WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmetallic mineral mining

  1. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  4. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  5. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  6. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  7. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B H

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  9. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  10. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  11. Soil effects on GPR detection of buried non-metallic mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.H.; Miller, T.; Borchers, B.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Landmines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of landmine sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic landmines remains very difficult. The objective of this contribution is to synthesize our work related to the effects of

  12. A study on the preparation of value-added products from the nonmetallic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite): For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic sericite and muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study is the high purification and the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. 2) Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use: Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. (author). 71 refs., 45 tabs., 84 figs.

  13. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  14. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  15. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  16. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  17. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of metallic and non-metallic materials in various media in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laske, D.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1983-10-01

    The final underground disposal of radioactive wastes necessitates container materials with a good long-term resistance against corrosion from both external agents and the solidification matrix inside. For low- and medium-level active waste, repositories in anhydrite sites, among others, are under consideration. Sheet and plate samples from 14 metallic and 8 non-metallic materials have been tested for 5 years in a tunnel in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG for their corrosion resistance in the tunnel atmosphere, anhydrite powder, gypsum powder, gypsum, and cement. From the metallic materials tested, only chromium-nickel steel is corrosion resistant to all the media present. Zinc plated and tin plated iron sheet as well as aluminium and aluminium alloys are corrosion resistant only in the atmosphere of the tunnel, and lead plated iron sheet is resistant also in cement. Aluminium is dissolved in cement. Uncovered iron sheet undergoes severe corrosion. The non-metallic coatings tested (lacquer, stove lacquer, or synthetic resins) partially flake off already after one year's testing and are therefore not appropriate for iron sheet corrosion protection. No influence of the different media has been observed after 5 years on the 8 plastic materials tested (6 without, and 2 with glass fiber reinforcement). (author)

  19. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  20. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  1. 77 FR 55420 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those...

  2. 76 FR 59058 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual... increase New value New fee \\5\\ fee \\1\\ value \\2\\ \\3\\ \\4\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150... interest transfer 60 61.94 0.84 62.78 65 Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts...

  3. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  4. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  5. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  6. Mining and sustainable development: Considerations for minerals supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Ian B.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development involves meeting the needs of human societies while maintaining viable biological and physical Earth systems. The needs include minerals: metals, fuels, industrial and construction materials. There will continue to be considerable demand for virgin mineral resources, even if levels of recycling and efficiency of use are optimal, and rates of population growth and globalisation decrease significantly. This article aims to stimulate debate on strategic issues for minerals supply. While the world has considerable stocks of mineral resources overall, international considerations of the environmental and social aspects of sustainable development are beginning to result in limitations on where mining will be conducted and what types of deposits will be mined. Current and emerging trends favour large mines in parts of the world where mining can be conducted within acceptable limits of environmental and social impact. Finding new deposits that meet such criteria will be all the more challenging given a disturbing global decline in the rate of discovery of major economic resources over the last decade, and the decreasing land area available for exploration and mining. To attract responsible exploration and mining, governments and mining nations will need to provide: regional-scale geo-scientific datasets as required to attract and guide future generations of exploration; resource access through multiple and sequential land use regimes, and frameworks for dealing with indigenous peoples' issues; and arrangements for consideration of mining proposals and regulation of mines that ensure responsible management of environmental and social issues. The minerals industry will need to continue to pursue advances in technologies for exploration, mining, processing, waste management and rehabilitation, and in public reporting of environmental and social performance. (author)

  7. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  8. 78 FR 49945 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ Increase \\3\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those 35 34.99 0...

  9. Sustainable Mining Environment: Technical Review of Post-mining Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Juniah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry exists because humans need mining commodities to meet their daily needs such as motor vehicles, mobile phones, electronic equipment and others. Mining commodities as mentioned in Government Regulation No. 23 of 2010 on Implementation of Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities are radioactive minerals, metal minerals, nonmetallic minerals, rocks and coal. Mineral and coal mining is conducted to obtain the mining commodities through production operations. Mining and coal mining companies have an obligation to ensure that the mining environment in particular after the post production operation or post mining continues. The survey research aims to examine technically the post-mining plan in coal mining of PT Samantaka Batubara in Indragiri Hulu Regency of Riau Province towards the sustainability of the mining environment. The results indicate that the post-mining plan of PT Samantaka Batubara has met the technical aspects required in post mining planning for a sustainable mining environment. Postponement of post-mining land of PT Samantaka Batubara for garden and forest zone. The results of this study are expected to be useful and can be used by stakeholders, academics, researchers, practitioners and associations of mining, and the environment.

  10. Mineral phases identification inside an abandoned Zn/Pb mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goienaga, N.; Carrero, J.A.; Olivares, M.; Castro, K.; Fernandez, L.A.; Madariaga, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work is the identification of the sulphurated phase's outbreak on an aragonite, dolomite and calcite-based original rock inside an abandoned mine. The studied Blende/Galena (ZnS/PbS) Mine, located in Lanestosa (Bizkaia, North of Spain) was operative until 1950. After decades, the area has only supported wild life and thus nowadays it could be considered as a polluted site which has become naturalized. The main alteration factors inside the mine are percolated water, gases come from the outside (CO 2 , O 2 ) and biological activities. Mining activities generates loads of ore minerals and unwanted materials that with the time impact the surrounding environment. The waste includes granular, broken rock and soils ranging in size from the fine sand to large boulders, with the content of fine material largely dependent on the nature of the formation and extraction methods employed during mining. Waste materials geochemistry varies widely from mine to mine and may vary significantly at individual mines over time as different lithologic strata are exposed and geochemical processes alter characteristics of the waste. In order to determine the finest mineral composition in the galleries, several samples were collected. Once dried in a fume hood and sieved, the portions below 250 μm were subjected to non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis. The measurements reflected the ore precursors (primary phases: Blende, and Galena), several primary carbonates (dolomite, calcite and aragonite) with secondary minerals in trace levels (Brookite, Libethenite, Fluorapatita, Anatasa, Quartz, Apatite, Augite, Diopside, Anthracite, Hematite, Cosalite, Epidote, Rutile) and transformation products, probably of recent formation (Smithsonite, Massicot, Plattnerite, Gypsum, Siderite, Mendiphite, Escorodite, Gauberite, Goethite or Mascagnite). The origin of the secondary mineral may be related to percolated rain and snow water. This

  11. Mine robotics for the extraction of minerals at great depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikovskii, Eh G; Poller, B V; Konyukh, V L

    1983-09-01

    An article is discussed which was written by A.A. Bovin, N.V. Kurleni and E.I. Shemyakin on Problems in mining mineral deposits at great depth, printed in issue No. 2 of this journal in 1983. First the authors define the problems, then discuss the construction of automatic systems for the control of underground extraction and haulage and end with the basic problems and organizational measures connected with the development and construction of mining robots. They also deal with systems of control and radio communications for underground winning and hauling operations. The article represents a complex study of the need for full automation of mining and the gradual introduction of robots to replace men in hazardous work places. The authors suggest equipment for the automatic extraction and hauling of minerals based on the use of microcomputers underground and computers located on the surface, videosensors and pressure transducers. The authors state that in order to solve the problems of automation and remote control of mining operations it is necessary to involve more specialists in robotics and remote control at the mining scientific research institutes and to increase the number of graduates in this field. 28 references.

  12. Miners' radiation exposure in a subsurface bauxite-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Jobbagy, V.; Varhegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the natural origin radioactivity of the bauxite samples we can establish that the 226 Ra activity concentration exceeded (155-489 Bq/kg) the average values measured in the rocks (25-40 Bq/kg). 222 Rn produced from the 226 Ra could be concentrated in the mines. In the course of our work we carried out an extensive radiological-dosimetric survey for 1 month. On the grounds of the different kind of working processes we put 11 track detectors in different places and continuous radon detector equipment were placed into 2 sites. Besides these measurements we determined the gamma dose rate, the equilibrium factor, the amount of the flying-dust and the long-lived alpha emitter isotopes 2 times in 7 different places. We gave personal radon dosimeter to 14 miners. It was worn only during the working time and after hours was stored in a well-controlled Rn concentration place. The average radon activity concentration measured in different places in the mine changed between 204-3910 Bq/m 3 . We found very high radon levels some places especially in the drawings. The miners during this 1 month have taken part several mining processes, so lower values were detected. To take into account the results, the miners' estimated annual dose exposure is between the range of 2.5-10.2 mSv/y which is not negligible compared to the natural radiation background (2.5 mSv/y). (author)

  13. Neutron induced autoradiography of some minerals from the Allchar mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaru, A.; Ilic, R.; Skvarc, J.; Kristof, E.S.; Stafilov, T.

    1999-01-01

    The mineral lorandite from the Allchar mine (Kavadarci, Macedonia) will be used to estimate the average solar neutrino flux. Here, the amount of 205 Pb isotope induced by the 205 Tl(ν e , e - ) 205 Pb reaction is measured and converted to neutrino flux. To determine the few 205 Pb atoms that are produced by solar neutrinos in the Tl ore it is necessary to know all the interfering reactions and/or impurities producing 205 Pb. The concentration and/or spatial distribution of some impurities such as U in lorandite should be known as accurately as possible. In the present work uranium and boron concentrations in some minerals from the Allchar mine (lorandite, realgar, stibnite, orpiment and dolomite) were measured by neutron induced autoradiography. The tracks of 10 B(n, α) and 235 U(n, f) reaction products were recorded by CR-39 and phosphate glass (PSK-50) etched track detectors, respectively. Results showed that uranium is nonuniformly distributed in some of the minerals (orpiment, realgar and lorandite). Average uranium concentration levels varied from 0.01 to 1 μg g -1 . The highest boron concentration (about 6.7 μg g -1 ) was found in stibnite while its concentration in other minerals was below the detection limit (about 1 μg g -1 ) of the technique

  14. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Geologic map of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1967 original map compilation of G.G. Semenov and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Mathieux, Donald P.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map of central Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, is a combined, redrafted, and modified version of the Geological map of central Badakhshan, scale 1:200,000 (sheet 217), and Map of minerals of central Badakhshan, scale 1:200,000 (also sheet 217) from Semenov and others (1967) (Soviet report no. R0815). That unpublished Soviet report contains the original maps and cross sections, which were prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Republic of Afghanistan in 1967 under contract no. 1378 (Technoexport, USSR). This USGS publication also includes the gold metallogeny summarized in Abdullah and others (1977) and Peters and others (2007, 2011), and additional compilations from Guguev and others (1967).

  16. Mining dictionary: underground mining; open-cast mining; preparation and beneficiation; geology of mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goergen, H; Stoll, R D; Vriesen, R D; Welzenberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The dictionary reflects the latest technical developments in the vocabulary of mining methods and the mining industry. Volume I of the dictionary is English to German, Volume II German to English. 36,000 entries are included.

  17. Radiation situation during underground mineral raw materials mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, B.I.

    2007-01-01

    One studied the content and the ratio of 4 0 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U natural radionuclides in the ores mined in Egypt, Iran, China and Turkey. It is shown that in some ores, for example, in the carbonaceous shale mined in China, in the Iranian bauxite and turquoise Ra eq is higher than 370 Bq/kg, that is, it is higher than the value recommended by the International Scientific Committee on Radiation Effect. The Chinese bituminous shale shows high content of 226 Ra, while 226 Ra/ 232 Th concentration ratio varies between 10 and 60 in contrast to that of other numerous mineral raw materials being close to 1-3. In a number of mines one recorded high concentrations of radon (higher than 300 Bq/m 3 ). Inhalation of such an air results in the essential internal irradiation. The average annual dose equivalents for miners may be higher than the maximum permissible value equal to 20 mSv/g [ru

  18. Process for the reduction of competitive oxidant consuming reactions in the solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation. More specifically, the invention relates to an improved method which enhances significantly the recovery of the mineral from a subterranean formation via solution mining by reducing the oxidant consuming reactions which compete with the mineral for the oxidant injected therein

  19. Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.L.; Schroeder, P.D.; Nagle, S.M.; Zelazny, L.W.; Alley, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Significant deposits of mineral sands were discovered in Virginia's Upper Coastal Plain in 1989. The Old Hickory deposit is the largest ore body in the state (>2,000 ha) and supports a productive rowcrop agriculture on prime farmlands. field experiments were installed on pilot-scale (25 m x 60 m) mining pits in the late summer of 1995 and replicated on an adjacent undisturbed area. Half of each mining pit was topsoiled (25 cm) while the remaining half was left as either (1) mixed tails/slimes or (2) re-graded subsoil over tails/slimes to simulate various pit closure scenarios. Both non-topsoiled areas received 112 Mg/ha of yard waste compost as a soil building amendment. The entire area was ripped/disked to ameliorate compaction and incorporate lime and fertilizer additions. The experiment was cropped through a wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton rotation over the 1995 to 1998 growing seasons. Taken as a whole, these combined results clearly indicate that mining and reclamation of these prime farmlands will lead to a substantial decrease in rowcrop productivity, at least over the initial years following pit closure and reclamation. For the rotation studied, post-mining productivity was estimated by this experiment to be reduced by 23%, 3%, 27%, and 20% for each crop (wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton) in sequence. For a given crop in a given year, response to topsoiling versus compost addition to the surface varied, and neither treatment appeared superior. Corn and cotton yields on the mined land treatments were reduced despite the application of irrigation. Cotton quality was also adversely affected by the mining reclamation treatments. Results of these controlled experiments are somewhat encouraging. However, the implementation of protocols will be complicated in practice if tailings and slimes cannot be re-blended to generate a reasonably uniform final reclaimed surface.

  20. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  1. Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja Region of ... Oftentimes, the economic aspect of mining overshadows ecological and social needs in ... For that reason, Karamoja region has experienced violent ethnic conflicts, ...

  2. Features of phenacite mineralization from the Ural emerald mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems of development of phenacite mineralization at the Ural Emerald Mines, which is rather well developed and described in the Mariinsky (Malyshevsky and Sretensky (Sverdlovsk emerald-beryllium deposits. Phenacite is widespread in many beryllium deposits, but crystals of jewelry quality, with such large sizes as at the Emerald Mines, form rarely. Despite the prescription of the discovery (1833, and because of the rare occurrence of jewelry quality of crystals, and the presence of more expensive and valuable stones – emeralds and alexandrites – in deposits of the Emerald mines, phenacite remains almost unknown in the precious stones market, and especially abroad. Phenacite mineralization mostly occurs in the micaceous veins represented by gray and greenish-gray phlogopite. Distribution of phenacite in the micaceous veins is extremely uneven. Mineralization is typically nesting. High content of phenacite appears in the micaceous veins, mineral composition of which is mostly phlogopite, veins and concretions of beryllium-containing margarite (B-margarite and chlorite. Content of phenacite is low in the micaceous veins that include phlogopite, plagioclase, beryl, fluorite, smoky quartz. At the Sretensky deposit is located a vein that refers to a new type of ore bodies of the chrysoberyl-phenacite composition lying in ultrabasic rocks. Unlike emerald-bearing micaceous veins that have a northwestern spread, the chrysoberyl-phenacite ore bodies are oriented in the near-latitudinal direction and have a northern incidence at an angle of 75°–80°. The most common form of phenacite crystals on the Emerald Mines is rhombohedral and short columned. Crystals have a large number of faces. The usual shapes are a hexagonal prism and rhombohedrons. Twin crystals are common, druses, columnar aggregates, and spherulites are characteristic. Phenacite can be colorless or slightly colored in wine yellow, sometimes pinkish, light

  3. Neutron induced autoradiography of some minerals from the Allchar mine

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaru, A; Skvarc, J; Kristof, E S; Stafilov, T

    1999-01-01

    The mineral lorandite from the Allchar mine (Kavadarci, Macedonia) will be used to estimate the average solar neutrino flux. Here, the amount of sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb isotope induced by the sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Tl(nu sub e , e sup -) sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb reaction is measured and converted to neutrino flux. To determine the few sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb atoms that are produced by solar neutrinos in the Tl ore it is necessary to know all the interfering reactions and/or impurities producing sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb. The concentration and/or spatial distribution of some impurities such as U in lorandite should be known as accurately as possible. In the present work uranium and boron concentrations in some minerals from the Allchar mine (lorandite, realgar, stibnite, orpiment and dolomite) were measured by neutron induced autoradiography. The tracks of sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n, f) reaction products were recorded by CR-39 and phosphate glass (PSK-50) etched track detectors, respectively. Results showed...

  4. The heavy-minerals plant at Palabora Mining Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Spuy, R.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The heavy-minerals plant at the Palabora Mining Company treats 25 to 30 kt of new feed daily. The U 3 O 8 value of the ore averages approximately 40 p.p.m. The circuit consists of four stages of upgrading on 68 Reichert cones, followed by a jig and 30 table decks. The paper describes how feed-distribution problems have been overcome and the methods used for monitoring and controlling the cone performance. The adaptation of a standard jig for the recovery of fine minerals is discussed, and a method of table agglomeration, for the recovery of coarse refractory copper sulphide is described. The tables consist of polyurethane-covered fibreglass decks, and their operation is controlled according to measurements of the uranothorianite content of the concentrates and middlings by means of a nuclear scintillation counter. The upgrading ratio of the uranium mineral by gravity concentration is 1000:1, baddeleyite (ZrO 2 ) being recovered as a byproduct [af

  5. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... industries, such as mining, by reducing workplace deaths and improving the health of coal miners. This..., enhanced enforcement, collaborative outreach, and education and training. The initiative will reduce, and... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  6. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cause of death in former miners of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vich, Z.; Koskova, D.

    1992-01-01

    The mortality in a cohort of 4,803 former miners from uranium mines was analyzed with special reference to other causes of death than bronchogenic cancer. The observed frequencies of death from other causes were significantly lower than the expected rates for the period of 1968-1985 as well as in various periods of observation, this especially in the group of cardiovascular diseases, other tumors and the group of other diseases; at the same time, frequencies of death from diseases of respiratory and digestive systems and from injuries were not different from the expected rates. This may be caused by the s.c. health worker effect or by increased mortality from lung tumors at a younger age than that which is usual in the non-exposed male population. (author) 4 tabs., 14 refs

  8. Impact of mining on the female community: a perspective of female miners in the Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrinal K. Ghose [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Mining Environment

    2004-12-01

    India ranks among the top ten mineral producing nations in the world. This paper investigates mineral production and focuses on the total value of minerals produced in the country. However, mining is seen as one of the most 'masculine' of industries and it is believed that women play an insignificant role in it. The paper examines the employment and social perspectives of women in the mineral industry and overviews the Indian Mines Act for providing employment to female miners. It also investigates the employment of women in coal, lignite and metalliferous mines and discusses the impact of mining in the female community. The study reveals that women take part in mining in non-traditional activities and there is a tendency to conceal the fact that women comprise an important part of the work force. The paper highlights the socioeconomic characteristics of women as miners and on the productive roles they play in mining. It also reviews the prospect of female miners with more involvement in the industry and concludes that women's work in mines needs to be valued and enhanced. The paper suggests certain ways that this can be achieved, such as providing training, leading to ability-building, skill enhancement and improved safety in mines.

  9. First aid to miners suffering from overheating in deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makartsev, V.I.; Tsepurdei, A.A.; Zabolotnii, V.N.; Mozhaev, G.A.; Gridin, V.S. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Describes the symptoms of hyperthermia and approaching thermal shock in coal miners working in deep coal mines. First aid is given to miners suffering from hyperthermia and thermal shock. It is pointed out that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures at workplaces can result in thermal exhaustion with a deficit of body fluids and minerals. Thermal exhaustion is characterized by general weakness, headaches, insomnia, sleepiness, choleric mood, emotional upset, tremulous pulse and labored breathing. Preventive measures against overheating in deep coal mines are listed.

  10. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Kim, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively

  11. Management of waste from mining and minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    2000-01-01

    Growing attention has been paid to exposures to enhanced natural radiation in the last decade. One important problem is the management of waste from mining and minerals processing. The inconsistencies in the relevant approaches may partly be a consequence of the fact that feasible but too expensive measures to reduce doses may be unreasonable because of their socio-economic impacts. Although in principle airborne and liquid effluents belong to the definition of radioactive waste they are not discussed in this paper: There are three different basic waste types: -Waste rock piles and tailings from uranium mining and milling as practices. -Wastes created by mining and processing of minerals where the enhanced radioactivity is incidental to the work, e.g. phosphate industry, processing of metal ores and zircon sands, manufacture of rare earths, manufacture and use of thorium compounds, oil and gas extraction industry, combustion of coal. (Amounts of wastes and their activity concentrations are very different in different countries. Most of these 'practices' already exist, and they might be included in the radiation protection system like an intervention situation. In the European Basic Safety Standards they are called 'work activities'.) -Residues from former mining and processing, where radiation protection had not or inadequately been observed, as pure intervention situations. To solve radiation protection problems with regard to enhanced natural radioactivity a flexible approach is to be preferred. After an overview of the problems and their significance in a country work activities and intervention situations of concern should be identified. Compliance with established dose criteria should be achieved by simple intervention measures. Only if this is not possible a radiation protection system as for practices should be applied. At present efforts are focussed on occupational exposures. The management of wastes should analogously and simultaneously be included in new

  12. The tin mining and heavy mineral processing industry in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Swee Ching

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the tin mining and heavy mineral processing in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia was presented. Amang, a mixture composed of tin ore, sand, ilmenite, monazite, zircon, xenotime, struvite, etc , as a product from tin mining activities was discussed too in this paper

  13. [Changes in the blood concentrations of interleukins and electrolytes in miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, E B; Rebrov, B A; Rebrova, O A; Stroilo, N G; Voloshinovich, A R

    2001-01-01

    Miners working in deep coal mines, engaged in hard physical work under most harsh mine conditions demonstrate a striking imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and a rise in the blood levels of electrolytes K+ and Na+ as well. The analysis performed revealed a direct correlation between the level of blood concentration of IL-6 and that of K+, Na+.

  14. When miners become “foreigners”: Competing categorizations within gold mining spaces in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Bolay, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research and problem-centered interviews in Guinean mining areas, this paper presents a comparative reading of the conflicting conceptions of what constitutes a “mining community.” First, I explore how independent artisanal miners describe and identify their activity. The weight of autochthony conventions is discussed concerning their insertion both in the mining fields and in their living locations. Second, I focus the case study on how the corporate social responsibi...

  15. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  16. Mercury use in small scale gold mining in Ghana: an assessment of its impact on miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagya, Robert Yakubu

    2002-12-01

    Small scale gold mining is responsible for about 5% of Ghana’s annual gold production. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 100,000 people are engaged in small scale gold mining either on part-time or permanent basis. Amalgamation is the preferred method used by small scale gold miners for extracting free gold from its ores. The rate at which mercury, an important input in this method, is discharged into the atmosphere and water bodies is alarming. This research describes the various mining and processing methods in small scale gold mining and the extent of mercury use and releases to the environment. It discusses mercury and its human and environmental effects. It defines the various forms of mercury, routes of exposure, toxic effects. The levels of exposure to mercury by all groups of small scale gold miners are determined, and the impacts on the miners and the environment are assessed. It concludes that: • Mercury is mainly released into the environment as a result of small scale gold mining through spillage of elemental mercury and evaporation of mercury from the amalgam and sponge gold when they are heated on open fire. • Mercury in environmental samples from small scale gold mining areas is well above standard limit values. • Mercury released into the environment through small scale gold mining impacts negatively on the miners themselves and the general environment. Finally, it recommends the need for the adoption of mercury emission reduction strategies for dealing with the mercury problem. (au)

  17. Influence of noxious products of blasting in mine air on miners' health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyakova, L F; Sukhanov, V V

    1979-07-01

    Changes in the percentage of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in mine air as a result of blasting is analyzed as measured in coal mines of the Donbass in coal seams located from 500 m to 1000 m underground. It is stated that 15 minutes after blasting the concentration of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide drops to a permissible level. Fifty minutes after blasting the percentage of nitric oxide in mine air drops to such a level that it can not be detected. Carbon monoxide can be detected until the blasted rocks and coal are removed from the heading. The percentage of nitric oxide in mine air falls with growing depth of workings. The interdependence between state of miners' health and their contact with noxious gases is also analyzed. The analysis shows that miners working where blasting is used are ill more frequently than other miners, and their absence due to illness is longer. (In Russian)

  18. Method for improving solution flow in solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation containing same in which an injection and production well are drilled and completed within said formation, leach solution and an oxidant are injected through said injection well into said formation to dissolve said mineral, and said dissolved mineral is recovered via said production well, wherein the improvement comprises pretreating said formation with an acid gas to improve the permeabiltiy thereof

  19. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  20. Morbidity and Health Risk Factors Among New Mexico Miners: A Comparison Across Mining Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Alice M; Yeoman, Kristin; Victoroff, Tristan; Evans, Kandace; Karr, Roger; Sanchez, Tami; Sood, Akshay; Laney, Anthony Scott

    2017-08-01

    This study examines differences in chronic health outcomes between coal, uranium, metal, and nonmetal miners. In a cross-sectional study using data from a health screening program for current and former New Mexico miners, log-binomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks of respiratory and heart disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, and back pain associated with mining in each sector as compared with coal, adjusting for other relevant risk factors. Differential risks in angina, pulmonary symptoms, asthma, cancer, osteoarthritis, and back pain between mining sectors were found. New Mexico miners experience different chronic health challenges across sectors. These results demonstrate the importance of using comparable data to understand how health risks differ across mining sectors. Further investigation among a broader geographic population of miners will help identify the health priorities and needs in each sector.

  1. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  2. Environmental restoration. Stabilization of mining tailing and uranium mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Carboneras, P.

    1998-01-01

    ENRESA has dismantling a uranium mill facility and restored the site since 1991 to 1994. Since 1997, 19 uranium mines are being re mediated. The Andujar uranium mill was operational since 1959 to 1981. The remedial action plan performed in the Andujar mill site involved stabilizing and consolidating the uranium mill tailings and contaminated materials in place. Mill equipment, building and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailings mass has been reshape by flattening the side slopes and cover system was placed over the pile. The uranium mines are located in Extremadura and Andalucia. There is a great diversity among the mines in terms of the magnitude of the disturbed areas by mining work and the effects on the environment, including excavations, waste rock piles, abandoned shafts and galleries, and remaining of surface structures and facilities. Remedial measures include the sealing for shafts and openings to prevent collapse of mine workings and subsidence, the dewatering and the open-pit excavation and the treatment of the contaminated waters, the disposal and the stabilization of mining debris piles to prevent dispersion, the placement of a re vegetated cover over the piles to control dust and erosion, and the restoration of the site. (Author)

  3. 26 CFR 1.614-3 - Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... method of mining the mineral, the location of the excavations or other workings in relation to the mineral deposit or deposits, and the topography of the area. The determination of the taxpayer as to the...

  4. Concept Study of Multi Sensor Detection Imaging and Explosive Confirmation of Mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarczyk, Larry

    1998-01-01

    ...) cannot detect non-metallic mines and detection sensitivity degrades in magnetic soil. Because metal detection sensitivity can be increased to detect low metal content in some non-metallic mines, some alarms significantly increase...

  5. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  6. Restoration of Prime Farmland Disturbed by Mineral Sand Mining in the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    Economic deposits of heavy mineral sand were identified in the late 1980's under prime farmland along the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia. Mining in Virginia will commence in 1997 on the Old Hickory Deposit in Dinwiddie/Sussex Counties. Experiments were established on two mine pits representing two likely pit closure scenarios; regrading the surface with unprocessed subsoil (Pit 1) or filling to the surface with processed material (Pit 3). To evaluate topsoil replacement vs. organic amendment...

  7. Economic importance of the small miner and small mining businesses in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, C.C.; Whitney, J.W.; Wobber, F.J.

    1977-11-01

    This study documents the economic characteristics of the small mining industry in Alaska, including both mine production and mineral deposit discovery. Economic effects on business activities in Alaska are considered. The study is largely qualitative in nature. It is based on state economic statistics, data obtained from state and federal government agencies, interviews, and indirect evaluation. Direct and indirect effects on employment, purchase and maintenance of heavy equipment, fuels, other consumables, and transportation are identified.

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste from mining and processing of mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    All mineral sands products contain the naturally radioactive elements uranium and thorium and their daughters. The activity levels in the different minerals can vary widely and in the un mined state are frequently widely dispersed and add to the natural background radiation levels. Following mining, the minerals are concentrated to a stage where radiation levels can present an occupational hazard and disposal of waste can result in radiation doses in excess of the public limit. Chemical processing can release radioactive daughters, particularly radium, leading to the possibility of dispersal and resulting in widespread exposure of the public. The activity concentration in the waste can vary widely and different disposal options appropriate to the level of activity in the waste are needed. Disposal methods can range from dilution and dispersal of the material into the mine site, for untreated mine tailings, to off site disposal in custom built and engineered waste disposal facilities, for waste with high radionuclide content. The range of options for disposal of radioactive waste from mineral sands mining and processing is examined and the principles for deciding on the appropriate disposal option are discussed. The range of activities of waste from different downstream processing paths are identified and a simplified method of identifying potential waste disposal paths is suggested. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Non-Coal Mineral Production Mines in Iowa, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Registered noncoal mineral production sites within the State of Iowa, current to the year 2000. This shape file contains polygons representing the permitted...

