mine. Owing to their immobility during the post-emplacement processes, the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Th, Ta) remained unchanged during the hydrothermal alteration process. The addition of Fe and Cu is attributed to the presence of Fe- and Cu-sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcocite) whereas the addition of K, Rb, Sn, W and U is a function of both primary concentrations of these elements in the host rocks as well as the subsequent strong hydrothermal alteration evidenced by sericitization and silicification which involved the destruction of feldspars into sericites). The destruction of albite and its replacement by sericite accounts for the depletion of Na, Sr (and Ba). The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization mineral association do not include the more known pathfinders like Ag, As, Sb, Bi, Te and Tl and they seem not to have played a role in the mineralization process. These elements, therefore, should not be considered as pathfinders for Au exploration purposes at a Buzwagi-like deposit.

  19. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  20. Competitive platinum-group-metal (PGM) supply from the Eastern Limb, Bushveld Complex: Geological, mining and mineral economic aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -GROUP-METAL (PGM) SUPPLY FROM THE EASTERN LIMB, BUSHVELD COMPLEX: GEOLOGICAL, MINING, AND MINERAL ECONOMIC ASPECTS Dr. Jeannette E. McGill & Prof. Murray W. Hitzman ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ? COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) ? Centre for Mining... Innovation ? Office of Graduate Studies, Fogarty Endowment ? Mr. VISHNU PILLAY (EXECUTIVE HEAD: JV?S ? Anglo Platinum) ? ACADEMIC ADVISORS Prof. Murray Hitzman (Economic Geology); Dr. Hugh Miller (Mining Engineering); Prof. Rodderick Eggert (Mineral...

  1. French Uranium mining and miners - I Legendary times ( 1946-1950). La mine et les mineurs de l'uranium Francais - I. Les temps legendaires (1946-1950)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucard, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book describes historical aspects of the french uranium prospecting and mining programs during 1946 - 1950 years. The main subjects studied are prospecting, mining, mining laws, technics and earthmoving equipment, miners working conditions.

  2. What was the groundwater quality before mining in a mineralized region? Lessons from the Questa Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department and supported by Molycorp, Inc (currently Chevron Minerals), has completed a 5-year investigation (2001-2006) to determine the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa molybdenum mine in northern New Mexico. Current mine-site ground waters are often contaminated with mine-waste leachates and no data exists on premining ground-water quality so that pre-mining conditions must be inferred. Ground-water quality undisturbed by mining is often worse than New Mexico standards and data are needed to help establish closure requirements. The key to determining pre-mining conditions was to study the hydrogeochemistry of a proximal natural analog site, the Straight Creek catchment. Main rock types exposed to weathering include a Tertiary andesite and the Tertiary Amalia tuff (rhyolitic composition), both hydrothermally altered to various degrees. Two types of ground water are common in mineralized areas, acidic ground waters in alluvial debris fans with pH 3-4 and bedrock ground waters with pH 6-8. Siderite, ferrihydrite, rhodochrosite, amorphous to microcrystalline Al(OH)3, calcite, gypsum, barite, and amorphous silica mineral solubilities control concentrations of Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Al, Ca, Ba, and SiO2, depending on pH and solution composition. Concentrations at low pH are governed by element abundance and mineral weathering rates. Concentrations of Zn and Cd range from detection up to about 10 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from sphalerite dissolution. Concentrations of Ni and Co range from detection up to 1 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from pyrite dissolution. Concentrations of Ca and SO4 are derived from secondary gypsum dissolution and weathering of calcite and pyrite. Metal:sulfate concentration ratios are relatively constant for acidic waters, suggesting consistent weathering rates, independent of catchment. These

  3. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. High concentrations of heavy metals have been found in several mine tailing heaps in the Zimapan area, with concentrations of arsenic observed as high as 28,690 mg/kg and levels of Pb as high as 2772 mg/kg. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage has presented tremendous problems to revegetation, water quality, and dust emission control in the Zimapan area. Although acid mine drainage problems related to weathering of sulfide minerals have been extensively studied and are well known, the weathering products of sulfides in areas with a significant presence of carbonate minerals and their effect on the mobility of heavy metals warrant further study. Carbonate minerals are expected to neutralize sulfuric acid produced from weathering of sulfide minerals, however, in the Zimapan area localized areas of pH as low as 1.8 were observed within carbonate mineral-rich tailing heaps. The objectives of this study are to characterize (1) the heavy metal-containing sulfide minerals in the initial tailing materials, (2) the intermediate oxidation products of sulfide minerals within the carbonate-rich tailings, (3) chemical species of heavy metals within pH gradients between 1.8 and 8.2, the approximate natural pH of limestone, and (4) the mobility of soluble and colloidal heavy metals and arsenic within the carbonate-rich tailings. Representative mine tailings and their intermediate oxidation products have been sampled from the Zimapan area. Mineralogical characterization will be conducted with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes and microprobes, and chemical methods. Chemical species will be extracted by selective dissolution methods. Preliminary results have identified calcite as the dominant mineral in the tailing heaps with a pH of 7, suggesting non-equilibrium with the acidic weathering products. Other minerals identified in

  4. A method for detecting miners based on helmets detection in underground coal mine videos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Limei; Qian Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    In order to monitor dangerous areas in coal mines automatically,we propose to detect helmets from underground coal mine videos for detecting miners.This method can overcome the impact of similarity between the targets and their background.We constructed standard images of helmets,extracted four directional features,modeled the distribution of these features using a Gaussian function and separated local images of frames into helmet and non-helmet classes.Out experimental results show that this method can detect helmets effectively.The detection rate was 83.7%.

  5. The fourteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES) 2005 and the fifth international conference on computer applications in the minerals industry (CAMI) 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.J.; Fytas, K.; Chiwetelu, C. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The proceedings contain 122 papers on mine planning, equipment selection, and computer applications in the mining and minerals industry. Presentations cover surface and underground mining, development, coal mining, oil sands mining, risk analysis, productivity, computer modelling, and waste treatment. Selected papers have been abstracted for the Coal Abstracts database.

  6. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  7. VCF-Miner: GUI-based application for mining variants and annotations stored in VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Steven N; Duffy, Patrick; Quest, Daniel J; Hossain, Asif; Meiners, Mike A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms are widely used to discover variants associated with disease. The processing of sequencing data involves read alignment, variant calling, variant annotation and variant filtering. The standard file format to hold variant calls is the variant call format (VCF) file. According to the format specifications, any arbitrary annotation can be added to the VCF file for downstream processing. However, most downstream analysis programs disregard annotations already present in the VCF and re-annotate variants using the annotation provided by that particular program. This precludes investigators who have collected information on variants from literature or other sources from including these annotations in the filtering and mining of variants. We have developed VCF-Miner, a graphical user interface-based stand-alone tool, to mine variants and annotation stored in the VCF. Powered by a MongoDB database engine, VCF-Miner enables the stepwise trimming of non-relevant variants. The grouping feature implemented in VCF-Miner can be used to identify somatic variants by contrasting variants in tumor and in normal samples or to identify recessive/dominant variants in family studies. It is not limited to human data, but can also be extended to include non-diploid organisms. It also supports copy number or any other variant type supported by the VCF specification. VCF-Miner can be used on a personal computer or large institutional servers and is freely available for download from http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/vcf-miner/.

  8. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  9. Mining space and industrial heritage in Mexico: the mineral from Tlalpujahua [Michoacán state

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe Salas, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical dimension of the economic and social space of Tlalpujahua and El Oro Mining District from the perspective of the Industrial Heritage. The exploration and exploitation in search for precious minerals along the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries articulated a culture of wage labour and facilitated the circulation of new knowledge, technical expertise and an impressive technological innovation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With the d...

  10. Organic nitrogen mineralization rate in sewage sludge-amended mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tercero, A.M.; Andrade, M.L.; Marcet, P. [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    This study was carried out on lignite mine tailings at Meirama (northwestern Spain). A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of amending lignite mine spoil with municipal sewage sludge at rates of 5, 25, and 50 Mg ha{sup -1} triplicate samples of soil, and each treatment was incubated from 0 to 90 days at constant moisture and temperature (85% air relative humidity and 25{degree}C). Each sewage sludge dose was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the recipient containing the upper layer of mine soil. A set of the incubated columns was removed at 15, 45, and 90 days, and the soil underlying each column was sampled for analysis. Nitrogen (N) mineralization rate and the evolution of soil pH, C/N ratio, organic matter, total N, organic-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N content were measured. Sewage sludge application produced an immediate increase of the inorganic N at all dosage levels, mainly in the ammonium form. The nitrogen mineralization in the amended soils was higher than in the control soil, mainly in the case of those treated with 25 Mg ha{sup -1}. The net mineralized organic N was always positive, except at the end of the period of incubation in the 5 Mg ha{sup -1} sewage sludge treated soil. The nitrogen mineralization rate, calculated as a decrease in the organic nitrogen content, overestimates the amount of inorganic nitrogen that is available. The measurement of the cumulative amount of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N provided a much lower estimation of N mineralization under incubation conditions.

  11. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency

  12. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  13. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown

  14. Neyshabour turquoise mine: the first Iron Oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Karimpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyshabour turquoise mine is located in northwest of Neyshabour, southern Quchan volcanic belt. Eocene andesite and dacite forming as lava and pyroclastic rocks cover most of the area. Subvolcanic diorite to syenite porphyry (granitoids of magnetite series intruded the volcanic rocks. Both volcanic and subvolcanic rocks are highly altered. Four types of alteration are recognized including: silicification, argillic, calcification and propylitic. Silicification is dominant followed by argillic alteration. Mineralization is present as stockwork, disseminated and hydrothermal breccia. Hypogene minerals are pyrite, magnetite, specularite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. Secondary minerals are turquoise, chalcocite, covellite, and iron oxides. A broad zone of gossan has developed in the area. Oxidized zone has a thickness of about 80 m. Mineralized samples show high anomalies of Cu, Au, Zn, As, Mo, Co, U, LREE, Nb, and Th. Both aeromagnetic and radiometric (U and Th maps show very strong anomalies (10 × 5km within the mineralized area. Based on geology, alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, and geophysics, Neyshabour turquoise mine is a large Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system. In comparison with other IOCG deposits, it has some similarities with Olympic Dam (Australia and Candelaria (Chile. In comparison with Qaleh Zari and Kuh Zar mines, Neyshabour turquoise mine is the first Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system discovered in Iran.

  15. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  16. Comprehensive assessment of exposures to elongate mineral particles in the taconite mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2013-10-01

    Since the 1970s, concerns have been raised about elevated rates of mesothelioma in the vicinity of the taconite mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. However, insufficient quantitative exposure data have hampered investigations of the relationship between cumulative exposures to elongate mineral particles (EMP) in taconite dust and adverse health effects. Specifically, no research on exposure to taconite dust, which includes EMP, has been conducted since 1990. This article describes a comprehensive assessment of present-day exposures to total and amphibole EMP in the taconite mining industry. Similar exposure groups (SEGs) were established to assess present-day exposure levels and buttress the sparse historical data. Personal samples were collected to assess the present-day levels of worker exposures to EMP at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. The samples were analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. For many SEGs in several mines, the exposure levels of total EMP were higher than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). However, the total EMP classification includes not only the asbestiform EMP and their non-asbestiform mineral analogs but also other minerals because the NIOSH 7400 cannot differentiate between these. The concentrations of amphibole EMP were well controlled across all mines and were much lower than the concentrations of total EMP, indicating that amphibole EMP are not major components of taconite EMP. The levels are also well below the NIOSH REL of 0.1 EMP cc(-1). Two different approaches were used to evaluate the variability of exposure between SEGs, between workers, and within workers. The related constructs of contrast and homogeneity were calculated to characterize the SEGs. Contrast, which is a ratio of between-SEG variability to the sum of between-SEG and between-worker variability, provides an overall measure of whether there are distinctions between the SEGs. Homogeneity, which is

  17. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  18. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine,Hemlo,and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章; ANDDON.C.HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As,Hg,Sb,Ba,V and Mo.The genetic concepts range from syngenetc to epigenetic types of mineralization.This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationshp of Hg-As minerals with respect of fluid inclusions in the Williams mine(formerly known as the Page Williams mine)covering the A and C ore zones.

  19. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  20. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  1. The Mineral Question: How Energy and Technology will determine the Future of Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo eBardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost 150 years after that William Stanley Jevons published his paper The Coal Question (Jevons, 1866 the debate on mineral depletion has been ongoing between two main schools of thought: one that sees depletion as an important problem for the near future and another that sees technology and human ingenuity as the most important factors in making depletion a problem for the remote future. Today, however, we have created intellectual tools that permit us to frame the problem on the basis of physical factors, in particular on the basis of thermodynamics. The present paper examines the problem of mineral depletion from a broad viewpoint, with a specific view on the role of energy in the mining and production processes. The conclusion is that energy is a fundamental factor in determining how long we can expect the supply of mineral resources to last at the present prices and production levels. The rapid depletion of our main energy resources, fossil fuels, is creating a serious supply problem that is already being felt in terms of high prices of all mineral commodities. Technology can mitigate the problem, but not solve it. In a non remote future, the world's industrial system will have to undergo fundamental changes in order to adapt to a reduced supply of mineral commodities.

  2. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  3. National information service in mining, mineral processing and extractive metallurgy. [MINTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaniuk, A.S.; MacDonald, R.J.C.

    1979-03-01

    More than a dedade ago, CANMET management recognized the need to make better use of existing technological information in mining and extractive metallurgy, two fields basic to the economic well-being of Canada. There were at that time no indexes or files didicated to disseminating technical information for the many minerals mined and processed in Canada, including coal. CANMET, with the nation's largest research and library resources in the minerals field, was in a unique position to fill this need. Initial efforts were concentrated on building a mining file beginning with identification of world sources of published information, development of a special thesaurus of terms for language control and adoption of a manual indexing/retrieval system. By early 1973, this file held 8,300 references, with source, abstract and keywords given for each reference. In mid-1973, operations were computerized. Software for indexing and retrieval by batch mode was written by CANMET staff to utilize the hardware facilities of EMR's Computer Science Center. The resulting MINTEC file, one of the few files of technological information produced in Canada, is the basis for the national literature search service in mining offered by CANMET. Attention is now focussed on building a sister-file in extractive metallurgy using the system already developed. Published information sources have been identified and a thesaurus of terms is being compiled and tested. The software developed for CANMET's file-building operations has several features, including the selective dissemination of information and production from magnetic tape of photoready copy for publication, as in a bi-monthly abstracts journal.

  4. An Intuitive Approach for Web Scale Mining using W-Miner for Web Personalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Lokeshkumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining performs mining on web usage data or web logs. It is now possible to perform data mining on web log records collected from the web page history. A web log is a listing of page reference data/click stream data. The behavior of the web page readers is imprinted in the web server log files. By looking at the sequence of pages a user accesses, a user profile could be developed thus aiding in personalization. With personalization, web access or the contents of web page are modified to better fit the desires of the user and also to identify the browsing behavior of the user can improve system performance, enhance the quality and delivery of Internet Information services to the end user and identify the population of potential customers. With clustering, the desires are determined based on similarities. In this study, a Fuzzy clustering algorithm is designed and implemented. For the proposed algorithm, meaningful behavior patterns are extracted by applying efficient Fuzzy clustering algorithm, to log data. It is proved that performance of the proposed system is better than that of the existing best algorithm. The proposed Fuzzy clustering w-miner algorithm can provide popular information to web page visitors.

  5. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  6. Improving mining technology and organization of labor in the light of medical-biological aspects of physical health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, P.V.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Davydova, N.N.; Dyatlova, L.A. (Kuzbasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Transfer to a contract-bonus system in mines of the Severokuzbassugol' and Leninskugol' associations (USSR) increased coal mining productivity by 42.2-54.4%, but, at the same time, problems concerning miners' health were noted. Presents data on the productivity and labor conditions of contract teams working at coal mining and in development faces. The influence of noise and vibration induced stresses on organisms of underground workers is analyzed. Investigations showed that 3 stages of exhaustion are likely to develop and that the most vulnerable are the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. The 3 stages of exhaustion and ability to recover were studied on mining machine operators and drivers of heading machines. Data showed that during the 1985-89 period, 972 miners received disability certificates; the rate of disability was 2.6 miners per 1 Mt of coal; 40.5% of miners over 40 years working on labor-intensive jobs had three or more chronic diseases which could cause permanent disability. In the structure of disability, cardio-vascular system cases accounted for 25%, osseous-muscular system cases for 20% and pulmonary diseases for 13%. Stresses the need for every mine to maintain its own medical center equipped with inhalation therapy, psychological relief, acupuncture and physiotherapy facilities.

  7. IMB3-Miner: Mining Induced/Embedded Subtrees by Constraining the Level of Embedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.; Dillon, T.S.; Hadzic, F.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    Tree mining has recently attracted a lot of interest in areas such as Bioinformatics, XML mining, Web mining, etc. We are mainly concerned with mining frequent induced and embedded subtrees. While more interesting patterns can be obtained when mining embedded subtrees, unfortunately mining such

  8. Jiangxi Discovered a Large Tungsten Mine Which May Create the World’s Largest Tungsten Mineral Deposit Reserve Record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    It has been learned from the Jiangxi Province Geological and Mineral Resource Bureau Work Conference for 2015 held on January 21 that,the Zhuxi Tungsten and Copper Mine Project confirmed by the bureau at Fuliang County in Jingdezhen,Jiangxi in 2014 might create the world’s largest tungsten deposit reserve record.According to Peng Zezhou,Director of Jiangxi Province Geological and Mineral Resource

  9. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  10. Ferric minerals and organic matter change arsenic speciation in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yunjia; Menzies, Neal W; Wehr, J Bernhard; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Kopittke, Peter M; Huang, Longbin

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings. Additionally, amendment with 5% sugarcane mulch residues (SMR) (for revegetation) further increased soluble As due to the dissolution and oxidation of arsenopyrite or orpiment. Indeed, in HM tailings, arsenopyrite and orpiment initially accounted for 88% of the total As, which decreased to 48% upon the addition of SMR - this being associated with an increase in As(V)-ferrihydrite from 12% to 52%. In LM tailings, the pattern of As distribution and speciation was similar, with As as As(V)-ferrihydrite increasing from 57% to 75% upon the addition of SMR. These findings indicate that changes in ore processing technology, such as the recovery of magnetite could have significant environmental consequences regarding the As mobilisation and transformation in mine tailings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Transformation of Coal-Mining Waste Minerals in the Pozzolanic Reactions of Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Giménez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has the potential to become a major consumer of recycled waste materials that are transformed and recycled in various forms as aggregates and pozzolanic materials. These recycled waste materials would otherwise have been dumped in landfill sites, leaving hazardous elements to break down and contaminate the environment. There are several approaches for the reuse of these waste products, especially in relation to clay minerals that can induce pozzolanic reactions of special interest in the cement industry. In the present paper, scientific aspects are discussed in relation to several inert coal-mining wastes and their recycling as alternative sources of future eco-efficient pozzolans, based on activated phyllosilicates. The presence of kaolinite in this waste indicates that thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h transformed these minerals into a highly reactive metakaolinite over the first seven days of the pozzolanic reaction. Moreover, high contents of metakaolinite, together with silica and alumina sheet structures, assisted the appearance of layered double hydroxides through metastable phases, forming stratlingite throughout the main phase of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days (as recommended by the European Standard as the reaction proceeded.

  12. The use of mineral resources and issues of harmonization between spatial plans for the mining areas in Serbia with other strategic documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing development needs and requirements for mineral resources endorsed by the contemporary society reopen the issues of mineral resources finitude and effects that mineral industry imposes on the global scene. Mining is certainly among the activities which raise numerous environmental and social concerns being enhanced by continuous demand for new exploitation areas. Experience supports the need for continuous process of planning in the mining areas and development of extensive research, both fundamental and applied. With particular focus on spatial plans for the mining areas in Serbia, this paper addresses current mining regulatory framework and issue of harmonization between spatial plans for the mining areas with other pertinent strategic documents on environmental and social protection. Regardless they have been prescriptive or legally binding, fundamental principles of these strategic documents serve as guidance towards sustainable development in the mining sector under the new institutional, organization and economic settings.

  13. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  14. How different is mining from mineral processing? A general equilibrium analysis of new resources projects in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ye

    1999-01-01

    Western Australia has experienced an investment surge in the minerals sector of the economy in recent years. Unlike previous surges, this one involves a large proportion of mineral‐processing projects. In this study, the differential effects on the WA economy of 25 mining and 10 mineral‐processing projects are analysed using an economy‐wide model of WA. The results indicate that: (i) both the mining and mineral‐processing projects will have substantial flow‐on benefits to the WA economy as a ...

  15. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  16. Methods of medical prevention of borderline states and maintaining capacity to work in miners at deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.

  17. 46 CFR 182.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 182.720 Section 182.720... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. (a) Rigid... systems where permitted by paragraph (e) of this section. (c) Nonmetallic piping must not be used...

  18. 46 CFR 119.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 119.720 Section 119.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Piping Systems § 119.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. Nonmetallic piping materials,...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  20. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain); Tobar, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)], E-mail: cote@udc.es; Alvarez, J.C.; Lamas, J.; Yanez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  1. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene ®) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Alvarez, J. C.; Lamas, J.; Yáñez, A.

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene ® powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase ®). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks, Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska: GLARSU report #10

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks in Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve. The...

  3. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  4. Fast identification of dead burnt magnesite in nonmetallic minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry%傅立叶变换红外光谱法快速鉴别非金属矿物中重烧镁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武素茹; 谷松海; 马德起; 李权斌; 王虹

    2013-01-01

    重烧镁外观与高岭土、白云石及硅灰石等矿物的外观极为相似,常被混入这些矿石中向境外走私.为了快速鉴别这些矿物中的重烧镁,实验采用傅里叶变换红外光谱技术分别研究了具有不同重烧镁含量的三种矿物其光谱特征,并与重烧镁及不合重烧镁的矿物谱图进行比对.结果表明,当这些矿物中混入一定量的重烧镁时,重烧镁的红外特征吸收峰依然明显存在.当只含有10%的重烧镁,根据谱图的特征变化,依然能够鉴别出这些矿物中混入的重烧镁,即鉴定这些矿物中重烧镁的检出限为10%.方法对实际样品进行了分析,分析结果与化学法相符.%The appearance of dead burnt magnesite was very similar to kaolin, dolomite and wollaston-ite ores, so it was usually mixed into these minerals for abroad smuggling. In order to fast identify the dead burnt magnesite in these minerals, the Fourier transform infrared spectrum technology was used to study the spectral signature of three minerals containing various contents of dead burnt magnesite. Then, the spectra were compared with those of dead burnt magnesite and minerals without dead burnt magnesite. The results showed that, when certain amount of dead burnt magnesite was mixed into these minerals, the infrared characteristic absorption peak of dead burnt magnesite still existed. When the content of dead burnt magnesite was 10% , it could be also identified based on the change of characteristic spectrum. In other words, the detection limit of dead burnt magnesite in these minerals was 10%. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of actual samples and the results were consistent with the chemical method.

  5. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  6. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  8. Goldquarryite, a new Cd-bearing phosphate mineral from the Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Gault, Robert A.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Goldquarryite, idealized formula CuCd2Al3(PO44F2(H2O)10(H2O 2, structure-derived formula (Cu0.70???0.30??1.00(Cd1.68Ca0.32??2.00Al3 (PO44F2(H2O)10[(H2O 1.60F0.40]??2.00, is triclinic, space group P1, with unit-cell parameters derived from crystal structure: a = 6.787(1), b = 9.082(2), c = 10.113(2) A??, ?? = 101.40(1)??, ?? = 104.27(1)??, ?? = 102.51(1)??, V = 568.7(3) A??3, a:b:c: = 0.7473:1:1.1135, Z = 1. The strongest seven reflections in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are [d(A??)(I)(hkl)]: 9.433(100)(001); 4.726(30)(002); 3.700(30)(022); 3.173(30b)(122, 113, 120, 003); 3.010(30)(122, 212); 2.896(30)(211); 2.820(50)(022). The mineral occurs on a single specimen collected from the 5,425-foot bench, Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada, as isolated clusters of radiating sprays of crystals and as compact parallel crystal aggregates, which are both found on and between breccia fragments. Sprays and aggregates never exceed 3 mm in longest dimension and typically average about 0.5 mm in size. Goldquarryite is a late-stage supergene mineral associated with opal, carbonate-fluorapatite and hewettite, on a host rock composed principally of brecciated and hydrothermally rounded jasperoid fragments which have been lightly cemented by late-stage silicification. Individual euhedral crystals are acicular to bladed, elongate [100], with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 20:1; the maximum size is 1.5 mm but most crystals do not exceed 0.4 mm in length. Forms are {010}, {001} major and {100} very minor. The mineral is pleochroic; translucent (masses) to transparent (crystals); very pale blue to blue-gray (crystals) or blue (masses); with a white streak and a vitreous to glassy luster. Goldquarryite is brittle, lacks cleavage, has an irregular fracture, and is nonfluorescent; hardness (Mohs') is estimated at 3-4; measured density is 2.78(1) g/cm3 (sink-float techniques using methylene iodide-acetone mixtures), calculated density is 2.81 g/cm3 (for formula and unit

  9. Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J. [Museum Victoria, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Geosciences; Kampf, Anthony R. [Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mineral Sciences Dept.; Christy, Andrew G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Advanced Microscopy; Housley, Robert M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Chen, Yu-Sheng [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Steele, Ian M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Thorne, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Favreauite, ideally PbBiCu{sub 6}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}.H{sub 2}O, is a new secondary selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Antonio Quijarro Province, Potosi Department, Bolivia. The mineral occurs in vughs in a matrix of (Co, Cu)-rich penroseite, dolomite and goethite. Associated minerals are: ahlfeldite, allophane, calcite, chalcomenite, malachite, molybdomenite and an unnamed Al selenite. Favreauite forms tiny green square tbular crystals, flattened on {001}, up to 0.1 mm on edge and 0.01 mm thick, occurring in subparallel and divergent groups. The Mohs hardness of favreauite is estimated as ∼3; it has perfect cleavage on {001}, an irregular fracture and a vitreous lustre. The calculated density based on the empirical formula is 4.851 g cm{sup -3}. Favreauite is uniaxial (-), with mean refractive index estimated as 1.854 from the Gladstone-Dale relationship. It is pleochroic in shades of green, O < E. Electron microprobe analyses gave the empirical formula Pb{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.17}Bi{sub 0.90}Cu{sub 5.81}Se{sub 4.10}O{sub 16}(OH) . 1H{sub 2}O, based on 18 O pfu. The Raman spectrum shows strong SeO{sub 3} bands at 847 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 1}), 764 and 795 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 3}), 493 and 542 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 2}), and 320 and 392 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 4}). Favreauite is tetragonal, space group P4/n, with the unit-cell parameters: a = 9.860(4) Aa, c = 9.700(5) Aa, V = 943.0(9) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 2. The eight strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs}/Aa (I) (hkl)]: 5.67(100)(111), 3.470(76)(220,202), 3.190(35)(003), 2.961(40)(311,113), 2.709(33)(302,203), 2.632(34)(231,312), 2.247(36)(331,133), and 1.6652(33)(305,513,531). The crystal structure was refined to R{sub 1} = 0.0329 for 1354 observed reflections [F{sub o} > 4σF{sub o}] and 0.0356 for all 1432 unique reflections. Favreauite is a close structural relative of nabokoite, KCu{sub 7}Te{sup 4+}O{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}Cl, and atlasovite, KCu{sub 6}Fe{sup 3+}BiO{sub 4}(SO

  10. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jie Li; Michael Hitch

    2015-01-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, in-creasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  12. Chemical and mineralogical data of the metalliferous mineralization from S. Carlo mine (Peloritani mts, Ne Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisacane, G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization processes in the Peloritani Belt (Southern Sector of the Calabria- Peloritani Arc prevalently developed during the Variscan orogenesis producing Pb, Zn, Fe, As, Sb, Cu, Ag, W, etc. polymetalliferous ore-bearing horizons. This paper focuses on the polymetalliferous mineralization recognised in the ancient S. Carlo Mine, which has already been subject of some studies and is part of an important discordant vein deposits system that are widespread in the Mandanici Unit (MaU. This Unit is characterized by a Variscan low-P, polyphasic and plurifacial metamorphic basement, exhibiting a prograde zoning, from chlorite zone of greenschist facies to oligoclase-almandine zone of amphibolite facies. The Variscan main foliation (Fv2 is irregularly cut by mineralized veins of decimetric to metric width. They are also perpendicular to the Alpine mylonitic shear zones of metric thickness developing along the sub-horizontal tectonic contacts between the tectono-stratigraphic units. These vein deposits formed along late-Alpine systems of fractures and faults, after Peloritani nappe emplacement. Minerographic study reveals a metalliferous mineral association mainly composed of tetrahedrite associated with, in order of decreasing abundance, chalcopyrite, bournonite, pentlandite, stromeyerite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, bismuthinite, boulangerite, jamesonite, covellite, bornite and argentite. Quartz, siderite and ankerite among non-metalliferous minerals are predominant. This work has been supported by mineralogical studies and chemical analyses carried out by Atomic Absorption and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry on powdered and separated samples of minerals. Geochemical data (major and trace elements have allowed a detailed characterization of the minerals. They have revealed that the most significant minerals with Au contents around 1 ppm are tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bournonite. The

  13. Assessing Water Management of Mining Effluent Using Temporal and Spatial Hydrologic Analyses: The Case of QIT Madagascar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Associated with the commencement of any water-intensive mining operation is the formation of a set of policies, standards, and sampling protocols that guide the management of all water resources connected to the mining facility, surrounding environment, and affected communities. This study explores the interface between corporate water management and hydrologic methods by evaluating changes in water quality over the course of the mining cycle at QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) in Tolagnaro, Madagascar. Sampling and lab research of processed water were conducted following established QMM procedures and then analyzed in conjunction with the complete QMM water quality database. Water quality was analyzed spatially to exhibit how processed water changes as it moves throughout the mining cycle before release into the environment. Graphical representation of the spatial changes in various parameters exhibit deterioration in water quality relative to the source, improvement in quality before being released as effluent, and natural remediation by wetlands before discharge into the Mandromondromotra River. In addition, water quality parameters were evaluated temporally, using data supplied by QMM's Service de l'Eau et Déchets. Yearly and monthly comparisons of hydrological parameters highlight data gaps, the effects of seasonality, and the evolution of water quality monitoring at QMM. Technical evaluation of processed water as it flows through the mining system provides insight into how water monitoring and management can best be adapted at the corporate level to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Water quality data for various parameters from April 2013 at each of the sampling locations. The graphs highlight spatial changes in parameters as water moves from the sources (WD90, Paddock 3), to sites on the mine (500M, Basmin, SCC2), to release points (WMC703, WMC803), to discharge points into the MMM River.

  14. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  15. Active Mines and Mineral Processing Plants in the United States in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes mineral and metal operations in the United States. The data represent commodities monitored by the National Minerals Information Center of...

  16. Active Mines and Mineral Processing Plants in the United States in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes mineral and metal operations in the United States. The data represent commodities monitored by the National Minerals Information Center of the...

  17. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  19. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  20. Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

  1. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  2. Comparison of arsenic co-precipitation and adsorption by iron minerals and the mechanism of arsenic natural attenuation in a mine stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Ahn, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Mine stream precipitate collected from Ilkwang mine, Korea, contained high concentrations of arsenic (As), while water collected from the same site had negligible As concentrations, indicating natural attenuation of As occurred in the mine stream. The mechanism of attenuation was explained by comparison of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of As(V) co-precipitated with or adsorbed to iron (Fe) minerals in mine precipitates. Arsenic in the mine precipitate was present as As(V) and schwertmannite was the main Fe mineral. Arsenic co-precipitation with schwertmannite was the major mechanism of As removal in the mine stream, followed by As adsorption by goethite and As co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. Schwertmannite and ferrihydrite were formed in acid mine drainage and As was incorporated in their structure during formation. Additionally, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite may transform to goethite with As adsorbed onto the goethite surface. Based on the results of batch experiments of As co-precipitation and adsorption, co-precipitation of As with ferrihydrite and schwertmannite was the most effective As sequestration mechanism in the removal of As(V) from acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  4. The risks to miners, mines, and the public posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available with respect to mine planning and blasting schedules. The national and local monitoring networks, operated by the Council for Geoscience and mining companies, respectively, are on a par with those installed in seismically active mining districts elsewhere...

  5. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  6. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies.

  7. International seminar on mineral sector in India: need and scope of development under new economic policy of globalisation and technology upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A total of 58 papers were presented at the seminar in five sessions with the following headings: Indian mineral policy; exploration - present status and advances in techniques and their application in India; state of the art mining technology in coal, metallic and non-metallic sectors and its application in India, including small mines, through foreign collaborations and environmentally harmonious technological upgradation; advancement in beneficiation technique in mineral sector - economic exploitation of leaner deposits - adoption of appropriate technologies through collaborations and foreign participation; and future outlook for minerals-based industries: concentrates, metals, alloys - outlook for collaborations, joint ventures and foreign participations for augmenting value-added exports. 13 resource papers were also discussed. 25 of the papers have been abstracted separately.

  8. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    .../PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The proposed rule would revise the Agency's existing standards on miners....msha.gov/REGS/FEDREG/PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The following error in the preamble to...

  9. China will Implement Total Mining Volume Control on Advantageous Mineral Resources Such As Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On the end of January,the Ministry of Land and Resources convened the third round of mineral resource planning compilation work video conference,which made re-mobilization and re-deployment for a new round of planning compilation work.According to report from the China Land and Resources News,the third round of mineral resource plan compilation will place focus on

  10. Mining ‘From Below’: Taking Africa’s artisanal miners seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is of growing importance for the livelihoods of an increasing number of Africa’s rural population. Therefore, the sector is increasingly being recognized by African governments, donor institutions and researchers for its role in national development processe...

  11. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    .... (2) Electronic mail: zzMSHA-comments@dol.gov . Include ``RIN 1219- AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (3) Facsimile: 202-693-9441. Include ``RIN 1219-AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (4... on appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler...

  12. CS-MINER: A Tool for Association Mining in Binding-Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Valadkhani, Abolfazl; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces the algorithms, implementation strategies, features, and applications of CS-MINER, a tool for visualization and analysis of drug-like chemical space. The CS-MINER is the abstract abbreviation for Chemical Space Miner and correlates the medicinal target space and chemical space, in a systematic way. The database in this software consists of a large collection of drug-like molecules. To prepare this database, a large number of molecules for 110 important biological targets were collected from Binding-DB. A total of 1497 physicochemical properties were calculated for each molecule. The CS-MINER uses the discriminant analysis techniques for tracing the collected data and finally separates the molecules based on their therapeutic targets and activities. The developed multivariate classifiers can be used for ligand-based virtual screening of more than 0.5 million random molecules of PubChem and ZINC databases. In order to validate the models, selected subspaces in CS-MINER were compared with DrugBank molecules. At the end of the analysis, the software provides an interactive environment for visualization of the selected chemical subspaces in the form of 2- and 3-dimensional plots. In general, CS-MINER is a tool for comparing the relative position of active biosimilar molecules in chemical space and is freely available at www.csminer.com.

  13. AMBIENT CARBONATION of MINING RESIDUES: Understanding the Mechanisms and Optimization of Direct Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assima, G. P.; Larachi, F.; Molson, J. W.; Beaudoin, G.

    2013-12-01

    The huge amounts (GTs) of ultramafic mining residues (UMRs) produced by mining activities around the world and accumulated in multi-square-kilometer stockpiles are stimulating a vivid interest regarding their possible use as a stable and permanent sink for CO2. Virtually costless and often found crushed and / or ground, UMRs are being considered as ideal candidates for atmospheric CO2 mitigation. The present work, therefore, explores the potential of several UMRs available in Quebec (Thetford Mines, Asbestos, Nunavik, Amos, Otish Mountains), for carbonation under ambient conditions, as a cost-effective alternative to remove low-concentration CO2 from the atmosphere and alleviate global warming. Several experimental reactors have been built to specifically simulate various climatic changes at the laboratory scale. The impact of various environmental conditions to which the residues are subjected to in their storage location, including temperature variations, precipitation, flooding, drought, changing water saturation, oxygen gradient and CO2 diffusion have been thoroughly studied. Dry and heavy-rain periods are unsuitable for efficient CO2 sequestration. Low liquid saturation within UMRs pores favors carbonation by combining fast percolation of gaseous CO2, rapid dissemination of CO2 dissolved species and creation of highly reactive sites throughout the mining residue pile. Partly saturated samples were also found to exhibit lower gaseous CO2 breakthrough times across the mining residues. Warm periods significantly accelerate the rate of CO2 uptake as compared to cold periods, which, in contrast are characterized by heat generation levels that could possibly be exploited by low temperature geothermal systems. A temperature rise from 10 to 40 °C was accompanied by a ten-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The carbonation reaction caused a rise in UMRs temperature up to 4.9°C during experiments at a 10°C. The presence of oxygen in the reaction medium induces

  14. Proceedings of the 14. international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES) 2005 and the 5. international conference on computer applications in the minerals industries (CAMI 2005). CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.J. [Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering]|[International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment, Calgary, AB (Canada); Fytas, K. [Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Chiwetelu, C. [Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss leading and emerging technologies in the field of mining, mine planning and computer applications in the minerals industries. Participants from government, industry and academia from more than 15 countries contributed to the proceedings which will be of interest to engineers, scientists, consultants and government personnel responsible for the development and application of innovative technologies in the minerals industries. The conference contributes to the development of high-tech methods and technologies for various segments of the mining and processing industries. The session on coal mining technologies addressed issues associated with process equipment and quality control; open pit mine planning, design, and productivity gains; underground mine planning; drilling, blasting and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection, automation and information technology; mine maintenance and production management; e-maintenance, e-diagnostics, and prognostics; tunneling and other excavation equipment; case histories from coal mining, industrial minerals and metalliferous mining; cost effective methods of mine reclamation, mine closure and waste disposal; advances in mine design, mine optimization and reclamation planning technologies. The session on mine equipment focused on design, selection, and real-time health and performance monitoring; mine and machine automation; and GIS, GPS, telecommunications, artificial intelligence, and Internet application. The final session on rock mechanics and geotechnical applications focused on underground and surface mine stability, groundwater, tailings and waste disposal; computer simulation; real-time mine management systems; and computer applications in mining education. The conference featured 126 presentations of which 18 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Seeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  16. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeja, K. R.; Zareapoor, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced) and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:25302317

  17. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  18. Drainage waters affected by pyrite oxidation in a coal mine in Galicia (NW Spain): composition and mineral stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [University of Santiago (Spain)

    1998-05-14

    The quality of the drainage water from the As Puentes lignite mine dump (Galicia, Spain) was evaluated along with the geochemical processes which determine its composition. Analysis of water form different areas of the dump was carried out at monthly intervals over a period of 2 years. In general, the water samples were characterised by the presence of elevated concentrations of Fe{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sup +}, liberated from the oxidation of pyrite, and of Si, Al, Ca, and Mg derived from the accelerated mineral hydrolysis. At the same time, very high concentrations of elements, in particular Mn, Zn, Ni and Co, which were liberated from both processes, were recorded. The best water quality was found in the most recently constructed areas of the dump.

  19. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  20. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, K; Sapsford, D J; Johnson, D B; Kay, C M; Wolkersdorfer, C

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m(2) per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80-90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium 'Ferrovum myxofaciens', which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge.

  1. Biological Cycles of Mineral Elements in a Young Mixed Stand in Abandoned Mining Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Lun Tian; Wen-Hua Xiang; Wen-De Yan; Wen-Xing Kang; Xiang-Wen Deng; Zhu Fan

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. In this study, biological cycles of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) and eight heavy metal elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Co) were examined in young paniculed goldraintree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) mixed stands in an abandoned mining area. We found that after vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas, the organic matter and concentrations of nutrient elements were significantly increased and the heavy metal elements were significantly decreased, the annual retention, uptake and return were 75.0, 115.4, and 40.3 kg/hm2 for nutrient elements, and 1 878.0,3 231.0 and 1 353.0 g/hm2 for heavy metal elements, respectively, with the utilization coefficient, cycling coefficient and turnover rate of 0.92, 0.35 and 0.32 for nutrient elements, and 1.24, 0.42 and 1.92 for heavy metal elements, respectively.Our results suggested that the vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas had significant effects in improving environmental conditions, enhancing soil available nutrients, and ensuring human health.

  2. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  3. 76 FR 44079 - M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc., MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc.,MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna Networks... current and accurate information concerning the securities of M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC) because...

  4. Frequency fraction and spatial distribution of clay minerals detection by sub-pixel classification of ASTER data, case study, Esteghlal mine of Abadeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi Tangestani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esteghlal fireclay mine, northern Abadeh, with dominant composition of kaolinite and pyrophyllite, and annual production of over a million tons, is one of the largest sedimentary deposits in Iran. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF processes were applied on the VNIR + SWIR dataset of ASTER for identifying the frequency fraction and distribution of clay minerals in this mine. Sub-pixel frequency assessment of ASTER data showed that distribution of pixels with higher fractions belong to the kaolinite and pyrophyllite, outcropped in two different parts of the mine. Comparison of LSU and MTMF output results showed that MTMF is more reliable to determining the relative fraction of clay minerals at the study area.

  5. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim

    2016-12-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  6. Mineral exploitation by surface mining and environmental restoration. Explotacion minera a cielo abierto y restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The subject of environmental restoration of zones affected by the opencast exploitation of coal, is one of the most interesting for mineral zones since at the end of the industrial process the reclaimed land is appropriate for subsequent use. In all, HUNOSA has restored more than 1000 Ha of pasture. 1 fig.

  7. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  8. Impact of offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) on the sediment size and heavy minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Fernandes, D.

    , Ratnagiri, Maharash- tra) and another on the east coast of India (Paradip, Orissa), where sampling for baseline and sand mining tests were carried out in the near-shore area. Baseline and seasonal sampling along three offshore profiles in Kalba- devi Bay... samples were obtained by Van veen grab in January 2006 along two E–W offshore profiles (OP), one in the north (OP-4/1, 5/1, 5/2 and 5/3) and another in south (OP-3/1, 3/2 and 3/3) of the test location (Figure 1). Pre- and post-test operation samples...

  9. Sustainable Non-Metallic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tretsiakova-McNally

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the largest energy consumers and greenhouse gases emitters, both in the developed and developing countries. In continental Europe, the energy use in buildings alone is responsible for up to 50% of carbon dioxide emission. Urgent changes are, therefore, required relating to energy saving, emissions control, production and application of materials, use of renewable resources, and to recycling and reuse of building materials. In addition, the development of new eco-friendly building materials and practices is of prime importance owing to the growing environmental concerns. This review reflects the key tendencies in the sector of sustainable building materials of a non-metallic nature that have occurred over the past decade or so.

  10. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  11. Mining the hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ulrich

    1994-05-01

    Rapid technological progress over the past two decades has significantly lowered the cost of water desalination and has spurred an impressive growth of this industry. About half of the desalination capacity uses seawater, the other half uses continental brackish water. Most of the desalted water is consumed for domestic and municipal purposes. However, some of it, especially that derived from brackish water, is also competitive for irrigation of high-value crops, and for some industrial purposes, particularly in water-deficient regions. In addition to fresh water, at present only halite, magnesium, and bromine are commercially obtained from seawater. These commodities plus sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, I, Li, B, and potash are also produced from natural brines. Prior attempts to obtain potash, U, Au, and other mineral commodities from seawater failed because the market value of the recovered products was too low to cover the capital and operating costs of processing plants exclusively dedicated to recover them separately. The economics are more favorable if these and/or other elements or compounds are obtained as byproducts of seawater desalination, especially when combined with cogeneration of electricity. Under these circumstances the major capital and operating costs for pumping seawater and for disposing of the reject brine are absorbed mostly by the proceeds from freshwater production. The byproducts need only to pay for the additional recovery processes. One advantage of this strategy is to reduce the environmental impact of reject brine disposal. Another is to reduce the environmental, safety, and health impacts of land-based mining. Furthermore, obtaining nonmetallic mineral commodities from seawater at a number of localities scattered over the Earth can significantly reduce their transportation costs, which is a major proportion of their cost to nations lacking these resources. This is particularly pertinent for common salt (halite), potash

  12. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  13. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  14. Applied mineralogy of the constituent clays of the mineral wastes from the coal mines in the Teruel mining zone; Mineralogia aplicada de arcillas constitutivas de esteriles en minas de carbon de la zona minera de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida, J.; Lopez Buendia, A.M.; Serrano, J.; De La Torre, J.; Sienes, M. [Univ. Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    1993-12-31

    The coals of the district of Teruel (NE Spain) presents as mine wastes several industrial minerals and rocks (sands, kaolins, clays, Al-sulfates,...) the mining of which would be interesting. The aim of this work is the mineralogical and ceramic characterisation of these clays. So mineralogical and petrographical data as well as technological data concerning granulometry, chemical analysis and Atteberg index have been used in order to compare these clays with those analysed and typified in previous works and with those actually used as ceramic raw materials in the NE of Teruel. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Lunar He-3 mining - Improvements on the design of the UW Mark II lunar miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviatoslavsky, Igor N.

    Results of an initial investigation showing the feasibility of separating regolith particles of 50 microns and smaller from the bulk regolith by means of a fluidized lift in a stream of helium or hydrogen gas are presented. The Mark II lunar miner parameters, which have a mass throughput of sub 50-micron particles of 550 tons/hr, are employed to calculate a terminal velocity, using H2 gas, of 0.3 m/s in a circular duct of 1.5 m diameter. The terminal velocity for 60-micron particles is found to be 44 percent higher than that needed for 50-micron particles from the bulk regolith. Assuming a duct height of 3 m, the power required to circulate the H2 gas is 4.5 kW.

  16. Evolution of the Creede Caldera and its relation to mineralization in the Creede mining district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.; Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.