  10. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  11. The African mining vision: perspectives on mineral resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents a matrix systematically analysing possible scenarios for implementing the Africa Mining Vision. The implementation of the AMV would likely be non-linear. Vested interests, including resistance to change and diversity of country contexts, could lead to varied outcomes in the implementation of AMV in the ...

  12. [Features of health disorders in miners employed at northern copper-nickel mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S V; Shilov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different working conditions on the health of 1523 copper-nickel miners of the Kola High North. The low degree of mechanization of mining operations was established to be related to more higher levels of vibration, noise and physical overloads. The working in such conditions, when compared with high mining mechanization, leads to a decrease in the number of conditionally healthy workers (12% and 20.7%, p mining operations the greatest risk of occupational diseases in noted in drifters (OR = 5.68), at that it was higher at hand mining than at mechanized mining (RR = 1.44). There was made a conclusion about the need to improve the complex of measures for the preservation of health in this group of workers, especially engaged in the performance of tunnel works.

  13. Results of medico-sociologic investigation of miners of Donbass mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinger, F Kh; Gadzhiev, G P; Sorokin, E S; Mukhina, K Sh; Vinarik, Eh M; Kal' yanov, A V

    1987-08-01

    To optimize conditions of work, mode of life, medico-prophylactic service and hygienic education, a medico-sociologic survey was conducted of miners of deep coal mines to obtain information in order to work up measures to improve health of miners. Results of interrogations of 1000 miners, tunellers and stopers led to the following conclusions: (1) Majority of workers of deep mines of the Donbass notes a warming microclimate at deep horizons, inefficient ventilation, flooding and tediousness of work combined with a nervous-emotional burden. (2) Few miners use respirators, visit inhalators, and follow a rational regime of eating due to shift work. (3) Survey showed negative aspects of life of miners: poor use of holidays, insufficient attention to physical culture and sport, excessive smoking and unwise drinking especially among men of about 30 years of age. Above results of survey demonstrate need for reorganization of an improvement of health education of miners and for organization of more polyclinics for miners. To improve life-style and working conditions, it is necessary to normalize microclimate and reduce dustiness of air, ensure that miners improve their nutrition, improve medico-sanitary service and increase health education propaganda.

  14. Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Matine, O. F.; Taimo, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Silva, L.; Malta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sites at the littoral of Mozambique with heavy mineral sands exploited for ilmenite, rutile and zircon and inland mineral deposits exploited for tantalite, uranium and bauxite were surveyed for ambient radiation doses, and samples were collected for the determination of radionuclide concentrations. In heavy mineral sands, 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were 70±2 and 308±9 Bq kg -1 dry weight (dw), respectively, whereas after separation of minerals, the concentrations in the ilmenite fraction were 2240±64 and 6125±485 Bq kg -1 (dw), respectively. Tantalite displayed the highest concentrations with 44 738±2474 Bq kg -1 of 238 U. Radiation exposure of workers in mining facilities is likely to occur at levels above the dose limit for members of the public (1 mSv y -1 ) and therefore radiation doses should be assessed as occupational exposures. Local populations living in these regions in general are not exposed to segregated minerals with high radionuclide concentrations. However, there is intensive traditional mining and a large number of artisan miners and their families may be exposed to radiation doses exceeding the dose limit. A radiation protection programme is therefore needed to ensure radiation protection of the public and workers of developing mining projects. (authors)

  15. Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Matine, Obete F; Taímo, Suzete; Oliveira, João M; Silva, Lídia; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Sites at the littoral of Mozambique with heavy mineral sands exploited for ilmenite, rutile and zircon and inland mineral deposits exploited for tantalite, uranium and bauxite were surveyed for ambient radiation doses, and samples were collected for the determination of radionuclide concentrations. In heavy mineral sands, (238)U and (232)Th concentrations were 70±2 and 308±9 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, whereas after separation of minerals, the concentrations in the ilmenite fraction were 2240±64 and 6125±485 Bq kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Tantalite displayed the highest concentrations with 44 738±2474 Bq kg(-1) of (238)U. Radiation exposure of workers in mining facilities is likely to occur at levels above the dose limit for members of the public (1 mSv y(-1)) and therefore radiation doses should be assessed as occupational exposures. Local populations living in these regions in general are not exposed to segregated minerals with high radionuclide concentrations. However, there is intensive artisanal mining and a large number of artisanal miners and their families may be exposed to radiation doses exceeding the dose limit. A radiation protection programme is therefore needed to ensure radiation protection of the public and workers of developing mining projects.

  16. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry: Practical application to South African operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Although South Africa has no primary uranium mines, a major portion of its very large mining industry involves minerals with moderately elevated levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides, typical of elevated levels found in similar mineral deposits worldwide. Evidence both locally and internationally suggests that, where radioactive elements are not concentrated or extracted, such operations cannot normally give rise to undue radiological risks. The concept of exclusion should therefore play the major role in establishing which minerals-related operations should be subject to regulatory control, but exclusion criteria, which tend to be numerical rather than descriptive, vary widely between countries - in South Africa, very little is excluded and opportunities for granting exemptions are limited. The need for exemptions and clearance would be reduced if more extensive use of the exclusion concept were made, but it is nevertheless important to have better guidance on determining appropriate numerical exemption and clearance criteria - again, there are currently wide variations between countries, one example being the surface activity clearance levels for the reuse or recycling of uranium-contaminated items. Two examples, relating to gold mining tailings disposal and recycling of contaminated scrap steel respectively, are used to illustrate the difficulties that have arisen in South Africa on the clearance of low activity materials from the mining and minerals industry. Radon is identified as requiring separate consideration, and is the one area where more specific international guidance, based on action levels for intervention, is available. The action level for workplaces recommended by the IAEA would appear to represent a common basis for exclusion and exemption with respect to radon exposures from mining and minerals operations. For public exposures, the corresponding action level for homes, although not specifically intended for dealing with radon from nearby

  17. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  18. Competitive platinum-group-metal (PGM) supply from the Eastern Limb, Bushveld Complex: Geological, mining and mineral economic aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -GROUP-METAL (PGM) SUPPLY FROM THE EASTERN LIMB, BUSHVELD COMPLEX: GEOLOGICAL, MINING, AND MINERAL ECONOMIC ASPECTS Dr. Jeannette E. McGill & Prof. Murray W. Hitzman ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ? COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) ? Centre for Mining... Innovation ? Office of Graduate Studies, Fogarty Endowment ? Mr. VISHNU PILLAY (EXECUTIVE HEAD: JV?S ? Anglo Platinum) ? ACADEMIC ADVISORS Prof. Murray Hitzman (Economic Geology); Dr. Hugh Miller (Mining Engineering); Prof. Rodderick Eggert (Mineral...

  19. Tectonic stress history and the relationship with uranium mineralization in Shenchong mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingqiang; Lin Yinshan; Kang Zili

    1996-01-01

    The rejection method of maximum statistical for principal stress axis is applied to complex granite body, this paper divide mining area tectonic process into six epochs. The relationship between the tectonic process and uranium mineralization is also discussed, and the later 3 times fracture process of Diwa epoch control the removing and gathering of Uranium in this area

  20. Characterization of iron and manganese minerals and their associated microbiota in different mine sites to reveal the potential interactions of microbiota with mineral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Bong-Soo; Chon, Chul-Min

    2018-01-01

    Different environmental conditions such as pH and dissolved elements of mine stream induce precipitation of different minerals and their associated microbial community may vary. Therefore, mine precipitates from various environmental conditions were collected and their associated microbiota were analyzed through metagenomic DNA sequencing. Various Fe and Mn minerals including ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, goethite, birnessite, and Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (δ-(Fe 1-x , Mn x )OOH) were found in the different environmental conditions. The Fe and Mn minerals were enriched with toxic metal(loid)s including As, Cd, Ni and Zn, indicating they can act as scavengers of toxic metal(loid)s in mine streams. Under acidic conditions, Acidobacteria was dominant phylum and Gallionella (Fe oxidizing bacteria) was the predominant genus in these Fe rich environments. Manganese oxidizing bacteria, Hyphomicrobium, was found in birnessite forming environments. Leptolyngbya within Cyanobacteria was found in Fe and Mn oxidizing environments, and might contribute to Fe and Mn oxidation through the production of molecular oxygen. The potential interaction of microbial community with minerals in mine sites can be traced by analysis of microbial community in different Fe and Mn mineral forming environments. Iron and Mn minerals contribute to the removal of toxic metal(loid)s from mine water. Therefore, the understanding characteristics of mine precipitates and their associated microbes helps to develop strategies for the management of contaminated mine water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  2. Results of cytogenetic examinations of miners exposed to radon in ore mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study the radon air concentrations and clastogenic effects at three ore mines located in central east Slovakia, the gold mine of Hodrusa-Hamre, talcum mine of Hnusta, and iron ore mine in Nizna Slana are compared with the chromosomal aberrations observed in a control group of healthy men which experienced underground work. A random sample of radon concentration measurements in houses was used for control. Significant differences in counts of aberrations of the chromosomal type in lymphocytes of smoker-miners of Nizna Slana as compared with counts of such aberrations in lymphocytes of a control group of similar age were found. A dependence of chromosomal aberration counts from the underground exposure to radon by multiple regression procedures could not be ascertained. The results indicated that confounding of such dependence by smoking might have taken place

  3. Positron annhilation in nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, A.; Sob, M.; Dekhtyar, I. Ya.

    1979-01-01

    In positron annihilation investigations of nonmetallic solids, the standard deviation of the gaussian component of the angular correlation curve is elucidated as material constant. It is related to the apparent radius of the chemical unit of the substance in question. (Auth.)

  4. French uranium mines and miners from 1945 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes an historical review of the French uranium mining activity, and more particularly of its actors from 1945 to 1975 with the creation of the CEA and of its different departments, and their successive managers. CEA teams explored several countries but also exploit uranium ores in France (275 tons in 1956). After a continuous development until 1962, an important discovery in Niger, the activity in France faced great difficulties between 1970 and 1973, just before knowing great time due to the French electronuclear program (1974-1980), and to the strong increase of the uranium market. The first oil crisis was still a benefit, but the third oil crisis (1980) caused a reduction of power plant commissioning

  5. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaev, Sergey; Ivanov, Seregey; Vakhianov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  6. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  7. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riese, A.C.; Propp, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Modern methods of uranium solution mining are typically accompanied by gains and losses of mass through reagent consumption by rock-forming minerals, with subsequent formation of clay minerals, gypsum, carbonates, and iron oxyhydroxides. A systematic approach to alleviate such problems involves the application of leach solutions that are in equilibrium with the host-rock minerals but in disequilibrium with the ore-forming minerals. This partial equilibrium can be approximated by solution-composition adjustments within the systems K 2 O-Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 -H 2 O and Na 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 -H 2 O. Uranium ore containing 0.15 percent U 3 O 8 from the Gulf Mineral Resources Corporation's Mariano Lake mine, the Smith Lake district of the Grants mineral belt, was collected for investigation. Presented are a theoretical evaluation of leachate data and an experimental treatment of the ore, which contained mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and quartz (with lesser amounts of micas, clay minerals, and organic carbonaceous material). Small-scale (less than or equal to 1 kg) column-leaching experiments were conducted to model the results of conventional leaching operations and to provide leachate solutions that could be compared with solutions calculated to be in equilibrium with the matrix minerals. Leach solutions employed include: 1) sulfuric acid, 2) sodium bicarbonate, and 3) sulfuric acid with 1.0 molal potassium chloride. The uranium concentrations in the sodium-bicarbonate leach solution and the acid-leach solution were about a gram per liter at the termination of the tests. However, the permeability of the ore in the acid leach was greatly reduced, owing to the formation of clay minerals. Uranium solubility in the leach column stabilized with the potassium-chloride solution was calculated from leachate compositions to be limited by the solubility of carnotite

  8. Field monitoring versus individual miner dosimetry of radon daughter products in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, T; Kluszczyński, D; Olszewski, J; Chruscielewski, W

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results realised simultaneously by two different and independent systems of measurement of an assessment of miners' exposure to radon daughter products which naturally occur in the air of mines. The first one, called the Air Sampling System (ASS), was based on the field monitoring of radon progeny in air, the second one, called the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), was based on the individual dosimeters worn by miners. Experimental comparison of these two systems has been conducted for six years in eleven Polish underground metal-ore mines. This study reveals that no correlation exists between the concentration and annual miners' exposures evaluated by the ASS and IDS. The ratio ASS/IDS for mine population varies from 11.0 to 0.14 in respect of annual concentration means, and in respect to annual exposures, this ratio varies from 4.5 to 0.14. The conclusion to be drawn from six years' observation and comparison of both systems is that correct and true evaluation of miners' exposure to radon progeny can be made only by the use of the Individual Dosimetry System, since the Air Sampling System is too sensitive and too dependent on the Strategy of sampling and its radiation.

  9. Development of computerized stocktaking system in mine surveying for ore mineral volume calculation in covered storehouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, V. V.; Gridnev, S. O.

    2017-10-01

    The article examines into the vital issues of measuring and calculating the raw stock volumes in covered storehouses at mining and processing plants. The authors bring out two state-of-the-art high-technology solutions: 1 - to use the ground-based laser scanning system (the method is reasonably accurate and dependable, but costly and time consuming; it also requires the stoppage of works in the storehouse); 2 - to use the fundamentally new computerized stocktaking system in mine surveying for the ore mineral volume calculation, based on the profile digital images. These images are obtained via vertical projection of the laser plane onto the surface of the stored raw materials.

  10. Regulatory issues associated with exclusion, exemption, and clearance related to the mining and minerals processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Woude, S. van der; Keenan, N.; Guy, S.

    1997-01-01

    The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance have been established in international recommendations and, standards for radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in recent years. The consistent application of these concepts has given rise to various problems in different spheres of use. This is particularly the case in the mining and minerals processing industries dealing with materials exhibiting elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper takes the South African mining industry as an example and highlights some of the issues that have arisen in applying these concepts within a regulatory control regime. (author)

  11. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  12. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  13. The expected impacts of mining : Stakeholder perceptions of a proposed mineral sands mine in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, van der S.; Walsh, B.; Behrens, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The form and evolution of stakeholder perceptions toward renewable energy (RE) developments continue to be investigated, but there has been little similar research regarding mines. Responses of community members and other stakeholders cannot be expected to evolve the same way between different

  14. pubmed. mineR: An R package with text-mining algorithms to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Three case studies are presented, namely, `Evolving role of diabetes educators', `Cancer risk assessment' and `Dynamic concepts on disease and comorbidity' to illustrate the use of pubmed.mineR. The package generally runs fast with small elapsed times in regular workstations even on large corpus ...

  15. Ventilatory Function in Relation to Mining Experience and Smoking in a Random Sample of Miners and Non-miners in a Witwatersrand Town1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Walters, L. G.; Sichel, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    The ventilatory capacity of a random sample of men over the age of 35 years in the town of Carletonville was estimated by the forced expiratory volume and the peak expiratory flow rate. Five hundred and sixty-two persons were working or had worked in gold-mines and 265 had never worked in gold-mines. No difference in ventilatory function was found between the miners and non-miners other than that due to the excess of chronic bronchitis in miners. PMID:6017134

  16. Pollution minimisation practices in the Australian mining and mineral processing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine Driussi; Janis Jansz [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Research was conducted to identify some of the current pollution minimisation practices adopted in Australia's mining and mineral processing industries. Initially, 84 mining and mineral processing companies were approached for inclusion in the study, with request only made for information that was available to the company stakeholders and the wider general community. Among the responses received, BHP Billiton, BlueScope Steel, Newmont Australia Limited and AngloGold Australia provided the information requested and/or a substantial quantity of information through reports on their company website. Analysis of the data collected for these companies indicated that improvements were made, and that policies had been implemented over the previous few years. The pollution minimisation and policy practices adopted at the operations of these companies include environmental management systems, advanced pollution control technologies, environmental awareness training for employees, and requirement - from company stakeholders - for increased accountability of environmental impacts.

  17. Radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and other mining experience in the beaverlodge uranium miners cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abbe, K.A.; Howe, G.R.; Burch, J.D.; Miller, A.B.; Abbatt, J.; Band, P.; Choi, W.; Du, J.; Feather, J.; Gallagher, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nested case-control study within the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort was undertaken to assess any possible contribution of confounding by smoking and other mining experience to the risk estimate derived from the original cohort study. Next of kin have been interviewed for 46 lung cancer cases and 95 controls enrolled in the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort Study who died between 1950 and 1980. Confounding by cigarette smoking and other mining experience appears unlikely to have contributed to the relative risk coefficient for exposure to Rn decay products derived in the parent study. Data for smoking and exposure to Rn decay products are consistent with a multiplicative model, although considerable caution must be applied to this interpretation

  18. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  19. Basic results and prospects for development of physiology of work of miners of Donbass coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebnyak, V.P. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1988-11-01

    In the Donbass, tunnelers and stopers work under unfavorable factors of the underground environment: heavy physical work in limited space, increased possibility of accidents and personal risk, a warming microclimate, noise and dust. In view of this, role of physiology of work consists in guaranteeing normalization of work load, in development of rational regiments of work and rest, and a basis of psychophysical criteria of professional choice, development of physiologically based methods of rehabilitation, preparation of miners for factors of underground medium. Physiologic normalization of work of miners can be achieved by establishing norms of work and rest. With mechanization of mining, level of tension of work has increased, requiring longer rest periods after work. Increased temperatures of deep mines necessitate corresponding increase in rest periods, reducing exhaustion of workers and physiologically increasing productivity of work 12-15%. Investigations in physiology of work of miners have established norms of loads, national regimens of work and rest, ways to prevent disease and reduce physiologic tension of organism to prevent functional breakdowns and illnesses. For the future, further study of mechanisms causing strain and exhaustion affecting work capacity of miners is recommended. 14 refs.

  20. Niger Republic, mineral planning (part one)-Mining industries in socio-political and national economy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Julien

    1982-01-01

    This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved [fr

  1. Mining and miners of the French uranium - III - The time of great adventures (1959 - 1973)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1996-07-01

    This third volume of ''Mining and miners of the French uranium'' describes the historical, political and strategical aspects of the French experience in uranium prospecting and exploitation during the period 1959 -1973. This volume comprises two parts. Part one concerns the political and strategical aspects of the French uranium policy according to the economical and geopolitical context of this period. The second part describes the uranium exploration and exploitation works in the French territory and overseas (Madagascar, Gabon, Niger, Central African Republic, Canada, West Africa, Cameroon, Congo, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Indonesia..). A chapter is devoted to the miners' life and working conditions during this period. The complete volume is written using unpublished bibliographic sources from the CEA and Cogema and from personal miners' archives. It is full of anecdotes and extracts of letters and reports and written with a saga novel style but refers continuously to the geological context of each deposit. (J.S.)

  2. Injury experience in sand and gravel mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of sand and gravel mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, and occupation. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. Morbidity and immunological tests in miners working in mines with low ionizing radiation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, V.; Skokanova, V.; Skokanova, K.; Wagnerova, M.; Heribanova, A.; Riha, M.

    1984-01-01

    The total count of morbidity and prevalence of upper respiratory tract diseases (RTD) were studied in 210 miners working in shale mines with a low level of ionizing radiation with respect to their smoking habits. After one and a half years of observation tests of humoral immunity in the blood serum and saliva (immunoglobulins G, A, M and sIA) and tests of non-specific indices (alpha 2 macroglobulin (A 2M), transferrin, lysozyme) were performed. The number of healthy non-smokers reached 41.3% whereas the number of healthy smokers was only 26.5% (P<0.05). The greater was the number of diseases in single subjects, the greater was the difference between smokers and non-smokers (P<0.005). The difference between RTD morbidity of smokers and non-smokers was not significant in the subgroup of miners employed less than 10 years but the duration of employment raised the value significantly (P<0.002) in disfavour of smokers. The difference between smokers and non-smokers is emphasized in ageing. The mean levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) were significantly higher in healthy non-smokers in comparison with other miners; this is also stressed by distribution analysis. The distribution of A 2M values also significantly differed in the subgroup of healthy non-smokers compared with other miners. Highly significant differences were found between healthy non-smokers and other miners using discrimination analysis of coupled tests. In contrast to that, the level of A 2M was in inverse relationship to the levels of Ig; in the subgroup of healthy non-smokers low levels of A 2M correlated with high levels of Ig of all three classes. The results are discussed from the point of view of the smokers' habits, the duration of employment in the mine, the age of the miners and the presumed genetical factors

  4. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown

  5. Neyshabour turquoise mine: the first Iron Oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Karimpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyshabour turquoise mine is located in northwest of Neyshabour, southern Quchan volcanic belt. Eocene andesite and dacite forming as lava and pyroclastic rocks cover most of the area. Subvolcanic diorite to syenite porphyry (granitoids of magnetite series intruded the volcanic rocks. Both volcanic and subvolcanic rocks are highly altered. Four types of alteration are recognized including: silicification, argillic, calcification and propylitic. Silicification is dominant followed by argillic alteration. Mineralization is present as stockwork, disseminated and hydrothermal breccia. Hypogene minerals are pyrite, magnetite, specularite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. Secondary minerals are turquoise, chalcocite, covellite, and iron oxides. A broad zone of gossan has developed in the area. Oxidized zone has a thickness of about 80 m. Mineralized samples show high anomalies of Cu, Au, Zn, As, Mo, Co, U, LREE, Nb, and Th. Both aeromagnetic and radiometric (U and Th maps show very strong anomalies (10 × 5km within the mineralized area. Based on geology, alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, and geophysics, Neyshabour turquoise mine is a large Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system. In comparison with other IOCG deposits, it has some similarities with Olympic Dam (Australia and Candelaria (Chile. In comparison with Qaleh Zari and Kuh Zar mines, Neyshabour turquoise mine is the first Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system discovered in Iran.

  6. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  7. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  8. The Mineral Question: How Energy and Technology Will Determine the Future of Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Almost 150 years after that Jevons (1866) published his paper “The Coal Question” a debate on mineral depletion has been ongoing between two main schools of thought: one that sees depletion as an important problem for the near future and another that sees technology and human ingenuity as making depletion only a problem for the remote future. Today, however, we have created intellectual tools that permit us to frame the problem on the basis of physical factors, in particular on the basis of thermodynamics. The present paper examines the problem of mineral depletion from a broad viewpoint, with a specific view on the role of energy in the mining and production processes. The conclusion is that energy is a fundamental factor in determining how long we can expect the supply of mineral resources to last at the present prices and production levels. The rapid depletion of our main energy resources, fossil fuels, is creating a serious supply problem that is already being felt in terms of high prices of all mineral commodities. Technology can mitigate the problem, but not solve it. In a non-remote future, the world’s industrial system will have to undergo fundamental changes in order to adapt to a reduced supply of mineral commodities.

  9. The Mineral Question: How Energy and Technology will determine the Future of Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo eBardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost 150 years after that William Stanley Jevons published his paper The Coal Question (Jevons, 1866 the debate on mineral depletion has been ongoing between two main schools of thought: one that sees depletion as an important problem for the near future and another that sees technology and human ingenuity as the most important factors in making depletion a problem for the remote future. Today, however, we have created intellectual tools that permit us to frame the problem on the basis of physical factors, in particular on the basis of thermodynamics. The present paper examines the problem of mineral depletion from a broad viewpoint, with a specific view on the role of energy in the mining and production processes. The conclusion is that energy is a fundamental factor in determining how long we can expect the supply of mineral resources to last at the present prices and production levels. The rapid depletion of our main energy resources, fossil fuels, is creating a serious supply problem that is already being felt in terms of high prices of all mineral commodities. Technology can mitigate the problem, but not solve it. In a non remote future, the world's industrial system will have to undergo fundamental changes in order to adapt to a reduced supply of mineral commodities.

  10. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  11. Micron to Mine: Synchrotron Science for Mineral Exploration, Production, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Van Loon, L.; Flynn, T.

    2017-12-01

    Synchrotron science for mineral exploration, production, and remediation studies is a powerful tool that provides industry with relevant micron to macro geochemical information. Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-µXRF) offers a direct, high-resolution, rapid, and cost-effective chemical analysis while preserving the context of the sample by mapping ore minerals with ppm detection limits. Speciation of trace and deleterious elements can then be probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Large-scale (tens of cm) µXRF mapping and XANES analysis of samples collected at various mine locations have been undertaken to address questions regarding mineralization history to develop novel trace element exploration vectors. This information provides integral insights into trace element associations with ore minerals, local redox conditions responsible for mineralization, and mineralizing mechanisms. Gold is commonly intimately associated with sulfide mineralization (e.g., pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc.) and is present both as inclusions and filling fractures in sulfide grains. Gold may also occur as nanoparticles and/or in the sulfide mineral crystal lattice, known as "invisible gold". Understanding the nature and distribution of invisible gold in ore is integral to processing efficiency. The high flux and energy of a synchrotron light source allows for the detection of invisible gold by µXRF, and can probe its nature (metallic Au0 vs. lattice bound Au1+) using XANES spectroscopy. The long-term containment and management of arsenic is necessary to protect the health of both humans and the environment. Understanding the relationship of arsenic mineralization to gold deposits can lead to more sophisticated planning for mineral processing and the eventual storage of gangue materials. µXANES spectroscopy is an excellent tool for determining arsenic speciation within the context of the sample. Mineral phases such as arsenopyrite, scorodite, and

  12. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  13. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, Devin N.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Webster, Jenny G.

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  14. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castendyk, Devin N. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)]. E-mail: d.castendyk@auckland.ac.nz; Mauk, Jeffrey L. [Geology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Webster, Jenny G. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality.

  15. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kumar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs

  16. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  17. Gastric cancer in coal miners: an hypothesis of coal mine dust causation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, T M; Whong, W Z; Ames, R G

    1983-10-01

    An hypothesis is proposed to explain the elevated incidence of gastric cancer among coal miners. Inhaled coal mine dust, especially the larger particles, is cleared from the lung and tracheobronchial tree by mucociliary function, swallowed, and introduced into the stomach. Organic and/or inorganic materials in the dust can undergo intra-gastric nitrosation and/or interaction with exogenous chemicals to form carcinogenic compounds which in turn may lead to precancerous lesions, which may subsequently develop into gastric cancer. This sequence of events, however, depends upon occupational exposures as well as life-style features and individual genetic predisposition.

  18. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riese, A.C.; Popp, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The tests described were undertaken to determine the extent to leach solution-rock interactions with uranium-bearing ore obtained from the Mariano Lake mine. Leach solutions of an acidic (H/sub 2/O/sub 4/-sulfuric acid) and basic (NaHCO/sub 3/-sodium bicarbonate) nature were tested, in addition to a leach solution containing potassium chloride and sulfuric acid (KCl/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The latter solution was chosen in an attempt to equilibrate the aqueous phase with the rock-forming silicate minerals and minimize adverse effects such as clay formation, porosity loss, and lixiviant loss. 29 refs

  19. Moessbauer and XRD Characterization of the Mineral Matter of Coal from the Guachinte Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, F.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohorquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Speziali, N. L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization and differentiation, using Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of coal samples with different ash and sulfur contents obtained in three places corresponding at cuts in different seams from the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. The mineral phases identified by XRD were in general kaolinite, quartz, pyrite and gypsum, and in particular dolomite and calcite. MS confirms the presence of pyrite and kaolinite, besides evidences the additional presence of jarosite which was not detected by the XRD results due their low amounts. In the high mineral matter ash sample quartz and hematite was identified by XRD, the last one confirmed by MS results. A second phase in this sample was detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy, which could be superparamagnetic hematite. Rietveld refinement for XRD pattern from a sample is reported.