    2000-01-01

    At 25 Ma a major epithermal silver and base metal deposit formed in rhyolitic welded tuff near Creede, Colorado. Nearly 24000 metric tons of silver, appreciable lead, and small amounts of zinc, copper, and gold, have been produced from large, crustified veins under Bachelor and Bulldog Mountains north and northwest of Creede. Prior geologic, hydrologic, and stable-isotope studies showed that ore deposition was associated with the mixing and boiling of waters from diverse sources and suggester that a critical part of the ore-forming fluid may have originated within the ancient lake and sediments of the lacustrine Creede Formation that filled the Creede caldera. Two drill holes that sampled the heretofore hidden lower half of the Creede Formation are the focus of this book. The Creede caldera formed at 26.9 Ma within a high constructional plateau of silicic ashflows that covered and were sporadically interlayed with, intermediate lavas and lahars from large stratovolcanoes. The Creede caldera lake had an inflow evaporation balance that did not permit rapid filling to create a brim-full deep lake. Thus salts were evaporatively concentrated; but, with the exception of possible gypsum, no evaporite minerals preserved. Cool springs deposited travertine as mounds and contributed to limestone interlaminations within the sediment. The lake bottom was anoxic, and bacterial reduction of sulfate led to extreme sulfur isotopic fractionation in diagenetic pyrite. The caldera gradually resurged, converting the initial equant lake into an arcuate moat. Resurgent doming, alluvial fans, lacustrine sediments, ashfalls, and lava domes displaced water, lifted the lake so that it overlapped what later became the southern edge of the mineralized are, and eventually filled the basin. At 25.1 Ma an unseen pluton intruded beneath the northen part of the Creede district and created a convecting olume that drew in brine from the Creede caldera fill, meteotic water from highlands to the north

  17. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  18. bc-GenExMiner 3.0: new mining module computes breast cancer gene expression correlation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Pascal; Frénel, Jean-Sébastien; Campion, Loïc; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Ricolleau, Gabriel; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed a user-friendly web-based application called bc-GenExMiner (http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr), which offered the possibility to evaluate prognostic informativity of genes in breast cancer by means of a 'prognostic module'. In this study, we develop a new module called 'correlation module', which includes three kinds of gene expression correlation analyses. The first one computes correlation coefficient between 2 or more (up to 10) chosen genes. The second one produces two lists of genes that are most correlated (positively and negatively) to a 'tested' gene. A gene ontology (GO) mining function is also proposed to explore GO 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component' terms enrichment for the output lists of most correlated genes. The third one explores gene expression correlation between the 15 telomeric and 15 centromeric genes surrounding a 'tested' gene. These correlation analyses can be performed in different groups of patients: all patients (without any subtyping), in molecular subtypes (basal-like, HER2+, luminal A and luminal B) and according to oestrogen receptor status. Validation tests based on published data showed that these automatized analyses lead to results consistent with studies' conclusions. In brief, this new module has been developed to help basic researchers explore molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. DATABASE URL: http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr

  19. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  20. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mehrabi; Ebrahim Tale Fazel; Ali Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2011-01-01

    The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA) in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm). Th...

  1. [Serum cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE ) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in copper mine miners potentially expose d to hydrogen sulfide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Gruszczyński, Leszek; Turczyn, Barbara; Ścieszka, Marek; Wojakowska, Anna; Pawłowski, Tomasz; Schmidt, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of the target enzyme for H2S toxicity--cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and enzymes involved in the synthesis of H2S--cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in copper mine miners. The initial and basic study was conducted respectively in 237 and 88 miners, working in 2 mining shafts: I--no H2S emissions recorded in the last 10 years (study group A) and II--H2S emissions occurred (study group B). A medical examination was performed and 10 ml of blood was collected from miners immediately after exiting the mine. There were no clinical or biochemical changes typical for H2S toxicity. Sulfhemoglobine was undetectable and there were no changes in the red-ox system. However, in group B, regulatory changes were found; a tendency to higher concentration of CBS and CSE, a higher activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) compared to group A (pCBS and CSE activity. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Modification, adsorption, and geochemistry processes on altered minerals and amorphous phases on the nanometer scale: examples from copper mining refuse, Touro, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Hower, James C; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Taffarel, Silvio R; Ramos, Claudete G; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide oxidation and precipitation of Al-Fe-secondary minerals associated with abandoned acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned copper mine waste pile at Touro, Spain, has been studied by sequential extraction (SE) combined with several techniques with the intent of understanding the role of these processes play in the natural attenuation of hazardous element contaminants in the AMD. In addition, the fragile nature of nanominerals and ultrafine particle (UFP) assemblages from contaminated sediment systems from the abandoned copper mine required novel techniques and experimental approaches. The investigation of the geochemistry of complex nanominerals and UFP assemblages was a prerequisite to accurately assess the environmental and human health risks of contaminants and cost-effective chemical and biogeological remediation strategies. Particular emphasis was placed on the study and characterization of the complex mixed nanominerals and UFP containing potentially toxic elements. Nanometer-sized phases in sediments were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. The identification of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of AMD in Touro, as well as the different formation mechanisms proposed, complement the existing literature on secondary mineral assemblages and provide new emphasis to increase the understanding of extreme environments. The results also demonstrated that variations in the geochemical fractionation of hazardous elements in AMD were more influenced by the secondary mineral proportion and by AMD pH.

  3. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DINOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  4. Miners, managers and the state. A socio-political history of the Ombilin coal-mines, West Sumatra, 1892-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwiza

    1999-10-28

    The period 1892-1996 covers just over a century. A long term perspective will show to what extent economic and cultural changes such as price fluctuations, and changes in energy consumption and choice of fuels, have influenced the policy of the colonial and post-colonial state and the management as well as attitudes and actions of the miners. Secondly, changes in labour relations should be related to changes in labour control by management and the state and changes in the mining society. This study is subdivided into six periods based on dramatic changes in labour relations and labour control, and in the politics of the miners.Chapter 2 will explain the background of the opening of the Indonesian coal industry and the Ombilin coal-mines and its incorporation into the world market, a process greatly speeded up all over the world by the emergence of the age of steam-engine in the eighteenth century. Then, the author focuses on debates about whether this mine should be exploited by the state or privately. Having settled the outcome of the debates the description will jump to the present situation in the mining town Sawahlunto. This jump is intended to introduce the readers to the present conditions in the town which have been shaped and created by the past. The section introduces hidden stories which have been obtained from the collective memory of the people in town, especially those recalled by some of its historical buildings. Chapter 3 (1892-1920) explores the problem of land compensation for the mines, the making of a mining society, the working and living conditions of the labourers, and the physical violence of flogging with a cane imposed by the colonial state as an instrument of control. Chapter 4 (1920-1942) focuses on changes in state control and in the politics of resistance which was often the response of the miners to it. The explanation of these changes will be placed in the context of changes in the social composition of the mining society, the

  5. Characterization of the mineral phosphate solubilizing activity of Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mounira; Farhat, Ameny; Bejar, Wacim; Kammoun, Radhouan; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Fourati, Amin; Antoun, Hani; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2009-11-01

    The mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability of a Serratia marcescens strain, namely CTM 50650, isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa, was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP broth). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including rock phosphate (RP), calcium phosphate (CaHPO(4)), tri-calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)) and hydroxyapatite were tested as sole sources of phosphate for bacterial growth. Solubilization of these phosphates by S. marcescens CTM 50650 was very efficient. Indeed, under optimal conditions, the soluble phosphorus (P) concentration it produced reached 967, 500, 595 and 326 mg/l from CaHPO(4), Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), hydroxyapatite and RP, respectively. Study of the mechanisms involved in the MPS activity of CTM 50650, showed that phosphate solubilization was concomitant with significant drop in pH. HPLC-analysis of culture supernatants revealed the secretion of gluconic acid (GA) resulting from direct oxidation pathway of glucose when the CTM 50650 cells were grown on NBRIP containing glucose as unique carbon source. This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR for the first time in a S. marcescens strain producing GA, of a gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase responsible for GA production, as well as the genes pqqA, B, C and E involved in biosynthesis of its PQQ cofactor. This study is expected to lead to the development of an environmental-friendly process for fertilizer production considering the capacity of S. marcescens CTM 50650 to achieve yields of P extraction up to 75% from the Gafsa RP.

  6. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  7. Serum cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE and cytochrome c oxidase (COX in copper mine miners potentially expose d to hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of the target enzyme for H2S toxicity – cytochrome c oxidase (COX and enzymes involved in the synthesis of H2S – cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE in copper mine miners. Material and Methods: The initial and basic study was conducted respectively in 237 and 88 miners, working in 2 mining shafts: I – no H2S emissions recorded in the last 10 years (study group A and II – H2S emissions occurred (study group B. A medical examination was performed and 10 ml of blood was collected from miners immediately after exiting the mine. Results: There were no clinical or biochemical changes typical for H2S toxicity. Sulfhemoglobine was undetectable and there were no changes in the red-ox system. However, in group B, regulatory changes were found; a tendency to higher concentration of CBS and CSE, a higher activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE compared to group A (p < 0.05 and a linear relationship between ACE and CSE (r = 0.6927; p < 0.001. It has been shown that cigarette smoking decreases COX (p < 0.05, however, in miners working in shaft II, the decreased level of COX may result also from the presence of H2S in the gaseous emissions. Conclusions: COX concentration can be a sensitive indicator of exposure to H2S. The measurements of blood H2S concentrations carried out in workplaces should explain the cause of the changes observed in the COX, CBS and CSE activity. Med Pr 2015;66(4:539–548

  8. Express-Air Screen-System to protect miners against radon exposures at small underground construction sites in old mining; Express-Wetterblenden-System zum Sofort-Schutz von Bergleuten vor Radonexpositionen bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz; Stopp, J. [Aluminiumbau und Verwaltungs GmbH Stopp, Schneeberg (Germany); Schoenherr, B. [Bergsicherung Schneeberg GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new Express-Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to reduce the radon exposures of miners at small construction sites of old mining. The EAS is a lightweight, modular and reusable construction kit of interlocking telescopic aluminum tubes, plastic foils and glue foam to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only.

  9. Non-metallic inclusions in high manganese austenitic alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A. Grajcar; L. Bulkowski; U. Galisz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify the type, fraction and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions modified by rare-earth elements in an advanced group of high-manganese austenitic C-Mn-Si-Al-type steels with Nb and Ti microadditions.Design/methodology/approach: The heats of 3 high-Mn steels of a various content of Si, Al and Ti were melted in a vacuum induction furnace and a modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the mischmetal in the amount of 0.87 g or ...

  10. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  11. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  12. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  13. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  14. Epithermal mineralization controlled by synextensional magmatism in the Guazapares Mining District of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    2015-03-01

    We show here that epithermal mineralization in the Guazapares Mining District is closely related to extensional deformation and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico. Three Late Oligocene-Early Miocene synextensional formations are identified by detailed volcanic lithofacies mapping in the study area: (1) ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, composed of silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets; (2) ca. 27-24.5 Ma Témoris formation, consisting primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate composition lavas and interbedded fluvial and debris flow deposits; (3) ca. 24.5-23 Ma Sierra Guazapares formation, composed of silicic vent to proximal ignimbrites, lavas, subvolcanic intrusions, and volcaniclastic deposits. Epithermal low-to intermediate-sulfidation, gold-silver-lead-zinc vein and breccia mineralization appears to be associated with emplacement of Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite plugs and is favored where pre-to-synvolcanic extensional structures are in close association with these hypabyssal intrusions. Several resource areas in the Guazapares Mining District are located along the easternmost strands of the Guazapares Fault Zone, a NNW-trending normal fault system that hosts most of the epithermal mineralization in the mining district. This study describes the geology that underlies three of these areas, which are, from north to south: (1) The Monte Cristo resource area, which is underlain primarily by Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite dome collapse breccia, lapilli-tuffs, and fluvially reworked tuffs that interfinger with lacustrine sedimentary rocks in a synvolcanic half-graben bounded by the Sangre de Cristo Fault. Deposition in the hanging wall of this half-graben was concurrent with the development of a rhyolite lava dome-hypabyssal intrusion complex in the footwall; mineralization is concentrated in the high-silica rhyolite intrusions in the footwall and along the

  15. Interaction mechanism of non-metallic particles with crystallization front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of steel solidification in the CCS mould is accompanied by a number of phenomena relating to the formation of non-metallic phase, as well as the mechanism of its interaction with the existing precipitations and the advancing crystallization front. In the solidification process the non-metallic inclusions may be absorbed or repelled by the moving front. As a result a specific distribution of non-metallic inclusions is obtained in the solidified ingot, and their distribution is a consequence of these processes. The interaction of a non-metallic inclusion with the solidification front was analyzed for alumina, for different values of the particle radius. The simulation was performed with the use of own computer program. Each time a balance of forces acting on a particle in its specific position was calculated. On this basis the change of position of alumina particle in relation to the front was defined for a specific radius and original location of the particle with respect to the front.

  16. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  17. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  18. The relationship between various exposure metrics for elongate mineral particles (EMP) in the taconite mining and processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Different dimensions of elongate mineral particles (EMP) have been proposed as being relevant to respiratory health end-points such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. In this article, a methodology for converting personal EMP exposures measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400/7402 methods to exposures based on other size-based definitions has been proposed and illustrated. Area monitoring for EMP in the taconite mines in Minnesota's Mesabi Iron Range was conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) size-fractionating sampler. EMP on stages of the MOUDI were counted and sized according to each EMP definition using an indirect-transfer transmission electron microscopy (ISO Method 13794). EMP were identified using energy-dispersive x-ray and electron diffraction analysis. Conversion factors between the EMP counts based on different definitions were estimated using (1) a linear regression model across all locations and (2) a location-specific ratio of the count based on each EMP definition to the NIOSH 7400/7402 count. The highest fractions of EMP concentrations were found for EMP that were 1-3 μm in length and 0.2-0.5 μm in width. Therefore, the current standard NIOSH Method 7400, which only counts EMP >5 μm in length and ≥ 3 in aspect ratio, may underestimate amphibole EMP exposures. At the same time, there was a high degree of correlation between the exposures estimated according to the different size-based metrics. Therefore, the various dimensional definitions probably do not result in different dose-response relationships in epidemiological analyses. Given the high degree of correlation between the various metrics, a result consistent with prior research, a more reasonable metric might be the measurement of all EMP irrespective of size. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the

  19. The nature of gold in the Aitik Cu-Au deposit:implications for mineral processing and mine planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sammelin, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The Aitik mine is a large Cu-Au producer in Europe with an annual production of 28 million tons of ore and a planned expansion of production to 36 million tons of ore until year 2013. Large ongoing investments are done in the mine and a new processing plant is built to manage the capacity increase. The mine is situated 15 kilometers from the town Gällivare, in northern Norrbotten, Sweden. The ore is a large porphyry type deposit with low grades of disseminated copper (0,27 %) and gold (0,16 p...

  20. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P < 0.05). A hazard quotient (HQ) was estimated based on the inorganic Hg exposure of individual miners. The HQ values of group I were in a range 16 to 218 times higher than the safety level set as 1. By comparison the group II HQ index was very low (0.03-0.39). The miners in group I who worked and ate food from this area experienced potentially high exposure to Hg associated with the mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher

  1. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  2. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 μm) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  3. An assessment of the estimated thorium lung burdens of 130 miners in a rare-earth and iron mine in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xingan; Xiao Huijuan; Dong Zhihua; Lu Huimin; Yang Yingjie (Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, BJ (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene); Wang Jizhong; Wang Yidien; Li Shouhua; Hu Yaqin

    1988-01-01

    The thorium lung burdens of 130 miners in a rare-earth and iron mine were estimated by electrostatic collection of the decay products of exhaled thoron. The free-emanating {sup 224}Ra equivalents at the mouth of 73 individuals were higher than 1.0 pCi. The weighted mean value of {sup 224}Ra equivalents at the mouth of the 130 miners was 2.1{plus minus}0.3.Ci ({plus minus}S.E.). The corresponding weighted mean of 10 inhabitants of the same district was 0.8{plus minus}0.2.Ci. On the basis of the thorium lung burdens estimated from these results, and the dose-risk relationship obtained from epidemiological studies of miners exposed to radon daughters, the number of excess lung cancer cases among 2072 dust inhaling miners between 1958 and 1993 was calculated to be very small. A relationship was, however, found between the estimated thorium lung burdens and different stages of pneumoconiosis. (author).

  4. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Schutzmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865 urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L was estimated. Forty-four (44 miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process.

  5. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzmeier, Paul; Berger, Ursula; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2016-12-30

    Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated. Forty-four (44) miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process.

  6. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan...

  7. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out Area ... and processing through mining activities especially, of the solid minerals are going ... approach to evaluating hazards represented by different kinds of mine waste be ...

  8. Classification Rule Mining Based on Improved Ant-miner Algorithm%基于改进Ant-miner算法的分类规则挖掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖菁; 梁燕辉

    2012-01-01

    为提高基于传统Ant-miner算法分类规则的预测准确性,提出一种基于改进Ant-miner的分类规则挖掘算法.利用样例在总样本中的密度及比例构造启发式函数,以避免在多个具有相同概率的选择条件下造成算法偏见.对剪枝规则按变异系数进行单点变异,由此扩大规则的搜索空间,提高规则的预测准确度.在Ant-miner算法的信息素更新公式中加入挥发系数,使其更接近现实蚂蚁的觅食行为,防止算法过早收敛.基于UCI标准数据的实验结果表明,该算法相比传统Ant-miner算法具有更高的预测准确度.%In order to improve the classification rule accuracy of the classical Ant-miner algorithm, this paper proposes an improved Ant-miner algorithm for classification rule mining. Heuristic function with sample density and sample proportion is constructed to avoid the bias caused by the same probability in Ant-miner. A pruning strategy with mutation probability is emploied to expand the search space and improve the rule accuracy. An evaporation coefficient in Ant-miner's pheromone update formula is added to slow down the convergence rate of the algorithm. Experimental results on UCI datasets show that the proposed algorithm is promising and can obtain higher predication accuracy than the original Ant-miner algorithm.

  9. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Donovan

    Full Text Available Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  10. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  11. System definition study of deployable, non-metallic space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimler, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art for nonmetallic materials and fabrication techniques suitable for future space structures are summarized. Typical subsystems and systems of interest to the space community that are reviewed include: (1) inflatable/rigidized space hangar; (2) flexible/storable acoustic barrier; (3) deployable fabric bulkhead in a space habitat; (4) extendible tunnel for soft docking; (5) deployable space recovery/re-entry systems for personnel or materials; (6) a manned habitat for a space station; (7) storage enclosures external to the space station habitat; (8) attachable work stations; and (9) safe haven structures. Performance parameters examined include micrometeoroid protection; leakage rate prediction and control; rigidization of flexible structures in the space environment; flammability and offgassing; lifetime for nonmetallic materials; crack propagation prevention; and the effects of atomic oxygen and space debris. An expandable airlock for shuttle flight experiments and potential tethered experiments from shuttle are discussed.

  12. Synthesis of aromatic nitriles using nonmetallic cyano-group sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chang, Sukbok

    2012-11-26

    Aromatic nitriles are prepared efficiently through transition-metal-mediated cyanation of aryl (pseudo)halides with metallic cyano-group sources, such as CuCN, KCN, NaCN, Zn(CN)(2), TMSCN, or K(4) [Fe(CN)(6)]. However, this approach often suffers from drawbacks, such as the formation of stoichiometric amounts of metal waste, the poisoning of the metal catalysts, or the generation of toxic HCN gas. As a result, a range of "nonmetallic" organic cyano-group sources have been explored for the cyanation of aryl halides and arene C-H bonds. This Minireview summarizes types of nonmetallic cyano-group sources and their applications in the preparation of aryl nitriles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A study on non-metallic structure of heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobin; Zang Chuncheng; Zhang Xiliang; Wang Yangzhong; Du Fengli [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang Zhifeng [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat constitutes a very important component in the solar power tower system. Its importance derives from three aspects: one is the large proportion in the total cost, accounting for about 50% of the whole, the other is its concentration efficiency and reflectivity heavily determining the power conversion from solar thermal energy to electrical energy, another is itself power consumption amount highly expressing failure or success of the power plant. Therefore, serious efforts and considerations from the structure, motion and control mode to material selection have to be given in the design and optimization of heliostat. In the present paper, the mechanical and aging performance of non-metallic materials is investigated and compared. The possibility of these non-metallic materials in the application of heliostat structure is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    to an HP8753C Network Analyzer through a 5 m long Sucoflex coaxial cable. The data are collected automatically using an HPIB interface. The collected data contains both the amplitude and phase information of the reflection coefficient. Data are measured at up to a maximum of 401 different frequencies...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum......, steel, and wood. The presented results are based on probe-data measured at 100 different frequencies at each measurement point and a coarser mesh-grid of 10 mm by 10 mm, since it is found that less probe-data is needed. Our experiments show that even less amount of probe-data may be necessary....

  15. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  16. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  17. Mineralization and Geochemical Exploration in Volcanic- Plotonic Area of Halakabad Village (Sabzevar, Regarding to Cu-Porphyry Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi Shahri, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigated area is located 30 Km south of Sabzevar in Halakabad village. Geological phenomenons in area follow a trend of NW-SE. Mineralization consists of metallic and non-metallic (kaolin mineralization. Disseminated and veinlet mineralization is generally associated with argillic alteration type. Pyrite is the most widespread type of sulfide mineralization in Halakabad occurrences. It usually displays a euhedral habit and have occurred at least in two generations. Calcopyrite is common in veinlets although in minor amounts. Secondary sulfuric acid weathering of the ore has generated huge surficial amounts of oxide and sulfate minerals which of hematite and jarosite are the most abundant. Geochemical exploration was conducted over both drainage geochemistry and rock geochemistry. Results show that some of the stream sediments have higher concentrations of Copper and Zinc than normal. This anomalies maches with monzonite outcrops in area. The chip rock geochemical data shows highest values in west of halakabad mine for Cu and Zn respectively 500 and 900 ppm. These data represents that all samples collected from surficial areas of east of area contain lower concentrations of Copper while sulfide mineralization is more than the other parts. Presence of favorable alteration system in region, presence of monzonite subvolcanic intrusions and regional geological criteria indicates a possible Cu-Au porphyry system in Halakabad area.

  18. Use of the Joy Bolter Miner at Walsum mine; Der Einsatz des Bolter Miners der Firma Joy auf dem Bergwerk Walsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogk, E.; Kulassek, M. [Bergamt Moers (Germany); Traud, W.; Bender, B. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Mechanized roadheading with rectangular bolts was introduced in a German colliery for achieving an average productivity of 20 m/d. The key aspect of the project, in which the Moers Mines Inspectorate participated from the very beginning, was the integration of state-of-the art technology and a system supplier. The system was to be applicable in all DSK collieries. [German] Merkmale leistungsfaehiger Vortriebssysteme weltweit sind Rechteckankerstrecken mit maschineller Auffahrung. Im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau sollte ein solches System eingefuehrt werden mit dem Ziel einer durchschnittlichen Auffahrleistung von 20 m/d. Kernpunkte des Projektes, an dem das Bergamt Moers von Anfang an beteiligt wurde, waren die Fortfuehrung der deutschen Sicherheitsphilosophie, die Uebernahme der Verfahrenstechnik des Weltstandards und ein Systemlieferant. Das System sollte DSK-weit einsetzbar sein. (orig.)

  19. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  20. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3B. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: international minerals and chemical corporation, phosphate operations, Polk County, Florida. [Land reclamation and use planning for phosphate operations in Polk County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J R; Brown, L A; Fountain, R C

    1977-02-01

    The reports in this series are designed primarily to familiarize professional land use and resource planners with the range of possibilities and effective procedures for achieving integrated mining, reclamation, and land use planning. These reports are based on a research program which included an extensive literature review, the compilation and analysis of case study data, and close coordination and interaction with related government programs. In Volume 3, A Guide to Mined Area Reclamation Technology for Reclamation and Land Use Planners, the method used to reclaim land in each of several mineral industries are discussed in relation to the physical and cultural constraints that must be considered in planning a reclamation program. Much of the information for this document was obtained from case studies conducted in several mining districts. Volume 3B presents data from a case study of surface mining and reclamation planning, International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Phosphate Operations, Polk County, Florida.