  20. Orientated hemolysis of the red blood cells of miners from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, J.

    1975-06-01

    The method of orientated hemolysis was used to investigate the suspension of the washed red blood cells. The control group and the test group of miners were set up. It was found that the groups did not differ either in the number of the test tubes where the hemolysis took place, or in the number of the hemolytic zones. However they did differ in the average width of the hemolytic zones and their most probable location. A more frequent occurrence of wide hemolytic zones and their placement at the end of a row of 40 test tubes has been observed in the group of miners of the uranium mines. The reason for this was not elucidated but it was shown that the phenomenon can be simulated artifically by adding uranyl and lead salts to the suspension of the red blood cells. (author)

  1. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage and evaporated minerals in the Sangdong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheon-Young; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Choi, Nag-Choul; Kang, Ji-Sung; Park, Shin-Sook; Kim, Seoung-Ku [Chosun University, Kwangju(Korea)

    2000-08-31

    This study investigated geochemical characteristics of acid mine drainage(AMD) discharged from the abandoned coal mine at the Sangdong area. Surface stream water samples were collected from 13 locations along Okdong creek. The yellowish and brown color of evaporated mineral was prepared by air dry for SJ-13 acid water sample during 121 days in the laboratory. As the SJ-13 acid water sample becomes fully drying, the concentration of this water become progressively more concentrated and its may be eventually reached saturation with respect to either gypsum or copiapite. At the upstream site, the Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Se, Th, U, Fe and SO{sub 4} ion contents were relatively high but those contents decreased significantly with the distance from the coal mine. On the contrary, the Na, K and Cl ion contents were low in the upstream site, but those contents increased to the downstream. The value of saturation index for gypsum increase with increasing ion strength, TDS and TDI in this surface stream water. The x-ray powder diffraction studies identified that the evaporated minerals were well crystallized gypsum and copiapite. Diagnostic peaks used for identification of gypsum were the 7.62, 4.28 and 3.06 A.U. peaks. Diffraction peaks at 18.78, 9.30, 6.18, 4.51 and 3.58 A.U. may indicate copiapite. The IR absorption bands of evaporated mineral which indicated gypsum and copiapite were found from OH stretching, deformation of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} stretching vibration, respectively. In the SEM and EDS analysis, the crystals of acicular and columnar in the evaporated mineral probably shown the gypsum. The efflorescenting growth of thin tabular crystals and radiating clusters of fibrous crystals in the evaporated mineral may be identified as the copiapite. The fine-grained alabaster of crystals with large platy cleavable radiating of gypsum crystals were shown in EPMA. According to the EPMA analysis for gypsum, the atomic % ratios of Ca to S

  2. Mineral production and mining trends for selected non-fuel commodities in Idaho and Montana, 1905-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeremy C.; Long, Keith R.; Assmus, Kenneth C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Idaho and Montana state mining statistics were obtained from historical mineral production records and compiled into a continuous record from 1905 through 2001. To facilitate comparisons, the mineral production data were normalized by converting the units of measure to metric tons for all included commodities. These standardized statistical data include production rates for principal non-fuel mineral commodities from both Idaho and Montana, as well as the production rates of similar commodities for the U.S. and the world for contrast. Data are presented here in both tabular and bar chart format. Moreover, the tables of standardized mineral production data are also provided in digital format as, commodity_production.xls. Some significant historical events pertaining to the mining industry are described as well. When taken into account with the historical production data, this combined information may to help explain both specific fluctuations and general tendencies in the overall trends in the rates of mineral resource production over time.

  3. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  4. Geophysical anomalies associated with uranium mineralization from Beldih mine, South Purulia Shear Zone, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Animesh; Biswas, Arkoprovo; Mittal, Saurabh; Mohanty, William K.; Sharma, Shashi Prakash; Sengupta, Debashish; Sen, Joydip; Bhatt, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Beldih mine at the central part of the South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ) has been reported with low grade uranium-bearing formation within quartz-magnetite-apatite host in kaolinized formation. Therefore, the present integrated geophysical study with gravity, magnetic, radiometric, very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF) and gradient resistivity profiling methods around the known mineralized zones aimed at identifying the exact geophysical signatures and lateral extent of these uranium mineralization bands. The closely spaced gravity-magnetic contours over the low to high anomaly transition zones of Bouguer, reduced-to-pole magnetic, and trend surface separated residual gravity-magnetic anomaly maps indicate the possibility of high altered zone(s) along NW-SE direction at the central part of the study area. High current density plots of VLF method and the low resistive zones in gradient resistivity study depict the coincidence with low gravity, moderately high magnetic and low resistivity anomalies at the same locations. Moderate high radioactive zones have also been observed over these locations. This also suggests the existence of radioactive mineralization over this region. Along profile P2, drilled borehole data revealed the presence of uranium mineralization at a depth of ∼100 m. The vertical projection of this mineralization band also identified as low gravity, low resistivity and high magnetic anomaly zone. Thus, the application of integrated geophysical techniques supported by geological information successfully recognized the nature of geophysical signatures associated with the uranium mineralization of this region. This enhances the scope of further integrated geophysical investigations in the unexplored regions of SPSZ. (author)

  5. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  6. Design of a mobile mechanism for missing miner search robots in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Sun, J.; Chen, Y.; Jia, R. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical, Electronic and Information Engineering

    2006-06-15

    A mobile mechanism with four tracked-units for a missing miner search robot (MMSR) is presented, with a design based on the terrain features and atrocious environment of an underground mine. Its structure and working principle is discussed. The four tracked-units are controlled independently and driven cooperatively. By means of two DC motors being controlled respectively, one tracked-unit can accomplish two types of driving mode: tracked travel and integral unit legged rotation (IULR), forming a track-legged compound function mechanisms. Its capabilities of surmounting obstacles and its toppling stability in underground mines have also been analyzed. The results show that the mobile mechanism can directly surmount an obstacle of the height less than the length of one tracked-unit and get across a raceway with a span less than the length of one tracked-unit by using tracked travel and IULR. Its unstable slope angle is 51.3{sup o}. Toppling stability is determined by its structural size, moving direction and slope angle. IULR of four tracked-units can adjust the robot's posture and then enhance toppling stability or assist in surmounting obstacles. Its track-legged compound function mechanism makes it suitable for working in underground mines. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzyka, V.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Carcinogens, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Hiiu 42, Tallinn 11619 (Estonia); Scheepers, P.T.J. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre St Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen NL 6500 HB (Netherlands)

    2004-04-25

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207{+-}23 vs. 166{+-}14 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1{+-}3.8 vs. 54.8{+-}4.1 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring

  8. The assessment of the radiation influence upon the uran mining personnel and data on miners irradiation consequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushinsky, M.V.; Zuevitch, F.I.; Ponfilov, A.P.; Bitkolov, N.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The results of investigation into the radiation exposure of mine workers, involved with underground uran mining and the retrospective study of miners lung cancer frequency covering a period of more than 40 years (1950∼1992) are represented. It is shown that integrated breathing system exposure value for all radiation factors was equal to 0.2-0.4 of allowable exposure according to home regulations. The miners mortality data shows that lung cancer death-rate was increasing linearly as the accumulated exposure for radon degradation products was growing. The mortality risk from occupational lung cancer was 1.9 x 10 -4 (pers·rem) -1 for the whole group of miners. The lung cancer make up 70% proportion from all cancer disease taken as a cause of death. In 1965 when the air pollution by radon degradation products began to decrease, the mine-workers lung cancer frequency was significantly smaller than within the group taken as a controls

  9. What are the health costs of uranium mining? A case study of miners in Grants, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uranium mining is associated with lung cancer and other health problems among miners. Health impacts are related with miner exposure to radon gas progeny. Objectives: This study estimates the health costs of excess lung cancer mortality among uranium miners in the largest uranium-producing district in the USA, centered in Grants, New Mexico. Methods: Lung cancer mortality rates on miners were used to estimate excess mortality and years of life lost (YLL) among the miner population in Grants from 1955 to 2005. A cost analysis was performed to estimate direct (medical) and indirect (premature mortality) health costs. Results: Total health costs ranged from $2.2 million to $7.7 million per excess death. This amounts to between $22.4 million and $165.8 million in annual health costs over the 1955–1990 mining period. Annual exposure-related lung cancer mortality was estimated at 2185.4 miners per 100 000, with a range of 1419.8–2974.3 per 100 000. Conclusions: Given renewed interest in uranium worldwide, results suggest a re-evaluation of radon exposure standards and inclusion of miner long-term health into mining planning decisions. PMID:25224806

  10. Conflict, Claims, and access to Gold - A Thesis on the conflict between artisanal miners and a mining company in North Mara, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Vibe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, liberalisation of the mining sectors in Africa has resulted in a large influx of foreign mining companies, bringing them into conflict with existing primitive artisanal mining activities, which is an important livelihood strategy on the continent. This study focuses on the conflict around the North Mara Gold Mine situated in the north-western Tanzania, one of the most severe and violent cases of conflict between artisanal miners and a mining company in the wo...

  11. Improving mining technology and organization of labor in the light of medical-biological aspects of physical health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, P.V.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Davydova, N.N.; Dyatlova, L.A. (Kuzbasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Transfer to a contract-bonus system in mines of the Severokuzbassugol' and Leninskugol' associations (USSR) increased coal mining productivity by 42.2-54.4%, but, at the same time, problems concerning miners' health were noted. Presents data on the productivity and labor conditions of contract teams working at coal mining and in development faces. The influence of noise and vibration induced stresses on organisms of underground workers is analyzed. Investigations showed that 3 stages of exhaustion are likely to develop and that the most vulnerable are the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. The 3 stages of exhaustion and ability to recover were studied on mining machine operators and drivers of heading machines. Data showed that during the 1985-89 period, 972 miners received disability certificates; the rate of disability was 2.6 miners per 1 Mt of coal; 40.5% of miners over 40 years working on labor-intensive jobs had three or more chronic diseases which could cause permanent disability. In the structure of disability, cardio-vascular system cases accounted for 25%, osseous-muscular system cases for 20% and pulmonary diseases for 13%. Stresses the need for every mine to maintain its own medical center equipped with inhalation therapy, psychological relief, acupuncture and physiotherapy facilities.

  12. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  13. Geochemical evaluation of mining wastes (tailings or tails) of epithermal ore mineralization, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Raul; Monroy, Marcos G.; Castaneda, E. Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The mining district Pachuca-Real del Monte is located to the center-east of Mexico, between the geographical coordinates 20 degrees celsius 07 minutes 30 seconds north latitude and 98 degrees celsius 44 minutes 00 seconds of length west. The residues are derived from an epithermal mineralization. Concentrations of Pb and the Mn are significant. The mineralization is consisted of pyrite, limonite-goethite-hematite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite associated with quartz, calcite and silicates. X-rays diffraction patterns have determined quartz as the mayor mineral phase, with minor gypsum, calcite, alunite, and pyrite. The statistical analysis has presented the frequent association of Zn-Cd. The microanalysis with the scanning electronic microscope and electronic microprobe have showed the neoformation of the pyrite and the oxidation and precipitate of sulfides. The tests NOM-053 and EPA-1312 have showed that the Cd, Ni, Ag, Pb Mn, Zn, and As do not exceed the LMP. Only the Pb has been superior to the LMP in the first test. These residues might be classified as dangerous with regard to the Pb. (author) [es

  14. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies within the Raywood "Flat Roadless Areas, together with an investigation of mines and prospects within the further planning area, resulted in (1) identification of nonmetallic mineral resources at a marble mine in the further planning area and (2) recognition of a small area in the recommended wilderness that has moderate potential for base-metal resources. Except for these two areas of identified and suspected resources, we did not observe indications of resource potential elsewhere in the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas.

  15. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica-Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-06-01

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, M. and Nowak, J. 2013. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 271-281. Warszawa. The paper presents results of research on tonstein, which constitutes an interburden in coal seam 405 at the Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Makoszowy field (mining level 600 m), Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The mineral and chemical compositions of the tonstein differ from the typical compositions described earlier for tonsteins from Upper Silesia Coal Basin area. Additionally, minerals present in the tonsteins include kaolinite, quartz, kaolinitised biotite and feldspars. The presence of the phosphatic minerals apatite and goyazite has been recognized. The presence of gorceixite and crandallite is also possible. The contents of CaO (5.66 wt%) and P2O5 (6.2 wt%) are remarkably high. Analysis of selected trace elements demonstrated high contents of Sr (4937 ppm) and Ba (4300 ppm), related to the phosphatic minerals. On the basis of mineral composition the tonstein has been identified as a crystalline tonstein, transitional to a multiplied one.

  16. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  17. Towards a negotiated solution to conflicts between large-scale and small-scale miners? The Acupan contract mining project in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a simultaneous expansion of large-scale mining and artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). In an increasing number of instances, ASM-operators and mining companies are competing or even clashing over access to mineral deposits. A growing number of experts are now

  18. Laser Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopies of natural semiconductor mineral cinnabar, α-HgS, from various mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoshia, Sergo V; Gotoshia, Lamara V

    2008-01-01

    Natural minerals α-HgS from various mines have been studied by laser Raman spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The crystals differ from each other in the content of selenium impurity, included in samples from some mines. Based on the Raman spectra and the factor-group analysis the classification of the first order phonons and then the comparison of the results with the results from other works were carried out. The Raman spectra analysis of minerals from various mines show the selenium impurity gap vibration at 203 cm -1 and 226 cm -1 frequencies, respectively. On the basis of statistical measurements of the Raman spectra one can conclude that impurity frequencies of α-HgS may be generally used for the identification of the mine. Resonance Raman scattering for pure minerals has been studied by a dye laser. Phonon resonance in the indirect semiconductor α-HgS is found to be far more intense than the indirect resonance detected until now in various semiconductors in the proximity of the first indirect band E g , for instance, in GaP. In our opinion, this may be conditioned by cinnabar band structure peculiarities. Low resonance has also been fixed in 'dirty' minerals at the spectral band frequency of 203 cm -1 characterizing gap vibration of isomorphic impurity Se in cinnabar

  19. March 2016 Memo: Planning for Removal and Remedial Activities at Hardrock Mining and Mineral Processing Sites with Fluid Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memo from EPA Assistant Administrator Mathy Stanislaus, regarding planning for removal and remedial activities at hardrock mining and mineral processing sites with fluid hazards, and to share the Agency’s expectations for the work that is done at these sit

  20. Ferric minerals and organic matter change arsenic speciation in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yunjia; Menzies, Neal W; Wehr, J Bernhard; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Kopittke, Peter M; Huang, Longbin

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings. Additionally, amendment with 5% sugarcane mulch residues (SMR) (for revegetation) further increased soluble As due to the dissolution and oxidation of arsenopyrite or orpiment. Indeed, in HM tailings, arsenopyrite and orpiment initially accounted for 88% of the total As, which decreased to 48% upon the addition of SMR - this being associated with an increase in As V -ferrihydrite from 12% to 52%. In LM tailings, the pattern of As distribution and speciation was similar, with As as As V -ferrihydrite increasing from 57% to 75% upon the addition of SMR. These findings indicate that changes in ore processing technology, such as the recovery of magnetite could have significant environmental consequences regarding the As mobilisation and transformation in mine tailings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mining space and industrial heritage in Mexico: the mineral from Tlalpujahua [Michoacán state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Uribe Salas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the historical dimension of the economic and social space of Tlalpujahua and El Oro Mining District from the perspective of the Industrial Heritage. The exploration and exploitation in search for precious minerals along the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries articulated a culture of wage labour and facilitated the circulation of new knowledge, technical expertise and an impressive technological innovation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With the depletion of gold and silver in the mid-twentieth century, the socio-technical framework disappears but not the memory and industrial vestiges which represents long-term historical processes, and as a social laboratory allows to recognize and analyze the changes in the social relations of different human groups, different nationality and social status — workers, technicians, engineers, businessmen, traders, etc. —, who moved to the minerals in the quest to materialise their own life expectancy. The study and appreciation of the historical and cultural experience ensures the memory of the industrial heritage of Mexicans.

  2. The Transformation of Coal-Mining Waste Minerals in the Pozzolanic Reactions of Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Giménez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has the potential to become a major consumer of recycled waste materials that are transformed and recycled in various forms as aggregates and pozzolanic materials. These recycled waste materials would otherwise have been dumped in landfill sites, leaving hazardous elements to break down and contaminate the environment. There are several approaches for the reuse of these waste products, especially in relation to clay minerals that can induce pozzolanic reactions of special interest in the cement industry. In the present paper, scientific aspects are discussed in relation to several inert coal-mining wastes and their recycling as alternative sources of future eco-efficient pozzolans, based on activated phyllosilicates. The presence of kaolinite in this waste indicates that thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h transformed these minerals into a highly reactive metakaolinite over the first seven days of the pozzolanic reaction. Moreover, high contents of metakaolinite, together with silica and alumina sheet structures, assisted the appearance of layered double hydroxides through metastable phases, forming stratlingite throughout the main phase of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days (as recommended by the European Standard as the reaction proceeded.

  3. Proceedings of the 18. international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES 2009) and the 11. international symposium on environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production (SWEMP 2009) : mine planning and equipment selection and environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Mehrotra, A.; Fytas, K.; Ge, H.

    2009-01-01

    This conference focused on the application of innovative technologies to the mineral industries and the development of productive methods for the mining and processing industries. It was attended by participants from North and South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia with backgrounds in computer sciences, mining engineering and research in mineral production. The major topics addressed regarding mine planning and equipment selection included economic and technical feasibility studies; reserve estimation; mine development; design and planning of surface and underground mines; drilling, blasting, tunneling and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection; automation and information technology; maintenance and production management for mines and mining systems; mining in terms of health, safety and the environment; and rock mechanics and geotechnical applications. The topics addressed regarding waste management in energy and mineral production included the environmental impacts of coal-fired power projects; mining and reclamation; water management; social aspects of rehabilitation; sustainable development for mineral and energy industries; remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater; health hazard and safety issues in small-scale mining; environmental issues in surface and underground mining of metalliferous, coal, uranium and industrial minerals; occupational health and safety; control of effluents from mineral processing, metallurgy and chemical plants; emerging technologies for environmental protection; reliability of waste containment structures; and tailings treatment, recycling and disposal. The conference featured 162 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  5. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  6. QTLTableMiner++: semantic mining of QTL tables in scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurnoor; Kuzniar, Arnold; van Mulligen, Erik M; Gavai, Anand; Bachem, Christian W; Visser, Richard G F; Finkers, Richard

    2018-05-25

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a genomic region that correlates with a phenotype. Most of the experimental information about QTL mapping studies is described in tables of scientific publications. Traditional text mining techniques aim to extract information from unstructured text rather than from tables. We present QTLTableMiner ++ (QTM), a table mining tool that extracts and semantically annotates QTL information buried in (heterogeneous) tables of plant science literature. QTM is a command line tool written in the Java programming language. This tool takes scientific articles from the Europe PMC repository as input, extracts QTL tables using keyword matching and ontology-based concept identification. The tables are further normalized using rules derived from table properties such as captions, column headers and table footers. Furthermore, table columns are classified into three categories namely column descriptors, properties and values based on column headers and data types of cell entries. Abbreviations found in the tables are expanded using the Schwartz and Hearst algorithm. Finally, the content of QTL tables is semantically enriched with domain-specific ontologies (e.g. Crop Ontology, Plant Ontology and Trait Ontology) using the Apache Solr search platform and the results are stored in a relational database and a text file. The performance of the QTM tool was assessed by precision and recall based on the information retrieved from two manually annotated corpora of open access articles, i.e. QTL mapping studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and in potato (S. tuberosum). In summary, QTM detected QTL statements in tomato with 74.53% precision and 92.56% recall and in potato with 82.82% precision and 98.94% recall. QTM is a unique tool that aids in providing QTL information in machine-readable and semantically interoperable formats.

  7. The Video Collaborative Localization of a Miner's Lamp Based on Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kaiming; Yang, Wei; Han, Ruisong

    2015-09-29

    Based on wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) deployed in an underground coal mine, a miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm was proposed to locate miners in the scene of insufficient illumination and bifurcated structures of underground tunnels. In bifurcation area, several camera nodes are deployed along the longitudinal direction of tunnels, forming a collaborative cluster in wireless way to monitor and locate miners in underground tunnels. Cap-lamps are regarded as the feature of miners in the scene of insufficient illumination of underground tunnels, which means that miners can be identified by detecting their cap-lamps. A miner's lamp will project mapping points on the imaging plane of collaborative cameras and the coordinates of mapping points are calculated by collaborative cameras. Then, multiple straight lines between the positions of collaborative cameras and their corresponding mapping points are established. To find the three-dimension (3D) coordinate location of the miner's lamp a least square method is proposed to get the optimal intersection of the multiple straight lines. Tests were carried out both in a corridor and a realistic scenario of underground tunnel, which show that the proposed miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm has good effectiveness, robustness and localization accuracy in real world conditions of underground tunnels.

  8. Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Mineral Sands (1982) (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Code establishes radiation safety practices for the mineral sands industry in Western Australia. The Code prescribes, not only for operators and managers of mines and processing plants but for their employees as well, certain duties designed to ensure that radiation exposure is kept as low as reasonably practicable. The Code further provides for the management of wastes, again with a view to keeping contaminant concentrations and dose rates within specified levels. Finally, provision is made for the rehabilitation of those sites in which mining or processing operations have ceased by restoring the areas to designated average radiation levels. (NEA) [fr

  9. Methods of medical prevention of borderline states and maintaining capacity to work in miners at deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.

  10. Wall-rock alteration and uranium mineralization in parts of Thomas Range Mining District, San Juan County, Utah, and its significance in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, H.

    1985-01-01

    Several important uranium deposits associated with fluorspar and beryllium are located in parts of Thomas Range area. the mineralization is found in dolomites and dolomitic limestones of Paleozoic age and sandstones, tuffs, and rhyolites belonging to the Tertiary Spor Mountain and Topaz Mountain Formations. The pipes, veins, and nodules of fluorspar are replaced by uranium. Veins and disseminations of radioactive fluorspar and opal and overgrowths of secondary minerals are found in rhyolites, tuffs, carbonate rocks, and breccias. The radioactivity in sandstones and conglomerates emanates from weeksite, beta-uranophane, zircon, gummite, and zircon. It also occurs as highly oxidized rare aphanitic grains disseminated in a few ore deposits. The results of the present investigations may influence the initiation of future exploration programs in the Thomas Range mining district. Hydrothermal fluids of deep-seated magmatic origin rich in U, V, Th, Be, and F reacted with the country rocks. The nature and sequence of wall-rock alteration and its paragenetic relationship with the ores have been determined. The mineralization is confined to the altered zones. The ore bodies in the sedimentary rocks and the breccias are located in the fault zones. More than 1000 faults are present in the area, greatly complicating mineral prospecting. The wall-rock alteration is very conspicuous and can be used as a valuable tool in mineral exploration

  11. Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Christy, Andrew G.; Housley, Robert M.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Steele, Ian M.; Thorne, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Favreauite, ideally PbBiCu_6O_4(SeO_3)_4.H_2O, is a new secondary selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Antonio Quijarro Province, Potosi Department, Bolivia. The mineral occurs in vughs in a matrix of (Co, Cu)-rich penroseite, dolomite and goethite. Associated minerals are: ahlfeldite, allophane, calcite, chalcomenite, malachite, molybdomenite and an unnamed Al selenite. Favreauite forms tiny green square tbular crystals, flattened on {001}, up to 0.1 mm on edge and 0.01 mm thick, occurring in subparallel and divergent groups. The Mohs hardness of favreauite is estimated as ∼3; it has perfect cleavage on {001}, an irregular fracture and a vitreous lustre. The calculated density based on the empirical formula is 4.851 g cm"-"3. Favreauite is uniaxial (-), with mean refractive index estimated as 1.854 from the Gladstone-Dale relationship. It is pleochroic in shades of green, O 4σF_o] and 0.0356 for all 1432 unique reflections. Favreauite is a close structural relative of nabokoite, KCu_7Te"4"+O_4(SO_4)_5Cl, and atlasovite, KCu_6Fe"3"+BiO_4(SO_4)_5Cl. In all cases, oxygen-centred tetrahedra share edges to form corrugated [Cu_6MO_4] layers (M = Bi or Te) which can be derived from the framework structure of murdochite, Pb"4"+Cu"2"+_6O_8_-_x(Cl,Br)_2_x by selective deletion of atoms. In favreauite, additional OH and H_2O between the layers are weakly bound to Cu, giving it Jahn-Teller distorted 4 + 2 coordination. The Cu-Bi-O layer is braced by SeO_3 pyramids. The Bi"3"+ and interlayer Pb"2"+ form an approximately face-centred cubic array analogous to the Pb"4"+ sites in murdochite. Unlike Bi"3"+, Pb"2"+ is in a site with nonpolar anti 4 point symmetry, which suppresses the stereoactivity of its lone pair.

  12. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, J.M.; Tobar, M.J.; Alvarez, J.C.; Lamas, J.; Yanez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed

  13. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain); Tobar, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)], E-mail: cote@udc.es; Alvarez, J.C.; Lamas, J.; Yanez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  14. Radiological safety and environmental surveillance during the mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper highlights the occupational and environmental radiological safety aspects and surveillance activities associated with mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite, based on the experience gained over more than three decades of operations of the plants of Indian Rare Earths Ltd, at Chavara (Kerala), Manavalakurichi (Tamilnadu) and Udyogamandal (Kerala). The mining of beach sands, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite for the recovery of Th and U involve occupational radiation hazards and safety problems of varying magnitudes. This part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves average per-capita occupational exposures ranging from 1.0 mSv to 8 mSv per year. The collective doses involved work out to 4.5 to 5.4 Person Sieverts per year and involve nearly 1000 radiation workers. Internal exposure contributes to nearly half of the exposure. Mechanization of the operations, process modifications, administrative controls and constant safety surveillance have over the years helped to reduce the exposures and to maintain them at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental releases resulting from the operations are well within the limits stipulated by competent authorities and exposures to public from the mining, mineral separation and monazite processing are not significant. (author)

  15. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  16. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  17. Goldquarryite, a new Cd-bearing phosphate mineral from the Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Gault, Robert A.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Goldquarryite, idealized formula CuCd2Al3(PO44F2(H2O)10(H2O 2, structure-derived formula (Cu0.70???0.30??1.00(Cd1.68Ca0.32??2.00Al3 (PO44F2(H2O)10[(H2O 1.60F0.40]??2.00, is triclinic, space group P1, with unit-cell parameters derived from crystal structure: a = 6.787(1), b = 9.082(2), c = 10.113(2) A??, ?? = 101.40(1)??, ?? = 104.27(1)??, ?? = 102.51(1)??, V = 568.7(3) A??3, a:b:c: = 0.7473:1:1.1135, Z = 1. The strongest seven reflections in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are [d(A??)(I)(hkl)]: 9.433(100)(001); 4.726(30)(002); 3.700(30)(022); 3.173(30b)(122, 113, 120, 003); 3.010(30)(122, 212); 2.896(30)(211); 2.820(50)(022). The mineral occurs on a single specimen collected from the 5,425-foot bench, Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada, as isolated clusters of radiating sprays of crystals and as compact parallel crystal aggregates, which are both found on and between breccia fragments. Sprays and aggregates never exceed 3 mm in longest dimension and typically average about 0.5 mm in size. Goldquarryite is a late-stage supergene mineral associated with opal, carbonate-fluorapatite and hewettite, on a host rock composed principally of brecciated and hydrothermally rounded jasperoid fragments which have been lightly cemented by late-stage silicification. Individual euhedral crystals are acicular to bladed, elongate [100], with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 20:1; the maximum size is 1.5 mm but most crystals do not exceed 0.4 mm in length. Forms are {010}, {001} major and {100} very minor. The mineral is pleochroic; translucent (masses) to transparent (crystals); very pale blue to blue-gray (crystals) or blue (masses); with a white streak and a vitreous to glassy luster. Goldquarryite is brittle, lacks cleavage, has an irregular fracture, and is nonfluorescent; hardness (Mohs') is estimated at 3-4; measured density is 2.78(1) g/cm3 (sink-float techniques using methylene iodide-acetone mixtures), calculated density is 2.81 g/cm3 (for formula and unit

  18. Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J. [Museum Victoria, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Geosciences; Kampf, Anthony R. [Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mineral Sciences Dept.; Christy, Andrew G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Advanced Microscopy; Housley, Robert M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Chen, Yu-Sheng [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Steele, Ian M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Thorne, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Favreauite, ideally PbBiCu{sub 6}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}.H{sub 2}O, is a new secondary selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Antonio Quijarro Province, Potosi Department, Bolivia. The mineral occurs in vughs in a matrix of (Co, Cu)-rich penroseite, dolomite and goethite. Associated minerals are: ahlfeldite, allophane, calcite, chalcomenite, malachite, molybdomenite and an unnamed Al selenite. Favreauite forms tiny green square tbular crystals, flattened on {001}, up to 0.1 mm on edge and 0.01 mm thick, occurring in subparallel and divergent groups. The Mohs hardness of favreauite is estimated as ∼3; it has perfect cleavage on {001}, an irregular fracture and a vitreous lustre. The calculated density based on the empirical formula is 4.851 g cm{sup -3}. Favreauite is uniaxial (-), with mean refractive index estimated as 1.854 from the Gladstone-Dale relationship. It is pleochroic in shades of green, O < E. Electron microprobe analyses gave the empirical formula Pb{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.17}Bi{sub 0.90}Cu{sub 5.81}Se{sub 4.10}O{sub 16}(OH) . 1H{sub 2}O, based on 18 O pfu. The Raman spectrum shows strong SeO{sub 3} bands at 847 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 1}), 764 and 795 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 3}), 493 and 542 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 2}), and 320 and 392 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 4}). Favreauite is tetragonal, space group P4/n, with the unit-cell parameters: a = 9.860(4) Aa, c = 9.700(5) Aa, V = 943.0(9) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 2. The eight strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs}/Aa (I) (hkl)]: 5.67(100)(111), 3.470(76)(220,202), 3.190(35)(003), 2.961(40)(311,113), 2.709(33)(302,203), 2.632(34)(231,312), 2.247(36)(331,133), and 1.6652(33)(305,513,531). The crystal structure was refined to R{sub 1} = 0.0329 for 1354 observed reflections [F{sub o} > 4σF{sub o}] and 0.0356 for all 1432 unique reflections. Favreauite is a close structural relative of nabokoite, KCu{sub 7}Te{sup 4+}O{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}Cl, and atlasovite, KCu{sub 6}Fe{sup 3+}BiO{sub 4}(SO

  19. Seismic methods in mineral exploration and mine planning: a general overview of past and present case histories and a look into the future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malehmir, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. These methods also can be used with varying degrees of success to directly target mineral deposits at depth. We review important contributions that have...

  20. Chemical and mineralogical data of the metalliferous mineralization from S. Carlo mine (Peloritani mts, Ne Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisacane, G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization processes in the Peloritani Belt (Southern Sector of the Calabria- Peloritani Arc prevalently developed during the Variscan orogenesis producing Pb, Zn, Fe, As, Sb, Cu, Ag, W, etc. polymetalliferous ore-bearing horizons. This paper focuses on the polymetalliferous mineralization recognised in the ancient S. Carlo Mine, which has already been subject of some studies and is part of an important discordant vein deposits system that are widespread in the Mandanici Unit (MaU. This Unit is characterized by a Variscan low-P, polyphasic and plurifacial metamorphic basement, exhibiting a prograde zoning, from chlorite zone of greenschist facies to oligoclase-almandine zone of amphibolite facies. The Variscan main foliation (Fv2 is irregularly cut by mineralized veins of decimetric to metric width. They are also perpendicular to the Alpine mylonitic shear zones of metric thickness developing along the sub-horizontal tectonic contacts between the tectono-stratigraphic units. These vein deposits formed along late-Alpine systems of fractures and faults, after Peloritani nappe emplacement. Minerographic study reveals a metalliferous mineral association mainly composed of tetrahedrite associated with, in order of decreasing abundance, chalcopyrite, bournonite, pentlandite, stromeyerite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, bismuthinite, boulangerite, jamesonite, covellite, bornite and argentite. Quartz, siderite and ankerite among non-metalliferous minerals are predominant. This work has been supported by mineralogical studies and chemical analyses carried out by Atomic Absorption and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry on powdered and separated samples of minerals. Geochemical data (major and trace elements have allowed a detailed characterization of the minerals. They have revealed that the most significant minerals with Au contents around 1 ppm are tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bournonite. The

  1. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  2. Moessbauer and XRD Comparative Study of Host Rock and Iron Rich Mineral Samples from Paz del Rio Iron Ore Mineral Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Moreira, A. M.; Speziali, N. L.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study between the host rock and the iron rich mineral samples from the Paz del Rio iron ore mineral mine in Colombia was performed using X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Diffraction results of the iron rich mineral sample show that goethite, hematite, quartz, kaolinite and siderite are the main phases, and that a small amount of illite is also present. By Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) the presence of all the above mentioned phases was detected except quartz as well as an additional presence of small amount of biotite. The goethite, which appears as four sextets with hyperfine fields of 33.5, 30.5, 27.5 and 18.5 T, respectively, is the majority phase. This result shows the different grades of formation of this oxyhydroxide. The Moessbauer spectrum of this sample at 80 K presents the same phases obtained at RT without any superparamagnetic effect. In this case the goethite appears as two sextets. Diffraction results of the host rock sample show a large amount of quartz and kaolinite and small amounts of illite and biotite, whereas by Moessbauer spectroscopy illite, kaolinite and biotite were detected.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  4. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  5. Remedial action in areas of enhanced natural background radiation levels (with particular emphasis in areas with mineral sand mining residues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    In areas where individuals may receive doses from natural background sources which are higher than those received in areas of normal background radiation, it may be considered desirable that some remedial action be taken to reduce those doses. Contributions to these higher doses may be through high gamma ray fields from the ground or from the use of local building materials, the intake of food or water derived from the areas or of food covered with dust from the areas, the ingestion of dirt and the inhalation of dust, and radon or thoron. Guidelines for remedial action in areas where residues from mineral sand mining and processing have been deposited are given

  6. The actual status of uranium ore resources at Eko Remaja Sector: the need of verification of resources computation and geometrical form of mineralization zone by mining test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan Baratha; Muljono, D.S.; Agus Sumaryanto; Handoko Supalal

    1996-01-01

    Uranium ore resources calculation was done after ending all of geological work step. Estimation process of ore resources was started from evaluation drilling, continued with borehole logging. From logging, the result has presented in anomaly graphs, then was processed to determine thickness and grade value of ore. Those mineralization points were correlated one another to form mineralization zones which have direction of N 270 degree to N 285 degree with 70 degree dip to North. From Grouping the mineralization distribution, 19 mineralization planes was constructed which contain 553 ton of U 3 O 8 measured. It is suggested that before expanding measured ore deposit area, mining test should be done first at certain mineralization planes to prove the method applied to calculate the reserve. Results form mining test could be very useful to reevaluate all the work-step done. (author); 4 refs; 2 tabs; 8 figs

  7. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  8. The role of secondary minerals in the control of erosion processes under a Mediterranean mining landcape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penas, J. M.; Garcia, G.; Manteca, J. I.

    2009-01-01

    The result of mining activity is the presence of several slit ponds and mining tailings spread all over the Sierra Minera (Cartagena La Union Mountains, SE Spain). These ponds, joint to other wastes deposits constitute the main source of heavy metals to the environment. Besides, these metal sources areas act as dispersion focus towards the surrounding and subsidiary areas due to the erosion processes. Interaction between metal and salts present in these environments, provoke an secondary effect on the landscape modelling. The major o minor strength of the erosion processes is controlled by the presence of salts in soil and mining wastes (silt ponds and mining tailings). The aim of this work concerns the relation- between the salt-metal compounds and the erosion and landscape modeling processes. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Impact of offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) on the sediment size and heavy minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Fernandes, D.

    Two offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) were conducted using submersible pumps specially designed by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur (India) at 8 m water depth in Kalbadevi Bay (PLAMEX-I), Ratnagiri...

  10. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  11. Comparison between energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear analytical techniques in mineral exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Packer, T.W.; Wormald, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time there is an increasing awareness of the value and need for in-situ analytical methods throughout the general area of mineral exploration and mining. Of the alternative techniques, the measurement of natural gamma radiation is well established for uranium exploration and it is now being developed for sea-bed and lake-bed surveying. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment is becoming more generally accepted, especially for mine control. Neutron techniques, for so long used routinely in oil well logging, are now being developed for a wide range of applications in all aspects of exploration and mining. It is believed that these techniques will result in major applications in the future. The present paper compares the principal characteristics of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and neutron techniques in particular, with special emphasis being given to those factors which affect the accuracy of analytical content; such as elemental resolution, matrix effects, material heterogeneity and neutron transport. A generalised comparison between the techniques is difficult to achieve because of the different nature of radiation interactions, but a range of applications is described and these show the complementary nature of the methods and point to the areas for more active development in the future. (author)

  12. Report of examination: Little Wolf Mining and Minerals, Inc., Anklam property, Big Falls, Waupaca County, Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    The property exhibits local anomalous gamma radiation associated with segregations in the granite. Most of the anomalous gamma radiation results from probable secondary uranium minerals on fracture surfaces; most of the remaining anomalous gamma radiation comes from uraninite and metamict accessory minerals; most of the fluorescence comes from weakly uraniferous opal. The uranium was probably a late stage differentiate. Neither gamma-ray logs nor scanner samples, nor cut samples (excepting one radiometric assay which, on chemical analysis, assayed 0.06% U 3 O 8 ) reveal the presence of mineralized material containing more than 0.08% U 3 O 8

  13. A transmission electron microscopy analysis of secondary minerals formed in tungsten-mine tailings with an emphasis on arsenopyrite oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunic, B.M.; Al, T.A.; Weaver, L.

    2006-01-01

    Grains of naturally oxidized arsenopyrite [FeAsS] collected from the oxidation zone in W-mine tailings were investigated, primarily using transmission electron microscopy. The grains are severely pitted and are surrounded by secondary minerals. The pitted nature of the grains is related to mechanisms governing the electrochemical oxidation of sulfide minerals, with prominent cusp-like features occurring at cathodic regions of the surface, and pits occurring at anodic regions. In general, the oxidation of arsenopyrite leads to the formation of an amorphous (or nanocrystalline) Fe-As-O-rich coating that contains small amounts of Si, Ca, Cu, Zn, Pb and Bi; nanoscale variation in the As, Pb, Bi and Zn contents of the coating was noted. Secondary Cu sulfides, thought to be chalcocite [Cu 2 S] and (or) djurleite [Cu 31 S 16 ], occur as a layer (generally 4 ] and an unidentified crystalline Bi-Pb-As-O mineral occur in voids within the coating, suggesting that these minerals precipitated from the local pore-water. Small and variable amounts of W, Ca, Bi, As and Zn are associated with the wulfenite, and Zn, Fe and Ca are associated with the Bi-Pb-As-O mineral. Some of the wulfenite is in contact with inclusions of molybdenite [MoS 2 ], suggesting that the oxidation of molybdenite in the presence of aqueous Pb(II) led to the formation of wulfenite. Mineralogical analyses at the nanoscale have improved the understanding of geochemical sources and sinks at this location. The results of this study indicate that the mineralogical controls on aqueous elemental concentrations at this tailings site are complex and are not predicted by thermodynamic calculations

  14. Mining ‘From Below’: Taking Africa’s artisanal miners seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is of growing importance for the livelihoods of an increasing number of Africa’s rural population. Therefore, the sector is increasingly being recognized by African governments, donor institutions and researchers for its role in national development processes....... This paper reviews four issues that drive the dynamics within ASM and situates the sector in broader development and formalization problematics. These issues are (i) ASM as part of livelihood portfolios, (ii) the organizational dynamics of ASM, (iii) ASM conflicts with large-scale mining companies, and (iv......) ASM in alternative trade regimes based on ethical standards. In conclusion, the paper stresses the need for a context-sensitive formalization and strengthening of ASM: Domestically led mining operations potentially constitute a necessary means for African states to better balance the co...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank...

  16. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  17. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session U - Mineral raw materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, J.; Vetejska, K.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of session ''Mineral raw materials treatment'' contain 27 papers of which only one deals with the application of nuclear technology, namely, the effect of fast electrons on the magnetic properties of the polymetallic Rudniany ore. (J.B.)

  18. 77 FR 57111 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...: Private sector: U.S. nonfuel minerals producers and exploration operations; Public sector: State and local.... While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public...

  19. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  20. Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in agricultural soils contaminated by copper mining activities in Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Héctor; Verdejo, José; Yáñez, Carolina; Álvaro, Juan E.; Sauvé, Sébastien; Neaman, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological bioassays of nitrification and nitrogen mineralization have been used for evaluation of soil quality on metal-contaminated soils. We evaluated the effectiveness of nitrification and nitrogen mineralization bioassays as quality indicators of soil degradation caused by metal contamination. We performed standard tests based on protocols of ISO 14238 (2012) and ISO 15685 (2012) on 90 soil samples collected from agricultural areas in central Chile that were historically contaminate...

  1. Mineral and chemical composition of mine wastes of Markusovce sludge bed; Mineralne a chemicke zlozenie banskych odpadov odkaliska Markusovce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radkova, A; Volekova, B [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra mineralogie a petrologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Identification of minerals occurring in sludge bed material allows to assess the extent of migration of elements in the actual body of the sludge bed. It provides important information on the potential environmental pollution as well as on possible contamination of groundwater by potentially toxic elements. In Markusovce sludge bed there is saved about 9.9 million tons of waste material after flotation treatment of barytes - siderite-sulphide ore. Currently, the sludge bed is being extracted again due to the high content of barite. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements can be considered as relatively low. The most commonly occurring minerals in the samples are siderite and quartz, with minor rates are represented muscovite and dolomite. The content of barite increases towards the depth, which may be due to imperfect ore processing technology during the early stages of mining. Hematite is abundantly presented in the heavy fraction of the samples. The sulphide content is generally low, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and cinnabar are most frequently presented. Monitored potentially toxic elements are mainly bounded to the primary sulfide minerals that are poorly oxidized. (authors)

  2. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzyka, V.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as

  3. Secondary iron minerals present in AMD sediments from Smolník abandoned mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dakos, Z.; Kupka, D.; Kovařík, M.; Jablonovská, K.; Krištůfek, Václav; Achimovičová, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 87-92 ISSN 1338-6905 Grant - others:Vedecká grantová agentúra(SK) VEGA 2/0166/11 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acid ithiobacillus * acid mine drainage (AMD) * ochreous precipitates * schwertmannite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  4. Nonmetallic inclusions in JBK-75 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.W.; Krenzer, R.W.; Doyle, J.H.; Riefenberg, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stainless steel alloys that are chemically complex, such as A-286 or JBK-75, are designed to improve such high-temperature properties as strength. This is accomplished by precipitating secondary phases during aging. Such multicomponent systems, however, can also produce undesirable phases that are detrimental to forgeability and final mechanical properties. Cast segregation and numerous nonmetallic inclusions can have a degrading influence on the toughness and ductility of the alloy. Several different heats of A-286 and JBK-75 were studied, and titanium carbide and/or molybdenum carbide [(Ti, Mo)C] plus titanium carbide and/or titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N)-type phases were qualitatively identified as the major nonmetallic constituent in these alloys. The common procedure for rating the microcleanliness of steels does not classify such carbide or carbonitride phases and thus does not provide an appropriate means of controlling in-process inspection. The results of this study are discussed in terms of alternative methods for evaluating the microcleanliness of superalloys

  5. Exposure of miners to diesel exhaust particulates in underground nonmetal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H J; Borak, J; Hall, T; Sirianni, G; Chemerynski, S

    2002-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine worker exposures in seven underground nonmetal mines and to examine the precision of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5040 sampling and analytical method for diesel exhaust that has recently been adopted for compliance monitoring by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Approximately 1000 air samples using cyclones were taken on workers and in areas throughout the mines. Results indicated that worker exposures were consistently above the MSHA final limit of 160 micrograms/m3 (time-weighted average; TWA) for total carbon as determined by the NIOSH 5040 method and greater than the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLV limit of 20 micrograms/m3 (TWA) for elemental carbon. A number of difficulties were documented when sampling for diesel exhaust using organic carbon: high and variable blank values from filters, a high variability (+/- 20%) from duplicate punches from the same sampling filter, a consistent positive interference (+26%) when open-faced monitors were sampled side-by-side with cyclones, poor correlation (r 2 = 0.38) to elemental carbon levels, and an interference from limestone that could not be adequately corrected by acid-washing of filters. The sampling and analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was approximately 11% for elemental carbon, 17% for organic carbon, and 11% for total carbon. An hypothesis is presented and supported with data that gaseous organic carbon constituents of diesel exhaust adsorb onto not only the submicron elemental carbon particles found in diesel exhaust, but also mining ore dusts. Such mining dusts are mostly nonrespirable and should not be considered equivalent to submicron diesel particulates in their potential for adverse pulmonary effects. It is recommended that size-selective sampling be employed, rather than open-faced monitoring, when using the NIOSH 5040 method.

  6. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  7. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  8. AMBIENT CARBONATION of MINING RESIDUES: Understanding the Mechanisms and Optimization of Direct Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assima, G. P.; Larachi, F.; Molson, J. W.; Beaudoin, G.

    2013-12-01

    The huge amounts (GTs) of ultramafic mining residues (UMRs) produced by mining activities around the world and accumulated in multi-square-kilometer stockpiles are stimulating a vivid interest regarding their possible use as a stable and permanent sink for CO2. Virtually costless and often found crushed and / or ground, UMRs are being considered as ideal candidates for atmospheric CO2 mitigation. The present work, therefore, explores the potential of several UMRs available in Quebec (Thetford Mines, Asbestos, Nunavik, Amos, Otish Mountains), for carbonation under ambient conditions, as a cost-effective alternative to remove low-concentration CO2 from the atmosphere and alleviate global warming. Several experimental reactors have been built to specifically simulate various climatic changes at the laboratory scale. The impact of various environmental conditions to which the residues are subjected to in their storage location, including temperature variations, precipitation, flooding, drought, changing water saturation, oxygen gradient and CO2 diffusion have been thoroughly studied. Dry and heavy-rain periods are unsuitable for efficient CO2 sequestration. Low liquid saturation within UMRs pores favors carbonation by combining fast percolation of gaseous CO2, rapid dissemination of CO2 dissolved species and creation of highly reactive sites throughout the mining residue pile. Partly saturated samples were also found to exhibit lower gaseous CO2 breakthrough times across the mining residues. Warm periods significantly accelerate the rate of CO2 uptake as compared to cold periods, which, in contrast are characterized by heat generation levels that could possibly be exploited by low temperature geothermal systems. A temperature rise from 10 to 40 °C was accompanied by a ten-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The carbonation reaction caused a rise in UMRs temperature up to 4.9°C during experiments at a 10°C. The presence of oxygen in the reaction medium induces

  9. Fundamentals of converging mining technologies in integrated development of mineral resources of lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, KN; Galchenko, YuP; Eremenko, VA

    2018-03-01

    The paper sets forth a theoretical framework for the strategy of the radically new stage in development of geotechnologies under conditions of rapidly aggravating environmental crisis of the contemporary technocratic civilization that utilizes the substance extracted from the lithosphere as the source of energy and materials. The authors of the paper see the opportunity to overcome the conflict between the techno- and bio-spheres in the area of mineral raw materials by means of changing the technological paradigm of integrated mineral development by implementing nature-like technologies oriented to the ideas and methods of converging resources of natural biota as the object of the environmental protection and geotechnologies as the major source of ecological hazards induced in the course of development of mineral resources of lithosphere.

  10. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  11. AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge in GeneChip microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yuannan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. With the advance of microarray technology, the challenge issue becomes how to analyze a large amount of microarray data and make biological sense of them. Affymetrix GeneChips are widely used microarrays, where a variety of statistical algorithms have been explored and used for detecting significant genes in the experiment. These methods rely solely on the quantitative data, i.e., signal intensity; however, qualitative data are also important parameters in detecting differentially expressed genes. Results AffyMiner is a tool developed for detecting differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data and for associating gene annotation and gene ontology information with the genes detected. AffyMiner consists of the functional modules, GeneFinder for detecting significant genes in a treatment versus control experiment and GOTree for mapping genes of interest onto the Gene Ontology (GO space; and interfaces to run Cluster, a program for clustering analysis, and GenMAPP, a program for pathway analysis. AffyMiner has been used for analyzing the GeneChip data and the results were presented in several publications. Conclusion AffyMiner fills an important gap in finding differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data. AffyMiner effectively deals with multiple replicates in the experiment and takes into account both quantitative and qualitative data in identifying significant genes. AffyMiner reduces the time and effort needed to compare data from multiple arrays and to interpret the possible biological implications associated with significant changes in a gene's expression.

  12. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  13. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Seeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  14. FraudMiner: a novel credit card fraud detection model based on frequent itemset mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeja, K R; Zareapoor, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced) and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  15. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R.; Chou, I-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  16. Combination of complementary data mining methods for geographical characterization of extra virgin olive oils based on mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Ana; González-Domínguez, Raúl; Beltrán, Rafael; Fernández-Recamales, Ángeles

    2018-09-30

    This work explores the potential of multi-element fingerprinting in combination with advanced data mining strategies to assess the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oil samples. For this purpose, the concentrations of 55 elements were determined in 125 oil samples from multiple Spanish geographic areas. Several unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical techniques were used to build classification models and investigate the relationship between mineral composition of olive oils and their provenance. Results showed that Spanish extra virgin olive oils exhibit characteristic element profiles, which can be differentiated on the basis of their origin in accordance with three geographical areas: Atlantic coast (Huelva province), Mediterranean coast and inland regions. Furthermore, statistical modelling yielded high sensitivity and specificity, principally when random forest and support vector machines were employed, thus demonstrating the utility of these techniques in food traceability and authenticity research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A transmission electron microscopy analysis of secondary minerals formed in tungsten-mine tailings with an emphasis on arsenopyrite oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunic, B.M. [Department of Geology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: petrunic@gmail.com; Al, T.A. [Department of Geology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Weaver, L. [Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Grains of naturally oxidized arsenopyrite [FeAsS] collected from the oxidation zone in W-mine tailings were investigated, primarily using transmission electron microscopy. The grains are severely pitted and are surrounded by secondary minerals. The pitted nature of the grains is related to mechanisms governing the electrochemical oxidation of sulfide minerals, with prominent cusp-like features occurring at cathodic regions of the surface, and pits occurring at anodic regions. In general, the oxidation of arsenopyrite leads to the formation of an amorphous (or nanocrystalline) Fe-As-O-rich coating that contains small amounts of Si, Ca, Cu, Zn, Pb and Bi; nanoscale variation in the As, Pb, Bi and Zn contents of the coating was noted. Secondary Cu sulfides, thought to be chalcocite [Cu{sub 2}S] and (or) djurleite [Cu{sub 31}S{sub 16}], occur as a layer (generally <500 nm thick) along the arsenopyrite grain boundary, and also within the coating as aggregates, and as layers that parallel the grain boundary. Although the precipitation of secondary Cu minerals along the grain boundary is a nanoscale feature, the process of formation is thought to be analogous to the supergene enrichment that occurs in weathered sulfide deposits. As the oxidation of arsenopyrite proceeds, layers and clusters of secondary Cu sulfides become isolated in the Fe-As-O coating. Secondary wulfenite [PbMoO{sub 4}] and an unidentified crystalline Bi-Pb-As-O mineral occur in voids within the coating, suggesting that these minerals precipitated from the local pore-water. Small and variable amounts of W, Ca, Bi, As and Zn are associated with the wulfenite, and Zn, Fe and Ca are associated with the Bi-Pb-As-O mineral. Some of the wulfenite is in contact with inclusions of molybdenite [MoS{sub 2}], suggesting that the oxidation of molybdenite in the presence of aqueous Pb(II) led to the formation of wulfenite. Mineralogical analyses at the nanoscale have improved the understanding of geochemical sources

  18. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  19. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, K.; Sapsford, D.J.; Johnson, D.B.; Kay, C.M.; Wolkersdorfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m2 per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80–90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’, which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge. PMID:26675674

  20. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, James L

    2006-06-01

    The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a "high degree of confidence." This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to "beyond a reasonable doubt." This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  1. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, K; Sapsford, D J; Johnson, D B; Kay, C M; Wolkersdorfer, C

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m(2) per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80-90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium 'Ferrovum myxofaciens', which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge.

  2. 3D implicit modeling of the Sishen Mine: new resolution of the geometry and origin of Fe mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoch, B.; Anthonissen, C. J.; McCall, M.-J.; Basson, I. J.; Deacon, J.; Cloete, E.; Botha, J.; Britz, J.; Strydom, M.; Nel, D.; Bester, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Sishen deposit is one of the largest iron ore concentrations in current production. Hematite mineralization occurs along a strike length of 14 km, with a width of 3.2 km and a maximum vertical extent of 400 m below the original surface. The 986-Mt reserve incorporates a suite of individual orebodies, beneath a locally preserved tectonized unconformity, with a wide range of geometries, depths, and orientations. Fully constrained, implicit 3D modeling of the entire mining volume (> 70 km3), was undertaken to the original, pre-mining topography. The model incorporates 5287 mapping points and > 21,000 drillholes and provides exceptional insight into the original configuration of ore and its relationship to contacts, unconformities, and structures in the enclosing country rock. The bulk of ore occurs to the west of a strike-extensive, partially inverted normal fault (Sloep Fault), within an asymmetrical synclinal structure on its western flank. This linear, N-S distribution of deep, thick ore is punctuated by palaeosinkholes, wherein base-of-ore dips of greater than 45°, are concentrically arranged. Localized ore volumes also occur along faults and in fault-bounded, downthrown blocks, to the north of NW-SE- and NE-SW-trending strike-slip faults that show relatively minor uplift to the south, probably due to the Lomanian Namaqua-Natal Orogeny. The revised model demonstrates the proximity of ore to a tectonized unconformity and highlights the structural control on ore volumes, implying that Fe mineralization at Sishen cannot be exclusively attributed to supergene enrichment and concentric palaeosinkhole formation.

  3. Mineral exploitation by surface mining and environmental restoration. Explotacion minera a cielo abierto y restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The subject of environmental restoration of zones affected by the opencast exploitation of coal, is one of the most interesting for mineral zones since at the end of the industrial process the reclaimed land is appropriate for subsequent use. In all, HUNOSA has restored more than 1000 Ha of pasture. 1 fig.

  4. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  5. Supervision of radiation protection of miners at small construction sites of old mining; Aufsichtliche Ueberwachung zum Strahlenschutz von Bergleuten bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    More than 40 underground construction sites of old mining have been supervised by the radiation protection authority in Saxony in recent years. The paper deals with stories of underground supervisions to share the experiences with authorities and miners to improve the underground radiation protection. Supervision usually includes continuous measurements of radon activity concentrations. Some insufficient or failed radiation protection measures were found during the inspections. Instructions were given to improve the underground radiation protection immediately. A new Express- Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only. The EAS will help to reduce the radon exposures of miners in the future.

  6. Alwilkinsite-(Y), a new rare-earth uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kampf, A.R.; Plášil, Jakub; Čejka, J.; Marty, J.; Škoda, R.; Lapčák, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 4 (2017), s. 895-907 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Alwilkinsite-(Y) * new mineral * uranyl sulfate * crystal structure * Blue Lizard mine * Utah * USA Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.285, year: 2016

  7. Acid production potentials of massive sulfide minerals and lead-zinc mine tailings: a medium-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Emin Ender; Öncel, Mehmet Salim; Kobya, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a principal source of acid generation. To determine acid-forming potentials of sulfide-bearing materials, two basic approaches named static and kinetic tests are available. Static tests are short-term, and easily undertaken within a few days and in a laboratory. In contrast, kinetic tests are long-term procedures and mostly carried out on site. In this study, experiments were conducted over a medium-term period of 2 months, not as short as static tests and also not as long as kinetic tests. As a result, pH and electrical conductivity oscillations as a function of time, acid-forming potentials and elemental contents of synthetically prepared rainwater leachates of massive sulfides and sulfide-bearing lead-zinc tailings from abandoned and currently used deposition areas have been determined. Although the lowest final pH of 2.70 was obtained in massive pyrite leachate, massive chalcopyrite leachate showed the highest titrable acidity of 1.764 g H 2 SO 4 /L. On the other hand, a composite of currently deposited mine tailings showed no acidic characteristic with a final pH of 7.77. The composite abandoned mine tailing leachate had a final pH of 6.70, close to the final pH of massive galena and sphalerite leachates, and produced a slight titrable acidity of 0.130 g H 2 SO 4 /L.

  8. Disk Rock Cutting Tool for the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies of Mining of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manietyev, Leonid; Khoreshok, Aleksey; Tsekhin, Alexander; Borisov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The directions of a resource and energy saving when creating a boom-type effectors of roadheaders of selective action with disc rock cutting tools on a multi-faceted prisms for the destruction of formation of minerals and rocks pricemax are presented. Justified reversing the modes of the crowns and booms to improve the efficiency of mining works. Parameters of destruction of coal and rock faces by the disk tool of a biconical design with the unified fastening knots to many-sided prisms on effectors of extraction mining machines are determined. Parameters of tension of the interfaced elements of knots of fastening of the disk tool at static interaction with the destroyed face of rocks are set. The technical solutions containing the constructive and kinematic communications realizing counter and reverse mode of rotation of two radial crowns with the disk tool on trihedral prisms and cases of booms with the disk tool on tetrahedral prisms in internal space between two axial crowns with the cutter are proposed. Reserves of expansion of the front of loading outside a table of a feeder of the roadheader of selective action, including side zones in which loading corridors by blades of trihedral prisms in internal space between two radial crowns are created are revealed.