  1. The Structure of Reclaiming Warehouse of Minerals at Open-Cut Mines with the Use Combined Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Kovshov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    In the article performed an analysis of ore reclaiming and overloading point characteristics at modern opencast mines. Ore reclaiming represents the most effective way of stability support of power-intensive and expensive technological dressing process, and, consequently, of maintenance of the optimal production and set-up parameters of extraction and quality of finished product. The paper proposed the construction of the warehouse describing the technology of its creation. Equipment used for the warehouse described in detail. All stages of development and operation was shown. Advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical shovel excavator and hydraulic excavator “backdigger” as a reloading and reclaiming equipment was compared. Ore reclaiming and overloading point construction at cyclical and continuous method of mining using a hydraulic excavator “backdigger” was proposed.

  2. Stress distribution around mine workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidachuk, V. V.; Koshel', V. I.; Lugovoi, P. Z.

    2011-02-01

    The finite-element method is used to determine the stress state around arched mine workings in a mineral bed. Both presence and dip of the mineral bed have a strong effect on the stress state around the mine working. Recommendations for design of mine-working support are formulated

  3. Minerogenic System of Magnesian Nonmetallic Deposits in Early Proterozoic Mg-rich Carbonate Formations in Eastern Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the early Proterozoic the Liryu Formation and Dashiqiao Formation of eastern Liaoning province, China, there are distributed Mg-rich carbonate rock formations, in which large to superlarge deposits of boron, magnesite, talc, Xiuyan jade etc. occur. The formation of these magnesian nonmetallic deposits was related to early Proterozoic evaporates; then these deposits underwent reworking of regional metamorphism and hydrothermal metasomatism during the Lüliang orogeny and tectono-magmatism during the Indosinian-Yanshanian. Among other things, the Mg-rich carbonates formations, minerogenetic structures and ore-forming fluids played a controlling role in the formation of the mineral deposits. The refore, it can be concluded that the mineral deposits are products of combined processes of the coupling of ore source field, fluid field, thermal field (energy field) and stress field under certain time-space conditions in the early Proterozoic and the late-stage superimposed reworking of tectono-magmatism.

  4. Mineral transformations and Zn, Pb, As, Cd mobility in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz, S Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzykowska, Irena; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the degree of threat posed by heavy metals and other environmentally harmful elements it is necessary to determine forms in which these elements occur and their stability in the weathering environment. The aim of this work was to (1) describe mineral transformations occurring in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz (S Poland), (2) identify forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, As, Cd; and (3) predict potential mobility of these elements. Studied samples come from soil profiles developed on four dumps after mining of non-sulfide Zn ores from the end of the XIX century until 1985. Two types of approaches were used: mineralogical methods (optical and electron microscopy with in situ elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction) and geochemical methods (selective sequential extraction and bulk elemental analysis). Zn in studied samples is present in smithsonite or hemimorphite, Zn aluminosilicates (smectite and kaolinite groups) and absorbed on Fe-oxide. The largest amounts of Pb is encountered in Mn-oxides and less in cerrusite, Fe-oxides and dolomite. As dominates as the ions absorbed on goethite and Cd as an impurity in carbonates, silicates and Zn-aluminosilicates, and in the form of exchangeable ions. Most important mineral transformations due to weathering observed in the samples are dissolution of dolomite, goethite, smithsonite, hemimorphite and precipitation of Zn-aluminosilicates, Mn-oxides and secondary Fe-oxides. The study has shown that Cd occurring in the form of exchangeable ions, potentially available to living organisms, pose the greatest threat to the environment. Cd is the most mobile in surface horizons of the soils developed on the oxidized ores dumps. Zn and Pb can be released from their forms in the event of a change of pH of the environment to a more acidic and As in case of changing conditions to more reductive.

  5. Time relationships between volcanism-plutonism-alteration-mineralization in Cu-stratabound ore deposits from the Michilla mining district, northern Chile: a 40Ar/39Ar geochronological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Tristá-Aguilera, Dania; Féraud, Gilbert; Morata, Diego; Aguirre, Luis; Kojima, Shoji; Ferraris, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Michilla mining district comprises one of the most important stratabound and breccia-style copper deposits of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, hosted by the Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation. 40Ar/39Ar analyses carried out on igneous and alteration minerals from volcanic and plutonic rocks in the district allow a chronological sequence of several magmatic and alteration events of the district to be established. The first event was the extrusion of a thick lava series of the La Negra Formation, dated at 159.9 ± 1.0 Ma (2 σ) from the upper part of the series. A contemporaneous intrusion is dated at 159.6 ± 1.1 Ma, and later intrusive events are dated at 145.5 ± 2.8 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively. Analyzed alteration minerals such as adularia, sericite, and actinolite apparently give valid 40Ar/39Ar plateau and miniplateau ages. They indicate the occurrence of several alteration events at ca. 160-163, 154-157, 143-148, and 135-137 Ma. The first alteration event, being partly contemporaneous with volcanic and plutonic rocks, was probably produced in a high thermal gradient environment. The later events may be related either to a regional low-grade hydrothermal alteration/metamorphism process or to plutonic intrusions. The Cu mineralization of the Michilla district is robustly bracketed between 163.6 ± 1.9 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, corresponding to dating of actinolite coexisting with early-stage chalcocite and a postmineralization barren dyke, respectively. More precisely, the association of small intrusives (a dated stock from the Michilla district) with Cu mineralization in the region strongly suggests that the main Michilla ore deposit is related to a magmatic/hydrothermal event that occurred between 157.4 ± 3.6 and 163.5 ± 1.9 Ma, contemporaneous or shortly after the extrusion of the volcanic sequence. This age is in agreement with the Re-Os age of 159 ± 16 Ma obtained from the mineralization itself (Tristá-Aguilera et al

  6. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  7. 哥伦比亚矿产资源及矿业管理概况%Overview of Mineral Resources and Mining Management in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐尧; 王英林

    2013-01-01

    Colombia is rich in coal oil, uranium, emeralds and other mineral resources. However, the degree of their exploration and exploitation is low. There is a large prospecting potentiality in Colombia. This paper points out that at present, in Colombia, the economy is in sustainable development stage;the market economy is implemented under government regulation;laws and regulations are comparatively sound. Moreover, there are so many investment opportunities, and the rights can be protected owing to their mining management policy such as the mining concession contract system. Therefore, Colombia is one of the ideal regions for China’s enterprises to carry out the out-going strategy.%哥伦比亚拥有丰富的煤炭、石油、铀矿和绿宝石等矿藏资源,但勘查、开发、利用程度较低,找矿潜力巨大。当前哥伦比亚经济处于可持续发展阶段,实行政府监管的市场经济,法律法规较为健全,因实行矿山特许合同制度等矿业管理政策,投资机会较多,权益有保障,是我国企业“走出去”较为理想地区之一。

  8. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON HIGH MINERALIZED MINE WATER BY MULTIPLEXING TECHNOLOGY%高矿化度矿井水复用技术的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑞芳; 程芳琴

    2011-01-01

    The experiment use coagulation-electrodialysis to dispose high mineralized coal mine water of certain mining area of Shanxi. Coagulation method aim to remove tubidity and suspended solids, than using electrodialysis method to desalination. The results of study show that the removal rate of tubidity is over 60 %, and on the condition that work voltage is 10 V and current density is 7.86 mA/cm2 , the outlet can achieve industrial reused water and domestic miscellaneous water quality standards absolutely with low energy consumption,which have well economic benefit.%采用混凝-电渗析相结合的方法对山西某高矿化度矿井水进行处理,混凝法旨在去除矿井水的浊度和悬浮物质,经混凝处理后的矿井水再进行电渗析脱盐处理.实验表明,矿井水浊度的去除率达到了96%以上;在工作电压为10 V、工作电流密度为7.86 mA/cm2时,出水完全符合工业水回用和生活杂用水水质要求,且能耗较低,具有实际经济效益.

  9. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  10. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (copy number could be found in hypertension patients consuming alcohol regularly compared with no alcohol consumption patients (7.09 vs 6.69); mtDNA copy number was also positively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Hypertension was found significantly correlated with factors such as age, work duration, monthly family income and drinking status. Our results suggest that the mtDNA copy number is not associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  11. Non-metallic Inclusions in Continuously Cast Aluminum Killed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In aluminum killed steels, the size, shape, quantity and formation of non-metallic inclusions in ladle steel (before and after RH vacuum treatment) and in tundish as well as in slabs were studied by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) and by analyzing the total oxygen. The results showed that in the slabs the total oxygen was quite low and the inclusions discovered were mainly small-sized angular alumina inclusions. This indicates that most inclusions have been removed by floating out during the continuous casting process. In addition, the countermeasures were discussed to decrease the alumina inclusions in the slabs further.

  12. Testing theOdour Quality of Non-Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVIJIT SINGH GANGWAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This report has been compiled on the completion of 3 week summer training at ICAT. It discusses about a very necessary and least popular part of the Automotive Industry i.e. Testing and Certification. It discusses about one of the government notified Testing body ICAT which is one of just 6 such organisations in India.This report deals with the odour quality testing of non-metallic materials that are used for automobile compartment and parts associated with the compartment.

  13. Using remote sensing techniques and field-based structural analysis to explore new gold and associated mineral sites around Al-Hajar mine, Asir terrane, Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, Abdullah R.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    2016-05-01

    Modern earth resource satellites provide huge amounts of digital imagery at different resolutions. These satellite imageries are considered one of the most significant sources of data for mineral exploration. Image processing techniques were applied to the exposed rocks around the Al-Aqiq area of the Asir terrane in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. The area under study has two sub-parallel N-S trending metamorphic belts of green-schist facies. The first belt is located southeast of Al-Aqiq, where the Al-Hajar Gold Mine is situated. It is essentially composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks, and it is intruded by different plutonic rocks of primarily diorite, syenite and porphyritic granite. The second belt is located northwest of Al-Aqiq, and it is composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks and is intruded by granite bodies. The current study aimed to distinguish the lithological units, detect and map the alteration zones, and extract the major fault lineaments around the Al-Hajar gold prospect. Digital satellite imageries, including Landsat 7 ETM + multispectral and panchromatic and SPOT-5 were used in addition to field verification. Areas with similar spectral signatures to the prospect were identified in the nearby metamorphic belt; it was considered as a target area and was inspected in the field. The relationships between the alteration zones, the mineral deposits and the structural elements were used to locate the ore-bearing zones in the subsurface. The metasedimentary units of the target area showed a dextral-ductile shearing top-to-the-north and the presence of dominant mineralized quartz vein-system. The area to the north of the Al-Hajar prospect showed also sub-parallel shear zones along which different types of alterations were detected. Field-based criteria such as hydrothermal breccia, jasper, iron gossans and porphyritic granite strongly indicate the presence of porphyry-type ore deposits in Al-Hajar metamorphic belt that

  14. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... faulty pillar recovery methods. Pillar dimensions shall be compatible with effective control of the...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  16. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend closer than 500 feet (measured horizontally) to any abandoned or active underground mine workings, except...

  17. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500 feet of an underground mine...

  18. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  19. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  20. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  1. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  2. Medical-Miner : integrating explicit knowledge in data mining techniques for the development of translational medicine tools

    OpenAIRE

    Buenaga, Manuel de; Fernández Riverola, Florentino; Maña López, Manuel Jesús; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; González Peña, Daniel; Mata Vázquez, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto plantea analizar, experimentar y desarrollar nuevas tecnologías de minería de texto y datos, de forma interrelacionada en sistemas inteligentes de información médica. Se implementará un sistema inteligente de acceso a la información basado en ellas, que ofrezca funcionalidades avanzadas con capacidad para interrelacionar la información médica, principalmente la información (texto y datos) de historiales clínicos y documentación científica, haciendo uso de recursos estándar del dom...

  3. Hercynian Pb-Zn mineralization types in the Alcudia Valley mining district (Spain) and their reflect in Pb isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Palero, F.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Carracedo, M.

    2003-04-01

    More than 450 ore deposits indexed within the Alcudia Valley of the Central-Iberian Zone (Spain) may be grouped by their tectonic and lithologic characteristics (1,2) as follows: type A of rare stratabound mineralizations, and types B, C, D and E represented by abundant Hercynian veins (post-Namurian). 86 new Pb isotope analyses of galenas from the four vein types reveal that types B and C have similar isotopic ratios with values of μ_2 = 10.07, ω_2 = 40.6 and a mean model age of 564 Ma. Types D and E have μ_2 and ω_2 values of 9.79 and 38.5, respectively, but differ each other with respect to their model ages, 600 Ma (type D) and 335 Ma (type E). The observed variations appear to be related to the geochemical features of the metasedimentary host-rocks of the mineralizations where two distinct types of Pb isotopic ratios have been reported (3): one with μ_2 and ω_2 comparable to those of the D and E types and another with a more radiogenic composition, close to those of the B and C types of galenas. Nägler et al. have suggested partial rehomogeneization of Pb isotopic composition within the metasediments at ca. 330 Ma, that is, prior to the mineralization events, but the extent of this process and its effects on the ore bodies isotopic features is not evident. The origin of the more abundant E type ore bodies has been related to the Hercynian granitic rocks in the area (2, and references therein). Other plutons within this sector of the Central Iberian Zone (e.g., Linares, etc.; cf. accompanying Abstract) associate ore bodies whose Pb isotopic composition is very similar to that of the E type galenas from the Alcudia Valley. The isotopic data obtained thus point to a related or common source material for the various types of granites within the area studied. Yet, the Pb isotopic composition of other mineralizations (B, C, D), likewise located in Hercynian veins, allow to consider different types of Pb-Zn ore bodies and point therefore to different sources of

  4. 渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律%Mineralization enrichment regularities in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 卢志文; 刘大勇

    2014-01-01

    Ore-bearing strata in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area are all in upper Wuqiangxi ,the ore body mainly occurs in the hanging wall of the F 3 ,stibnite veins number a total of 77 ,and the common industrial ore bodies are 47;according to the distance away from F 3 ,Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲvein groups are classified .GroupⅠis the best in ore-bearing potentials,II vein group poorer and group Ⅲore veins poorest.The regularity of mineralization Zhazixi antimony tung-sten mining area is systematically summarized .The results show thatveins distribute in groups and belts ,laterally tren-ding SE on the whole;veins enrich in the intersection ,where inclination angle slows ,and in the tectonic expansions;the enrichment degree of main veins is closely related with F 3;the ore-bearing rock systemtakes on combined features of antimony and tungsten ,and the mineralization relation between antimony and tungsten are reflected by the fact that their respective orebodies occur in fractures of different sequence; the trending of antimony veins and tungsten strata cross each other nearly orthogonally ,indicating a symbiosis deposit of combined antimony and tungsten mineralization . There is symbiosis of antimony and tungsten in upper Zhazixi mining , suggesting great resource development poten-tials.%渣滓溪锑钨矿区赋矿地层均为五强溪上段,矿体主要赋存于F3的上盘,有编号的辉锑矿脉共计有77条,工业矿体47条;按与F3距离分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ脉组,以Ⅰ脉组含矿最佳,Ⅱ脉组次之,Ⅲ脉组含矿性较差。系统总结了渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律,结果表明,矿脉成组成带分布,整体呈南东侧伏规律;矿脉明显交汇富集,在倾向上倾角变缓及构造膨胀部位富集,主脉富集程度与F3密切相关;赋矿岩系具有锑钨组合特征,锑钨成生关系反映在各自的矿体赋存于不同序次的断裂中;锑矿脉走向与钨矿层走向近于直交,为锑钨叠加成

  5. Origin of Minerals and Elements in the Late Permian Coal Seams of the Shiping Mine, Sichuan, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbing Luo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic layers in coal seams in southwestern China coalfields have received much attention given their significance in coal geology studies and their potential economic value. In this study, the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of C19 and C25 coal seams were examined, and the following findings were obtained. (1 Clay minerals in sample C19-r are argillized, and sedimentary layering is not observed. The acicular idiomorphic crystals of apatite and the phenocrysts of Ti-augite coexisting with magnetite in roof sample C19-r are common minerals in basaltic rock. The rare earth elements (REE distribution pattern of C19-r, which is characterized by positive Eu anomalies and M-REE enrichment, is the same as that of high-Ti basalt. The concentrations of Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf in C19-r are closer to those of high-Ti basalt. In conclusion, roof sample C19-r consists of tuffaceous clay, probably with a high-Ti mafic magma source. (2 The geochemical characteristics of the C25 coals are same as those reported for coal affected by alkali volcanic ash, enrichment in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and REE, causing the C25 minable coal seams to have higher potential value. Such a vertical study of coals and host rocks could provide more information for coal-forming depositional environment analysis, for identification of volcanic eruption time and magma intrusion, and for facilitating stratigraphic subdivision and correlation.

  6. Study on the uranium mineralization genesis of the Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, Bahia, mine, as auxiliary in the discovery and comprehension of mineral beds; Estudo da genese da mineralizacao uranifica da mina da Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, BA, como auxilio na descoberta e compreensao de jazidas minerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Ana Rosa Passos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: laro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The acknowledgement of the geological history of a ore reserve allows to infer relative to a large area with possibility to contain the large mineral content or even give the localization of new anomalies or mineral reserve. The study of ore reserve genesis is of great importance for the stages to obtain the mineral, from the prospection until the mineral mining. Fluid inclusions (FI) are fluid quantities which are imprison in the minerals during the formation process or some process where deformation occurs. The study of fluid inclusions, together with the petrographic mapping of the blades associated to the uranium para genesis of Lagoa Real, Brazil, are been used for a better comprehension of the uranium orogenesis. The main analysis techniques used in this context were the petrography and microthermometry. With the petrographic analysis fluid inclusions were observed and mapped in various minerals present in rocks associated to uranium mineralization, such as amphiboles, pyroxenes and grenades. The micro thermometric studies were only performed in the pyroxenes and the grenades due to the fluid inclusions types found in these minerals, and also the supposed relationships that those minerals have with uranium mineralization at that region. (author)

  7. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  8. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to insure...

  10. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large...

  11. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small...

  12. Isolation and characterisation of mineral-oxidising "Acidibacillus" spp. from mine sites and geothermal environments in different global locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Roseanne; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Oliveira, Guilherme; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-09-01

    Eight strains of acidophilic bacteria, isolated from mine-impacted and geothermal sites from different parts of the world, were shown to form a distinct clade (proposed genus "Acidibacillus") within the phylum Firmicutes, well separated from the acidophilic genera Sulfobacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Two of the strains (both isolated from sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA) were moderate thermophiles that oxidised both ferrous iron and elemental sulphur, while the other six were mesophiles that also oxidised ferrous iron, but not sulphur. All eight isolates reduced ferric iron to varying degrees. The two groups shared <95% similarity of their 16S rRNA genes and were therefore considered to be distinct species: "Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans" (moderately thermophilic isolates) and "Acidibacillus ferrooxidans" (mesophilic isolates). Both species were obligate heterotrophs; none of the eight strains grew in the absence of organic carbon. "Acidibacillus" spp. were generally highly tolerant of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though "A. sulfuroxidans" strains were more sensitive to some (e.g. nickel and zinc) than those of "A. ferrooxidans". Initial annotation of the genomes of two strains of "A. ferrooxidans" revealed the presence of genes (cbbL) involved in the RuBisCO pathway for CO2 assimilation and iron oxidation (rus), though with relatively low sequence identities.

  13. Design on Sensor Nodes of Miner State Based on Mine%矿山人员状态感知节点的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 丁恩杰; 史岩岩; 李红星; 奚锦锦

    2012-01-01

    The wireless sensor network based on wifi was introduced to perception of mining systems. A wireless sensor network node was designed and based on the wifi. The acceleration sensor unit of ADXL345 was applied to get the information of miner state. The hardware development of the node was based on the low power wifi SOC GS1011 and the software was based on the μ — velosity embedded operation system. Thus the data acquisition and transmission of the sensor could be realized. The paper introduced the software and hardware design of the node. The test showed the value of SVM on different motion state could be obtained) that state of miners could be confirmed correctly with stable performances.%引入基于wifi的无线网络到感知矿山系统中,设计并实现一种基于wifi的人员状态感知节点,使用加速度传感器单元ADXL345获取人员状态信息;节点硬件采用低功耗的wifi模块GS1011,软件采用基于μ-velosity的嵌入式操作系统,实现传感器数据的采集和发送;介绍了节点的软硬件设计,并进行了测试,得到人员不同状态的SVM值,可以根据SVM值正确判断人员的状态,且性能稳定.

  14. A RISK MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR NON-METALLIC PROCESS EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Viviers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many companies in South Africa have implemented the risk-based inspection (RBI methodology as a maintenance strategy. The risk involved in operating a piece of equipment, past history, non-destructive examination techniques, failure modes, and many other aspects determine the frequency of inspections required to meet legislation. The main purpose of the RBI methodology is to prevent failures of process equipment. The methodology for risk-based inspection for metal equipment is well-established and has been proven in industry, becoming the norm nationally and internationally. However, it is not possible to apply all the techniques to nonmetallic equipment owing to vast differences between the two types of materials. This paper discusses the results of data gathered on the RBI methodology for nonmetallic equipment, and proposes a risk-based model that can be used to perform a risk assessment for non-metallic equipment in a process plant. The risk assessment can be used to formulate the next inspection interval for the asset.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie maatskappye in Suid-Afrika het reeds die metodologie van risikogebaseeerde inspeksie (RBI geïmplementeer as deel van ‘n omvattende instandhoudingstrategie. Die risiko betrokke by ‘n fisiese item, bedryfsgeskiedenis, nie-vernietigende toetstegnieke, falingsmodusse, en vele ander aspekte bepaal die frekwensie van inspeksies wat benodig word om aan wetlike vereistes te voldoen. Die hoofdoel van die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie is om faling van prosestoerusting te verhinder. Die metodologie vir risiko-gebaseerde inspeksie van metaaltoerusting is goed bekend en word suksesvol toegepas in die industrie. Dis is egter nie moontlik om al die tegnieke toe te pas op nie-metaaltoerusting nie weens die groot verskeidenheid van materiaaltipes. Hierdie artikel bespreek die data wat ingewin is op die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie vir nie-metaaltipeprosestoerusting, en stel

  15. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parts of the mine in which miners work or travel; (4) Roadways or other openings are not supported or... to the Administrator for Coal Mine Safety and Health or the Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for...