  9. Dose-effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayan Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yong-e; Chen, Xing-an

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dose effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. The methods we used is to carry out the measurement of each miner.s exhaled thoron activity and the thorium lung burden along with the four hepatic functions (thymol turbidity test, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, thymol flocculation test and alkaline phosphatase)of the dust exposed miners in Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. We have carried out three investigations in 1983, 1984-1987 and 1994 respectively. Results showed that during the period 1983-1994, 1158 measurements of thorium lung burden estimates and 1158 measurement of every four hepatic functions(altogether 4632 measurements) were performed on 638 dust-exposed miners. No adverse effects were observed. In the same time, none of the above-mentioned 638 exposed miners had a thorium lung burden higher than 11.11 Bq. It is concluded that if any miners. thorium lung burden not higher than 11.11 Bq, his four hepatic functions should not be affected. This first possible threshold for thorium lung burden affecting the hepatic functions was put forward by the authors and confirmed by the Information Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Science in 2003 after searching 23.6 million references. (author)

  10. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  11. Application of banana peels nanosorbent for the removal of radioactive minerals from real mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewo, Opeyemi A; Onyango, Maurice S; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Transformation of agricultural waste such as banana peels into a valuable sorbent material has been proven effective and efficient in wastewater treatment. Further, transformation into nanosorbent to enhance the removal capacity of actinides (uranium and thorium) from synthetic and real mine water is extensively investigated in this study. The nanosorbent samples before and after adsorption were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), zetasizer nanoseries and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the amount of radioactive substances adsorbed was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results revealed that there was a crystallite size and particle size reduction from 108 to 12 nm and banana peels capability to coordinate and remove metal ions were identified at absorption bands of 1730 cm -1 (carboxylic groups) and 889 cm -1 (amine groups) via FTIR analysis. Equilibrium isotherm results demonstrated that the adsorption process was endothermic for both uranium and thorium. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 27.1 mg g -1 , 34.13 mg g -1 for uranium and 45.5 mg g -1 , 10.10 mg g -1 for thorium in synthetic and real mine water, respectively. The results obtained indicate that nanostructured banana peels is a potential adsorbent for the removal of radioactive substances from aqueous solution and also from real mine water. However, the choice of this sorbent material for any application depends on the composition of the effluent to be treated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft environmental statement. Wyoming Mineral Corporation, Irigaray solution mining project (Johnson County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The Irigaray project consists of solution mining (in situ leaching) operations involving uranium ore deposits in Johnson County, Wyoming. Solution mining activities will include a processing facility with an annual production of 500,000 lb of U 3 O 8 from up to 50 acres of well fields through the initial license authorization. The Irigaray project has an estimated lifetime of 10 to 20 years with known ore deposits and the current level of solution mining technology. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized. The site is mostly used as grazing land for cattle and sheep. Initiation of the Irigaray project would result in the temporary removal from grazing and the disturbance of approximately 60 acres during operation. All disturbed surface areas will be reclaimed and returned to their original use. Approximately 1.2 x 10 6 m 3 (1000 acre-ft) of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer. This water will be conveyed to the onsite waste ponds for evaporation. An estimated 4.2 x 10 5 m 3 (340 acre-ft) of groundwater is expected to temporarily contain increased concentrations of radioactive and toxic elements during the operation of each 4-ha (10-acre) well field. Restoration should return this water to a condition that is consistent with its premining use (or potential use). There will be no discharge of liquid effluents from the Irigaray project. Atmospheric effluents will be within acceptable limits. The dose rates of radionuclides in the air at the nearest ranches from the plant site are tabulated. The Irigaray project proposes the production and utilization of 500,000 lb per year of uranium resources. The Irigaray project will not produce any significant socioeconomic impact on the local area because of the small number of employees that will be employed at the project

  13. Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available in this area in order to obtain representative results. A sonic probe extensometer was used to monitor the roof and support performances in the experiment sites. Two holes were drilled and instrumented with sonic probe anchors in each site. The first hole... was drilled and instrumented at the face before any mining took place, and the second hole drilled in the middle of the cut out distance. In order to determine the effect of time on roof deformation, the sites were left for 48 hours unsupported, where...

  14. Mining Pribram in Science and technology. Proceedings of Session N - Analysis of mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, E.; Petak, P.

    1987-01-01

    The participants in conference session N heard 16 papers of which 4 were incorporated in INIS. The incorporated papers deal with the design of analyzers for the determination of uranium, free acids and nitrates, the use of Czechoslovak microtron MT 22 in gamma activation analysis of gold, X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in minerals and the use of X-ray spectral analysis in the determination of copper, zinc, lead and sulfur. (E.S.)

  15. Granitoid-associated gold mineralization in Egypt: a case study from the Atalla mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem; Deshesh, Fatma; Broman, Curt; Pitcairn, Iain; El-Metwally, Ahmed; Mashaal, Shabaan

    2018-06-01

    Gold-bearing sulfide-quartz veins cutting mainly through the Atalla monzogranite intrusion in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are controlled by subparallel NE-trending brittle shear zones. These veins are associated with pervasive sericite-altered, silicified, and ferruginated rocks. The hosting shear zones are presumed as high-order structures of the Najd-style faults in the Central Eastern Desert ( 615-585 Ma). Ore minerals include an early pyrite-arsenopyrite (±pyrrhotite) mineralization, partly replaced by a late pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite (±gold/electrum ± tetrahedrite ± hessite) assemblage. Gold occurs as small inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite, or more commonly as intergrowths with galena and sphalerite/tetrahedrite in microfractures. Arsenopyrite geothermometry suggests formation of the early Fe-As-sulfide mineralization at 380-340 °C, while conditions of deposition of the late base metal-gold assemblage are assumed to be below 300 °C. Rare hessite, electrum, and Bi-galena are associated with sphalerite and gold in the late assemblage. The early and late sulfide minerals show consistently a narrow range of δ34S ‰ (3.4-6.5) that overlaps with sulfur isotopic values in ophiolitic rocks. The Au-quartz veins are characterized by abundant CO2 and H2O ± CO2 ± NaCl inclusions, where three-dimensional clusters of inclusions show variable aqueous/carbonic proportions and broad range of total (bimodal) homogenization temperatures. Heterogeneous entrapment of immiscible fluids is interpreted to be caused by unmixing of an originally homogenous, low salinity ( 2 eq. mass % NaCl) aqueous-carbonic fluid, during transition from lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Gold deposition occurred generally under mesothermal conditions, i.e., 1.3 kbar and 280 °C, and continued during system cooling to chemistry of the ore fluids.

  16. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  17. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  18. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    -shaped objects. Two-dimensional probe-correction and addition signal processing are applied to the raw probe-data. The probe used in this experiment was an open-ended waveguide operating at S-band. The movements of the probe are controlled by two stepmotors via an RS-232 interface. The probe is connected...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum...

  19. Structural and lithologic constraints to mineralization in Aurora, Nevada and Bodie, California mining districts, observed with aerospace geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailbegovic, Amer

    This study used a multifaceted approach to investigate the geology and metallogenesis of the Bodie Hills region and the Aurora mining district. The factors influencing regional- and local-scale metallogenesis are compared and discussed in context of the various datasets, analysis techniques and methodologies. The Aurora and Bodie mining districts are located in the Miocene volcanics of the Bodie Hills, north of Mono Lake, on the opposite sides of the Nevada-California state line. From the standpoint of economic geology, both deposits are structurally controlled, low-sulfidation, quartz-adularia-sericite precious metal vein deposits with an extensive alteration halo. The area has been exploited since late 1870s by both underground and minor open pit operations (Aurora), exposing portions of altered andesites, rhyolite flows and tuffs and quartz-adularia-sericite veins. Much of the previous geologic mapping and explanation in Aurora was ad-hoc and primarily in support of the mining operations, without particular interest paid to the system as a whole. Using detailed field mapping and interpretation of the deposit in Bodie as a guide, a combined array of geophysical data in conjunction with traditional field mapping and GIS-based Weights of Evidence (WofE) modeling was utilized to attain better understanding of the Aurora district and both districts in the local and regional framework. The gravity data suggests a NE-trending, positive anomaly, resulting from a density contrast between the presumably uplifted pre-Tertiary basement and Miocene volcanic assemblage in the Bodie Hills. The aeromagnetic data are dominated by the strong signature of the Miocene volcanism (vents, flows, etc.) and suggests that the volcanic activity is concentrated along the northeasterly corridor of basement uplift. Multispectral, spaceborne imagery (Landsat ETM, ASTER) shows the regional structural setting, which is dominated by NNE and NE-trending lineaments and major alteration trends in

  20. MB3-Miner: efficiently mining eMBedded subTREEs using Tree Model Guided candidate generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.; Dillon, T.; Hadzic, F.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    2005-01-01

    Tree mining has many useful applications in areas such as Bioinformatics, XML mining, Web mining, etc. In general, most of the formally represented information in these domains is a tree structured form. In this paper we focus on mining frequent embedded subtrees from databases of rooted labeled

  1. Basic terminology in the field of mine dusts:Q1 noxious to the health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorska-Kalisz, Z; Gruszka, J

    1979-07-01

    Forty five basic terms concerning mine dusts and fighting mine dusts are presented. The terms define various kinds of mine dusts (among others, coal dust), dustiness in underground mines, prediction and measurement of dustiness, composition of mine dusts and grain size distribution of mine dusts and fighting coal dust by spraying water mixed with chemical agents (wetting agents). It is noted that the precise definition of the basic terms in Poland is necessary for clarity. The basic terms have been explained in various publications. The last Encylopaedic Dictionary of Mining was published in Poland in 1955. (In Polish)

  2. Application for trackless mining technique in Benxi uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingguo

    1998-01-01

    The author narrates the circumstances achieving constructional target in Benxi Uranium Mine under relying on advance of science and technology and adopting small trackless mining equipment, presents the application of trackless mining equipment at mining small mine and complex mineral deposit and discusses the unique superiority of trackless mining technique in development work, mining preparation work and backstoping

  3. Secondary defects in non-metallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbee, K.H.G.; Hobbs, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper points out features of secondary defect formation which are peculiar to non-metallic solids (excluding elemental semiconductors). Most of the materials of interest are compounds of two or more (usually more or less ionic) atomic species, and immediate consequence of which is a need to maintain both stoichiometry (or accommodate non-stoichiometry) and order. Primary defects in these solids, whether produced thermally, chemically or by irradiation, seldom are present or aggregate in exactly stoichiometric proportions, and the resulting extending defect structures can be quite distinct from those found in metallic solids. Where stoichiometry is maintained, it is often convenient to describe extended defects in terms of alterations in the arrangement of 'molecular' units. The adoption of this procedure enables several novel features of extended defect structures in non-metals to be explained. There are several ways in which a range of non-stoichiometry can be accommodated, which include structural elimination of point defects, nucleation of new coherent phases of altered stoichiometry, and decomposition. (author)

  4. Chronology of magmatism and mineralization in the Kassandra mining area, Greece: The potentials and limitations of dating hydrothermal illites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Frei, Robert

    1994-05-01

    Various geochronological methods ( U/Pb, Rb/Sr, and K/Ar) have been applied to constrain the timing of magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in the Kassandra mining district, northern Greece. These data provide the first geochronological evidence that porphyry copper mineralization, proximal copper skarns, and distal high-temperature carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Au replacement ores formed contemporaneously and probably within less than 2 million years. Polymetallic mineralization is temporally related to the emplacement of granodioritic to quartz dioritic porphyries (24-25 Ma) that postdate the largest post-tectonic intrusion of the area, the Stratoni granodiorite (27.9 ± 1.2 Ma). Andesite porphyry dikes, which crosscut the Pb-Zn-Ag-Au ores and associated alterations, represent the last magmatic phase in the area (19.1 ± 0.6 Ma) and did not contribute to metal concentration. The combination of K/Ar, Rb/Sr, and oxygen isotope studies of hydrothermal illite-rich clays and careful granulometric analysis constrains the reliability of these geochronological methods and emphasizes the importance of characterizing the post-formational history of the sample. We identify various processes which partly disturbed the K/Ar and Rb/Sr system of some clays, such as retrograde alteration by heated meteoric waters, superimposed supergene illitization, and resetting of both isotopic systems due to a hydrothermal overprint related to the intrusion of the andesite porphyry. Our data, however, suggest that diffusive Ar loss from the finest clay fractions ( 200°C), therefore, do not give reliable formation ages. The loss of Ar may be used to model the cooling history of the hydrothermal system applying the concept of closure temperatures ( DODSON, 1973). 40K- 40Ar rad isochrons of natural, coarser grained (> 0.6 μm) size fractions of illites from single samples, even when slightly contaminated with feldspars, may yield meaningful ages either of the formation or of a reheating event

  5. bc-GenExMiner 3.0: new mining module computes breast cancer gene expression correlation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Pascal; Frénel, Jean-Sébastien; Campion, Loïc; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Ricolleau, Gabriel; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed a user-friendly web-based application called bc-GenExMiner (http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr), which offered the possibility to evaluate prognostic informativity of genes in breast cancer by means of a 'prognostic module'. In this study, we develop a new module called 'correlation module', which includes three kinds of gene expression correlation analyses. The first one computes correlation coefficient between 2 or more (up to 10) chosen genes. The second one produces two lists of genes that are most correlated (positively and negatively) to a 'tested' gene. A gene ontology (GO) mining function is also proposed to explore GO 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component' terms enrichment for the output lists of most correlated genes. The third one explores gene expression correlation between the 15 telomeric and 15 centromeric genes surrounding a 'tested' gene. These correlation analyses can be performed in different groups of patients: all patients (without any subtyping), in molecular subtypes (basal-like, HER2+, luminal A and luminal B) and according to oestrogen receptor status. Validation tests based on published data showed that these automatized analyses lead to results consistent with studies' conclusions. In brief, this new module has been developed to help basic researchers explore molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. DATABASE URL: http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr

  6. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  7. Lemanskiite, NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl . 5H2O, a new mineral species from the Abundancia mine, Chile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondruš, P.; Veselovský, F.; Skála, Roman; Sejkora, J.; Pažout, R.; Frýda, J.; Gabasova, A.; Vajdak, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2006), s. 523-531 ISSN 0008-4476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : lemanskiite * new mineral * Abundancia mine Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2006 http://www.canmin.org/cgi/content/abstract/44/2/523?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=44&firstpage=523&resourcetype=HWCIT

  8. The contribution of the representatives of the Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school to the developmet of mineral raw material base in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. С. Чубик

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the maturation and development of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school - one of the leading schools in Russia, which was created in the first third of the 20th century in Tomsk Technological Institute by V.A.Obruchev and M.A.Usov known to be outstanding Russian and Soviet geoscientists and members of the Russian Academy of Science. The article touches upon the participation of representatives of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school to the exploration and development of mineral and raw material base of Siberia, Russia’s Far East, Central Asia. The information about the most important geological discoveries made by nurslings of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school is provided.

  9. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  10. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  11. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  12. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  13. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  14. Express-Air Screen-System to protect miners against radon exposures at small underground construction sites in old mining; Express-Wetterblenden-System zum Sofort-Schutz von Bergleuten vor Radonexpositionen bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz; Stopp, J. [Aluminiumbau und Verwaltungs GmbH Stopp, Schneeberg (Germany); Schoenherr, B. [Bergsicherung Schneeberg GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new Express-Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to reduce the radon exposures of miners at small construction sites of old mining. The EAS is a lightweight, modular and reusable construction kit of interlocking telescopic aluminum tubes, plastic foils and glue foam to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only.

  15. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher Hg urine concentration was detected in group I and group II (involved and not involved in gold recovery) at average levels of 15.82 and 9.95 microg/g creatinine, respectively. The average Hg values for both groups were below the established levels indicating no risk from Hg intake. Average Hg hair level in all schoolchildren (0.93 microg/g) was not significantly higher than reference

  16. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  17. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  18. A review of mortality associated with elongate mineral particle (EMP) exposure in occupational epidemiology studies of gold, talc, and taconite mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete. However, there are consistent findings of pneumoconiosis in each of these types of mining. A recent case-control study suggests a possible association between this exposure and mesothelioma. Lung cancer is inconsistently reported in these industries and is an unlikely outcome of non-asbestiform EMP exposure. There is evidence of cardiovascular mortality excess across all of these types of mining. Non-malignant respiratory disease and cardiovascular mortality have been consistently increased in these industries. Further investigation, including additional insights for the role of non-asbestiform EMP, is warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1047-1060, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy's collections were

  20. Experience of the leading miner crew in the 'Severo-Vostochnyi' im. 50-letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya surface mine. Opyt raboty peredovykh brigad razreza 'Severo-vostochnyi' im. 50-letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banshchikov, G I; Demidova, A O

    1981-01-01

    The paper evaluates surface coal mining in the Dal'vostugol' association. Five surface mines of the association mined 13.8 Mt in 1980, 105,900 m/sup 3/ of overburden were removed, overburden to coal ratio was 7.67 m/sup 3//t, labor productivity per miner was 663 t/month, mining cost 2.70 ruble/t. Use of powerful walking draglines for mining, overburden removal and spoil bank formation influenced mining schemes and permitted labor productivity to be increased. Mining schemes without transport of overburden are shown . The following types of mining equipment were used: EhSh-15/90, EhSh-14/75, EhSh-10/60 and EhSh-10/70 draglines, EhKG-4.6u and EhVG-4I face shovels. Mining and geologic conditions are described: climatic conditions are characterized by intensive temperature fluctuation. Air temperature in January ranges from minus 26.8 C to minus 41.0 C and in July from 7.2 C to 31.9 C, the annual precipitation is 622 mm. Thickness of frozen soil in winter ranges from 2.5 to 3.0 m. Geologic conditions of the basin are analyzed: coal seam thickness, depth, coal properties, ash, sulfur, volatile matter, moisture, calorific value, stratification of overburden, mechanical properties of overburden, ground water and water influx. Operation of the Dal'vostugol' mines is described on the example of the Severo-Vostochnyi surface mine, the largest of the region (47% of the coal output). The following aspects of mine operation are evaluated: coal output, economic analysis, mining cost, mining equipment, earthmoving equipment (draglines), mine haulage, effects of climates (particularly equipment repairs), mining schemes, failures of excavators, innovation and safety.

  1. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  2. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend...

  3. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  4. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  5. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  6. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Bashir Ahmed; Ashiq, M.G. B.; Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Rashid; Ahmed, Afaq

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials, which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser. The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed. For approximate cutting depth, a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed. Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy. There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s. An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting. It is inferred that as the laser power increases, cutting depth increases. The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results. This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting, scribing, trimming, engraving, and marking nonmetallic materials. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan shall...

  8. Nonmetallic inclusions in carbon steel smelted in plasma furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengelaya, I B; Kostyakov, V N; Nodiy, T K; Imerlishvili, V G; Gavisiani, A G [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Metallurgii

    1979-01-01

    A complex investigation on nonmetallic inclusions in carbon cast iron, smelted in plasma furnace in argon atmosphere and cast partly in the air and partly in argon atmosphere, has been carried out. As compared to open-hearth furnace carbon steel, the test metal was found to contain more oxide inclusions and nitrides; besides, in chromium-containing metal, chromium nitrides form the larger part of nitrides.

  9. Final environmental statement related to the Wyoming Mineral Corporation Irigaray uranium solution mining project (Johnson County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Irigaray project consists of solution mining (in situ leaching) operations involving uranium ore deposits in Johnson County, Wyoming. Solution mining activities will include a processing facility with an annual production of 500,000 lb of U 3 O 8 from up to 50 acres of well fields through the initial license authorization. The Irigaray project has an estimated lifetime of up to 10 to 20 years with known ore deposits and the current level of solution mining technology. The site is mostly used as grazing land for cattle and sheep. Initiation of the Irigaray project would result in the temporary removal from grazing and the disturbance of approximately 60 acres during operation as proposed by the staff. All disturbed surface areas will be reclaimed and returned to their original use. Approximately 1.2 x 10 6 m 3 of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer. 43 figs, 52 tables

  10. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry - A review of the concepts from a South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The risks from mining and processing of ores is reviewed on a generic basis with particular reference to some of the confusions which can arise due to lack of consistency or common logic in the use of exclusion, exemption and clearance. The difference in exclusion and exemption are challenged by comparing doses received in high background radiation areas and the doses received from a mining practice. The common principle of risk to the human species is not applied consistently. The differences between IAEA recommendations and local regulatory conditions are compared, and the use of exemption levels as clearance levels is considered. A case study on management of mine tailings is presented with special focus on the use of clearance levels. In all areas of review the interpretation of regulation is subject to confusion resulting from inconsistencies which can distort free market economics. (author)

  11. Dissolution of nonmetallic inclusions at high-temperature heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubenko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature a nnealing on size, distribution and general content of non-metallic inclusions in steels is investigated. It is shown that high-temperature annealing of steel permits to reduce total amount of inclusions, their average size, as well as to control their composition and distribution in steel matrix. Partial or complete dissolution of inclusions takes place in respect to the type of non-metallic inclusions, temperature of annealing and holding duration. Cooling rate affects the investigated parameters. Under quenching the total amount of inclusions in steel is lower and average size of inclusions is larger than those under slow cooling. It is explained by precipitation of disperses ''satellites around the initial inclusions under low cooling. Composition of the satellites slightly differs from that of a ''mother's'' one. Change in composition of inclusions and creation of conditions for transition of unstable inclusions to a more stable state promotes change in properties of non-metallic inclusions that affects steel properties

  12. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  13. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Donovan

    Full Text Available Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  14. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael P; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Peppe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  15. The impact of mining on the environment: necessary evil or merely a calamity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Mankind has always used mineral assets and has become increasingly dependent upon them during his cultural, scientific and technological evolution. If it is true that mining is one of the ways in which man interferes with the environment by disfiguring, degrading and polluting it, it is no less true that mining is one of the ways to supply the needs indispensable to modern societies. For an unpredictable period of time to come, mankind will have to live with the consumption of metallic and non-metallic mineral and energy resources. It is impossible to sustain the unsustainable, to renew the non-renewable, but it is perfectly possible to make rationally executed mining compatible with the recovery and/or restoration of the environment. In developing countries like Brazil, politicians and business people, poorly-informed about environmental problems, usually try, without success, to solve the problems far away from metropolitan areas, for example in the Amazon region, forgetting about those problems close to home which make life intolerable in the great urban centres like Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte. 10 refs

  16. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  17. South African mine valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrar, C D

    1977-01-01

    This article sets out the basic concepts of mine valuation, with gold mining receiving more space than base minerals and coal. Sampling practice is given special attention. Chapter headings are methods of investigation, sampling, underground sampling, averaging of underground sampling, diamond-drill sampling, mass and mineral content of ore, organization of a sample office, working costs, mining pay limits, ore reserves, ore accounting, maintenance of grade, forecasting operations and life of mine, statistical mine valuation, state's share of profits and taxation, and financial valuation of mining ventures.

  18. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  19. On the determination of various metallic and nonmetallic impurities in sodium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.; Gruenhaeuser, M.; Nagel, G.; Nold, E.; Schaefer, A.; Schumann, H.

    1976-04-01

    Methods for the determination of various metallic and nonmetallic impurities in sodium metal were developed or tested. Detection limits, reproducibilities and results of analyses are reported. (orig.) [de

  20. The Structure of Reclaiming Warehouse of Minerals at Open-Cut Mines with the Use Combined Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Kovshov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    In the article performed an analysis of ore reclaiming and overloading point characteristics at modern opencast mines. Ore reclaiming represents the most effective way of stability support of power-intensive and expensive technological dressing process, and, consequently, of maintenance of the optimal production and set-up parameters of extraction and quality of finished product. The paper proposed the construction of the warehouse describing the technology of its creation. Equipment used for the warehouse described in detail. All stages of development and operation was shown. Advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical shovel excavator and hydraulic excavator “backdigger” as a reloading and reclaiming equipment was compared. Ore reclaiming and overloading point construction at cyclical and continuous method of mining using a hydraulic excavator “backdigger” was proposed.

  1. The present day genesis and evolution of cave minerals inside the Ojo de la Reina Cave (Naica Mine, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ojo de la Reina is the first and the smallest cave intersected at the -290 level in the Naica Mine (Mexico, therefore it was the firstcavity in which the lowering of temperature induced by mine ventilation caused condensation over crystals’ surface since 2005. Theconsequent dissolution of the gypsum crystals and subsequent condensed water evaporation lead to the deposition of several newminerals, among which some highly soluble Mg/Na compounds (bloedite, epsomite, halite, hexahydrite, kieserite, starkeyite. Thesingle available source of Mg and Na ions in this minerogenetic environment is represented by the huge fluid inclusions widespreadwithin the crystals. The condensation occurs mainly along the widened principal exfoliation (010 planes, and allows to an easy andfast opening of the fluid inclusions that consequently drip Mg-rich fluids stored inside them. Finally the evaporation of the relativelysmall volumes of involved water allows to the development of the high soluble Mg and Na compounds.

  2. Technical report.Technical advise to the DINAMIGE ( Mining and Energy Directorate) Montevideo - Uruguay in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of gold mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, N.; Shoukry, B.

    1990-01-01

    In 1990 Dinamige was assisted by a German mission in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of mineral of oro processing plants. This study were carried out in two priority zones: Project Mahoma by the Mining San Jose Co. S.A/Retamosa SRL in San Jose district /Stel S.A in Minas de Corrales in Rivera.

  3. Hydrothermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralization on the site Marianka (Small Carpathians); Hydrotermalna Pb-Zn sulfidicka mineralizacia na lokalite Marianka (Male Karpaty)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubac, A [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra mineralogie a petrologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Hydrothermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralization at Marianka village in Small Carpathians occurs in Palaeozoic metapelit rocks of Tatricum crystalline. Mineralization consists of ore lenses. Banded texture of ores is typical. The main ore minerals are sphalerite and galenite accompanied by bournonit, boulangerit, meneghinit, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, marcasite and pyrotite. Quartz is the main non-metallic mineral. Other non-metallic minerals are calcite, ankerite, siderite and dolomite. Micro-thermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz indicate creation of mineralization probably from low salinic fluids (0.1 to 20 wt.% NaCl equiv.), at 100 to 150 grad C. (authors)

  4. NERVA turbopump bearing retainer fabrication on nonmetallic retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The need for a low-wear, lightweight, high strength bearing retainer material with a radiation degradation threshold of 10 to the 9th power rads (C) prompted development of nonmetallic reinforced polymers of the following types: (1) polybenzimidazole, (2) polyimide, and (3) polyquinoxaline. Retainers were machined from tubular laminates (billets), including reinforcement by either glass or graphite fabric or filament. Fabrication of billets involves hot preimpregnation of the reinforcement fabric or filament with polymer followed by wrapping this prepreg over a heated mandrel to form a tube with the required thickness and length.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  6. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  7. “Semantics Inside!” But let’s not tell the Data Miners: Intelligent Support for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Kietz, Jörg-Uwe; Serban, Floarea; Fischer, Simon; Bernstein, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) has evolved sig- nificantly over the past years and reached a mature stage offering plenty of operators to solve complex data analysis tasks. User support for build- ing data analysis workflows, however, has not progressed sufficiently: the large number of operators currently available in KDD systems and in- teractions between these operators complicates successful data analysis. To help Data Miners we enhanced one of the most used open source data minin...

  8. Using remote sensing techniques and field-based structural analysis to explore new gold and associated mineral sites around Al-Hajar mine, Asir terrane, Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, Abdullah R.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    2016-05-01

    Modern earth resource satellites provide huge amounts of digital imagery at different resolutions. These satellite imageries are considered one of the most significant sources of data for mineral exploration. Image processing techniques were applied to the exposed rocks around the Al-Aqiq area of the Asir terrane in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. The area under study has two sub-parallel N-S trending metamorphic belts of green-schist facies. The first belt is located southeast of Al-Aqiq, where the Al-Hajar Gold Mine is situated. It is essentially composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks, and it is intruded by different plutonic rocks of primarily diorite, syenite and porphyritic granite. The second belt is located northwest of Al-Aqiq, and it is composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks and is intruded by granite bodies. The current study aimed to distinguish the lithological units, detect and map the alteration zones, and extract the major fault lineaments around the Al-Hajar gold prospect. Digital satellite imageries, including Landsat 7 ETM + multispectral and panchromatic and SPOT-5 were used in addition to field verification. Areas with similar spectral signatures to the prospect were identified in the nearby metamorphic belt; it was considered as a target area and was inspected in the field. The relationships between the alteration zones, the mineral deposits and the structural elements were used to locate the ore-bearing zones in the subsurface. The metasedimentary units of the target area showed a dextral-ductile shearing top-to-the-north and the presence of dominant mineralized quartz vein-system. The area to the north of the Al-Hajar prospect showed also sub-parallel shear zones along which different types of alterations were detected. Field-based criteria such as hydrothermal breccia, jasper, iron gossans and porphyritic granite strongly indicate the presence of porphyry-type ore deposits in Al-Hajar metamorphic belt that

  9. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  10. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  11. Mining planing introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Basic concepts concerning mining parameters, plan establishment and typical procedure methods applied throughout the physical execution of mining operations are here determined, analyzed and discussed. Technological and economic aspects of the exploration phase are presented as well as general mathematical and statistical methods for estimating, analyzing and representing mineral deposits which are virtually essential for good mining project execution. The characterization of important mineral substances and the basic parameters of mining works are emphasized in conjunction with long, medium and short term mining planning. Finally, geological modelling, ore reserves calculations and final economic evaluations are considered using a hypothetical example in order to consolidate the main elaborated ideas. (D.J.M.) [pt

  12. Australian Mining's product register 1992-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This annual product register contains an assessment of resources in Australia; statistical information on mine production of principal minerals; mineral industry statistics; directory of exploration and mining companies; buyers' guide; directory of consultants; list of services and a company index.

  13. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  14. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  15. Effects of small defects and nonmetallic inclusions on the fatigue strength of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The equation for predicting the effects of artificial small defects on the fatigue strength of metals is introduced, and it is applied to the quantitative evaluation of the effects of nonmetallic inclusions on the fatigue strength of high-strength steels. The importance of the concept that nonmetallic inclusions are virtually equivalent to defects, from the viewpoint of fatigue strength and, more practically, are equivalent to small cracks is emphasized. It is shown that nonmetallic inclusions cause relatively low-fatigue strength and large scatter of the fatigue strength of steels with high static strength or high hardness. The statistics of extreme values is used to estimate the expected maximum size of nonmetallic inclusions contained in a definite number of specimens. The lower limit of scatter in the fatigue strength of a high-strength steel is obtained by using the prediction equation for small defects together with the expected maximum size of nonmetallic inclusions

  16. Hercynian Pb-Zn mineralization types in the Alcudia Valley mining district (Spain) and their reflect in Pb isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Madinabeitia, S.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Palero, F.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Carracedo, M.

    2003-04-01

    More than 450 ore deposits indexed within the Alcudia Valley of the Central-Iberian Zone (Spain) may be grouped by their tectonic and lithologic characteristics (1,2) as follows: type A of rare stratabound mineralizations, and types B, C, D and E represented by abundant Hercynian veins (post-Namurian). 86 new Pb isotope analyses of galenas from the four vein types reveal that types B and C have similar isotopic ratios with values of μ_2 = 10.07, ω_2 = 40.6 and a mean model age of 564 Ma. Types D and E have μ_2 and ω_2 values of 9.79 and 38.5, respectively, but differ each other with respect to their model ages, 600 Ma (type D) and 335 Ma (type E). The observed variations appear to be related to the geochemical features of the metasedimentary host-rocks of the mineralizations where two distinct types of Pb isotopic ratios have been reported (3): one with μ_2 and ω_2 comparable to those of the D and E types and another with a more radiogenic composition, close to those of the B and C types of galenas. Nägler et al. have suggested partial rehomogeneization of Pb isotopic composition within the metasediments at ca. 330 Ma, that is, prior to the mineralization events, but the extent of this process and its effects on the ore bodies isotopic features is not evident. The origin of the more abundant E type ore bodies has been related to the Hercynian granitic rocks in the area (2, and references therein). Other plutons within this sector of the Central Iberian Zone (e.g., Linares, etc.; cf. accompanying Abstract) associate ore bodies whose Pb isotopic composition is very similar to that of the E type galenas from the Alcudia Valley. The isotopic data obtained thus point to a related or common source material for the various types of granites within the area studied. Yet, the Pb isotopic composition of other mineralizations (B, C, D), likewise located in Hercynian veins, allow to consider different types of Pb-Zn ore bodies and point therefore to different sources of

  17. Epidemiological study of radon-exposed mineral mine workers in north east Bavaria including chromosome dosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, H.; Scherpenberg, H. van; Zimmer, R.

    1980-01-01

    360 hard-rock miners were examined for breathing organ health, working conditions, smoking habits, and partly for chromosome aberrations (115 persons, 100 cells each). Long-time exposure at diameter 1 to 4 WL Rn-daughters and/or occasional >= 1000 pCi Rn/l air increased rates of S 2 -type aberrations (x 3,4; P 2 -rates. From dose estimations, bronchial radiation conditions appear as bronchitis cofactor; lymphocyte but not lymph node dose fairly fits S 2 -rate after 20 years' exposure. (orig.) [de

  18. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  19. Study on the uranium mineralization genesis of the Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, Bahia, mine, as auxiliary in the discovery and comprehension of mineral beds; Estudo da genese da mineralizacao uranifica da mina da Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, BA, como auxilio na descoberta e compreensao de jazidas minerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Ana Rosa Passos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: laro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The acknowledgement of the geological history of a ore reserve allows to infer relative to a large area with possibility to contain the large mineral content or even give the localization of new anomalies or mineral reserve. The study of ore reserve genesis is of great importance for the stages to obtain the mineral, from the prospection until the mineral mining. Fluid inclusions (FI) are fluid quantities which are imprison in the minerals during the formation process or some process where deformation occurs. The study of fluid inclusions, together with the petrographic mapping of the blades associated to the uranium para genesis of Lagoa Real, Brazil, are been used for a better comprehension of the uranium orogenesis. The main analysis techniques used in this context were the petrography and microthermometry. With the petrographic analysis fluid inclusions were observed and mapped in various minerals present in rocks associated to uranium mineralization, such as amphiboles, pyroxenes and grenades. The micro thermometric studies were only performed in the pyroxenes and the grenades due to the fluid inclusions types found in these minerals, and also the supposed relationships that those minerals have with uranium mineralization at that region. (author)

  20. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  1. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... faulty pillar recovery methods. Pillar dimensions shall be compatible with effective control of the roof...

  2. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  3. Fe2+ oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Zhou Lixiang

    2012-01-01

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe 2+ ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe 2+ oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: ► Slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in jarosite formation. ► The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. ► Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  5. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  6. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine rescue...

  7. Radiation damage in nonmetallic solids under dense electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Tanimura, Katsumi; Nakai, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    Basic processes of radiation damage of insulators by dense electronic excitation are reviewed. First it is pointed out that electronic excitation of nonmetallic solids produces the self-trapped excitons and defect-related metastable states having relatively long lifetimes, and that the excitation of these metastable states, produces stable defects. The effects of irradiation with heavy ions, including track registration, are surveyed on the basis of the microscopic studies. It is pointed out also that the excitation of the metastable states plays a role in laser-induced damage at relatively low fluences, while the laser damage has been reported to be governed by heating of free electrons produced by multiphoton excitation. Difference in the contributions of the excitation of metastable defects to laser-induced damage of surfaces, or laser ablation, and laser-induced bulk damage is stressed. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of manganese phases in mineral processing products of the Azul Mine, Carajas. Metallurgical implications; Caracterizacao de fases manganesiferas em produtos de beneficiamento da Mina do Azul, Carajas. Implicacoes metalurgicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.; Fernandez, O.J.Ch., E-mail: pereiragilcimar@hotmail.co, E-mail: ochoque.fernandez@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, M.L. da, E-mail: mlc@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2010-07-01

    Were characterized the manganese phases of the processing products using ore microscopy and x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute with new data and help the processing operations of the mine. Cryptomelane is the main manganese mineral in products, and pyrolusite and nsutite are in minor proportion. Were observed distinctive textures of the cryptomelane and others manganese phases, it were formed in different geological times and therefore affecting the operations in mineral processing, principally, comminution. The observed mineralogical variations affect too the unit operations when expand the pit. (author)

  9. REM effect on nonmetallic inclusion composition and heat resistance in an austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farafonov, V.K.; Shtejnberg, M.M.; Kikhtin, M.V.; Cheremnykh, V.P.; Vojnov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were made to elucidate the effect of rare earths (lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium, cerium) on the composition of non-metallic inclusions and heat resistance of an austenitic chromium-nickel steel. Common sulfide and oxide inclusions are shown to be substituted by rare earth sulfide and oxide inclusions at RE metal content in the steel up to 0.1%. Further increase of RE metal content results in increasing non-metallic inclusions containing RE metals, phosphorus and non-ferrous impurities. Creep rate changes insignificantly at RE metal content up to 0.1%, and then it sharply grows with the quantity of non-metallic inclusions in the steel

  10. Analyse and research of nonmetallic inclusions for steel 100Cr6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vitez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel 100Cr6 belongs to a group of hardened steels, which are applicable for production of rolling element parts. Because of specific working conditions, a proper chemical composition is required with a minimum content of nonmetallic inclusion. In this paper, the research results of presence the nonmetallic inclusions and their chemical composition are presented for the steel produced in vacuum and open induction electric furnace and their influence on the prescribed properties for this steel. The optical and scanning electronic microscope are used to identify presence and the chemical compositions of nonmetallic inclusions.

  11. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  12. Applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the structural characterization of minerals and products of the country 's mining - metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Palma, Victoria; Cruz Inclan, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the seventies of the past century Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) has been systematically and successfully applied at CEADEN in the study and characterization of lateritic and other iron-rich ores, and different products of their industrial processing as well. Due to their high iron and chrome content these materials seemed to be attractive as raw material for the production of several enriched fractions in metallurgical applications. Such studies showed that the systematic application of MS combined with X- Ray Diffraction and other techniques like neutron Diffraction, Thermal and Calorimetric analysis and Optical and Electron Microscopies, has allowed a higher level of accuracy in the crystallographic characterization, and the phase composition and other specific properties assessment. As examples in this direction, in the present paper results of the study on two different iron-bearing materials are reported: a) magnetite of Mina Grande (in Santiago de Cuba), and b) Monitoring of a proposed process using concentration tables for chrome enrichment from tailings of the nickel plant 'Hector Ramos Latour' at Holguin, both areas located in the east of Cuba. It is evidenced that a right combination of 57 Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy with other mentioned methods is nowadays the wisest and most efficient way for a thorough identification and characterization of iron-bearing mineral ores and products in mining and metallurgical industry. (Author)

  13. Lead isotopes as indicators of environmental contamination from the uranium mining and milling industry in the Grants Mineral Belt, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The unique isotopic composition of lead from uranium ores can be useful in studying the impact of ore processing effluents on the environment. Common lead on the earth's surface is composed of 1.4% 204 Pb, 24.1% 206 Pb, 22.1% 207 Pb, and 52.4% 208 Pb. In contrast, lead associated with young uranium ores may contain as much as 95% 206 Pb. These extreme differences provide the means to quantitatively evaluate the amount of lead introduced into the environment from the mining and milling of uranium ores by measuring variations of the isotopic composition of lead in environmental samples. The use of Pb isotopes as diagnostic tools in studying the hydrologic transport of materials from U ore dressing plants in the Grants Mineral Belt, New Mexico, is discussed. Preliminary measurements on effluents intimately associated with processing wastes are consistent with a simple model in which radiogenic lead from the ores is mixed with common lead from the uncontaminated environments

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Jensenite, Cu3 Te (super 6+) O6 .2H2O, a new mineral species from the Centennial Eureka Mine, Tintic District, Juab County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Grice, Joel D.; Groat, Lee A.; Criddle, Alan J.; Gault, Robert A.; Erd, Richard C.; Moffatt, Elizabeth A.

    1996-01-01

    Jensenite, ideally Cu 3 Te (super 6+) O 6 .2H 2 O, is monoclinic, P2 1 /n (14), with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 9.204(2), b 9.170(2), c 7.584(1) Aa, beta 102.32(3) degrees , V 625.3(3) Aa 3 , a:b:c 1.0037:1:0.8270, Z = 4. The strongest six reflections of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Aa(I)(hkl)] are: 6.428(100)(101,110), 3.217(70)(202), 2.601(40)(202), 2.530(50)(230), 2.144(35)(331) and 1.750(35)(432). The mineral is found on the dumps of the Centennial Eureka mine, Juab County, Utah, where it occurs as isolated crystals or as groups of crystals on drusy white quartz. Associated minerals are mcalpineite, xocomecatlite and unnamed Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn) 2 Te (super 6+) O 6 .6H 2 O. Individual crystals of jensenite are subhedral to euhedral, and form simple rhombs that are nearly equant. Some crystals are slightly elongate [101], with a length-to-width ratio up to 2:1. The largest crystal is approximately 0.4 mm in size; the average size is between 0.1 and 0.2 mm. Cleavage {101} fair. Forms are: {101} major; {110} medium; {100} minor; {301}, {201}, {203}, {102}, {010} very small. The mineral is transparent, emerald green, with a less intense streak of the same color and an uneven fracture. Jensenite is adamantine, brittle and nonfluorescent; H (Mohs) 3-4; D (calc.) 4.78 for the idealized formula, 4.76 g/cm 3 for the empirical formula. In a polished section, jensenite is very weakly bireflectant and nonpleochroic. In reflected plane-polarized light in air, it is a nondescript grey, and in oil, it is a much darker grey in color with a brownish tint, with ubiquitous bright green internal reflections. Anisotropy is not detectable. Measured values of reflectance, in air and in oil, are tabulated. Electron-microprobe analyses yielded CuO 50.91, ZnO 0.31, TeO 3 38.91, H 2 O (calc.) [8.00], total [98.13] wt.%. The empirical formula, derived from crystal-structure analysis and electron-microprobe analyses, is (Cu (sub 2.92) Zn (sub 0.02) ) (sub

  16. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out Area ... sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in assessing environmental impact of ... Keywords: Solid mineral, Impact assessment, Mined-out area utilization, ...

  17. Klaprothite, péligotite and ottohahnite, three new minerals with bidentate UO.sub.7./sub.–SO.sub.4./sub. linkages from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kampf, A.R.; Plášil, Jakub; Kasatkin, A.V.; Marty, J.; Čejka, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 4 (2017), s. 753-779 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : klaprothite * péligotite * ottohahnite * new mineral * uranyl sulfate * crystal structure * Blue Lizard mine * Utah * USA Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.285, year: 2016

  18. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers based on mine plants...

  19. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to insure...

  1. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small coal...

  2. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large coal...

  3. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  5. Mining royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenković Rade J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources are finite and nonrenewable in the sense that their extraction permanently depletes a country's resource inventory. The role of governments should be to manage the exploitation of these resources to maximize the economic benefits to their community, consistent with the need to attract and retain the exploration and development capital necessary to continue to realize these benefits for as long as possible. In designing mineral sector taxation systems, policy makers must carefully seek to balance tax types, rates, and incentives that satisfy the needs of both the nation and the mining investor.

  6. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  7. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  8. Non-metallic structural wrap systems for pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.H.; Wesley Rowley, C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of thermoplastics and reinforcing fiber has been a long-term application of non-metallic material for structural applications. With the advent of specialized epoxies and carbon reinforcing fiber, structural strength approaching and surpassing steel has been used in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plants. One of those applications is a NSWS for pipe and other structural members. The NSWS is system of integrating epoxies with reinforcing fiber in a wrapped geometrical configuration. This paper specifically addresses the repair of degraded pipe in heat removal systems used in nuclear power plants, which is typically caused by corrosion, erosion, or abrasion. Loss of structural material leads to leaks, which can be arrested by a NSWS for the pipe. The technical aspects of using thermoplastics to structurally improve degraded pipe in nuclear power plants has been addressed in the ASME B and PV Code Case N-589. Using the fundamentals described in that Code Case, this paper shows how this technology can be extended to pipe repair from the outside. This NSWS has already been used extensively in non-nuclear applications and in one nuclear application. The cost to apply this NSWS is typically substantially less than replacing the pipe and may be technically superior to replacing the pipe. (author)

  9. Enhanced angular overlap model for nonmetallic f -electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.

    2005-07-01

    An efficient method of interpretation of the crystal field effect in nonmetallic f -electron systems, the enhanced angular overlap model (EAOM), is presented. The method is established on the ground of perturbation expansion of the effective Hamiltonian for localized electrons and first-principles calculations related to available experimental data. The series of actinide compounds AO2 , oxychalcogenides AOX , and dichalcogenides UX2 where X=S ,Se,Te and A=U ,Np serve as probes of the effectiveness of the proposed method. An idea is to enhance the usual angular overlap model with ab initio calculations of those contributions to the crystal field potential, which cannot be represented by the usual angular overlap model (AOM). The enhancement leads to an improved fitting and makes the approach intrinsically coherent. In addition, the ab initio calculations of the main, AOM-consistent part of the crystal field potential allows one to fix the material-specific relations for the EAOM parameters in the effective Hamiltonian. Consequently, the electronic structure interpretation based on EAOM can be extended to systems of the lowest point symmetries or/and deficient experimental data. Several examples illustrating the promising capabilities of EAOM are given.

  10. Near-field millimeter - wave imaging of nonmetallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A near-field millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging system has been designed and built in the 94-GHz range for on-line inspection of nonmetallic (dielectric) materials. The imaging system consists of a transceiver block coupled to an antenna that scans the material to be imaged; a reflector plate is placed behind the material. A quadrature IF mixer in the transceiver block enables measurement of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of reflected signals with respect to the transmitted signal. All transceiver components, with the exception of the Gunn-diode oscillator and antenna, were fabricated in uniform blocks and integrated and packaged into a compact unit (12.7 x 10.2 x 2.5 cm). The objective of this work is to test the applicability of a near-field compact mm-wave sensor for on-line inspection of sheetlike materials such as paper, fabrics, and plastics. This paper presents initial near-field mm-wave images of paper and fabric samples containing known artifacts

  11. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  12. Texture, microstructure and geochemistry of magnetite from the Banduhurang uranium mine, Singhbhum shear zone, India - implications for physico-chemical evolution of magnetite mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Dutta, Tusar; Samanta, Susanta K.; Pal, Dipak C.

    2013-01-01

    The Singhbhum Shear zone in eastern India is one of the largest repositories of uranium and copper in India. Besides uranium and copper, apatite-magnetite mineralization is widespread in this shear zone. This study aims at deciphering the physico-chemical evolution of magnetite mineralization in relation to progressive shearing integrating field relations, micro-textures, structures and compositions of magnetite in the Banduhurang uranium mine. Apatite-magnetite ores occur as discrete patches, tongues, and veins in the strongly deformed, fine grained quartz-chlorite schist. Textures and microstructures of magnetite indicate at least three stages of magnetite formation. Coarse-grained magnetite (magnetite-1) with long, rotational, and complex strain fringes, defined by fibrous and elongate quartz, is assigned to a stage of pre-/early-shearing magnetite formation. Medium grained magnetite (magnetite-2), characterized by single non-rotational strain fringe equivalent to the youngest fringe of magnetite-1, grew likely at the mid-/late-stage of shearing. Fine grained magnetite (magnetite-3) is generally devoid of any pressure shadow. This indicates even a much later stage of formation of this magnetite, presumably towards the closing stage of shearing. Some of the magnetite-1 grains are optically heterogeneous with a dark, pitted Cr-Ti-bearing core overgrown by lighter, fresh rim locally containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and chlorite inclusions. The cores are also locally characterized by high AI and Si content. Homogeneous magnetite-1 is optically and compositionally similar to the overgrowth of heterogeneous magnetite-1. This homogeneous magnetite-1 that grew as separate phase is contemporaneous with the overgrowth on pitted core of heterogeneous magnetite-1. Magnetite-2 is compositionally very similar to homogeneous magnetite-1, but is devoid of sulfide inclusion. Magnetite-3 is generally devoid of any silicate or sulfide inclusion and is most pure with least

  13. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  14. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... (except full-face continuous mining machines) with proximity detection systems. Miners working near..., each underground coal mine operator would be required to install proximity detection systems on...

  15. Uranium mining in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, M.

    2006-01-01

    The mines of northern Saskatchewan make Canada the worlds leading uranium producer in Canada supplied 29% of global demand, or 11.60 million tonnes of the metal in 2004. Here are two bright ideas - how to mine an orebody by neither pit nor underground method, and how to mine high-grade ore without miners - that Cogema and Cameco are pursuing in the Athabasca Basin

  16. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  17. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... transfer, to an allowance for depletion under section 611 in respect of ores or minerals extracted from...

  18. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  19. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and national development about the proposals of law: (no.418) from M. Richard Mallie, about various dispositions relative to miners rights and mines, (no.489) from M. Michel Sordi, about various dispositions relative to mines; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur les propositions de loi: (no.418) de M. Richard Mallie, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux droits des mineurs et aux mines, (no.489) de M. Michel Sordi, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report concerns two proposals of law which have a common concern: warranting the rights of the miners and retired miners after the disappearing of the national association of retired miners management (ANGR), the members of which are the three companies of Charbonnages de France group (French national coal board), today undergoing a progressive shut-down. In this report, it is proposed to merge the contributions of both proposals with the creation of a new national agency for the warranty of the perenniality of miners' rights. It proposes also some necessary adaptations of the structures of Charbonnages de France group and some dispositions aiming at modernizing the French mining law and ensuring the exploitation of solid mineral fuels after the disappearing of the group. (J.S.)

  20. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  1. EDITORIAL: Charge transport in non-metallic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Ian J.; Almond, Darryl P.

    2009-03-01

    Workers engaged in a wide range of investigations of charge transport in non-metallic solids came together at a meeting of the Institute of Physics Dielectric Group, held in London on 2 April 2008. Topics included both ionic and electronic conduction, investigations of the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport, percolation, modelling the conduction process in both natural and man-made composite electrical and electromagnetic materials, the design and development of solids with specified conduction properties and the ac characteristics of non-metallic solids. In the first session, the long-standing problem of the anomalous power law increase in ac conductivity with frequency was addressed by a set of four presentations. Jeppe Dyre, an invited speaker from Roskilde University, Denmark, introduced the problem and stressed the universality of the frequency dependence observed in the ac conductivities of disordered non-metallic materials. He showed that it could be obtained from a simple random barrier model, independent of the barrier distribution. Darryl Almond, University of Bath, showed that the electrical responses of large networks of randomly positioned resistors and capacitors, simulating the microstructures of disordered two-phase (conductor insulator) materials, exhibit the same frequency dependence. He demonstrated their robustness to component value and distribution and suggested that it was an emergent property of these networks and of two-phase materials. Klaus Funke, an invited speaker from the University of Munster, Germany, presented a detailed model of ion motion in disordered ionic materials. He stressed the need to account for the concerted many-particle processes that occur whilst ions hop from site to site in response to an applied electric field. The conductivity spectra obtained from this work reproduce the same frequency dispersion and have the additional feature of conductivity saturation at high frequencies. Tony West, University of

  2. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  3. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  4. Treatment of transverse patellar fractures: a comparison between metallic and non-metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, Maarten H G; den Hamer, Anniek; Traa, Willeke A; Oomen, Pim J A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of transverse patellar fixation have been described. This study compares the clinical outcome and the occurrence of complications of various fixation methods. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Google were searched. A direct comparison between fixation techniques using mixed or non-metallic implants and metallic K-wire and tension band fixation shows no significant difference in clinical outcome between both groups. Additionally, studies reporting novel operation techniques show good clinical results. Studies describing the treatment of patients using non-metallic or mixed implants are fewer compared with those using metallic fixation. A large variety of clinical scoring systems were used for assessing the results of treatment, which makes direct comparison difficult. More data of fracture treatment using non-metallic or mixed implants is needed to achieve a more balanced comparison.

  5. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  6. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m 3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.) [de

  7. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  8. The mines of Jackymov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the mines in the vicinity of Jackymov, a small town in Central Europe is given. These mines have been worked for several hundred years and from them has been brought forth a variety of products including silver, uranium and radium, the latter being isolated from Jackymov pitch-blende and identified by Marie Curie. The health effects of the miners mining radioactive ores are briefly discussed. The development of Jackymov as a spa resort using the mine water containing radium is also described. (U.K.)

  9. Australian Mining's product register 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Australian Minings' Product Register 1990-91 contains an industry review, resource assessment, mineral industry statistics, directory of exploration and mining companies, buyers guide and directory of consultants.

  10. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc .) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  11. Aplicación de la minería de datos al Sistema Cubano de Farmacovigilancia Application of data mining to the Cuban Pharmacovigilance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Calzadilla Fernández de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1999, se crea la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia, la cual funciona como el órgano técnico-científico que desarrolla la política de vigilancia de seguridad de medicamentos del Ministerio de Salud Pública e integra las actividades de los centros provinciales y de otros programas concertados de farmacovigilancia en un sistema único. Entre sus funciones más relevantes se encuentran la de definir, diseñar y desarrollar los sistemas de información; administrar la base de datos nacional; depurar y validar la información contenida en ella; y realizar y coordinar estudios científicos sobre la seguridad de los medicamentos; así como elaborar informes para las autoridades sanitarias y el Sistema Nacional de Salud. En este sistema existe la necesidad de utilizar herramientas de análisis, por lo que se trazó el objetivo de definir, diseñar y desarrollar los sistemas de tratamiento de la información y administrar la base de datos nacional "VigiBaseCuba". Aplicando una serie de transformaciones, validaciones y la adecuación de la metodología CRISP-DM para la elaboración de proyectos de minería de datos, se conformó la base de datos nacional, en un sistema de gestión de bases de datos relacional con los registros de las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos y un proceso de descubrimiento de conocimiento que permite gestionar eficazmente la seguridad de los medicamentos, así como desarrollar aplicaciones para la visualización de las señales de reacciones adversas y su evoluciónIn 1999, The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacovigilance was created. It works as a scientific and technical agency that develops the drug safety surveillance policy of the Ministry of Public Health, and integrates the activities of the provincial centres and other pharmacovigilance programs in a unique system. Some of its most important functions are to define, design and develop the information

  12. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  15. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  16. Exposure of miners' to ore dust and its long-lived α-emitters in Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Topno, R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of airborne respirable particulate and its long-lived a -emitters (LLa) of the natural uranium decay series in a highly mechanised open cast uranium mine at Banduhurang is carried out for quantifying the hazard potentials associated with it. Respirable dust in the mine assumes geometric mean (c g ) of 0.71 mg m -3 (AM =0.78 mg m -3 ) and geometric standard deviation (S g ) of 1.5 (A.S.D.=0.30) whereas those for the LLa are 15.97mBq m -3 (A.M. =19.67 mBq m -3 ) and 1.97 (A.S.D.= 12.52) respectively. The specific activity of LLa of respirable dust assumes c g of 22.5 Bq g -1 which is ∼1.9 times higher compared to theoretically computed value for this low ore grade (0.026 U 3 O 8 %) mine. However, the internal radiation exposures attributable to airborne LLa in this mine would constitute merely a small fraction (<1.5%) of annual effective dose limit for mine workers. (author)

  17. Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Excess lung cancer has been demonstrated in many groups of underground miners exposed to radon, including uranium miners and those mining other substances in radon-contaminated mines. In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980s, but occupational exposure to radon progeny remains a concern for many other types of underground miners and other underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues, with documented production in Canada, South Africa and other African countries, and Australia. Thus, radon in underground mines remains a significant occupational hazard as the end of the twentieth century approaches.39 references

  18. Economic assessment of using nonmetallic materials in the direct utilization of geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, S.V.; Ammerlaan, T.

    1979-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of nonmetallic materials in three direct-use geothermal applications was assessed. An extensive review of the available literature was conducted in order to ascertain those processes for which sufficient design and cost data had been published to permit this economic assessment to be made. Only three such processes could be found and they are discussed.

  19. Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Topno, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222 Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m -3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m -3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h -1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h -1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m -3 . The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y -1 , which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y -1 . (author)

  20. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a...

  1. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  2. Gold and palladium minerals (including empirical PdCuBiSe3) from the former Roter Bär mine, St. Andreasberg, Harz Mountains, Germany: a result of low-temperature, oxidising fluid overprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Ließmann, Wilfried; Lehmann, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    At Roter Bär, a former underground mine in the polymetallic deposits of St. Andreasberg in the middle-Harz vein district, Germany, native gold and palladium minerals occur very locally in clausthalite-hematite pockets of few millimetres across in carbonate veinlets. The native gold is a Au-Ag intermetallic compound and the palladium minerals are characterised as mertieite-II [Pd8(Sb,As)3] and empirical PdCuBiSe3 with some S. The latter coexists with bohdanowiczite (AgBiSe2), a mineral that is stable below 120 °C. The geological setting of Roter Bär, underneath a post-Variscan unconformity, and its hematite-selenide-gold association suggest that oxidising hydrothermal brines of low temperature were instrumental to the Au-Pd mineralisation. The Roter Bär Au-Pd mineralisation can be explained by Permo-Triassic, red-bed-derived brines in the context of post-Variscan, unconformity-related fluid overprint.

  3. Regrowth of arsenate–sulfate efflorescences on processing plant walls at the Ottery arsenic–tin mine, New South Wales, Australia: Implications for arsenic mobility and remediation of mineral processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbard, Emily R.; Wilson, Siobhan A.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Tait, Alastair W.; Turvey, Connor C.; Wilson, Harriet L.