  16. 平朔矿区煤中矿物分布及赋存特征研究%Study on Mineral Distribution and Deposition Features of Coal Seam in Pingshuo Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白向飞; 王越

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ash behavior features of coal in Pingshuo Mining Area and to provide the basis to the pollution control of the trace elements,a reflected-light microscope,scanning electron microscope and other means were applied to study the distribution and deposition features of the clay mineral,aluminium hydroxide mineral,calcite,siderite,pyrite and other minerals in No.4 coal seam of Pingshuo Mining Area.The paper also had a deep analysis on the distribution features of the dispersed minerals and trace elements in the clay mineral in coal of Pingshuo Mining Area as well as the paragenetic and metasomatism function between each mineral.The study showed that the clay mineral in coal of Pingshuo Mining Area mainly would have two different optical properties.The Si/Al atomic ratio in two clay minerals was close and there was a small difference in the mineral composition.The kaolinite was the mineral mainly in the composition of the clay.The aluminium hydroxide mineral was the typical mineral type in Permian coal of Pingshuo Mining Area.In comparison with coal in other areas,Al203 was the important sources in the ash and had a close paragenetic with calcite,pyrite and other minerals.%为研究平朔矿区煤中煤灰行为特性,为微量元素污染控制提供依据,采用反射偏光显微镜和扫描电镜等手段,对平朔矿区4号煤层中黏土矿物、铝的氢氧化物矿物、方解石、菱铁矿和黄铁矿等矿物的分布和赋存特征进行了研究,同时深入分析了平朔矿区煤中黏土矿物中分散矿物及微量元素的分布特征,以及各种矿物之间的共生、交代作用.研究表明,平朔矿区煤中的黏土矿物主要呈现2种不同的光学性质,但2种黏土矿物中的Si/Al原子比相近,矿物成分差别不大,均以高岭石黏土矿物为主;铝的氢氧化物矿物是平朔二叠纪煤中有代表性的矿物类型,在其他地区煤中比较少见,是煤灰中Al203的重要来源,且与方解石、黄铁矿等矿物密切共生.

  17. Characterization of manganese phases in mineral processing products of the Azul Mine, Carajas. Metallurgical implications; Caracterizacao de fases manganesiferas em produtos de beneficiamento da Mina do Azul, Carajas. Implicacoes metalurgicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.; Fernandez, O.J.Ch., E-mail: pereiragilcimar@hotmail.co, E-mail: ochoque.fernandez@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, M.L. da, E-mail: mlc@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2010-07-01

    Were characterized the manganese phases of the processing products using ore microscopy and x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute with new data and help the processing operations of the mine. Cryptomelane is the main manganese mineral in products, and pyrolusite and nsutite are in minor proportion. Were observed distinctive textures of the cryptomelane and others manganese phases, it were formed in different geological times and therefore affecting the operations in mineral processing, principally, comminution. The observed mineralogical variations affect too the unit operations when expand the pit. (author)

  18. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  19. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by an acidophilic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain AJH1 isolated from a mineral mining site in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulazhagan, P; Al-Shekri, K; Huda, Q; Godon, J J; Basahi, J M; Jeyakumar, D

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at acidic conditions (pH = 2) by acidophilic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain AJH1 (KU664513). The strain AJH1 was obtained from an enrichment culture obtained from soil samples of mining area in the presence of PAH as sole sources of carbon and energy. Strain AJH1was able to degrade low (anthracene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, fluorene) and high (pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) molecular weight PAHs in acidophilic mineral salt medium at pH 2, with removal rates of up to 95% (LMW PAH) and 80% (HMW PAH), respectively. In addition, strain AJH1 treated petroleum wastewater with 89 ± 1.1% COD removal under acidic condition (pH 2) in a continuously stirred reactor. Acidophilic S. maltophilia strain AJH1, hence holds the promise as an effective degrader for biological treatment of PAHs contaminated wastewater at acidic pH.

  20. Radiation damage in nonmetallic solids under dense electronic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Tanimura, Katsumi; Nakai, Yasuo (Dept. of Physics, Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    Basic processes of radiation damage of insulators by dense electronic excitation are reviewed. First it is pointed out that electronic excitation of nonmetallic solids produces the self-trapped excitons and defect-related metastable states having relatively long lifetimes, and that the excitation of these metastable states, produces stable defects. The effects of irradiation with heavy ions, including track registration, are surveyed on the basis of the microscopic studies. It is pointed out also that the excitation of the metastable states plays a role in laser-induced damage at relatively low fluences, while the laser damage has been reported to be governed by heating of free electrons produced by multiphoton excitation. Difference in the contributions of the excitation of metastable defects to laser-induced damage of surfaces, or laser ablation, and laser-induced bulk damage is stressed. (orig.).

  1. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind ecosystem processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and ecosystems in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or ecosystem processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within

  2. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations...

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations...

  4. Effect of the conditions of REM microalloying of steel on the corrosion activity of nonmetallic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movenko, D. A.; Kotel'nikov, G. I.; Pavlov, A. V.; Bytsenko, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental heats of low-alloy steel are performed under various conditions of rare-earth metal microalloying and aluminum and calcium deoxidation. Electron-probe microanalysis of nonmetallic inclusions and a metallographic investigation of a metal are used to show that, when interacting with water, nonmetallic cerium oxide inclusions do not form hydrates and, correspondingly, are not aggressive. When aluminum, calcium, and cerium additions are sequentially introduced into a melt, a continuous cerium oxide shell forms on calcium aluminates, protects corrosive nonmetallic inclusions against interaction with water, and weakens local metal corrosion.

  5. Mining review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  6. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil Resíduos do processamento de peles e de carvão mineral aplicados em solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Kray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00. The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha-1, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha-1 Cr(III; coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha-1. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.Os resíduos gerados na exploração de carvão mineral e no processamento de peles são produtos potencialmente poluentes em várias regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. O presente trabalho foi conduzido a campo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação e da reaplicação de resíduos carbonífero e de curtume ao Cr sobre as plantas de milho e de soja cultivadas em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Estação Experimental da UFRGS, localizada no município de Eldorado do Sul (RS. A primeira aplicação dos resíduos foi feita no ano agrícola de 1996/97 e a reaplicação no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. As doses de resíduos de curtume variaram conforme o pH do solo e o poder de neutralização do resíduo, tendo sido adicionadas quantidades

  7. Jensenite, Cu3 Te (super 6+) O6 .2H2O, a new mineral species from the Centennial Eureka Mine, Tintic District, Juab County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Grice, Joel D.; Groat, Lee A.; Criddle, Alan J.; Gault, Robert A.; Erd, Richard C.; Moffatt, Elizabeth A.

    1996-01-01

    Jensenite, ideally Cu 3 Te (super 6+) O 6 .2H 2 O, is monoclinic, P2 1 /n (14), with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 9.204(2), b 9.170(2), c 7.584(1) Aa, beta 102.32(3) degrees , V 625.3(3) Aa 3 , a:b:c 1.0037:1:0.8270, Z = 4. The strongest six reflections of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Aa(I)(hkl)] are: 6.428(100)(101,110), 3.217(70)(202), 2.601(40)(202), 2.530(50)(230), 2.144(35)(331) and 1.750(35)(432). The mineral is found on the dumps of the Centennial Eureka mine, Juab County, Utah, where it occurs as isolated crystals or as groups of crystals on drusy white quartz. Associated minerals are mcalpineite, xocomecatlite and unnamed Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn) 2 Te (super 6+) O 6 .6H 2 O. Individual crystals of jensenite are subhedral to euhedral, and form simple rhombs that are nearly equant. Some crystals are slightly elongate [101], with a length-to-width ratio up to 2:1. The largest crystal is approximately 0.4 mm in size; the average size is between 0.1 and 0.2 mm. Cleavage {101} fair. Forms are: {101} major; {110} medium; {100} minor; {301}, {201}, {203}, {102}, {010} very small. The mineral is transparent, emerald green, with a less intense streak of the same color and an uneven fracture. Jensenite is adamantine, brittle and nonfluorescent; H (Mohs) 3-4; D (calc.) 4.78 for the idealized formula, 4.76 g/cm 3 for the empirical formula. In a polished section, jensenite is very weakly bireflectant and nonpleochroic. In reflected plane-polarized light in air, it is a nondescript grey, and in oil, it is a much darker grey in color with a brownish tint, with ubiquitous bright green internal reflections. Anisotropy is not detectable. Measured values of reflectance, in air and in oil, are tabulated. Electron-microprobe analyses yielded CuO 50.91, ZnO 0.31, TeO 3 38.91, H 2 O (calc.) [8.00], total [98.13] wt.%. The empirical formula, derived from crystal-structure analysis and electron-microprobe analyses, is (Cu (sub 2.92) Zn (sub 0.02) ) (sub

  8. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. SME mining engineering handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...) 948-4200 / (800) 763-3132 www.smenet.org SME advances the worldwide mining and minerals community through information exchange and professional development. With members in more than 70 countrie...

  11. COLOMBIAN MINING SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JORGE MARTÍN MOLINA ESCOBAR; OSCAR JAIME RESTREPO BAENA

    2010-01-01

    This is a brief reference to mining sustainability in Colombia. First, it discusses the concept of sustainability and its relationship to mineral resources, covering topics of ethical, economical and environmental issues...

  12. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  13. Mineralization characteristics and genesis of Chaganregegou copper mine%查干热各沟铜矿成矿特征及成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学俊; 路耀祖; 马青莲; 雷延军

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the genesis of mining areas, we studied the mineralization geological background,litho-geochemistry and the ore body characteristics,ore character,ore-bearing hori-zon,spatial distribution of copper ore body. Copper is distributed mainly along intermediate -acid intrusive rocks in contact with the inner and outer zone of Variscan,and occurs in ultrabasic rocks, volcanic rocks and late siliceous veins in the fault zone. The ore body is mainly controlled by Mae-rzheng group slate containing phyllite and spilite,intrusive rocks and surrounding rock contact zone and fault structure. Genesis of the ore body is magma liquation injection type and volcanic sedimenta-ry-hydrothermal superimposed transformation type. According to the analysis of ore -controlling factors and prospecting indicators,The copper mine area has potential exploration.%为探讨查干热各沟铜矿矿区的矿床成因,预测找矿前景,通过对矿区成矿地质背景、地球化学特征及铜矿体的矿体特征、矿石特征、赋矿层位、空间展布等方面的研究,认为该区铜矿体主要沿华力西期中酸性侵入岩的内外接触带分布,赋存于超基性岩体、火山岩及断层破碎带内的后期硅质脉体中,受超基性岩体、火山岩及断层破碎带控制,超基性岩体中主要形成岩浆熔离贯入型铜矿,细碧岩及附近断层破碎带内主要形成火山沉积-热液叠加改造型铜矿,其成因类型有岩浆熔离贯入型和火山沉积-热液叠加改造型。根据矿床的控矿因素、找矿标志的分析,该矿区具一定的找矿潜力。

  14. Encapsulation of nonmetallic fractions recovered from printed circuit boards waste with thermoplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Shantha Kumari; Sohaili, Johan; Hassan, Azman

    2014-09-01

    The present work includes a process for encapsulation by combining substantially simultaneously dry nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder and recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE) in an extruder to form a homogenous matrix. The extruded materials were then molded into standard tensile, flexural, and impact properties testing specimens. Nonmetallic PCB mainly consists of large amount of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin materials. Incorporation of 50 wt% nonmetallic PCB in rHDPE matrix had increased the flexural strength and modulus by 35% and 130%, respectively. Tensile strength reported to be constant without much improvement. However, the Young's modulus has increased by 180%, with incorporation of 50 wt% nonmetallic PCB. The addition of 6 phr (parts per hundred) maleated polyethylene (MAPE) resulted in 2-fold increase in tensile and flexural strength. Regarding the leaching properties, Cu was identified as the metal that leached at the highest level from the raw nonmetallic PCB, at 59.09 mg/L. However, after the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE/PCB composites, the concentration of Cu was reduced far below the regulatory limit, to only 3 mg/L. Thermal properties of composites were studied, and it was found out that incorporation of nonmetallic PCB fillers in rHDPE resulted in low thermal conductivity, whereas mechanical strength of the composites showed maximum improvements at 220 degrees C. Overall, the encapsulation technique using nonmetallic PCB waste has formed a monolithic waste form that provides a barrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. Implications: Nonmetallic materials reclaimed from waste PCBs were used to analyze the chemical composition, and it was found that nonmetalllic PCBs mainly consist of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin materials. With such millions of glass fibers in nonmetallic PCBs, there are mass-excellent supporting bodies that enhance the mechanical properties of composites. In fact, utilization

  15. 30 CFR 77.1201 - Certification of mine maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1201 Certification of mine maps. Mine maps shall be made or certified by an engineer...

  16. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13),...

  17. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an...

  18. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  19. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi; Johan Sohaili; Azman Hassan; Siti Suhaila Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dis...

  20. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lipiński T.; Wach A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an el...

  1. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas Ånmark; Andrey Karasev; Pär Göran Jönsson

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, ...

  2. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  3. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  4. Seismic methods in mineral exploration and mine planning: a general overview of past and present case histories and a look into the future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malehmir, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available comprehensive overview of the work under- taken during the Lithoprobe program, a national research project that combined multidisciplinary Earth science studies of the Canadian landmass and surrounding offshore margins (also see Clowes et al., 1984... exploration tool that could improve the knowledge of structures and stratigraphy in existing mining camps, but also to provide dril- ling targets at depths beyond those achieved with conventional geophysical mining methods. Several Canadian mining...

  5. Interaction of silicene and germanene with non-metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, M.; Scalise, E.; van den Broek, B.; Lu, A.; Pourtois, G.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    By using first-principles simulations, we investigate the interaction of silicene and germanene with various non-metallic substrates. We first consider weak van der Waals interactions between the 2D layers and dichalcogenide substrates, like MoX2 (X=S, Se, Te). The buckling of the silicene or germanene layer is correlated to the lattice mismatch between the 2D material and the MoX2 template. The electronic properties of silicene or germanene on these different templates then largely depend on the buckling of the 2D material layer: highly buckled silicene or germanene on MoS2 are predicted to be metallic, while low buckled silicene on MoTe2 is predicted to be semi-metallic, with preserved Dirac cones at the K points. We next study the covalent bonding of silicene and germanene on (0001) ZnS and ZnSe surfaces. On these substrates, silicene or germanene are found to be semiconducting. Remarkably, the nature and magnitude of their energy band gap can be controlled by an out-of-plane electric field.

  6. THE RELIABILITY STUDY OF MINE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世济; 张达贤; 习永峰; 卢明银; 孙洪泉

    1991-01-01

    The method of reliability analysis of mineral reserve estimation, mining construction, mining technological system and surface mine investment in mine design is discussed in this paper. On the basis of this method, the questions, such as "whether the planned production and predicted economic effectiveness could be obtained", can be answered, and corresponding measures can be taken.

  7. 通化市矿产资源集中开采区矿山地质环境分区研究%Mining geological environment partition of mineral resources exploration area in Tonghua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张以晨; 汪茜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the detailed survey of mining geological environment of mineral resources exploration area in Tonghua City, 9 evaluation factors about resources destruction, geological hazards, environmental pollution have been selected to build multi-level fuzzy evaluation method to divide the risk grades of mining geological environment. Research results show that the percentage of low-grade area of mining geological environment problem is above 60%, at the same time, the serious area of mining geological environment problem is mainly distribute in the northeast and the east part of Tonghua City.%在对通化市矿产资源集中开采区矿山地质环境进行详细调研基础上,从资源破坏、地质灾害、环境污染等方面选取9个评价因子,建立模糊多层次评判方法,对矿山地质环境进行危险性分区。研究结果表明:超过60%的评价区域属地质环境问题较轻区域,地质环境问题严重地区集中分布在通化市东北部及东部地区。

  8. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and national development about the proposals of law: (no.418) from M. Richard Mallie, about various dispositions relative to miners rights and mines, (no.489) from M. Michel Sordi, about various dispositions relative to mines; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur les propositions de loi: (no.418) de M. Richard Mallie, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux droits des mineurs et aux mines, (no.489) de M. Michel Sordi, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report concerns two proposals of law which have a common concern: warranting the rights of the miners and retired miners after the disappearing of the national association of retired miners management (ANGR), the members of which are the three companies of Charbonnages de France group (French national coal board), today undergoing a progressive shut-down. In this report, it is proposed to merge the contributions of both proposals with the creation of a new national agency for the warranty of the perenniality of miners' rights. It proposes also some necessary adaptations of the structures of Charbonnages de France group and some dispositions aiming at modernizing the French mining law and ensuring the exploitation of solid mineral fuels after the disappearing of the group. (J.S.)

  9. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  10. Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California Sur watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez

    2000-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California Sur state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...

  11. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  12. Environmental studies for deep seabed mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    and mining engineers have been conducting studies for working out these minerals. These studies have revealed unknown physical, chemical, biological and geological conditions under which the mining system will have to operate, and also the potential impacts...

  13. Research on Mineral Processing Process for Copper-Lead-Zinc Mine%某铜铅锌矿选矿工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊锋

    2015-01-01

    青海某铜铅锌矿的矿石类型为原生硫化矿,针对原矿的物相分析及工艺矿物学研究,研究了一种比较适合该矿矿石的选矿工艺流程,最终可获得含锌54.10%、含铜0.39%、含铅0.24%的锌精矿,其锌回收率为90.90%,锌精矿含银36.1 g/t,回收率4.26%;得到含铜25.27%,含铅5.88%,含锌5.91%的铜精矿,铜的最终回收率80.48%,铜精矿中含银842 g/t;得到含铅37.78%,含铜1.60%,含锌8.35%的铅精矿,铅的最终回收率53.55%,铅精矿中含银3 880 g/t.%Ore type of a Qinghai copper-lead-zinc mine is primary sulfide ore, according to phase analysis of ROM ore and process mineralogy research, mineral processing process flow suitable for the type of ore is researched, zinc concentrate (including 54.10% zinc, 0.39% copper and 0.24% lead) will be obtained, in which zinc recovery of 90.90%, 36.1 g/t silver content in zinc concentrate, recovery of 4.26%;copper concentrate (including 25.27%copper, 5.88%lead and 5.91%zinc) will be obtained, in which copper recovery of 80.48%, 842 g/t silver content in copper concentrate; lead concentrate (including 37.78% lead, 1.60% copper, 8.35%zinc) will be obtained, in which lead recovery of 53.55%, 3 880 g/t silver in lead concentrate.

  14. CMIN - herramienta case basada en CRISP-DM para el soporte de proyectos de minería de datos CMIN — a CRISP-DM-based case tool for supporting data mining projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Martha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la CMIN, una herramienta CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering integrada (que soporta todas las fases de un proceso basada en CRISP-DM 1.0 (Cross – Industry Standard Process for Data Mining para soportar el desarrollo de proyectos de minería de datos.Primero se expone la funcionalidad general de CMIN, lo que incluye la gestión de procesos, plantillas y proyectos, y se destaca la capacidad de CMIN para realizar el seguimiento de los proyectos de una forma fácil e intuitiva y la manera como CMIN posibilita que el usuario incremente su conocimiento en el uso de CRISP-DM o de cualquier otro proceso que se defina en la herramienta a través de las ayudas e información que se ofrece en cada paso del proceso. Después, se detalla cómo CMIN permite enlazar en tiempo de ejecución (sin necesidad de volver a compilar la herramienta nuevos algoritmos de minería de datos que apoyen la labor de modelado (basada en un flujo de trabajo o workflow en un proyecto de minería de datos. Finalmente, se ofrecen los resultados de dos evaluaciones de la herramienta, las conclusiones y el trabajo futuro.This paper introduces CMIN, an integrated computer aided software engineering (CASE tool based on cross-industry standard process for data mining (CRISP-DM 1.0 designed to support carrying out data mining projects. It is “integrated” in the sense that it supports all phases of a process. A general overview of how CMIN works is presented first, including a treatment of processes, templates and project management. CMIN’s capacity for easily and intuitively monitoring projects is highlighted, as is the manner in which CMIN allows a user to increase knowledge regarding using CRISP-DM or any other process defined in the CASE tool through the help and information presented in each step. Next, it is shown how CMIN can bind new data mining algorithms in runtime (without the need to recompile the tool to support modelling tasks

  15. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Shantha Kumari; Sohaili, Johan; Hassan, Azman; Mohamad, Siti Suhaila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0-30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  16. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  17. Converting Non-Metallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste Into A Value Added Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0--30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  18. Second scientific seminar 'Evaluation of mineral resource deposits as a basis for decision making in mining' at the Freiberg Mining Academy on 20 and 21 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillhose, A.

    1980-02-01

    The seminar was held with 140 participants predominantly from Eastern Europe. Twenty two reports were held and discussed. Essential features of selected reports are presented. They include prerequisites for decisions such as information on resources, geological conditions, mining technology applied, evaluation methods and their criteria, the trend to high capacity, process integration and maintenance reduction, and optimization of mine planning and design. Five further report titles dealing with related experiences in brown coal surface mining are given. A selection of seminar proceedings will be published in 'Neue Bergbautechnik' and in 'Zeitschrift fuer angewandte Geologie'. (In German)

  19. 井下环境因素与矿工高血压病相关性研究%The relationship between mine environment and hypertension in coal miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明晓; 尚云霄

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mine environment and hypertension in miners. Methods 1736 male miners who worked under the ground and 825 on the ground were recruited in this study. Prevalence of hypertension under the ground and on the ground miners was compared. Results Prevalence of hypertension of miners under the ground was 23.91% and on the ground was 15.52% (χ2 = 23.56,P <0.001 ). Compared to miners on the ground, the relative risk of hypertension under the ground workers was 1.71 (95% CI 1.38 - 2.13 ). Prevalence of hypertension was correlated to the years of ground working (χ2 = 37.00, P < 0.001 ). The binary logistic regression showed significant relationship between mine environment and hypertension under the ground miners ( OR = 1.05,95% CI 1.02 - 1.08 ).Conclusion The underground environment is an important risk factor hypertension to the miners.%目的 了解井下环境因素与煤矿工人高血压病的相关性.方法 采用整体随机抽样,对比井下工人1736例及地面工人825例高血压病发病情况.结果 井下工人高血压患病率显著高于地面工人(23.91%与15.52%,χ2=23.56,P<0.001),井下工人患高血压病的危险性是地面工人的1.7倍(OR=1.71,95%CI 1.38-2.13).井下工人高血压患病率随井下工龄的增长而增加(χ2=37.0,P<0.001).logistic回归分析显示,井下环境因素与矿工高血压病密切相关(OR=1.05,95%CI1.02-1.08).结论 井下工作环境是矿工高血压病发病的重要危险因素.

  20. 山东省非铀矿山氡浓度测量及所致矿工剂量%Measurement of radon concentration and dose assessment of miners for non-uranium mines in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英民; 李海亮; 宋钢; 毕明卫; 万恩广; 李明刚; 李明言

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in the underground non-uranium mines in Shandong Province,and to estimate the annual effective dose to the miners.Methods Concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in selected gold,iron,coal and clay mines were determined by passive time-integrating detectors with CR-39.Activity concentrations of 226Ra,232Th and 40K were determined using gamma spectrometry equipped with HPGe detector.Results The average concentrations of 220Rn in the gold,iron,coal and clay mines were estimated to be 1200,280,120 and 40 Bq/m3,respectively.The activity concentrations of 226Ra,232Th,40K in the ores for gold,iron,coal and clay mines ranged the same as the soil in China.The annual effective dose due to radon exposure in gold and iron mine was 7.70 mSv and 1.74 mSv,respectively.The annual doses received by miners in the coal and clay mines were lower than 1 mSv.Conclusions Underground miners in some gold and iron mines should be treated as workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.The measurement such as increasing ventilation should be implemented to reduce underground radon concentration in these mines.%目的 调查山东省典型非铀矿山井下22Rn浓度并估算矿工接受年有效剂量.方法 利用固体径迹探测器CR-39累积测量金矿、铁矿、煤矿井下220Rn、222Rn浓度,利用高纯锗γ谱仪分析矿石226Ra、232Th、40K活度浓度.结果 山东非铀矿山井下220Rn浓度平均值由高到低依次为金矿、铁矿、煤矿、黏土矿,分别为1200、280、120和40 Bq/m3;煤矿、金矿、黏土矿和铁矿的226Ra、232Th、40K活度浓度基本处于我国土壤天然放射性核素浓度范围内;222Rn及其子体所致井下矿工年有效剂量,金矿最高为7.7 mSv,铁矿次之,为1.7 mSv,煤矿和黏土矿均低于1mSv.结论 金矿和铁矿应采取加大通风能力等措施降低井下氡浓度,井下矿工应该作为职业照射人员进行管理.

  1. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  2. SURVEY OF ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES IN TRADES AND MINING OCCUPATIONS AND IN FACTORY AND MINING COMMUNITIES AS A MEANS OF PREDICTING HEALTH RISKS OF NONOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FIBROUS MINERALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; ,

    1984-01-01

    A review based on 36 published epidemiological studies is given of disease patterns that have developed among industrial workers, miners, and millers who had been exposed to dusts of one or more of the commercial asbestos minerals or to dusts from minerals perceived to be asbestos-like. Health data are also reviewed for individuals exposed to asbestos dusts in nonoccupational settings. From the published reports it is clear that there are very significant differences in the health effects of the several asbestos or asbestos-like minerals.

  3. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  4. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  5. Products Made from Nonmetallic Materials Reclaimed from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Peng; XIANG Dong; DUAN Guanghong

    2007-01-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are in all electronic equipment, so with the sharp increase of electronic waste, the recovery of PCB components has become a critical research field. This paper presents a study of the reclaimation and reuse of nonmetallic materials recovered from waste PCBs. Mechanical processes, such as crushing, milling, and separation, were used to process waste PCBs. Nonmetallic materials in the PCBs were separated using density-based separation with separation rates in excess of 95%. The recovered nonmetals were used to make models, construction materials, composite boards, sewer grates,and amusement park boats. The PCB nonmetal products have better mechanical characteristics and durability than traditional materials and fillers. The flexural strength of the PCB nonmetallic material composite boards is 30% greater than that of standard products. Products derived from PCB waste processing have been brought into industrial production. The study shows that PCB nonmetals can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways.

  6. [Effect of working conditions in deep coal mines of the Donetsk region on the course of ischemic heart disease in miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, L T; Cherkesov, V V; Kobets, G P; Kopytina, R A

    1989-08-01

    Clinical and functional examination of the miners who suffered from coronary heart disease showed a higher ectopic activity of the myocardium during their work under underground conditions and during the subsequent 4 hours after its termination. It also indicated a significantly higher fatal cases of sudden coronary death in the miners in the aforementioned periods. To prevent the development of complications occurred in miners, the status of the cardiovascular system was proposed to be dynamically controlled.

  7. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  8. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  9. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  10. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Opiela M.; Grajcar A.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and...

  11. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Ånmark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc. are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  12. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  13. 露天采矿机在红土型铝土矿的开采工艺研究%Research on Mining Technology of Surface Miner in Lateritic Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振超

    2013-01-01

    Lateritic bauxite has the characteristics of large deposit reserves and large area and easy for open pit mining on a large scale, but upper gossan of ore bed is too hard and lower laterite is soft, therefore, traditional mining technologies of drilling and blasting are not applicable. By combination of engineering example of lateritic bauxite in Guinea, the paper investigates the feasibility of lateritic bauxite mining by using surface miner, and compares development and transportation schemes of this kind of deposit. The research shows that it is feasible in technology by selection of surface miner as stripping machine and application of combination transportation of truck and belt, and it can reach better benefit in economy.%红土型铝土矿具有矿床储量大、平面面积大的特点,易于大规模露天开采,但矿层上部铁帽较硬,下部红土较软,不适应传统的穿孔、爆破采矿工艺。结合几内亚某红土型铝土矿的工程实例,研究了采用露天采矿机开采红土型铝土矿的可行性,并对此类型矿床的开拓运输方案进行了比较。研究表明,选用露天采矿机作为采剥设备,配合汽车+胶带联合运输,在技术上是可行的,经济上也能达到较好的效果。

  14. East China Non-ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau obtaining mining rights in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In December 2007,Jiangsu East China Non- ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau has reached an agreement for cooperation with In- donesia Mining Company for the joint exploita- tion of mineral resources for 960 km2 areas in

  15. Aplicación de la minería de datos al Sistema Cubano de Farmacovigilancia Application of data mining to the Cuban Pharmacovigilance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Calzadilla Fernández de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1999, se crea la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia, la cual funciona como el órgano técnico-científico que desarrolla la política de vigilancia de seguridad de medicamentos del Ministerio de Salud Pública e integra las actividades de los centros provinciales y de otros programas concertados de farmacovigilancia en un sistema único. Entre sus funciones más relevantes se encuentran la de definir, diseñar y desarrollar los sistemas de información; administrar la base de datos nacional; depurar y validar la información contenida en ella; y realizar y coordinar estudios científicos sobre la seguridad de los medicamentos; así como elaborar informes para las autoridades sanitarias y el Sistema Nacional de Salud. En este sistema existe la necesidad de utilizar herramientas de análisis, por lo que se trazó el objetivo de definir, diseñar y desarrollar los sistemas de tratamiento de la información y administrar la base de datos nacional "VigiBaseCuba". Aplicando una serie de transformaciones, validaciones y la adecuación de la metodología CRISP-DM para la elaboración de proyectos de minería de datos, se conformó la base de datos nacional, en un sistema de gestión de bases de datos relacional con los registros de las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos y un proceso de descubrimiento de conocimiento que permite gestionar eficazmente la seguridad de los medicamentos, así como desarrollar aplicaciones para la visualización de las señales de reacciones adversas y su evoluciónIn 1999, The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacovigilance was created. It works as a scientific and technical agency that develops the drug safety surveillance policy of the Ministry of Public Health, and integrates the activities of the provincial centres and other pharmacovigilance programs in a unique system. Some of its most important functions are to define, design and develop the information

  16. Lung cancer mortality among the miners in a rare-earth iron mine; La mortalite par cancer du poumon chez les mineurs d'une mine de terres-rares et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing-An, C.; Yong-E, C. [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, P.R. (China)

    2008-07-15

    An epidemiology study on lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners and dust-unexposed miners (controls) was performed in 2001. It was found that, during the period from 1977 to March 2001, 27 cases of lung cancers were observed in the dust-exposed miners, while 8 cases of lung cancers were found in controls. The S.M.R. of them were 6.13 and 1.90 respectively. The S.M.R. of the dust-exposed miners was much higher than that of the controls. The difference between the two S.M.R. is very significant ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.488, P < 0.005). The probability that 27 or more lung cancers would occur in the dust-exposed group, given the expected numbers and that a total of 35 occurred is 0.0015. The high S.M.R. for lung cancers among dust-exposed miners likely resulted from the inhaled thorium-containing dusts (carcinogens are ThO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}) and its short lived thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation of the dust exposed miners and the unexposed miners were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively. (author)

  17. Theory of and Method for Nontraditional Mining Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@NONTRADITIONAL MINING ASSESSMENT THEORY Nontraditional Mineral Resources Nontraditional mineral resources refers to the potential mineral resources that are ignored, undiscovered and unutilized under present technical, economic and environmental conditions. This research scope can be listed as follows: (1)Nontraditional mineral resources refer to new types, new depths, new scopes, new techniques and new utilization. (2)Nontraditional theories and methods include new theories,new technologies and new methods in the aspects of ore-forming, prospecting, mining, metallurgy and mining assessment such as nontraditional ore-forming predication. (3) Nontraditional mining refers to the types of clean and unpolluted mining, intensive mining, high value-added mining, high technology mining, post-mining economy and comprehensive service mining.

  18. Development of Polish mining education until the year 1939

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes history of the education system for coal miners and petroleum miners in Poland from 1803 to 1939. The following information is evaluated: foundation time, sponsors, type of education, courses, duration of mining education, personnel, number of students, cooperation with other educational institutes. The following schools and educational institutions are discussed: mining schools in Krolewska Huta and Tarnowskie Gory (1803), mining school in Wieliczka (1861) and Boryslawiec (1886), mining school in Dabrowa (1907), mining school in Katowice (fusion of schools in Wieliczka and Tarnowskie Gory in 1933), mining school in Dabrowa Gornicza (1889), mining academy in Kielce (1816), Mining Academy in Cracow (1919). 85 refs.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN-BURNING OF NON-METALLIC AUTOMOBILE SHREDDER RESIDUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study in which the open combustion of a nonmetallic waste product called "fluff" was simulated and the resulting emissions collected and characterized to gain insight into the types and quantities of these air pollutants. (NOTE: The reclamation proce...

  20. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The results are presented of an exhaustive literature search and evaluation concerning the properties and economics of commercially available nonmetallic well casing and screens. These materials were studied in terms of their use in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction.

  1. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an electric arc furnace and then desulfurized and argonrefined. Seven typical industrial melts were analyzed, in which ca. 75% secondary raw materials were used. The amount of non-metallic inclusions was determined by optical and extraction methods. The test results are presented using stereometric indices. Inclusions are characterized by measuring ranges. The chemical composition of steel and contents of inclusions in every melts are presented. The results are shown in graphical form. The presented analysis of the tests results on the amount and size of non-metallic inclusions can be used to assess them operational strength and durability of steel melted and refined in the desulfurization and argon refining processes.

  2. Nonferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes nonferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  3. Ferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Villa Rica, Georgia Mine Locations Map, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is...

  5. Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G; Beveridge, T J

    1992-06-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 x 10 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone.

  6. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  7. Raising environmental awareness among miners in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Mozaffari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways forraising environmental awareness among miners. Miners’ attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers’ point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management in Iran. Their opinions on methods used for minerals extraction and waste productionare sought in order to investigate possible educational schemes for waste reduction and mine waste disposal. The type and quantity of waste produced by respondents have been identified to prioritise the wastes produced in minesites. Environmental legislations and policies for good practice minerals extraction are surveyed anddemonstrated. These are regarded as our clients’ preferences on managing mining waste. When combined with other existing policies and methods, they could become part of a learning program to boost awareness among miners.

  8. 30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Newly employed by the operator; (2) Transferred to the mine; (3) Experienced underground miners... to work environment. The course shall include a visit and tour of the mine. The methods of mining... responsibilities of such supervisors and miners' representatives; and an introduction to the operator's rules...

  9. Evaluation of Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions in P/M Ni-Base Superalloy by Automatic Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xinggang; Ge; Changchun; Shen; Weiping

    2007-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions,especially the large ones,within P/M Ni-base superalloy have a major influence on fatigue characteristics,but are not directly measurable by routine inspection.In this paper,a method,automatic image analysis,is proposed for estimation of the content,size and amount of non-metallic inclusions in superalloy.The methodology for the practical application of this method is described and the factors affecting the precision of the estimation are discussed.In the experiment,the characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions in Ni-base P/M superalloy are analyzed.

  10. Investimentos privados, impactos ambientais e qualidade de vida num empreendimento mineral amazônico: o caso da mina de manganês de Serra do Navio (Amapá Private investments, environmental impact, and the quality of life at a mining venture in the Amazon: the case of the Serra do Navio manganese mine in Amapá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Drummond

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute as conseqüências ambientais e socioeconômicas de um grande empreendimento de extração mineral na Amazônia brasileira. Entre 1957 e 1998, a Indústria e Comércio de Minérios S. A. (ICOMI explorou manganês no Amapá, em Serra do Navio, uma das maiores minas desse minério no mundo. Foi o primeiro e o mais durável empreendimento mineral de grande escala e intensivo de capital na região amazônica brasileira. O texto apresenta um perfil biofísico e socioeconômico do Amapá, caracterizando-o como fronteira de expansão da sociedade nacional. Discute o volume da produção, as características da companhia mineradora, mostrando seu sucesso comercial, os principais impactos ambientais do empreendimento, especialmente o desmatamento, o status da qualidade de água e a recuperação ambiental da área minerada, concluindo que esses impactos foram localizados e moderados. Na conclusão, são apresentados os resultados de um exercício de mensuração dos níveis de bem-estar socioeconômico da população do Amapá entre 1953 e 1993: as melhoras foram sensíveis.The text examines the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of a major mining venture in the Brazilian Amazon. From 1957 to 1998, Indústria e Comércio de Minérios S. A. (ICOMI extracted ore from one of the world’s largest manganese mines, located in the Serra do Navio highlands region of the state of Amapá. ICOMI was the first and longest-running large-scale, capital-intensive mining operation in the Brazilian Amazon. Based on a biophysical and socioeconomic profile of Amapá, the region is characterized as a frontier for an expanding Brazilian society. After discussing the mining company’s characteristics, its production volume and commercial success, main environmental impacts (particularly deforestation, area water quality, and the environmental recovery of the mined area, it is concluded that impacts have been localized and moderate. Furthermore

  11. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  12. Central Mining Institute annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Projects are discussed covering the topics of: mining technologies; supports; ventilation and air conditioning; mining geodesey; detection and combating of methane hazard; detection and combating of fires; detection and combating rock bursts; detection and combating of other hazards; personnel protection equipment; coal properties; minerals processing; carbochemistry; mining hydrotechnics; acoustic measurements; and failure prediction in shearer-loaders.

  13. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Rescue Teams; CFR Correction #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 126 / Monday, July 1, 2013 / Rules... Rescue Teams CFR Correction In Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 199, revised as of... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  14. Minería de datos sobre streams de redes sociales, una herramienta al servicio de la Bibliotecología = Data Mining Streams of Social Networks, A Tool to Improve The Library Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jaramillo Valbuena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de soporte al trabajo colaborativo son herramientas valiosas en contextos en los cuales se requiere la participación de un grupo de personas para llevar a cabo una determinada tarea. Uno de estos contextos es la Bibliotecología, Archivística y Documentación. Las interacciones entre los usuarios y profesionales de esta área, mediante el uso de herramientas tales como Twitter, Facebook, fuentes RSS y blogs, generan grandes flujos de datos (streams no estructurados. Estos streams pueden ser estudiados para analizar aspectos tales como influencia, relaciones de cercanía, opinión y generación de recomendaciones, logrando de esta forma que las bibliotecas obtengan otros beneficios del uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación. Desde la perspectiva de la minería de datos, el procesamiento de estos streams plantea importantes desafíos. El uso de algoritmos de minería en este contexto, implica que en estos se deban considerar aspectos como la adaptación a la alta velocidad en que llegan los datos, la diversidad de las fuentes de datos y su estructura, la variabilidad de los datos en el tiempo y el trabajo sin restricciones de memoria. Este artículo revisa el estado del arte en lo referente a algoritmos de minería de datos sobre streams originados en redes sociales, específicamente, Facebook y Twitter. Se presenta una revisión de las técnicas más representativas de clasificación y agrupamiento, y de cómo cada una de ellas aporta al descubrimiento de conocimiento en el área de la Bibliotecología. Para concluir se presentan algunos de los problemas que son objeto de investigación activa = The Groupware systems are a valuable source for disseminating information in contexts in which the participation of a group of people is required to perform a task. One such context is the Library, Archives and Documentation. The interactions among users and professionals in this area, who use tools such as Twitter

  15. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  16. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  17. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  18. Revisión de los principales modelos para aplicar técnicas de Minería de Procesos (Review of models for applying process mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Orellana García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract La minería de procesos constituye una alternativa novedosa para mejorar los procesos en una variedad de dominios de aplicación. Tiene como objetivo extraer información a partir de los datos almacenados en los registros de trazas de los sistemas de información, en busca de errores, inconsistencias, vulnerabilidades y variabilidad en los procesos que se ejecutan. Las técnicas de minería de procesos se utilizan en múltiples sectores, como la industria, los servicios web, la inteligencia de negocios y la salud. Sin embargo, para aplicar estas técnicas existen varios modelos a seguir y poca información sobre cual aplicar, al no contar con un análisis comparativo entre estos. La investigación se centró en recopilar información sobre los principales modelos propuestos por autores de referencia mundial en el tema de minería de procesos para aplicar técnicas en el descubrimiento, chequeo de conformidad y mejoramiento de los procesos. Se realiza un análisis de los mismos en función de seleccionar los elementos y características útiles para su aplicación en el entorno hospitalario. La actual investigación contribuye al desarrollo de un modelo para la detección y análisis de variabilidad en procesos hospitalarios utilizando técnicas de minería de procesos. Permite a los investigadores tener de forma centralizada, los criterios para decidir qué modelo utilizar, o qué fases emplear de uno o más modelos. English abstract Process mining is a novel alternative to improve processes in a variety of application domains. It aims to extract information from data stored in records of traces from information systems, looking for errors, inconsistencies, vulnerabilities and variability in processes that are executing. The process mining techniques are used in multiple sectors such as industry, web services, business intelligence and health. However, to apply these techniques there are several models and little information on

  19. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.2 Steep-slope mining. The permittee conducting surface coal...

  20. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS...

  1. 30 CFR 785.13 - Experimental practices mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental practices mining. 785.13 Section 785.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  2. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section 785.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22213 Air flow (III mines). The quantity of air... longwall and continuous miner sections. The quantity of air across each face at a work place shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement...

  5. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  6. Manganese minerals and associated fine particulates in the streambed of Pinal Creek, Arizona, U.S.A.: a mining-related acid drainage problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carol J.; Hem, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Pinal creek drainage basin in Arizona is a good example of the principal non-coal source of mining-related acid drainage in the U.S.A., namely copper mining. Infiltration of drainage waters from mining and ore refining has created an acid groundwater plume that has reacted with calcite during passage through the alluvium, thereby becoming less acid. Where O2 is present and the water is partially neutralized, iron oxides have precipitated and, farther downstream where the pH of the stream water is near neutral, high-Mn crusts have developed. Trace metal composition of several phases in the Pinal Creek drainage basin illustrates the changes caused by mining activities and the significant control Mn-crusts and iron oxide deposits exert on the distribution and concentration of trace metals. The phases and locales considered are the dissolved phase of Webster Lake, a former acid waste disposal pond; selected sections of cores drilled in the alluvium within the intermittent reach of Pinal Creek; and the dissolved phase, suspended sediments, and streambed deposits at specified locales along the perennial reach of Pinal creek. In the perennial reach of Pinal Creek, manganese oxides precipitate from the streamflow as non-cemented particulates and coatings of streambed material and as cemented black crusts. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the non-cemented manganese oxides precipitate in the reaction sequence observed in previous laboratory experiments using simpler solution composition, Mn3O4 to MnOOH to an oxide of higher oxidation number usually silicates. ?? 1992.

  7. Sir Humphry Davy and the coal miners of the world: a commentary on Davy (1816) 'An account of an invention for giving light in explosive mixtures of fire-damp in coal mines'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2015-04-13

    In the period between 1815 and 1818, Sir Humphry Davy read four papers to the Royal Society and published a monograph dealing with a safety lamp for coal miners, all of which record in detail the experimental work that he carried out, with his assistant Michael Faraday, so as to determine how to prevent catastrophic accidents in coal mines by the explosion of fire-damp (methane) in the presence of a naked flame. This article describes the key experiments that he performed at the Royal Institution and some of the subsequent trials made in the coal mines of the north of England. It begins, however, with an account of Davy's prior achievements in science before he was approached for help by the clergymen and doctors in the Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne areas. There is little doubt that the Davy lamp, from the 1820s onwards, transformed the coal industry worldwide. It also profoundly influenced the science of combustion, and in the words of a pioneer in that field, W. A. Bone, FRS, 'There is no better model of logical experimental procedure, accurate reasoning, philosophical outlook and fine literary expression.' It is a remarkable fact that it took Davy essentially only two weeks from the time he was given samples of fire-damp to solve the problem and to devise his renowned miner's safety lamp. A brief account is also given of the contemporaneous invention of a safety lamp by George Stephenson, and of some of Davy's subsequent accomplishments. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  8. Non-metallic, non-Fermi-liquid resistivity of FeCrAs from 0 to 17 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, F F; Wu, W; Julian, S R

    2013-09-25

    An unusual, non-metallic resistivity of the 111 iron-pnictide compound FeCrAs is shown to be relatively unchanged under pressures of up to 17 GPa. Combined with our previous finding that this non-metallic behaviour persists from at least 80 mK to 800 K, this shows that the non-metallic phase is exceptionally robust. Antiferromagnetic order, with a Néel temperature TN ∼ 125 K at ambient pressure, is suppressed by pressure at a rate of 7.0 ± 0.4 K GPa(-1), falling to ∼50 K at 10 GPa. We conclude that the formation of a spin-density-wave gap at TN does not play an important role in the non-metallic resistivity of FeCrAs at low temperatures.

  9. Reclamation of former opencast mining sites. La rehabilitacion ecologica de terrenos minados a cielo abierto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Vela, J.J. (Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido, Coahuila (Mexico))

    1991-01-15

    Opencast mining invariably causes ecological and environmental damage even though the area of land disturbed can be put to productive use afterwards. To do this requires simple engineering practices which take into account the eco-system, the availability of natural resources, social requirements and legal restrictions in order to select the most suitable type of restoration. Once this information is available, reclamation plans need to be considered in conjunction with mining operations. The type of reclamation varies with each site to allow for differences between metallic and non-metallic mining, the methods of working used and different eco-systems. Gives a case study. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  11. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  12. Computer Simulation of the Formation of Non-Metallic Precipitates During a Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors own computer software, based on the Ueshima mathematical model with taking into account the back diffusion, determined from the Wołczyński equation, was developed for simulation calculations. The applied calculation procedure allowed to determine the chemical composition of the non-metallic phase in steel deoxidised by means of Mn, Si and Al, at the given cooling rate. The calculation results were confirmed by the analysis of samples taken from the determined areas of the cast ingot. This indicates that the developed computer software can be applied for designing the steel casting process of the strictly determined chemical composition and for obtaining the required non-metallic precipitates.

  13. Non-metallic catalysts for diamond synthesis under high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力玲; 吴奇; 戴道扬; 张君; 秦志成; 王文魁

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on conversion from graphite to diamond by aid of non-metallic catalysts are reviewed. The current status of experimental advances is presented and typical examples from relevant literature are provided for understanding the mechanism of the graphite-diamond conversion by aid of these non-metallic catalysts. Furthermore, a tendency of graphite-diamond transformation assisted by carbonates, sulfates or phosphorus under high pressure and high temperature has been investigated by calculating the activation energy and transformation probability of the carbon atoms over a potential barrier. It was found that the activation energy is highly sensitive to the catalyst chosen. The probability sequence of graphite-diamond transformation with these catalysts was put forward.

  14. Motion behavior of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-tao; GUO Qing-tao; YU Feng-yun; LI Jie; ZHANG Jian; LI Ting-ju

    2009-01-01

    Non-metallic particles, especially alumina, are the main inclusions in aluminum and its alloys. Numerical simulation and the corresponding experiments were carried out to study the motion behavior of alumina particles in commercial pure aluminum under high frequency magnetic field. At the meantime, multi-pipe experiment was also done to discuss the prospect of continuous elimination of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field. It is shown that: 1) results of numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results, which certificates the rationality of the simulation model; 2) when the intensity of high frequency magnetic field is 0.06 T, the 30 μm alumina particles in melt inner could migrate to the edge and be removed within 2 s; 3) multi-pipe elimination of alumina particles under high frequency magnetic field is also effective and has a good prospect in industrial application.

  15. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79... ACTIVITIES § 816.79 Protection of underground mining. No surface mining activities shall be conducted closer than 500 feet to any point of either an active or abandoned underground mine, except to the extent that...

  16. Proceedings, third international symposium on mine mechanization and automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hanna, K. [eds.] [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Papers are presented under the following topics: machine control and automation; rock drilling; cutting and fragmentation; rock characterization, remote sensing and interface detection; artificial intelligence and mine monitoring systems; computer applications; mechanical excavators; material handling; surface and underground mining; innovative mining systems; new developments in mechanical miners; ground hazard detection and control; ground support; and extraterrestrial mining.

  17. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as...

  18. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting on shift (III mines). 57.22607 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines). When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere by a competent person...

  20. MINING IN ECONOMY OF REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Matiša

    1996-01-01

    Croatia is not especially rich in mineral ore resources, and therefore it cannot be included into "mining countries". Nevertheless since exploitation of mineral resources is a primary activity in economy of any country, mining in Croatia is given a great significance. In Croatia, research and exploitation of oil and gas is considered to be the most significant. Exploitation of mineral resources for production of metals is negligable, while esploitation of non-metals satisfies the majority ...

  1. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    The areas covered by this report lies in the eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes in the region around Bucaramanga. This part of the eastern Cordillera consists of a structurally complex core of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian to Mesozoic age, flanked to east and west by faulted and folded sedimentary strata of late Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Infaulted blocks of sedimentary rocks are locally present in the massif. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, primarily terraced alluvium, are 10cally extensive in valleys on the flanks of the range. The crystalline central core of the range is called the Santander massif. In it are located the principal sold deposits and scattered deposits of copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The sedimentary rocks flanking the massif contain significant deposits of phosphate rock and gypsum, as well as other nonmetallic industrial minerals such as limestone, barite, glass sand, and coal. A belt of lead-zinc prospects in carbonate and sandstone beds of Cretaceous age on the east side of the range warrants further investigation. Gold and silver are the only important metallic minerals that have been produced in the Santander massif. Mining dates back to colonial and possibly to pre-colonial times and continues on a small scale at present. The California and Vetas district was the main area of investigation of metallic minerals during the present project. Results of geochemical sampling of stream sediments and assays of vein material indicate that the main potential of the area is in gold with lesser potentials in copper, lead, zinc, and silver. Mineralization of the district is probably younger than Early Cretaceous. Although no copper minerals have been mined elsewhere in the massif, small amounts of copper minerals in various rocks in scattered areas is revealed by green and blue stains of copper carbonates and sulfates. Deposits of greatest areal extent are in arkosic conglomeratic beds of the Giron Formation. These

  2. 30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). 57.22604 Section 57.22604 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22604 Blasting from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22603 - Blasting from the surface (II-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-A mines). 57.22603 Section 57.22603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22603 Blasting from...

  4. Studying mathematical model of mine and quarry pneumatic lifting equipment in "skip - guidance devices" systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kitaeva, Mariya Valerievna; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Taranov, A. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are two basic ways of mining: open pit and underground in the mining industry: open pit and underground. Underground mining less profitable, however, it is more environmentally friendly. In addition, this method is essentially inevitable due to the fact that the major mineral reserves are at greater depths and in the future will need to solve the problems of development of mineral deposits deep mines. The development of the mining sector and the deepening of mining operations require a ...

  5. NON-METALLIC IMPURITIES AND FORMING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODIFIED HIGH-MANGANESE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and morphology of chemical associations (non-metallic impurities and other ‘‘secondary” phases at modification of high-manganese steel by nitrogen and nitrideforming elements (vanadium are investigated. The optimal compositions of steel for production of castings are offered. The technology of the steel wear-resistance modification by vanadium of waste of industrial enterprises is worked out.

  6. Development discourses at the mining frontier: Buen Vivir and the contested mine of El Mirador in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teijlingen, K.; Hogenboom, B.

    2014-01-01

    In Ecuador, the recent introduction of mineral mining led to a conflictive debate on mining and evelopment, particularly Buen Vivir. This article examines the discourses on the mining-development nexus articulated in the conflict around the first large-scale mine of Ecuador, El Mirador. The findings

  7. Behavior of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Induction Electroslag Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    (para)In order to know the behavior of non-metallic inclusions in centrifugal induction electroslag castings (CIESC), non-metallic inclusions in 5CrMnMo and 4Cr5MoSiV1 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The largest size of inclusions in the casting and the thermodynamic possibility of TiN precipitation in steel were also calculated. The results show that sulfide inclusions are evenly distributed and the content is low. The amount of oxide inclusions in CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel is close to the ESR steel and lower than that in the EAF steel, and there are some differences along radial direction. Nitride inclusions are fine and the diameter of the largest one is 3~4um. With the increase of the centrifugal machine's rotational speed, the ratio of round inclusions increases and the ratio of sharp inclusions decreases. According to the experiment and the calculation results, it is pointed out that the largest diameter of non-metallic inclusions in the CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 casting is only 6.6mu, and [N%][Ti%] in 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel should be controlled less than 4.4~#U00d7tex010^{-5} in order to further reduce the amount and size of TiN inclusions.

  8. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute, represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate polymer matrix composite and ceramic matrix composite turbine engine components. The benefits include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs, reduced part count and rapid design iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature polymer filaments. The CMC effort uses a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The research project includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in ceramic materials and CMCs, polymers and PMCs, structural engineering, additive manufacturing, engine design and analysis, and system analysis.

  9. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  10. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  11. Characterization of iron- and sulphide mineral-oxidizing moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria from an Indonesian auto-heating copper mine waste heap and a deep South African gold mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Päivi H-M; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2004-10-01

    Iron- and chalcopyrite-oxidizing enrichment cultures were obtained at 50 degrees C from acidic, high-temperature, copper/gold mine environments in Indonesia and South Africa. Over 90% copper yield was obtained from chalcopyrite concentrate with the Indonesian enrichment in 3 months with 2% solids concentration, when pH was maintained at around 2. Neither addition of silver cations nor an enhanced nutrient concentration influenced chalcopyrite leaching. Excision and sequencing of bands from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the amplified partial 16S rRNA gene showed that the enrichment cultures from different environments in South Africa and Indonesia were very simple, and similar. Chalcopyrite concentrate supported a simpler and different community than Fe2+. The members of the enrichment cultures were closely related to Sulfobacillus yellowstonensis and Sulfobacillus acidophilus.

  12. Reinforcing the mineral layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pishchulin, V.V.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Seryy, A.M.; Shirokov, A.P.

    1980-05-15

    A way of reinforcing the mineral layer includes drilling holes and putting in anchors that are longer than the width of the layer strip being extracted. It also includes shortening the anchors as the strip is mined and reinforcing the remaining part of the anchor in the mouth of the hole. To increase the productivity and safety of the work, the anchors are shortened by cutting them as the strip is mined and are reinforced through wedging. The device for doing this has auxilliary lengthwise grooves in the shaft located along its length at an interval equal to the width of the band being extracted.

  13. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on the strength properties of screws made of 35B2+Cr steel after softening

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.; Pawłowski, B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of the research on the influence of non-metallic inclusions on strength properties of 35B2+Cr steel screws.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on screws after softening. The investigated steels with different fraction of non-metallic inclusions were delivered by three different suppliers.Findings: It was proved, that in spite of the level of fraction of non-metallic inclusions compatible with the corresponding standards, th...

  14. Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, R.J.; Vesela, D.; Vesely, D. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    Recent data from deep uranium mines in Czechoslovakia indicated that miners are exposed to other mutagenic factors in addition to radon daughter products. Mycotoxins were identified as a possible source of mutagens in these mines. Mycotoxins were examined in 38 samples from mines and in throat swabs taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. The following mycotoxins were identified from mines samples: aflatoxins B{sub 1} and G1, citrinin, citreoviridin, mycophenolic acid, and sterigmatocystin. Some mold strains isolated from mines and throat swabs were investigated for mutagenic activity by the SOS chromotest and Salmonella assay with strains TA100 and TA98. Mutagenicity was observed, especially with metabolic activation in citro. These data suggest that mycotoxins produced by molds in uranium mines are a new genotoxic factor im uranium miners. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  16. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  17. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  18. Evolution of the South African mantle — A case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine (Kaapvaal craton); part 1: Inter-mineral trace element and isotopic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Marina; Brey, Gerhard P.; Weyer, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    A thorough assessment of inter-mineral equilibrium is essential for the understanding of trace element partitioning and also for the interpretation of isotopic data. Here we investigated high temperature (~ 1200 °C and 6 GPa) garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal craton (Finsch mine, South Africa), with exceptionally well equilibrated mineral major element compositions, for their trace element and isotopic inter-mineral equilibrium. Trace element compositions for all major mineral phases, i.e. olivine, orthopyroxene (opx), clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet, were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Garnet, cpx and opx of selected samples were analysed for their Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope compositions by multi collector ICP-MS. Most important mineral characteristics include: a) olivines from most samples are enriched in high-field-strength elements relative to other incompatible trace elements. Their lithium content correlates negatively with Mg#, indicating a depletion signature; b) all other minerals are depleted in heavy and middle rare earth elements (H- and M-REE) and enriched in light REE and large ion lithophile elements. This implies a complex history of depletion and metasomatic overprint for the Finsch cratonic mantle; c) orthopyroxene has similarly shaped trace element patterns as cpx, with one to two orders of magnitude lower abundances; and d) both, garnet and cpx, display variable, mostly positive ɛHf coupled with moderate variations in ɛNd. Trace element partitioning between garnet/cpx, cpx/opx and garnet/opx, displays only a weak pressure and temperature dependency. However, equilibrium partitioning of most trace elements between garnet and cpx shows a strong compositional dependency, i.e. on the Cr- (and Ca-) content of the garnets. Garnet-cpx partition coefficients follow a second grade polynomial correlation with Cr2O3 of garnet, whereby high chromium garnets (Cr2O3 > 6 wt.%) have generally higher

  19. 三资综合管理视角下的矿业权管理改革思路探讨%Discussion on the mining right management reform in a view of integrated management of mineral resources, assets and capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 朱丽丽; 施俊法; 邢新田

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement and development of China ’ s socialist market economic system ,the market‐oriented management reform of mineral resources on behalf of integrated management of mineral resources ,assets and capitals has been on put on the agenda .This paper summarizes the concept and connotation of mining right ,and the relation between mining right and the mineral resources ,assets and capitals ,analyzes the existing problems in current management of mining right ,and some advices on mining right management reform are put forward .It is thought that mining right plays a very important role in the framework of the integrated management of the mineral resources ,assets and capitals .The mining right is not only the precondition ,but also the linkage and the key of configuration and conversion between mineral resources ,assets and capitals .Therefore ,constructing a comprehensive ,high efficiency service‐oriented government ,establishing a unified open ,competitive and orderly market system of mining rights ,building a reasonable resource tax system ,are necessarily advised .%随着我国社会主义市场经济体制的不断完善和发展,以资源、资产、资本三资综合管理为代表的矿产资源市场化管理改革提上日程。本文从三资视角下的矿业权概念及其内涵、矿业权与三资的关系入手,剖析当前矿业权管理存在的问题,提出了矿业权管理改革思路。认为在三资综合管理框架体系下,矿业权起着非常重要的作用,它不仅是三资配置和转换的前提,更是三资配置和转换的纽带和关键,需要科学合理地管理矿业权,对此,提出要建设综合、高效、高水平的服务型政府,建立统一开放、竞争有序的矿业权市场体系,构建合理科学的资源税费体系等建议。

  20. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals.

  1. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  2. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  4. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have experience working in an underground coal mine 49.12(c) (4) Team is available within 1-hour ground... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal...

  5. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.313 Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground. (a) If a main mine fan stops while anyone is underground...

  6. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001...

  7. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams;...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  9. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  10. Fe{sup 2+} oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shan; Zhou Lixiang, E-mail: lxzhou@njau.edu.cn

    2012-05-01

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe{sup 2+} ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe{sup 2+} oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slow oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} is helpful in jarosite formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  11. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  12. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE SISAK REGION, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, on the basis of the author's knowledge, for the first time, chronostratigraphic and genetic classification of all known mineral resources located in the central part of Croatia (Sisak, Petrinja, Glina, Dvor na Uni, Hrvatska Kostajnica and Novska, is given in more detail. Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, coal, oil, gas as well as drinking water, water for balneology and industry related spatially and/or genetically with the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, are presented. Taking into consideration the present days level of research, the past extent of the exploitation as well as genetic potential of each own estimate of their long term prospects with regard to the economy of the Croatia (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Financing and risk management of investments in mining sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyedmajid

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aims for investigating the process of mining investments and calculating the level of risk to which mining companies are exposed. As a mining firm gets involved in a project, there are many risks to be assessed including environmental, social and reputational risks. Therefore, the presence of a sustainable development framework in the mining sector helps to consider all dimensions of mining projects in order to mitigate the risk exposure. As undeveloped mineral resour...

  14. Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Mine Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine environment problem caused by the exploitation of mineral resources has become a key factor which affects normal production of mine and safety of ecological environment for human settlement. For better protection and management of mine environment, this article has introduced the important role of remote sensing technology in pollution monitoring of mine environment, geological disaster monitoring and monitoring of mining activities.

  15. Mineral Processing Experimental Study on A Gold Mine from Gansu%甘肃某金矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远宁; 李福兰

    2016-01-01

    甘肃某金矿,金主要是以独立自然金,少量银金矿赋存,与黄铁矿、方铅矿、闪锌矿等硫化矿伴生。采用单一浮选的原则工艺流程就可以获得合格的金精矿,将原矿磨至⁃0.074 mm占75%,经两次粗选、一次扫选产出尾矿,两次精选产出金精矿的工艺流程。添加碳酸钠、丁基黄药和2#油三种药剂。闭路试验获得了金精矿金品位178.85 g/t、金回收率93.95%的较好选矿指标。试验指标良好,为现场生产提供了技术依据。%Gold in a gold mine from Gansu Province was mainly independent native gold, with a small amount of silver gold associated with pyrite, galena and sphalerite. Qualified gold concentrate can be obtained by simple flotation process. The ore was ground to 75% ⁃0.074 mm, followed with two stages of roughing, one scavenging, and two stages of concentrating. So⁃dium carbonate, butyl xanthate and pine oil were used in the flotation. Grade of the gold concentrate form closed circuit test was 178.85 g / t, with a recovery rate of 93.95%. This test index was good, which can provide the technical basis for the field production.

  16. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  17. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  18. New technology for recovering residual metals from nonmetallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; He, Yaqun; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Xing; Xia, Wencheng

    2017-03-23

    Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is important for environmental protection and sustainable resource utilization. Corona electrostatic separation has been widely used to recycle metals from waste printed circuit boards, but it has poor separation efficiency for finer sized fractions. In this study, a new process of vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed was used to recycle residual metals from nonmetallic fractions, which were treated using the corona electrostatic separation technology. The effects of three main parameters, i.e., vibration frequency, superficial air flow velocity, and fluidizing time on gravity segregation, were investigated using a vibrating gas-solid fluidized bed. Each size fraction had its own optimum parameters. Corresponding to their optimal segregation performance, the products from each experiment were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). From the results, it can be seen that the metal recoveries of -1+0.5mm, -0.5+0.25mm, and -0.25mm size fractions were 86.39%, 82.22% and 76.63%, respectively. After separation, each metal content in the -1+0.5 or -0.5+0.25mm size fraction reduced to 1% or less, while the Fe and Cu contents are up to 2.57% and 1.50%, respectively, in the -0.25mm size fraction. Images of the nonmetallic fractions with a size of -0.25mm indicated that a considerable amount of clavate glass fibers existed in these nonmetallic fractions, which may explain why fine particles had the poorest segregation performance.

  19. 镜铁山周边某微细粒磁铁矿选矿工艺研究%Mineral Processing Technology for Microfine Magnetite from Mines Adjacent to Jingtieshan Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 杨云虎

    2016-01-01

    对酒钢镜铁山周边某微细粒磁铁矿进行了选矿工艺研究。采用Na2 CO3+NaOH调整矿浆pH值为11,以六偏磷酸钠分散矿浆,添加腐植酸钠进行选择性絮凝磁选,可获得铁精矿品位63.31%、回收率79.45%,精矿品位比常规磁选提高了1.77个百分点,回收率提高了3.36个百分点。%Mineral processing technology for microfine magnetite from mines around Jingtieshan in Jiu Steel Group was studied. With Na2 CO3 and NaOH to regulate pulp pH as 11, hexametaphosphate to disperse slurry, sodium humate to selectively flocculate magnetite for magnetic separation, iron concentrate grading 63. 31% Fe at 79. 45% recovery was finally obtained, indicating up by 1. 77 percentage points in the grade and 3. 36 percentage points in the recovery, compared with the conventional magnetic separation.

  20. Mining and radiation protection law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the hazards of ionising radiation in the mining sector for the mining employees, the neighbouring population and the environment, with regard to prospecting, mining and processing radioactive ores. Due attention must also be paid to stockpiles, radioactive waste and imports of radioactive minerals. International radiation protection laws are to be applied on the basis of Euratom, IAEA, OECP/NEA and ICRP. The national law to be applied is Basic Law, Atomic Energy Law, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976. This law includes all activities having to do with mining of radioactive minerals, transport, imports and exports and waste management. Last not least, questions concerning the supervision carried out by the state and the administration are dealt with. (HSCH).

  1. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  2. Coexistence of metallic and nonmetallic charge transport in PrBa2Cu3O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark; Suzuki, Y.; Geballe, T. H.

    1995-06-01

    Magnetotransport measurements on highly oriented thin films of PrBa2Cu3O7 demonstrate a unique coexistence of nonmetallic hopping conduction with metallic Boltzmann transport. At high temperature (T>10 K) hopping transport dominates, but when the inelastic conduction freezes out at low temperature, metallic behavior can be distinguished. The hopping conduction is assigned to the CuO2 planes, while the Boltzmann transport arises from the CuO chain structure, in agreement with recent electronic-structure calculations.

  3. Non-metallic inclusions structure dimension in high quality steel with medium carbon contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon structural steel. The production process involved two melting technologies: steel melting in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulfurization and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze the content of non-metallic inclusions with the use of an optical microscope and a video inspection microscope. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  4. The Effect of Fine Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study investigating the effect of the number of fine non-metallic inclusions (up to 2 µm in size on the fatigue strength of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  5. Separation of the metallic and non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards employing green technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Ruiz, R H; Flores-Campos, R; Gámez-Altamirano, H A; Velarde-Sánchez, E J

    2016-07-05

    The generation of electrical and electronic waste is increasing day by day; recycling is attractive because of the metallic fraction containing these. Nevertheless, conventional techniques are highly polluting. The comminution of the printed circuit boards followed by an inverse flotation process is a clean technique that allows one to separate the metallic fraction from the non-metallic fraction. It was found that particle size and superficial air velocity are the main variables in the separation of the different fractions. In this way an efficient separation is achieved by avoiding the environmental contamination coupled with the possible utilization of the different fractions obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chopper:Efficient Algorithm for Tree Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Ming-Sheng Hong; Wei Wang; Bai-Le Shi

    2004-01-01

    With the development of Internet, frequent pattern mining has been extended to more complex patterns like tree mining and graph mining. Such applications arise in complex domains like bioinformatics, web mining, etc. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, named Chopper, to discover frequent subtrees from ordered labeled trees. An extensive performance study shows that the newly developed algorithm outperforms TreeMinerV, one of the fastest methods proposed previously, in mining large databases. At the end of this paper,the potential improvement of Chopper is mentioned.

  7. Web Mining: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. G. S. Mudiraj B. Jabber K. David raju

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is a main research area in Web mining focused on learning about Web users and their interactions with Web sites. The motive of mining is to find users’ access models automatically and quickly from the vast Web log data, such as frequent access paths, frequent access page groups and user clustering. Through web usage mining, the server log, registration information and other relative information left by user provide foundation for decision making of organizations. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. There are generally three tasks in Web Usage Mining: Preprocessing, Pattern analysis and Knowledge discovery. Preprocessing cleans log file of server by removing log entries such as error or failure and repeated request for the same URL from the same host etc... The main task of Pattern analysis is to filter uninteresting information and to visualize and interpret the interesting pattern to users. The statistics collected from the log file can help to discover the knowledge. This knowledge collected can be used to take decision on various factors like Excellent, Medium, Weak users and Excellent, Medium and Weak web pages based on hit counts of the web page in the web site. The design of the website is restructured based on user’s behavior or hit counts which provides quick response to the web users, saves memory space of servers and thus reducing HTTP requests and bandwidth utilization. This paper addresses challenges in three phases of Web Usage mining along with Web Structure Mining.This paper also discusses an application of WUM, an online Recommender System that dynamically generates links to pages that have not yet been visited by a user and might be of his potential interest. Differently from the recommender systems proposed so far, ONLINE MINER does not make use of any off-line component, and is able to manage Web sites made up of pages dynamically generated.

  8. Systematic classification of hazards in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hazards in underground coal mines are analyzed. A general definition of a hazard is given as a physical process or interaction between environment and men which can harm miners. The following classification of mine environment is given: lithosphere, atmosphere, and so-called technosphere (equipment, machines and processes associated with mining operations in underground mines). It is stated that the traditional classification of hazards in underground mining which divides the hazards into two groups: natural hazards and other hazards, is not precise. The hazards classification proposed by the author uses three criteria: criterion of mining environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and technosphere), criterion of physical process development (mechanical process, thermal process), and criterion of process intensity (slow or rapid flow). The classification, presented in a table, covers all hazards in underground mining such as rock bursts, water influx, fires, dusts, rock falls etc. Practical use of the classification system in coal mining is discussed. 3 references.

  9. The physics of mining in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, Kian; Burnett, J. A.; Chapman, Thomas; Cockell, Charles S.

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids and planets are potentially valuable mineral resources, but finding and exploiting them will be a challenge. Kian Raafat, Jordan Burnett, Thomas Chapman and Charles S Cockell ask: what's different about mining off Earth?

  10. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  11. Bioleaching of Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  12. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  13. 30 CFR 46.5 - New miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL, SURFACE STONE, SURFACE CLAY, COLLOIDAL PHOSPHATE, OR SURFACE LIMESTONE MINES. § 46.5 New miner training. (a) Except as provided in... the recognition and avoidance of electrical hazards and other hazards present at the mine, such...

  14. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  15. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  16. Review of the Federal Mining Law. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Mining Law is a codification of mining law in the Federal Republic of Germany. It contains 178 paragraphs covering all aspects of prospecting and mining of mineral raw materials and related activities. The new law is to replace the former regional mining laws as well as most of the former Federal and regional regulations. All in all, 104 laws and regulations are repealed in sections 174 and 175. Basic principles of the former mining laws have been adhered to, e.g. mineral reserves do not come under the proprietory rights of the land owner, preventive monitoring of operations by means of operation plans, cession of territory under mining law, and the regulations concerning mining and land ownership. However, there are new details in the Federal Mining Law, in particular with regard to concessions and mining damage; this is reflected in a more complicated legal language.

  17. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  18. Solution behavior of hydrogen isotopes and other non-metallic elements in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, V.A.; Calaway, W.F.; Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of experimental studies to measure selected thermodynamic properties for systems of lithium with non-metallic elements are reported. Investigations of the Li-H, Li-D, and Li-T systems have led to the elucidation of the dilute solution behavior and the H/D/T isotope effects. In the case of the Li-H and Li-D systems, the principal features of the respective phase diagrams have been delineated. The solubility of Li-D in liquid lithium has been measured down to 200/sup 0/C. The solubility of Li/sub 3/N in liquid lithium and the thermal decomposition of Li/sub 3/N have also been studied. From these data, the free energy of formation of Li/sub 3/N and the Sieverts' constant for dissolution of nitrogen in lithium have been determined. Based on studies of the distribution of non-metallic elements between liquid lithium and selected molten salts, it appears that molten salt extraction offers promise as a means of removing these impurity elements (e.g., H, D, T, O, N, C) from liquid lithium.

  19. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  20. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  1. Standard practice for extreme value analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel and other microstructural features

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a methodology to statistically characterize the distribution of the largest indigenous nonmetallic inclusions in steel specimens based upon quantitative metallographic measurements. The practice is not suitable for assessing exogenous inclusions. 1.2 Based upon the statistical analysis, the nonmetallic content of different lots of steels can be compared. 1.3 This practice deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability. 1.4 The measured values are stated in SI units. For measurements obtained from light microscopy, linear feature parameters shall be reported as micrometers, and feature areas shall be reported as micrometers. 1.5 The methodology can be extended to other materials and to other microstructural features. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish app...

  2. Nonmetallic Inclusion Control of 350 km/h High Speed Rail Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ke-wen; ZENG Jian-hua; WANG Xin-hua

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion has an important effect on quality of high speed rail steel.In consideration of the lower acceptance percentage of the inclusion and its constraint against the requirement for large scale production of 350 km/h high speed rail steel in Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co,the technology of nonmetallic inclusion control for 350 km/h high speed rail steel was studied.An optimized model of the argon-blowing in ladle furnace (LF),the control of the components of the ladle slag,and the technique of calcium treatment for the molten steel was brought forward.Using the researched technology,the removal ratio of the inclusion was increased and the components,distribution,and shape of the inclusion in the rail steel were changed,which resulted in a reduction in the average total oxygen content to 10.17×10-6 and an increase in the comprehensive acceptance percentage of the nonmetallic inclusion from 48.21% to 98.1%.Test has shown that this metallurgical technology can meet the requirement for large scale production of 350 km/h high speed steel in Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co.

  3. British Columbia 1998 mineral exploration review; rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The review discusses mining and exploration highlights, government initiatives, and outlook for 1999. Mining covers the locations of 14 metal, eight coal, ten industrial mineral mines, and one tailings project. Exploration highlights cover metals, massive sulphide deposits, porphyry and related deposits, precious metal bearing veins and bulk-mineable deposits, skarn/manto deposits, magmatic nickel, coal deposits, and industrial minerals. Information is tabulated on the 1998 forecast value of solid mineral production and on new mines, closures, development, advanced exploration projects, and exploration highlights. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Environmental issues of deep-sea mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    responsibility of organizing committee of the Global Challenges, Policy Framework & Sustainable Development for Mining of Mineral and Fossil Energy Resources. doi: 10.1016/j.proeps.2015.06.026 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect *OREDO...-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the Global Challenges, Policy Framework & Sustainable Development for Mining of Mineral and Fossil Energy Resources. 205 Rahul Sharma / Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 11 ( 2015 ) 204 – 211 ZDYHV...

  5. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), this section applies to experienced miners who are— (1) Newly employed by the operator; (2) Transferred... a visit and tour of the mine. The methods of mining or operations utilized at the mine shall be...' representatives; and an introduction to the operator's rules and the procedures for reporting hazards....

  6. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  7. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  8. Mining the ocean floor: Managing geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wambeke, T.; Alvarez Grima, M.; Fenton, G.A.; Benndorf, J.; Vervoort, A.

    2013-01-01

    As land resources decrease, commodity prices increase, and technology evolves, deep sea mining is becoming a viable alternative to meet the increasing demand for minerals. Successful deep sea mining operations are built on sound identification of the resource, proper selection of equipment, a though

  9. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section 816.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section 817.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. Implementation plan for Bolivian Mineral Exploration Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkemo, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Bolivia ranks second among world producers of tin and antimony, and first in bismuth production. Mineral exports in 1975 were valued at $314.2 million, nearly 60 percent of the value of all exports, and petroleum product exports totalled nearly $157 million, or 30 percent of the total. Tin accounted for 58 percent of the total value of metallic mineral exports. The central government derived about 19 percent of its total tax revenues in 1975 from the mining sector. The mining sector consists of the large, medium, and small mining subsectors, a classification established by the government. Individual operations are referred to as large, medium, or small depending upon the subsector into which they are classified. All large mining enterprises are owned and operated by a government corporation, COMIBOL; the medium and small operations are privately owned. COMIBOL's exports in 1975 were valued at $171.8 million or 70 percent of the total mineral exports; the medium mines accounted for $55.5 million or 23 percent, and the small mines for $17.5 million or 7 percent of the total. The combination of high operating costs, low productivity, inadequate ore reserves, and insufficient risk capital for exploration and development has led to the realization that there is an urgent need to improve the situation for mining in Bolivia. Proposals are being studied to revise the tax code, a program is underway to evaluate selected mineral deposits for possible exploration and development, and programs are under consideration to encourage minerals exploration. A minerals exploration plan is proposed which would offer technical and financial aid to various segments in the minerals field. A program, estimated to cost between $2 million and $2.5 million annually, and to be operated by a new agency in the Ministry of Mining and Metallurgy, is outlined.

  12. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  13. Automation in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thring, M.W.

    1983-08-01

    A study of the 21st century energy situation shows that coal must be the principal fuel, gradually followed by the renewable fuels which require fossil fuel to make and build the equipment. As oil runs out a substitute liquid fuel will have to be made from coal and from biomass because oil is uniquely suitable for road, sea and air transport and for agriculture. Coal can be mined without men going underground by directed drilling and by Telechirics - hands at a distance. In Telechiric mining, the coal would be won by conventional mining machinery but the human miners would erect, operate, maintain and repair this machinery by sitting in a control room on the surface and controlling telechirs which could move about the mine and would have mechanical hands which would respond exactly to every movement of the human master's hands. He would have touch and force feedback and three dimensional vision so good that he could use his trained craft skill of hands and eyes as though he were down the mine.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1713-5 - First-aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees, and make available refresher first-aid training courses to all miners employed in the mine. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners. 75.1713-5 Section 75.1713-5 Mineral Resources MINE...

  15. Study on the Difference of Mine Geo-environmental Problem Response to Mineral Resource Exploitation: a Case Study About the Mining Areas in Tongguan and Daliuta of Shaanxi and Fuxin of Liaoning%矿产资源开发中矿山地质环境问题响应差异性研究——以陕西潼关、大柳塔及辽宁阜新矿区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐友宁; 徐冬寅; 张江华; 陈华清

    2011-01-01

    以陕西潼关、大柳塔及辽宁阜新矿区为例,采用对比分析的方法研究矿产资源开发中矿山地质环境问题差异性响应的主要因素.上述3个矿区矿产资源开发中矿山地质环境问题主要包括:20世纪90年代以前,陕西潼关金矿区是中国矿产资源开发秩序十分混乱的矿区之一,地下开采的采矿废石随意堆排导致了极为严重的矿山泥石流地质灾害及其隐患,"三废"无序排放导致土壤、河水及其底泥的重金属及氰化物污染严重,严重影响人体健康;地处生态环境脆弱带的陕西大柳塔煤矿区,20年大型机械化地下煤炭资源开采导致大面积地面塌陷及其链生的地下水含水层破坏严重,但矿区土地沙漠化程度总体没有呈现加重的趋势,水土环境重金属呈轻度污染;具有百年开发历史的辽宁阜新煤矿区,露天开采使土地生态破坏严重、边坡滑坡灾害频发、土地压占与破坏突出,地下开采引起的地面塌陷对地表建筑物及人居安全影响严重,但相对于金属矿区,该矿区水土环境重金属污染相对轻得多.对比上述3个矿区矿山地质环境问题,得到其差异性响应主要因素:矿产资源种类、原生地质环境条件、开采方式及矿山环境保护意识等.%Taking the mining area in Tongguan and Daliuta of Shaanxi and Fuxin of Liaoning as an example, the difference of mine geo-environmental problem response to mineral resource exploration and its main factors were discussed by the means of the comparative analysis. The main geo-environmental problems caused by mineral resource exploration in the above three mining areas included as follow: before the 1990s, the mineral resource exploration in Tongguan gold mining area of Shaanxi was very confused, a large amount of waste mining rock lead to severe debris flow and risk, the “three wastes" (i. e. waste gas, waste water and waste residues) discharged disorderly and caused serious

  16. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine— (1...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  18. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  19. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  20. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937...

  1. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...

  2. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912...

  3. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910...

  4. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...

  5. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...

  6. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...

  7. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...

  8. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...

  9. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...

  10. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...

  11. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... mine opening is covered. The cover shall be a substantial material, such as metal or wood, topped...

  13. Total 9 Illegal RE Mining Districts in Dingnan County Were Bombed out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On October 17th, mineral managing departments in Dingnan county of Jiangxi province took actions toward illegal mining activity. Total 9 mining districts without licenses were bombed out. Rare earth is the protectively strategic resources in China. They are major minerals with good prospect in Dingnan county.Total 9 Illegal RE Mining Districts in Dingnan County Were Bombed out

  14. 30 CFR 49.60 - Requirements for a local mine rescue contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for a local mine rescue contest. 49.60 Section 49.60 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... United States; (2) Uses MSHA-recognized rules; (3) Has a minimum of three mine rescue teams competing;...

  15. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  16. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Roof Support § 75.205 Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters...

  17. A study of many-body phenomena in metal nanoclusters (Au, Cu) close to their transition to the nonmetallic state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borman, VD; Borisyuk, PV; Lebid'ko, VV; Pushkin, AA; Tronin, VN; Troyan, [No Value; Antonov, DA; Filatov, DO

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study of many-body phenomena in gold and copper nanoclusters are presented. The measured conductivity as a function of nanocluster height h was found to have a minimum at h approximate to 0.6 nm. Conductivity was local in character at nanocluster sizes l infinity) to nonmetallic (ep

  18. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  19. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  20. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  1. Triboelectric separation technology for removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards: Influence of size fraction and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yaqun; Yang, Xing; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction (NMF) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is an effective mean to improve its usability. The effect of size fraction on the triboelectric separation of NMF of WPCBs was investigated in a lab triboelectric separation system and the separation process was optimized in this paper. The elements distribution in raw NMF collected from typical WPCBs recycling plant and each size fraction obtained by sieving were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results show that the main inorganic elements in NMF are P, Ba, Mn, Sb, Ti, Pb, Zn, Sn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu, Al and Si. The inorganic content of each size fraction increased with the size decreasing. The metal elements are mainly distributed in -0.2mm size fraction, and concentrated in middle product of triboelectric separation. The loss on ignition (LOI) of positive product and negative product is higher than that of the middle product for the -0.355mm size fraction, while the LOI presents gradually increasing trend from negative to positive plate for the +0.355mm size fraction. Based on the separation results and mineralogical characterizations of each size fraction of NMF, the pretreatment process including several mineral processing operations was added before triboelectric separation and better separation result was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importe

  3. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  4. Mineral resource of the month: Mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The mica mineral group includes 34 phyllosilicate minerals, all with a layered, platy texture. The mineral has been known for millennia: Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines. The Mayans used it for decorative effect in stucco to make their temples sparkle in the sun. Today it is used in everything from electrical products to makeup.

  5. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Complex Nonmetallic Inclusions Formed in Billets Heated for Rolling and Characteristics of Structural Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Koldaev, A. V.; Arutyunyan, N. A.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Dunaev, S. F.

    2017-03-01

    Complex bimetallic inclusions formed in billets from steels 09G2S and K52 during heating for rolling are studied by methods of electron microscopy and local x-ray spectrum analysis. To check the established evolution of oxide inclusions based on aluminomagnesium spinel and other oxide compositions, individual inclusions of manganese sulfide and complex oxide-sulfide inclusions, a method developed by the Severstal'Company and the Karpov NIFKhI for determining the content of corrosion-active nonmetallic inclusions (CANI) as a function of the heating mode is applied to the steels studied. It is recommended to increase the temperature and duration of heating of billets for hot rolling in order to lower the content of CANI and to raise the resistance of the steels to local corrosion.

  7. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  8. Ambipolar surface state transport in nonmetallic stoichiometric Bi2Se3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syers, Paul; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2017-01-01

    Achieving true bulk insulating behavior in Bi2Se3 , the archetypal topological insulator with a simplistic one-band electronic structure and sizable band gap, has been prohibited by a well-known self-doping effect caused by selenium vacancies, whose extra electrons shift the chemical potential into the bulk conduction band. We report a synthesis method for achieving stoichiometric Bi2Se3 crystals that exhibit nonmetallic behavior in electrical transport down to low temperatures. Hall-effect measurements indicate the presence of both electron- and holelike carriers, with the latter identified with surface state conduction and the achievement of ambipolar transport in bulk Bi2Se3 crystals without gating techniques. With carrier mobilities surpassing the highest values yet reported for topological surface states in this material, the achievement of ambipolar transport via upward band bending is found to provide a key method to advancing the potential of this material for future study and applications.

  9. Combined nonmetallic electronegativity equalisation and point-dipole interaction model for the frequency-dependent polarisability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalø, Hans S.; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Mayer, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    A molecular mechanics model for the frequency-dependent polarisability is presented. It is a combination of a recent model for the frequency dependence in a charge-dipole model [Nanotechnology 19, 025203, 2008] and a nonmetallic modification of the electronegativity equalisation model rephrased as atom-atom charge-transfer terms [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044101, 2009]. An accurate model for the frequency-dependent polarisability requires a more accurate partitioning into charge and dipole contributions than the static polarisability, which has resulted in several modifications of the charge-transfer model. Results are presented for hydrocarbons, including among others, alkanes, polyenes and aromatic systems. Although their responses to an electric field are quite different in terms of the importance of charge-transfer contributions, it is demonstrated that their frequency-dependent polarisabilities can be described with the same model and the same set of atom-type parameters.

  10. Quantitative Study on Nonmetallic Inclusion Particles in Steels by Automatic Image Analysis With Extreme Values Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cássio Barbosa; José Brant de Campos; J(ǒ)neo Lopes do Nascimento; Iêda Maria Vieira Caminha

    2009-01-01

    The presence of nonmetallic inclusion particles which appear during steelmaking process is harmful to the properties of steels, which is mainly as a function of some aspects such as size, volume fraction, shape, and distribution of these particles. The automatic image analysis technique is one of the most important tools for the quantitative determination of these parameters. The classical Student approach and the Extreme Values Method (EVM) were used for the inclusion size and shape determination and the evaluation of distance between the inclusion particles. The results thus obtained indicated that there were significant differences in the characteristics of the inclusion particles in the analyzed products. Both methods achieved results with some differences, indicating that EVM could be used as a faster and more reliable statistical methodology.

  11. The share of non-metallic inclusions in high-grade steel for machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the differences in the purity steel in the dimensions of inclusion particles as dependent on various steel production processes. The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The impurity content of steel was low as phosphorus and sulphur levels did not exceed 0.025%. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric, electric with argon refining and oxygen converter with vacuum degassing of steel. Billet samples were collected to determine: chemical composition, relative volume of non-metallic inclusions, dimensions of impurities. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  12. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  13. Industrial application of liquid steel filtration out of dispersed nonmetallic phase in the continuous casting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes (both of laboratory and industrial scale have given good results. The obtained results of filtration (in the laboratory have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location in consideration of limiting the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  14. Efficient and durable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst based on nonmetallic nitrogen doped hexagonal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanming; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility of renewable energy technology, hydrogen production by water electrolysis, depends on the design of efficient and durable electrocatalyst composed of earth-abundant elements. Herein, a highly active and stable nonmetallic electrocatalyst, nitrogen doped hexagonal carbon (NHC), was developed for hydrogen production. It exhibited high activity for hydrogen evolution with a low overpotential of only 65 mV, an apparent exchange current density of 5.7 × 10-2 mA cm-2 and a high hydrogen production rate of 20.8 mL cm-2 h-1 at -0.35 V. The superior hydrogen evolution activity of NHC stemmed from the intrinsic electrocatalytic property of hexagonal nanodiamond, the rapid charge transfer and abundance of electrocatalytic sites after nitrogen doping. Moreover, NHC was stable in a corrosive acidic solution during electrolysis under high current density.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic study of electromagnetic separation of nonmetallic inclusions from aluminum melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Da(疏达); SUN; Baode(孙宝德); WANG; Jun(王俊); ZHANG; Xueping(张雪萍); ZHOU; Yaohe(周尧和)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow around the nonmetallic inclusions in aluminum melt and the force exerted on the inclusions were explored by dimensional analysis and numerical calculations. Dimensional analysis shows that the invariant characterizes the force exerted on the inclusions and the flow intensity of the melt. The physical significance of A is represented as a modified particle Reynolds number that reflects the effects of electromagnetic force. The fluid flow around the particle becomes unstable when A>2×103. It is shown that the neglect of the inertial terms has little effect on the force exerted on the inclusions in the range of A≤1×106. However, the analytical solution of the maximum velocity inside the melt does not apply due to the appearance of turbulent flow in the case of A>2×103.

  16. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  17. Evaluation of Mining Titles Based on Option-Pricing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Limitations exist in applying discounted cash flow and analogy sales methods to evaluate mining titles. In order to find a more appropriate way of evaluating mining titles, the Black-Scholes model is discussed in this paper. The authors pay particular attention to the determination of the time to maturity of the option on the basis of characteristics of the mining industry, pointing out that a reasonable time to maturity of the option should be the remaining time after deducting the essential time, needed by exploitation of the mineral resources within the mining property, from the life of the mining title. Several conclusions, related to the exercise of mineral resource management, are drawn from a case study analysis; extending the life of a mining title within a certain range could increase the revenue to the seller of the mining title. Application of the Black-Scholes model to evaluate mining titles would encourage an expansion of the scale of production.

  18. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustal, B.; Schelnberger, B.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2016-03-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content.

  19. 30 CFR 903.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 903.785 Section 903.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  20. 30 CFR 905.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 905.785 Section 905.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  1. 30 CFR 905.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 922.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  3. 30 CFR 903.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  4. 30 CFR 937.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  5. 30 CFR 939.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  6. 30 CFR 912.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  7. 30 CFR 910.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22313 Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). Pressure-relief systems including vents, or explosion suppression systems, shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22602 - Blasting from the surface (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). 57.22602... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22602 Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). (a) All blasting shall be initiated from the surface after all persons are out of the mine and...

  12. Effects of mining activities on selected aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. Except for agriculture, the mining industry is considered as not only the oldest but also the most important industry. Mining involves the removal of minerals from the earth's crust for usage by mankind. The disturbance during mining activities such as mining effluent has an effect on the natural aquatic environment. In any freshwater environment, the macroinvertebrates form a vital link between the abiotic envinronment and the organisms in higher trophic levels. It is thus true that...

  13. Health survey in gypsum mines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Subroto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining is a hazardous occupation in which workers are exposed to adverse conditions. In India, gypsum mining is mainly carried out in the state of Rajasthan, which contributes about 99% of the total production. Objective: The present study was carried out in 12 different gypsum mines in Rajasthan state to determine the health status of the miners. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty workers engaged in mining activities were included in the study and their health status was compared with that of 83 office staff of the same mines. The health status of the employees was evaluated using a standardized medical questionnaire and pulmonary function testing. Statistical Analysis: The unpaired ′t′ test was used to determine whether there was any significant difference between the miners and the controls and the chi-square test to compare the prevalences of various respiratory impairments in workers with that in controls; we also examined the differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Results: Our findings show that the literacy rate is low (42% among the miners. Pulmonary restrictive impairment was significantly higher amongst smokers as compared to nonsmokers in both miners and controls. Hypertension (22.6%, diabetes (8.8%, and musculoskeletal morbidity (8% were the common diseases in miners. Conclusion: This study shows that there is high morbidity amongst miners, thus indicating the need for regular health checkups, health education, use of personal protective devices, and engineering measures for control of the workplace environment.

  14. Open Pit Mining & The Cost of Water Potential Opportunities Towards Sustainable Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien J.R. Fortin

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations require vast quantities of water to run ore processing facilities and thus have a responsibility to manage this critical resource. Operations are often located in areas of limited water supply, which may create a competitive climate for water consumption. Make-up water for mineral processing can represent a significant portion of production cost for mining companies. While necessary for mining, water in open pits is problematic for extraction activities and leads to increase...

  15. Guidelines for the integrated planning and design of underground coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, GA

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Mine planning and design involves the compilation and integration of all relevant geological, geotechnical, mining, engineering and economic data into a single document to define and describe the exploitation strategy for a particular mineral...

  16. Philippine Mining Capitalism: The Changing Terrains of Struggle in the Neoliberal Mining Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin A. Camba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the mining sector and anti-mining groups compete for mining outcomes in the Philippines. I argue that the transition to a neoliberal mineral regime has empowered the mining sector and weakened the mining groups by shifting the terrains of struggle onto the domains of state agencies and scientific networks. Since the neoliberal era, the mining sector has come up with two strategies. First, technologies of subjection elevate various public institutions to elect and select the processes aimed at making mining accountable and sensitive to the demands of local communities. However, they often refuse or lack the capacity to intervene effectively. Second, technologies of subjectivities allow a selective group of industry experts to single-handedly determine the environmental viability of mining projects. Mining consultants, specialists, and scientists chosen by mining companies determine the potential environmental damage on water bodies, air pollution, and soil erosion. Because of the mining capital’s access to economic and legal resources, anti-mining communities across the Philippines have been forced to compete on an unequal terrain for a meaningful social dialogue and mining outcomes.

  17. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  18. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  19. Numerical 2D and 3D Investigation of Non-Metallic (Glass, Carbon) Fiber Pull-Out Micromechanics 9in Concrete Matrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Khabaz, A; Krasņikovs, A; Kononova, O; Mačanovskis, A

    2010-01-01

    Short non-metallic (glass, carbon) fibre use for concrete disperse reinforcment is of particular interest, because of much higher fibre/matrix interface area value comparing to industrially produced steel fibres.

  20. Perfecting management of operating mines. Sovershenstvovanie gornogo khozyaistva na deistvuyushchikh shakhtakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbachev, D.T.; Likal' ter, L.A.; Kaganovich, M.N.; Churilov, A.A.; Oparin, I.N. (IGD im. A.A. Skochinskogo (USSR))

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes operation of underground coal mines in the USSR from 1975 to 1985. The following aspects are evaluated: mining and geologic conditions, increasing mining depths, resource depletion, methods for deposit opening and development, role of longwall mining, equipment for longwall mining (shearer loaders, powered supports), use of support pillars, ventilation systems, mine haulage, mine drivage by heading machines or drilling and blasting, coal output per mine and effects of mine service life on its efficiency and mining cost, bottle-necks in mine operation in individual coal basins. Operation of longwall mining is analyzed: face dimensions, advance rates, coal panel dimensions, mean coal output per face, coal output per miner, reliability of face systems. Principles of the economic plan for 1986-1990 are discussed. Methods for eliminating bottle-necks in coal mining are reviewed. 4 refs.