    2017-01-01

    Processing equipment and buildings at derelict mine sites are commonly coated in metal- and metalloid-rich residues that can significantly contribute to acid and metalliferous drainage, potentially polluting soils and watercourses. Here, we describe arsenic-rich residues and efflorescences on processing buildings at the derelict Ottery As–Sn mine in New South Wales, Australia and use the resulting data to determine the mineral hosts for arsenic and their distribution at the site. X-ray diffraction (XRD), portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data are used to conduct mineralogical, geochemical and microstructural analysis of the efflorescences. Brickwork columns within As condenser buildings are coated primarily with gypsum (CaSO_4·2H_2O) and contain approximately 1–5 wt% As, but more sheltered columns are associated with efflorescences rich in arsenolite and claudetite (polymorphs of As_2O_3) and contain up to ∼70–80 wt% As. The efflorescences within the Ottery condensers commonly contain minor quartz (SiO_2), feldspars, and two uncharacterised phases, including a K-Al-As phase and a Ca-Na-K-Al-F-As phase that are likely similar to previously reported phases from an As processing site in Cornwall, UK. SEM imaging indicates that the weathering of mortar and bricks provides a source of cations for efflorescence formation, with grains of more resistant minerals (e.g., quartz) incorporated into the efflorescences. Arsenic does not appear to substitute significantly for S in gypsum but instead is generally hosted in (1) Al, Na, Ca and Fe-bearing arsenate minerals in weathered efflorescences and (2) in small grains of arsenolite in pore spaces within the brickwork, indicating that the bricks are a potentially long-lived source of As. The efflorescences on exposed columns at Ottery also regrow within 12 months after removal, releasing stored arsenic from the brickwork and causing a cyclical degradation of the buildings. Our

  4. Autoradiographic investigation of the removal of non-metallic inclusions in connection with the steel remelting process in vacuum furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaski, H.; Siewierski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled radioactive non-metallic inclusions in steel were obtained through deoxidation of steel with an activated aluminium alloy containing 1% rare earths. Quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions in the steel were determined by applying autoradiography to the longitudinal and cross sections of the steel slabs. After remelting in an electronic furnace the distribution of non-metallic inclusions was determined by autoradiography of the lateral surfaces and the cross section of the slabs. It was found that 50 - 70% of the inclusions could be removed. The results obtained from autoradiographic investigation allow the exploration of the mechanism of the removal of inclusions. (author)

  5. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  6. Robotics for mining control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In 1982 surveys of the mining industry revealed no applications of robotics existed and none were planned. This report provides a general overview of automation in the mining industry since this point in time. Roof control electronics, gas monitoring, jumbo drill automation, remote and sensor- controlled continuous miners, automated trolley trucks, roof bolting and screening machines are examples of technology available today. The report concludes with recommendations as to six potential research areas. 25 refs.

  7. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  8. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  9. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger

  10. Design Criteria for Wireless Mesh Communications in Underground Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kenneth Reed

    2009-01-01

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 was enacted in response to several coal mining accidents that occurred in the beginning of 2006. The MINER Act does not just require underground mines to integrate wireless communication and tracking systems, but aims to overall enhance health and safety in mining at both surface and underground operations. In 2006, the underground communication technologies available to the mining industry had inherent problems that limited ...

  11. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  12. Construction over abandoned mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, P R; Head, J M

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is given for engineers involved with the planning and development of sites previously undermined for coal and other minerals. Past methods of mining employed in Britain are described, and their short- and long-term effects on surface stability are assessed. Where modern methods of mining are relevant, or where structural design techniques for the surface effects of mining can be applied, these are included for illustration and completeness. Additional objectives over and above those for conventional site investigations are identified, and details are provided for the planning and execution of a mining investigation. Techniques for consolidation of old mine workings and remedial measures for mine shafts are described. Foundation design options are included for cases where expected ground movements can be accommodated. A comprehensive guide to sources of information on previous mining is presented, together with an example of a specification suitable for the consolidation of old shallow mine workings. (50 refs.)

  13. Legislative and Regulatory Control for the Safety of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metals Generated from Mining and Mineral Processing Facilities in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohajane, E. P.; Shale, K., E-mail: PEMohajane@nnr.co.za [National Nuclear Regulator, Centurion, Gauteng (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    In South Africa, enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are associated with many mining and industrial processes. Significant amounts of waste materials are involved which can result in radiation exposure of the workers and the public particularly through the diversion of materials into the public domain. The following operations have been regulated in South Africa for the past twenty years: operating metallurgical plants utilizing NORM, underground mining operations, scrap recyclers and smelters, and rehabilitation and remediation activities involving the above sites. The radioactively contaminated scrap metal generated from the above mentioned facilities is available for recycling in amounts of thousands of tons. The South African government has, to a certain extent, responded to the above-mentioned challenges by introducing regulatory controls to the affected industries. The existing regulatory controls have, however, not provided absolute answers to all issues associated with the management of scrap. (author)

  14. Minería de datos sobre streams de redes sociales, una herramienta al servicio de la Bibliotecología = Data Mining Streams of Social Networks, A Tool to Improve The Library Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jaramillo Valbuena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de soporte al trabajo colaborativo son herramientas valiosas en contextos en los cuales se requiere la participación de un grupo de personas para llevar a cabo una determinada tarea. Uno de estos contextos es la Bibliotecología, Archivística y Documentación. Las interacciones entre los usuarios y profesionales de esta área, mediante el uso de herramientas tales como Twitter, Facebook, fuentes RSS y blogs, generan grandes flujos de datos (streams no estructurados. Estos streams pueden ser estudiados para analizar aspectos tales como influencia, relaciones de cercanía, opinión y generación de recomendaciones, logrando de esta forma que las bibliotecas obtengan otros beneficios del uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación. Desde la perspectiva de la minería de datos, el procesamiento de estos streams plantea importantes desafíos. El uso de algoritmos de minería en este contexto, implica que en estos se deban considerar aspectos como la adaptación a la alta velocidad en que llegan los datos, la diversidad de las fuentes de datos y su estructura, la variabilidad de los datos en el tiempo y el trabajo sin restricciones de memoria. Este artículo revisa el estado del arte en lo referente a algoritmos de minería de datos sobre streams originados en redes sociales, específicamente, Facebook y Twitter. Se presenta una revisión de las técnicas más representativas de clasificación y agrupamiento, y de cómo cada una de ellas aporta al descubrimiento de conocimiento en el área de la Bibliotecología. Para concluir se presentan algunos de los problemas que son objeto de investigación activa = The Groupware systems are a valuable source for disseminating information in contexts in which the participation of a group of people is required to perform a task. One such context is the Library, Archives and Documentation. The interactions among users and professionals in this area, who use tools such as Twitter

  15. Revisión de los principales modelos para aplicar técnicas de Minería de Procesos (Review of models for applying process mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Orellana García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract La minería de procesos constituye una alternativa novedosa para mejorar los procesos en una variedad de dominios de aplicación. Tiene como objetivo extraer información a partir de los datos almacenados en los registros de trazas de los sistemas de información, en busca de errores, inconsistencias, vulnerabilidades y variabilidad en los procesos que se ejecutan. Las técnicas de minería de procesos se utilizan en múltiples sectores, como la industria, los servicios web, la inteligencia de negocios y la salud. Sin embargo, para aplicar estas técnicas existen varios modelos a seguir y poca información sobre cual aplicar, al no contar con un análisis comparativo entre estos. La investigación se centró en recopilar información sobre los principales modelos propuestos por autores de referencia mundial en el tema de minería de procesos para aplicar técnicas en el descubrimiento, chequeo de conformidad y mejoramiento de los procesos. Se realiza un análisis de los mismos en función de seleccionar los elementos y características útiles para su aplicación en el entorno hospitalario. La actual investigación contribuye al desarrollo de un modelo para la detección y análisis de variabilidad en procesos hospitalarios utilizando técnicas de minería de procesos. Permite a los investigadores tener de forma centralizada, los criterios para decidir qué modelo utilizar, o qué fases emplear de uno o más modelos. English abstract Process mining is a novel alternative to improve processes in a variety of application domains. It aims to extract information from data stored in records of traces from information systems, looking for errors, inconsistencies, vulnerabilities and variability in processes that are executing. The process mining techniques are used in multiple sectors such as industry, web services, business intelligence and health. However, to apply these techniques there are several models and little information on

  16. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  17. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  18. Investimentos privados, impactos ambientais e qualidade de vida num empreendimento mineral amazônico: o caso da mina de manganês de Serra do Navio (Amapá Private investments, environmental impact, and the quality of life at a mining venture in the Amazon: the case of the Serra do Navio manganese mine in Amapá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Drummond

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute as conseqüências ambientais e socioeconômicas de um grande empreendimento de extração mineral na Amazônia brasileira. Entre 1957 e 1998, a Indústria e Comércio de Minérios S. A. (ICOMI explorou manganês no Amapá, em Serra do Navio, uma das maiores minas desse minério no mundo. Foi o primeiro e o mais durável empreendimento mineral de grande escala e intensivo de capital na região amazônica brasileira. O texto apresenta um perfil biofísico e socioeconômico do Amapá, caracterizando-o como fronteira de expansão da sociedade nacional. Discute o volume da produção, as características da companhia mineradora, mostrando seu sucesso comercial, os principais impactos ambientais do empreendimento, especialmente o desmatamento, o status da qualidade de água e a recuperação ambiental da área minerada, concluindo que esses impactos foram localizados e moderados. Na conclusão, são apresentados os resultados de um exercício de mensuração dos níveis de bem-estar socioeconômico da população do Amapá entre 1953 e 1993: as melhoras foram sensíveis.The text examines the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of a major mining venture in the Brazilian Amazon. From 1957 to 1998, Indústria e Comércio de Minérios S. A. (ICOMI extracted ore from one of the world’s largest manganese mines, located in the Serra do Navio highlands region of the state of Amapá. ICOMI was the first and longest-running large-scale, capital-intensive mining operation in the Brazilian Amazon. Based on a biophysical and socioeconomic profile of Amapá, the region is characterized as a frontier for an expanding Brazilian society. After discussing the mining company’s characteristics, its production volume and commercial success, main environmental impacts (particularly deforestation, area water quality, and the environmental recovery of the mined area, it is concluded that impacts have been localized and moderate. Furthermore

  19. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... occurred during the miner's absence and that could adversely affect the miner's health or safety. (1) A... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING...

  20. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  1. African mining '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second 'African Mining' conference was held in June 1991, and followed the first event held in May 1987. That full four-year period was characterized by substantial changes in the political and economic climate of many countries in both hemispheres. The results of many of these changing facets of our industry are described in the papers in African Mining'91. Many of the papers deal with advances in technology, which is the main reason for the meeting. There are 37 papers under the headings general, mining, metallurgy and geology and exploration. Most papers are concerned with gold, copper and mineral mining. One paper concerning uranium mining operations in Namibia is indexed separately. (author)

  2. Recovery of drinking water and valuable minerals from acid mine drainage using an integration of magnesite, lime, soda ash, CO(sub)2 and reverse osmosis treatment processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available that drinking water, metals, gypsum, hydrated lime/limestone were recovered from the treatment process as valuable resources. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Morphological properties of initial and recovered minerals...

  3. Trace element geochemistry of self-burning and weathering of a mineralized coal waste dump: The Novátor mine, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříbek, B.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Veselovský, F.; Laufek, F.; Malec, J.; Knésl, I.; Majer, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, MAR 15 (2017), s. 158-175 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11674S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : coal wastes * organic matter * uranium * mineralization * self-heating * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  4. Special survey: mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, H.

    1981-01-01

    South Africa is now the world's second biggest producer of non-oil minerals after the United States and far ahead of Canada and Australia, according to the author. South Africa's economic growth prospects over the 1980's are inevitably crucially dependent on the mining industry. The production and economics of various minerals are discussed, with special reference to gold, coal, diamonds, uranium, platinum, manganese, copper and asbestos

  5. 30 CFR 49.17 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.17 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member of a mine rescue team shall be examined annually by a...

  6. Performance simulation of serpentine type metallic and non-metallic solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sageer, A. A. M.; Alowa, M. I.; Saad, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of metallic and non-metalic solar water collector models for evaluating its performane parameters. The determined parameters include heat removal factor , overall heat loss coefficients, heat gain, daily and hourly efficiencies. The present study reports that, under forced circulation lest, the non-metallic collector has an inferior performance parameters when compared to that of the metallic one. It was also revealed that the overall heat loss coefficients of both collectors show weak dependence on the flow rate variations. It was also noticed that the heat removal factor forboth models is more sensitive to the flow rate variations. Also noticed that the heat removal factor for both models is more sensitive to the flow rate variations. Also, a comparision of performance parameters of the theoretical and experimental studies showed good agreements for most hours of the day, except the results obtained at the early morning and late after noon hours.(Author)

  7. Computer Simulation of the Formation of Non-Metallic Precipitates During a Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors own computer software, based on the Ueshima mathematical model with taking into account the back diffusion, determined from the Wołczyński equation, was developed for simulation calculations. The applied calculation procedure allowed to determine the chemical composition of the non-metallic phase in steel deoxidised by means of Mn, Si and Al, at the given cooling rate. The calculation results were confirmed by the analysis of samples taken from the determined areas of the cast ingot. This indicates that the developed computer software can be applied for designing the steel casting process of the strictly determined chemical composition and for obtaining the required non-metallic precipitates.

  8. Influence of crystallization conditions on formation and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The processes were studied of the formation and the distribution of nonmetallic inclusions and the chemical inhomogeneity formation during the solidification of h steel. The variation of the character of oxides and sulfides across ingots was shown by considering st 25 and 20 Kh steels. To improve the distribution of inclusions and the stability of properties throughout the body of ingots, it is recommended to throughly deoxidize the metal, to raise the rate of solidification, to reduce the temperature gradient, to employ powder cooling agents, to use casting under a blanket of slag, to modify steel by active elements (r.e.e., Ca, Ba, Zr, B) which affect favourably the nature and the shape of the nonmetallic phase

  9. Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Janis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.

  10. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  11. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING...

  12. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section 785.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  13. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS...

  14. 30 CFR 819.11 - Auger mining: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: General. 819.11 Section 819.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819...

  15. The Method of Manufacturing Nonmetallic Test-Blocks on Different Sensitivity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, N. P.; Kalinichenko, A. N.; Lobanova, I. S.; Zaitseva, A. A.; Loboda, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in our modern world there is a vital question of quality control of details made from nonmetallic materials due to their wide spreading. Nondestructive penetrant testing is effective, and in some cases it is the only possible method of accidents prevention at high- risk sites. A brief review of check sample necessary for quality evaluation of penetrant materials is considered. There was offered a way of making agents for quality of penetrant materials testing according to different liquid penetrant testing sensibility classes.

  16. Non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Lawrence; Morello, Salvatore; Balistreri, Francesco; D'Arienzo, Antonio; D'Arienzo, Michele

    2016-08-01

    Despite good clinical outcome proposals, there has been relatively little published regarding the use of non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation. The purpose of the study was to perform a systematic literature review to summarize and evaluate the clinical studies that described techniques for treating patella fractures using non-metallic implants. A comprehensive literature search was systematically performed to evaluate all studies included in the literature until November 2015. The following search terms were used: patellar fracture, patella suture, patella absorbable, patella screw, patella cerclage. Two investigators independently reviewed all abstracts and the selection of these abstracts was then performed based on inclusion and/or exclusion criteria. A total of 9 studies involving 123 patients were included. Patients had a mean age of 33.7 years and were followed up for a mean of 18.9 months. The most common method for fracture fixations included the use of suture material. Good clinical outcomes were reported among all studies. Thirteen patients (10.5%) presented complications, while 4 patients (3.2%) required additional surgery for implant removal. There is a paucity of literature focused on the use of non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation. However, this systematic review showed that non-metallic implants are able to deliver good clinical outcomes reducing the rate of surgical complications and re-operation. These results may assist surgeons in choosing to use alternative material such as sutures to incorporate into their routine practice or to consider it, in order to reduce the rate of re-operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Formation of non-metallic inclusions and the possibility of their removal during ingot casting

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnarsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of non-metallic inclusions during ingot casting. Emphasize have been on understanding the types of inclusions formed and developed through the casting process and on the development of already existing inclusions carried over from the ladle during casting. Industrial experiments carried on at Uddeholm Tooling together with laboratory work and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Ingots of 5.8 tons have bee...

  18. Formation and Chemical Development of Non-metallic Inclusions in Ladle Treatment of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate theformation and chemical development of non-metallic inclusionsduring ladle treatment of steel. To begin with, an investigation of the deoxidation processand the impact of aluminium addition was carried out. For thispurpose, a new experimental setup was constructed. The setupallowed the examination of the deoxidation process as afunction of time by using a quenching technique. Preliminaryexperiments showed that homogeneous nucleation of alumin...

  19. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - the TPRC Data Series. Volume 13. Thermal Expansion - Nonmetallic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    topography of the state of knowledge on the thermal expansion of nonmetallic solids. We believe there is also much food for reflec- West Lafayette...34 Lithium Silicates ......... 713 209 Magnesium Metasilicate MgSiO. .. ......... 715 210 Magnesium Orthosilicate Mg2 SiO . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 211...Antiferromagnetism of Praseodymium," Phys. Rev. Letters, 12(20), 553-5, 1964. 66. Goode, J.M., "Phase Transition Temperature of Polonium ,"J. Chem. Phys., 26(5), 1269

  20. Colombian mining legislation; Legislacion minera colombiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-07-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001.

  1. Technological challenges for manganese nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    The major technological challenges of deep-sea mining venture involve delineation of mine site and development of mining technology to bring out the minerals from extreme conditions (more than 5 km water depth, 0-3 degrees C temperature and 500 bars...

  2. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    The areas covered by this report lies in the eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes in the region around Bucaramanga. This part of the eastern Cordillera consists of a structurally complex core of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian to Mesozoic age, flanked to east and west by faulted and folded sedimentary strata of late Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Infaulted blocks of sedimentary rocks are locally present in the massif. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, primarily terraced alluvium, are 10cally extensive in valleys on the flanks of the range. The crystalline central core of the range is called the Santander massif. In it are located the principal sold deposits and scattered deposits of copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The sedimentary rocks flanking the massif contain significant deposits of phosphate rock and gypsum, as well as other nonmetallic industrial minerals such as limestone, barite, glass sand, and coal. A belt of lead-zinc prospects in carbonate and sandstone beds of Cretaceous age on the east side of the range warrants further investigation. Gold and silver are the only important metallic minerals that have been produced in the Santander massif. Mining dates back to colonial and possibly to pre-colonial times and continues on a small scale at present. The California and Vetas district was the main area of investigation of metallic minerals during the present project. Results of geochemical sampling of stream sediments and assays of vein material indicate that the main potential of the area is in gold with lesser potentials in copper, lead, zinc, and silver. Mineralization of the district is probably younger than Early Cretaceous. Although no copper minerals have been mined elsewhere in the massif, small amounts of copper minerals in various rocks in scattered areas is revealed by green and blue stains of copper carbonates and sulfates. Deposits of greatest areal extent are in arkosic conglomeratic beds of the Giron Formation. These

  3. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  4. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    M?Sadoques, George; Carra, Michael; Beringer, Woody

    2012-01-01

    Electric motors that run in pure oxygen must be sealed, or "canned," for safety reasons to prevent the oxygen from entering into the electrical portion of the motor. The current canning process involves designing a metallic barrier around the rotor to provide the separation. This metallic barrier reduces the motor efficiency as speed is increased. In higher-speed electric motors, efficiency is greatly improved if a very thin, nonmetallic barrier can be utilized. The barrier thickness needs to be approximately 0.025-in. (.0.6-mm) thick and can be made of a brittle material such as glass. The motors, however, designed for space applications are typically subject to high-vibration environments. A fragile, non-metallic barrier can be utilized in a motor assembly if held in place by a set of standard rubber O-ring seals. The O-rings provide the necessary sealing to keep oxygen away from the electrical portion of the motor and also isolate the fragile barrier from the harsh motor vibration environment. The compliance of the rubber O-rings gently constrains the fragile barrier and isolates it from the harsh external motor environment. The use of a non-metallic barrier greatly improves motor performance, especially at higher speeds, while isolating the electronics from the working fluid with an inert liner.

  5. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  6. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  7. 12th US/North American mine ventilation symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, K.G. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered include: ventilation planning for metal/non-metal and coal mines, spontaneous combustion, heat and humidity, miner's act and mine seals, numerical modeling, coal mine methane, mine dust, tunnel ventilation, mine fans, diesel emissions control, mine fires, and general ventilation design and monitoring. The papers, talks and presentations are available for free download from the www.smenet.org site; printed copies of the proceedings are no longer available.

  8. Mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, S

    1986-01-01

    Statistics are given on: 1) Australian dependence on imported raw materials in 1980; 2) production levels in the different mining fields in 1981; 3) trends in the production of minerals over the years 1961-1981. The role of the mining industry in the Australian economy is outlined, and brief details given of its structure. Further statistics are given regarding trends in the production of coal, iron, salt, lead and zinc during the period 1961-1981, together with details of the number of people employed in these industries. Operations at some of the principal mines (coal, iron ore and salt) are outlined and 1983 production figures for all mineral resources are given. 18 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Subsidies to the decommissioning of the first uranium mining and processing plant in Brazil - the case of the mineral industrial complex in Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Horst Richard Sebastian Monken

    1997-01-01

    The closure of an uranium mining and milling facility has the potential to cause risks (radiological and non-radiological) to the human health and to the environment as a whole; these risks may be incurred in the short as well in the long terms. The present work took the mining and milling facility of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais - as a study case. The following aspects were covered by the work: analysis of the impacts associated to the facility operation; assessment of the geological processes involved in the mobilization of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants from the main sources of these pollutants in the environment - the waste rock piles and the tailings dam; quantification of the resulting impacts associated to the emission of pollutants into the environment in future scenarios and establishment of remedial actions taking into account the risk reduction and the association costs. The main aspects arising from the study were: the wastes in the tailings dam are stratified in relation to metal and radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 210 Pb and 226 Ra. The stratification is caused by the oxidation of the residual pyrite in the tailings, and is also related to metal and radionuclide concentrations in seepage water being higher in the upper zone and lower in the deeper zones. Sulfate anion was the only pollutant present in the seepage water to be detected in the groundwater below the tailings dam. Mathematical simulations taking into account the rest of the potential pollutants indicated the probability of groundwater contamination after 800 years. Direct liquid effluent releases into superficial waters are associated with a dose of about 8.0 mSv/y (conservative scenario) and less than 0.62 mSv/y (non-conservative scenario). If houses are built over the tailings, doses as high as 40 mSv/y and 8.0 mSv/y are to expected due to the Rn exhalation and external gamma respectively. Finally, covering the tailings dam with a clay layer 1.0 m thick

  10. Overview of the Malaysian mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, A.R.B. (Department of Mines (Malaysia))

    1992-08-01

    The article describes the status of the mining industry in Malaysia. Tin dominated the industry until a price fall caused closure of many mines in 1987-1990. Other minerals mined include copper, gold, iron ore, bauxite, barite, kaolin, limestone, clays, sand and gravel. Coal production in Malaysia resumed when an opencast mine was opened in July 1988 in Sarawak. Another started operation in early 1989 by the underground method. At the end of 1990 there was a total of 53 exploration rights granted for gold, coal, base metals and industrial minerals. A few coalfields have been identified. Generally the industry has suffered a decline because of lack of new investment. 1 fig.

  11. 77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... Using accurate, up-to-date maps during a disaster, mine emergency personnel can locate where miners may... coal mine inspectors, miners and their representatives, operators of adjacent coal mines, and persons... are essential to the planning and safe operation of the mine. In addition, these maps provide a...

  12. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§ 816.41...

  13. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  14. 30 CFR 70.207 - Bimonthly sampling; mechanized mining units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; mechanized mining units. 70... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.207 Bimonthly sampling; mechanized mining units. (a) Each operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples...

  15. Wireless communication, tracking in mines topic of symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In response to the call for increased mine safety and improved underground communications in the wake of recent mining fatalities, the Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research at Virginia Tech is cooperating with the Virginia Department of Mines Minerals and Energy to offer a Symposium on the Capabilities and Availability of Wireless Communication and Tracking Systems for Underground Coal Mines.

  16. 30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of main mine fans. 75.310 Section... mine fans. (a) Each main mine fan shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in an incombustible housing... that gives a signal at the mine when the fan either slows or stops. A responsible person designated by...

  17. 30 CFR 75.215 - Longwall mining systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longwall mining systems. 75.215 Section 75.215... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.215 Longwall mining systems. For each longwall mining section, the roof control plan shall specify— (a) The methods that will be used to maintain...

  18. 30 CFR 819.13 - Auger mining: Coal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Coal recovery. 819.13 Section 819....13 Auger mining: Coal recovery. (a) Auger mining shall be conducted so as to maximize the utilization and conservation of the coal in accordance with § 816.59 of this chapter. (b) Auger mining shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine waste...

  20. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine waste...

  1. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  2. 30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84... ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of § 817.81...

  3. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated by...

  4. 1998 mines and quarries guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 edition of the mines and quarries guidebook provides: a comprehensive overview of mining activities in France and French-speaking countries relative to coal, uranium, non-ferrous ores and metals, industrial minerals, lime, limestone, silica, cermet and saline minerals; a list of recycling companies; a list of quarries and building material exploitations (organisational structure of main companies, granulates, cement industry, gypsum, plaster, tiles, bricks, stones..); a list and coordinates by department of more than 1400 quarries with the material exploited; an inventory of mining exploitations of Belgium, Switzerland and French speaking countries of Africa, a listing and organisational structure of research and engineering centres and administrations; an alphabetical and analytical repertory of more than 700 supplying companies of the mineral industry; and the status, organization and members of the mineral industry society. (J.S.)

  5. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  6. Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  7. Uranium mines of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A; Gusakov, E.G.; Marushenko, A.A.; Botov, A.Yu.; Yunusov, M.M.

    2002-12-01

    The book describes location laws, the main properties of geological structure and industrial perspectives for known uranium mines of the Republic of Tajikistan. Used methods of industrial processing of uranium mines are described. The results of investigations of technological properties of main types of uranium ores and methods of industrial processing of some of them are shown. Main properties of uranium are shortly described as well as problems, connected with it, which arise during exploitation, mining and processing of uranium ores. The main methods of solution of these problems are shown. The book has interest for specialists of mining, geological, chemical, and technological fields as well as for students of appropriate universities. This book will be interested for usual reader, too, if they are interested in mineral resources of their country [ru

  8. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  9. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  10. Applications of Geomatics in Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Milczarek, Wojciech; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    In terms of method of extracting mineral from deposit, mining can be classified into: surface, underground, and borehole mining. Surface mining is a form of mining, in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. Types of surface mining include mainly strip and open-cast methods, as well as quarrying. Tasks associated with surface mining of minerals include: resource estimation and deposit documentation, mine planning and deposit access, mine plant development, extraction of minerals from deposits, mineral and waste processing, reclamation and reclamation of former mining grounds. At each stage of mining, geodata describing changes occurring in space during the entire life cycle of surface mining project should be taken into consideration, i.e. collected, analysed, processed, examined, distributed. These data result from direct (e.g. geodetic) and indirect (i.e. remote or relative) measurements and observations including airborne and satellite methods, geotechnical, geological and hydrogeological data, and data from other types of sensors, e.g. located on mining equipment and infrastructure, mine plans and maps. Management of such vast sources and sets of geodata, as well as information resulting from processing, integrated analysis and examining such data can be facilitated with geomatic solutions. Geomatics is a discipline of gathering, processing, interpreting, storing and delivering spatially referenced information. Thus, geomatics integrates methods and technologies used for collecting, management, processing, visualizing and distributing spatial data. In other words, its meaning covers practically every method and tool from spatial data acquisition to distribution. In this work examples of application of geomatic solutions in surface mining on representative case studies in various stages of mine operation have been presented. These applications include: prospecting and documenting mineral deposits, assessment of land accessibility

  11. Byrudite, (Be,□)(V3+,Ti)3O6, a new mineral from the Byrud emerald mine, South Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raade, Gunnar; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Stanley, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Byrudite (IMA 2013-045, Raade et al., 2013), with simplified formula (Be,◊)V3+,Ti)3O6, occurs in emerald-bearing syenitic pegmatites of Permian age at Byrud farm, Eidsvoll, Akershus, South Norway. It has a norbergite-type structure, Pnma, with a = 9.982(1), b = 8.502(1), c = 4.5480(6) Å, V = 385...... of the crystal used for structure determination gave the empirical formula (Be0.84◊0.16)(V3+1.32Ti1.25Cr0.29Fe0.09Al0.07)Σ3.02O6. There is a strong inverse correlation between V and Cr. The ideal endmember formula is BeV3+2TiO6. The mineral is black and opaque with a metallic lustre. Reflectance data in air...

  12. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  13. Individual analysis of nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel by using the gallium focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Inami, Akihiro; Abe, Masakazu; Nihei, Yoshimasa.

    1995-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions frequently exert a lot of unfavorable influences on the quality of steel. The size of nonmetallic inclusions in current steel products is less than a few μm in diameter. It is desirable to make clear the origin and generation process of such small particles of nonmetallic inclusion. In order to measure the shape, size, composition and inner elemental distribution, development of characterization methods for each inclusion particle is required. By employing a gallium focused ion beam (FIB) as a primary ion beam of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the particle analysis with high spatial resolution is easily achieved. In this paper, we present the novel individual analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel by gallium FIB SIMS. We analyzed in two ways the nonmetallic inclusion particles segregated by electron beam melting. (1) By cross-sectioning of the particle using a gallium FIB, elemental maps of cross-section were obtained. The elements were distributed inhomogeneously on the cross-section. (2) We carried out the compositional analysis for several particles individually. Ten particles were analyzed by the shave-off analysis and the multivariate cluster analysis. Based on the composition of each particle, the inclusions were classified into six types. (author)

  14. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  15. Mining and its effects on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, J.

    1996-01-01

    The article advocates mineral resource mining against fierce environmentalists who can see only the adverse aspects of this branch of industry. The following concepts are argued against: endangerment and permanent disturbance of the environment due to the mining and processing of mineral raw materials; excessive exploitation and selling-out of Czech national mineral resources; and inefficiency of administrative tools to protect Czech mineral resources and environment. It is concluded that mineral raw materials mining does not endanger the environment more than other anthropogenic activities do. Mining on its own is not responsible for the current poor condition of the environment in the Czech Republic, nor is it a source of permanent disturbance of the environment, as often unjustly claimed. The permanently sustainable development programme, referred to in the Environmental Protection Act, should only mitigate some adverse aspects of anthropogenic activities but is not expected to eliminate them altogether because this would imply elimination of their inflicter as such. (P.A.)

  16. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  17. Study on Evaluation Index System of Green mine construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, xin; Yang, JunJie; Yan, Hongcai; Cao, Hongjun

    2017-11-01

    Green mine is a new and science comprehensive construction mode of mine, which runs the concept of green development through the whole process of mineral resources development and utilization, promotes the transformation and upgrading of mineral enterprises and achieves the healthy and sustainable development of mining industry. This paper is based on “the basic conditions of national green mine”, combined with the current situation of green mine construction, constructing green mine construction evaluation index system which is divided into five areas, including management, comprehensive utilization of mineral resources. technological innovation. ecological environment and cultural construction.

  18. New technology for recovering residual metals from nonmetallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; He, Yaqun; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Xing; Xia, Wencheng

    2017-06-01

    Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is important for environmental protection and sustainable resource utilization. Corona electrostatic separation has been widely used to recycle metals from waste printed circuit boards, but it has poor separation efficiency for finer sized fractions. In this study, a new process of vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed was used to recycle residual metals from nonmetallic fractions, which were treated using the corona electrostatic separation technology. The effects of three main parameters, i.e., vibration frequency, superficial air flow velocity, and fluidizing time on gravity segregation, were investigated using a vibrating gas-solid fluidized bed. Each size fraction had its own optimum parameters. Corresponding to their optimal segregation performance, the products from each experiment were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). From the results, it can be seen that the metal recoveries of -1+0.5mm, -0.5+0.25mm, and -0.25mm size fractions were 86.39%, 82.22% and 76.63%, respectively. After separation, each metal content in the -1+0.5 or -0.5+0.25mm size fraction reduced to 1% or less, while the Fe and Cu contents are up to 2.57% and 1.50%, respectively, in the -0.25mm size fraction. Images of the nonmetallic fractions with a size of -0.25mm indicated that a considerable amount of clavate glass fibers existed in these nonmetallic fractions, which may explain why fine particles had the poorest segregation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  20. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  1. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  2. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C.; Meisser, N.

    1998-01-01

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  3. Measurement of Poisson's ratio of nonmetallic materials by laser holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian T.

    1991-12-01

    By means of the off-axis collimated plane wave coherent light arrangement and a loading device by pure bending, Poisson's ratio values of CFRP (carbon fiber-reinforced plactics plates, lay-up 0 degree(s), 90 degree(s)), GFRP (glass fiber-reinforced plactics plates, radial direction) and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate, x, y direction) have been measured. In virtue of this study, the ministry standard for the Ministry of Aeronautical Industry (Testing method for the measurement of Poisson's ratio of non-metallic by laser holographic interferometry) has been published. The measurement process is fast and simple. The measuring results are reliable and accurate.

  4. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Without Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury-free techniques are safer for miners, their families and local communities. They can also help miners qualify for certification under fair-mined standards, potentially allowing them to market their gold at higher prices.

  6. Australian mining yearbook 79/80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barret, P [ed.

    1980-01-01

    The present state of affairs in mining the following metals and minerals is described: aluminium, coal, diamonds, iron ore, lead and zinc, mineral sands, oil and gas, oil shale, tin, and uranium. Equipment, finance, mining methods, resources, safety, and taxation are all discussed. Then there is a directory of mining companies and directors, a Who's Who, and a buyers guide consisting of a product index and a suppliers index. Lists of consultants, drilling contractors, ore buyers, mining industry and research organisations and government departments are also given.

  7. Inhalation hazards to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    Massive radon-daughter exposures to miners have caused lung cancer for centuries. Exposures in US uranium mines have been regulated for 15 years and, during this time, relatively few miners have been exposed to over 4 WLM year. Present trends are toward lower annual exposures and shorter working lives. The net effect has been to hold cumulative lifetime exposures well below the level at which statistically significant excess risk has been shown

  8. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future (CARs&FOF 2011) 26-28 July 2-11, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Mining Robotics Sensors Perception Sensors on a Mine Safety Platform Green JJ1, Hlophe K2, Dickens J3, Teleka R4, Mathew Price5...-28 July 2-11, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia visualization in confined, lightless environments, and thermography for assessing the safety and stability of hanging walls. Over the last decade approximately 200 miners have lost their lives per year in South...

  9. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan examinations and records. 75.312... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.312 Main mine fan examinations and records. (a) To assure electrical and mechanical reliability of main mine fans, each main mine...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1708 - Safety program; instruction of persons employed at the mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at the mine. 77.1708 Section 77.1708 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1708 Safety program; instruction of persons...

  11. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On mining...

  13. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  15. Application of the quantitative autoradiography for determination of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, J.T.; Wilczynski, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions, i.e. the knowledge of the content of the radiotracer in a single inclusion, allows to obtain new information about the mechanism and the kinetics of steel deoxidation. In order to determine this specific activity quantitative autoradiography was used. Fo; this purpose, various standards of aluminium oxides with different amounts of cerium oxide Ce 2 O 3 and an aluminium-cerium alloy were prepared. The standards and the alloy were activated with thermal neutrons. Then several autoradiographs were made for these standards (ORWO AF-3 films were used). The autoradiographs served as the basis for evaluation of the standardization curves: optical density versus dimension of particles for a constant cerium concentration; optical density versus concentration of cerium for a constant dimension of particle. The samples of liquid steel were deoxidated with Al-Ce alloy. After labelled non-metallic inclusions had been isolated, the autoradiographs were made under the same conditions as for the standards. The standardization curves were used to determine the cerium content in the single inclusions. (author)

  16. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  17. Influence of refining time on nonmetallic inclusions in a low-carbon, silicon-killed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marcolino; Pires, Jose Carlos; Cheung, Noe; Garcia, Amauri

    2003-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions are harmful to the mechanical properties of every kind of steel produced worldwide. The greater the size of the inclusion present in the structure of a determined kind of steel, the greater its negative effect on the quality of the steel. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the size, the quantity, the shape and the chemical composition of nonmetallic inclusions formed throughout the refining process of silicon-killed, low-carbon steel, as a function of the treatment time in a ladle furnace, trying to ensure the flotation of inclusions bigger than 25 μm. This investigation was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), with an analysis system using energy dispersive spectometry (EDS). Based on this work, it was possible to know more precisely the nature of the inclusions, the necessary time to ensure flotation of large inclusions, the efficiency of the slag to capture the inclusions, and the inclusion level of the steel throughout its refining process to try to obtain a higher quality steel product

  18. Standard practice for extreme value analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel and other microstructural features

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a methodology to statistically characterize the distribution of the largest indigenous nonmetallic inclusions in steel specimens based upon quantitative metallographic measurements. The practice is not suitable for assessing exogenous inclusions. 1.2 Based upon the statistical analysis, the nonmetallic content of different lots of steels can be compared. 1.3 This practice deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability. 1.4 The measured values are stated in SI units. For measurements obtained from light microscopy, linear feature parameters shall be reported as micrometers, and feature areas shall be reported as micrometers. 1.5 The methodology can be extended to other materials and to other microstructural features. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish app...

  19. Hydrothermal modification and recycling of nonmetallic particles from waste print circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuehua; Li, Qisheng; Qiu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Nonmetallic particles recycled from waste print circuit boards (NPRPs) were modified by a hydrothermal treatment method and the catalysts, solvents, temperature and time were investigated, which affected the modification effect of NPRPs. The mild hydrothermal treatment method does not need high temperature, and would not cause secondary pollution. Further, the modified NPRPs were used as the raw materials for the epoxy resin and glass fibers/epoxy resin composites, which were prepared by pouring and hot-pressing method. The mechanical properties and morphology of the composites were discussed. The results showed that relative intensity of the hydroxyl bonds on the surface of NPRPs increased 58.9% after modification. The mechanical tests revealed that both flexural and impact properties of the composites can be significantly improved by adding the modified NPRPs. Particularly, the maximum increment of flexural strength, flexural modulus and impact strength of the epoxy matrix composites with 30% modified NPRPs is 40.1%, 80.0% and 79.0%, respectively. Hydrothermal treatment can modify surface of NPRPs successfully and modified NPRPs can not only improve the properties of the composites, but also reduce the production cost of the composites and environmental pollution. Thus, we develop a new way to recycle nonmetallic materials of waste print circuit boards and the highest level of waste material recycling with the raw materials-products-raw materials closed cycle can be realized through the hydrothermal modification and reuse of NPRPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  1. Automated Classification and Analysis of Non-metallic Inclusion Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Mohammad; Zhang, Tongsheng; Tan, Jia; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to utilize principal component analysis (PCA), clustering methods, and correlation analysis to condense and examine large, multivariate data sets produced from automated analysis of non-metallic inclusions. Non-metallic inclusions play a major role in defining the properties of steel and their examination has been greatly aided by automated analysis in scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The methods were applied to analyze inclusions on two sets of samples: two laboratory-scale samples and four industrial samples from a near-finished 4140 alloy steel components with varying machinability. The laboratory samples had well-defined inclusions chemistries, composed of MgO-Al2O3-CaO, spinel (MgO-Al2O3), and calcium aluminate inclusions. The industrial samples contained MnS inclusions as well as (Ca,Mn)S + calcium aluminate oxide inclusions. PCA could be used to reduce inclusion chemistry variables to a 2D plot, which revealed inclusion chemistry groupings in the samples. Clustering methods were used to automatically classify inclusion chemistry measurements into groups, i.e., no user-defined rules were required.

  2. Evaluation of Accelerated Ageing Tests for Metallic and Non-Metallic Graffiti Paints Applied to Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sanmartín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, different methods (gravimetric analysis, examination of digital images, colour and infrared measurements were used to evaluate the performance of accelerated ageing tests (involving exposure to humidity, freeze-thawing cycles and NaCl and Na2SO4 salts for graffiti painted on stone. Silver (metallic and black (non-metallic graffiti spray paints were applied to two types of igneous rock (granite and rhyolitic ignimbrite and one sedimentary rock (fossiliferous limestone, i.e., biocalcarenite. The metallic and non-metallic graffiti spray paints acted differently on the stone surfaces, both chemically and physically. Older graffiti were found to be more vulnerable to weathering agents. The ageing test with NaCl and particularly Na2SO4, both applied to granite, proved the most severe on the paints, yielding more detrimental and faster artificial ageing of the type of material under study.

  3. Environment of ore deposition in the creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part V. Epithermal mineralization from fluid mixing in the OH vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed fluid inclusion studies on coarse-grained sphalerite from the OH vein, Creede, Colorado, have shown that the abrupt color changes between growth zones correspond to abrupt changes in the nature of the ore fluids. Within each growth zone, however, the composition of the fluids remained constant. The base of a distinctive orange-brown growth zone marks a sharp increase in both temperature and salinity relative to the preceding yellow-white zone. The orange-brown growth zone can be correlated along much of the vein and is believed to represent a time-stratigraphic interval. Along the vein, temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions within this interval show a systematic decrease from about 285??C and 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv near the base of the vein to about 250??C and 8 wt percent NaCl equiv, respectively, near the top of the vein. The iron concentration of this sphalerite growth zone shows a similar pattern, decreasing from about 2.8 to 1.2 mole percent FeS. When plotted on an enthalpy-salinity diagram, the fluid inclusion data define a spatial trend indicating the progressive mixing of deeply circulating hydrothermal brines with overlying, dilute ground waters. The hydrothermal brines entered the OH vein from below at a temperature, salinity, and density of approximately 285??C, 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv, and 860 kg/m3, respectively, whereas the overlying ground waters appear to have been preheated to roughly 150??C and had an assumed salinity of 0 wt percent and a density of 920 kg/m3. The greater density of the heated ground water promoted mixing with the hydrothermal brine within the open fractures, causing sphalerite deposition. Although there were also episodes of boiling during vein mineralization, boiling appears unimportant for this sphalerite. Isotopic evidence and geochemical modeling studies also indicate that mixing was the depositional mechanism for sphalerite. An important aspect of the mixing hydrology of the Creede system involves

  4. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  5. Environmental association of iron minerals and iron concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental association of iron (Fe) minerals and Fe concentrations in soils close to the Kgwakgwe Mn oxide ore abandoned mine, Botswana are investigated in this study. Four hundred soil samples were obtained from a 4 km2 area close to the abandoned mine. The Fe minerals in the soil samples were identified by ...

  6. Pedestrian detection for underground mine vehicles using thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available , ?Proximity detection,? August 2010. [On- line]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/topics/ topicpage58.htm [4] P. Laliberte?, ?Summary study of underground commu- nications technologies,? CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories, Tech. Rep... Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 127?134, May 2001. [12] W. M. Marx and R. M. Franz, ?Determine appropriate criteria for acceptable environmental conditions,? CSIR: Division of Mining Technology, DeepMine Research Task 6...

  7. Tanzania. A developing mining country; Tansania. Bergbauland im Aufbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Wirtschaftsgeologie der mineralischen Rohstoffe

    2009-03-19

    Tanzania is the rising country in East Africa, to which not least of all the booming mining sector contributes. Many large gold mines, two precious stone mines, three cement works and smaller facilities for extraction of salt, phosphates, gypsum, pozzolana, coal and coloured gemstones currently characterise the mining sector. The high mineral potential of the country combined with the mining legislation favouring investment will also lead in future to the development of further deposits in particular, nickel, gold, coal and graphite. (orig.)

  8. Robots in mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ? • FOG – Fall of ground • Who is at risk? • What is the cost of incident? • What can we do about it? The Robot Potential • Technology • Conclusion © CSIR 2010 Slide 3 Yes Robots can improve mine safety Robot patrols unoccupied areas Generates a... risk map Additional tool Inform miners in making safe © CSIR 2010 Slide 4 Miner Safety Statistics • from DME (2010/03) • March 2010 • 490 000 employed • 400 000 suppliers1 • 9 died, 7 in rockfall incidents 2 • Prior year- March 2010 • 152...

  9. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals Inventory) are the basis for some reserves and reserve base estimates. The USGS collects information about the quantity and quality of mineral resources but does not directly measure reserves, and companies or governments do not directly report reserves or reserve base to the USGS. Reassessment of reserves and reserve base is a continuing process, and the intensity of this process differs for mineral commodities, countries, and time period. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. A resource/reserve classification for minerals, based on USGS Circular 831 (published with the U.S. Bureau of Mines) is Appendix C, and a directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2009 are welcomed.

  10. The liability of historical mine authorization holders for rehabilitation / Suzette Hartzer

    OpenAIRE

    Hartzer, Suzette

    2009-01-01

    Historically, irresponsible mining companies have escaped their duty to rehabilitate. The Mineral Petroleum Resources Development Act does not oblige mining companies to rehabilitate if their operations ceased before the Minerals Act came into force. In the court case De Beers Consolidated Mines v Ataqua Mining (Pty) Ltd and others 2006 1 SA 432 (T), the court held that the Mineral Petroleum Resources Development Act is not applicable to tailings dumps that were created thro...

  11. Mining with microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings., D.E.; Silver, S.

    1995-01-01

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

  12. The Bitcoin Mining Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Houy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mining incentives in the Bitcoin protocol. The mining process is used to confirm and secure transactions. This process is organized as a speed game between individuals or firms – the miners – with different computational powers to solve a mathematical problem, bring a proof of work, spread their solution and reach consensus among the Bitcoin network nodes with it. First, we define and specify this game. Second, we analytically find its Nash equilibria in the two-player case. We analyze the parameters for which the miners would face the proper incentives to fulfill their function of transaction processors in the current situation. Finally, we study the block space market offer.

  13. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  14. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  15. Health in uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Safety in mining radioactive ores, and in milling and treating them, has been a serious preoccupation for some thirty years. Much earlier than this, however, a high incidence of lung cancer had been reported among the miners of the Erzgebirge mountains in the German-Czechoslovak border region (places familiar under the names of Schneeberg and St. Joachims thai). Investigations into deaths from radium poisoning began at these mines in 1937, and the results seemed to indicate a causal connection between the radioactive substances and the development of lung cancer and other diseases. These matters were discussed in Vienna at the symposium on Radiological Health and Safety in Nuclear Materials Mining and Milling, 26-31 August 1963. The symposium was organized by IAEA and co-sponsored by ILO and WHO; some 70 papers were presented. The purpose of the meeting was to collect and compare the very widely scattered research results and practical experience in this field. One conclusion which emerged was that the milling of uranium ore involves no unusual problem. Provided standard controls - as applied to the treatment of other minerals - are strictly enforced, exposure to radiation can be kept to a minimum. In the actual mining of uranium, the problems are only beginning to be clearly defined, but it seems to be well established that exposure of miners to excessive levels of radon will have most serious consequences. In a complicated pattern there are many factors at work, ranging from the physical behaviour of sundry radioactive substances to the personal histories of individual miners. The need for considerably more research was stressed throughout the discussions.

  16. Health in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Safety in mining radioactive ores, and in milling and treating them, has been a serious preoccupation for some thirty years. Much earlier than this, however, a high incidence of lung cancer had been reported among the miners of the Erzgebirge mountains in the German-Czechoslovak border region (places familiar under the names of Schneeberg and St. Joachims thai). Investigations into deaths from radium poisoning began at these mines in 1937, and the results seemed to indicate a causal connection between the radioactive substances and the development of lung cancer and other diseases. These matters were discussed in Vienna at the symposium on Radiological Health and Safety in Nuclear Materials Mining and Milling, 26-31 August 1963. The symposium was organized by IAEA and co-sponsored by ILO and WHO; some 70 papers were presented. The purpose of the meeting was to collect and compare the very widely scattered research results and practical experience in this field. One conclusion which emerged was that the milling of uranium ore involves no unusual problem. Provided standard controls - as applied to the treatment of other minerals - are strictly enforced, exposure to radiation can be kept to a minimum. In the actual mining of uranium, the problems are only beginning to be clearly defined, but it seems to be well established that exposure of miners to excessive levels of radon will have most serious consequences. In a complicated pattern there are many factors at work, ranging from the physical behaviour of sundry radioactive substances to the personal histories of individual miners. The need for considerably more research was stressed throughout the discussions.

  17. 21st application of computers and operations research in the mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings, each session preceded by an introductory review: organization of data processing: the corporate perspective; computing in the executive suite; decision making in mineral exploration; computer-based analysis of geoscience data; geostatistics for the mineral industry; mine development planning; mine planning and scheduling applications; current developments in automatic mine scheduling and operations; computer graphics applied to mine planning and design; computer graphics applied to mineral resources and mapping; equipment selection and utilization; mine systems analysis and design; investment and project evaluation; plant design, operation and production; expert systems; and automation and robotics in mining.

  18. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  19. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  20. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  1. A mathematical model and an approximate method for calculating the fracture characteristics of nonmetallic materials during laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorodin, F.K.; Druzhinin, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed which describes the fracture behavior of amorphous materials during laser cutting. The model, which is based on boundary layer equations, is reduced to ordinary differential equations with the corresponding boundary conditions. The reduced model is used to develop an approximate method for calculating the fracture characteristics of nonmetallic materials.

  2. Bioremediation of mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert; Tischler, Judith S; Mühling, Martin; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Caused by the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals, mine waters are often acidic and contaminated with high concentrations of sulfates, metals, and metalloids. Because the so-called acid mine drainage (AMD) affects the environment or poses severe problems for later use, treatment of these waters is required. Therefore, various remediation strategies have been developed to remove soluble metals and sulfates through immobilization using physical, chemical, and biological approaches. Conventionally, iron and sulfate-the main pollutants in mine waters-are removed by addition of neutralization reagents and subsequent chemical iron oxidation and sulfate mineral precipitation. Biological treatment strategies take advantage of the ability of microorganisms that occur in mine waters to metabolize iron and sulfate. As a rule, these can be grouped into oxidative and reductive processes, reflecting the redox state of mobilized iron (reduced form) and sulfur (oxidized form) in AMD. Changing the redox states of iron and sulfur results in iron and sulfur compounds with low solubility, thus leading to their precipitation and removal. Various techniques have been developed to enhance the efficacy of these microbial processes, as outlined in this review.

  3. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  4. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

    2010-10-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998-2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed 'Diesel exhaust' factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log-log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE.

  5. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  6. Natural resources sustainability: iron ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Torre de Palacios, Luis

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, a new tool to determine environmental sustainability, the energy impact index (EII) was developed to classify different iron mine projects according to two main parameters including energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The EII considers the characteristics of the mineral (such as the quality, size, hardness, iron ore grade, reducibility, mineral/waste rate, and type of deposit), mining processes (type of exploitation, ore processing, available technology), and transportation (distance to cover).

  7. Environmental studies for deep seabed mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    tests of prototype mining systems and components in the Pacific Ocean in the seventies (DOMES, 1976). The subsequent progress in the development of mining technology for deep-sea minerals has been slow since 1980 due to unfavorable metal market... assume instead, because commercial system size and type are likely different depending upon the use of nodule elements and can vary with metal market situation. 2. How do we generalize the test parameters from the tow-sled collector and miner...

  8. Virtual reality for mine safety training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigenzi, M T; Orr, T J; Ruff, T M

    2000-06-01

    Mining has long remained one of America's most hazardous occupations. Researchers believe that by developing realistic, affordable VR training software, miners will be able to receive accurate training in hazard recognition and avoidance. In addition, the VR software will allow miners to follow mine evacuation routes and safe procedures without exposing themselves to danger. This VR software may ultimately be tailored to provide training in other industries, such as the construction, agricultural, and petroleum industries.

  9. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  10. Mine water treatment in Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarenkov, P A; Anisimov, V M; Krol, V A

    1980-10-01

    About 2,000,000 m$SUP$3 of mine water are discharged by coal mines yearly to surface waters in the Donbass. Mine water in the region is rich in mineral salts and suspended matter (coal and rock particles). The DonUGI Institute developed a system of mine water treatment which permits the percentage of suspended matter to be reduced to 1.5 mg/l. The treated mine water can be used in fire fighting and in dust suppression systems in coal mines. A scheme of the water treatment system is shown. It consists of the following stages: reservoir of untreated mine water, chamber where mine water is mixed with reagents, primary sedimentation tanks, sand filters, and chlorination. Aluminium sulphate is used as a coagulation agent. To intensify coagulation polyacrylamide is added. Technical specifications of surface structures in which water treatment is carried out are discussed. Standardized mine water treatment systems with capacities of 600 m$SUP$3/h, with 900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 m$SUP$3/h capacities are used. (In Russian)

  11. Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  12. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  13. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  14. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, G.

    1975-01-01

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB) [de

  15. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  16. Mining the ocean floor : Managing geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wambeke, T.; Alvarez Grima, M.; Fenton, G.A.; Benndorf, J.; Vervoort, A.

    2013-01-01

    As land resources decrease, commodity prices increase, and technology evolves, deep sea mining is becoming a viable alternative to meet the increasing demand for minerals. Successful deep sea mining operations are built on sound identification of the resource, proper selection of equipment, a

  17. Bobcookite, NaAl(UO.sub.2./sub.).sub.2./sub.(SO.sub.4./sub.).sub.4./sub.•18H.sub.2./sub.O and wetherillite, Na.sub.2./sub.Mg(UO.sub.2./sub.).sub.2./sub.(SO.sub.4./sub.).sub.4./sub.•18H.sub.2./sub.O, two new uranyl sulfate minerals from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kampf, A.R.; Plášil, Jakub; Kasatkin, A.V.; Marty, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 695-714 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : bobcookite * wetherillite * new mineral * uranyl sulfate * crystal structure * Blue Lizard mine * Utah * USA Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2015

  18. Electromagnetic detection and infrared visualization techniques for non-metallic inclusions in molten aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Ming; Ludwig, Reinhold; Shankar, Sumanth; Apelian, Diran

    2002-01-01

    The role of detecting non-metallic and weakly conducting inclusions in hot melts during the manufacturing process is of major importance. However, the key impediment to assessing melt cleanliness is the quantification of the level of inclusions. In this paper, we present the theory and practice in using a magnetic force-based detection system capable of monitoring small inclusions of micron-size dimensions. The idea is to force the non-conducting inclusions to a detection location (the free melt surface) by electromagnetic Archimedes forces. Further, an infrared (IR) imaging system can then be applied to detect their thermal signature. Finally, a novel image-processing algorithm is used to analyze the inclusion level on the measurement surface

  19. Heterogeneous electrochemical CO2 reduction using nonmetallic carbon-based catalysts: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Fan, Qun; Tao, Hengcong; Han, Zishan; Jia, Mingwen; Gao, Yunnan; Ma, Wangjing; Sun, Zhenyu

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical CO2 reduction (ECR) offers an important pathway for renewable energy storage and fuels production. It still remains a challenge in designing highly selective, energy-efficient, robust, and cost-effective electrocatalysts to facilitate this kinetically slow process. Metal-free carbon-based materials have features of low cost, good electrical conductivity, renewability, diverse structure, and tunability in surface chemistry. In particular, surface functionalization of carbon materials, for example by doping with heteroatoms, enables access to unique active site architectures for CO2 adsorption and activation, leading to interesting catalytic performances in ECR. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of this category of metal-free catalysts for ECR, providing discussions and/or comparisons among different nonmetallic catalysts, and also possible origin of catalytic activity. Fundamentals and some future challenges are also described.

  20. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  1. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  3. Industrial application of liquid steel filtration out of dispersed nonmetallic phase in the continuous casting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes (both of laboratory and industrial scale have given good results. The obtained results of filtration (in the laboratory have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location in consideration of limiting the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  4. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  5. A Method for Promoting Assembly of Metallic and Nonmetallic Nanoparticles into Interfacial Monolayer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yikai; Konrad, Magdalena P; Lee, Wendy W Y; Ye, Ziwei; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-10

    Two-dimensional metal nanoparticle arrays are normally constructed at liquid-oil interfaces by modifying the surfaces of the constituent nanoparticles so that they self-assemble. Here we present a general and facile new approach for promoting such interfacial assembly without any surface modification. The method use salts that have hydrophobic ions of opposite charge to the nanoparticles, which sit in the oil layer and thus reduce the Coulombic repulsion between the particles in the organic phase, allowing the particles to sit in close proximity to each other at the interface. The advantage of this method is that because it does not require the surface of the particles to be modified it allows nonmetallic particles including TiO2 and SiO2 to be assembled into dense interfacial layers using the same procedure as is used for metallic particles. This opens up a route to a new family of nanostructured functional materials.

  6. The sixth plenary meeting of the seminar 'Steel and nonmetallic inclusions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The sixth plenary session of the 'Steel and non-metallic inclusions' seminar held in Volgograd in July of 1976 dealt, primarily with the application of rare-earth REM and alkaline earth AEM metals in metallurgy. The following problems were discussed: REM sources, alloyages with REM and AEM rational methods of producing them, industrial application of REM in metallurgy, the effect of REM on the quality of steel and the physicochemical nature of at effect. The seminar ended with a summary of the discussion and recommendations as to the areas of application of REM in metallurgy, as well as a summary of the basic requirements to be met in employing those metals in any field of metallurgy

  7. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustal, B; Schelnberger, B; Bührig-Polaczek, A

    2016-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content. (paper)

  8. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  9. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  10. Assessing the Impact of Removing Select Materials from Coal Mine Overburden, Central Appalachia Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of readily soluble components of overburden materials from surface coal mining to air and water results in mineral oxidation and carbonate mineral dissolution, thus increasing coal mine water conductivity. A conductivity benchmark of 300 µS/cm for mine water dischar...

  11. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  14. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  15. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  18. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  19. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 750.14 - Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress. 750.14 Section 750.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.14 Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress...