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Sample records for nonmedical prescription stimulant

  1. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  2. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  3. Prevalence of ADHD Diagnosis and Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…

  4. Non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic purposes among college students: a test of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Ong, Julianne

    2014-11-01

    The current research examines whether measures associated with Akers' social learning theory are related to non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons among college students. We examine data from a sample of 549 undergraduate students at one public university in the Southeastern United States. We estimate several logistic regression models to test our hypotheses. The findings indicated that roughly 17% of students reported non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons during the past year. In separate models, all four of the social learning measures were significantly correlated to non-medical use. In the complete model, the risk of non-medical prescription stimulant use for academic reasons was increased for respondents who reported more of their friends used and also for respondents who believed that prescription stimulants were an effective study aid. The current research fills an important gap in the literature regarding theoretical explanations for non-medical prescription stimulant use. Given the high prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use and the known risks associated with non-medical use this research can help inform intervention strategies for college populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: frequency and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Christian J; Falone, Anthony E; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-04-01

    Studies demonstrate associations between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and depressed mood; however, relevance of NMUPS route of administration and frequency of use have not been examined. We hypothesized frequent NMUPS and nonoral routes would be significantly associated with depressed mood. A Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3,639 undergraduate students at a large U.S. university. The survey contained substance use (e.g., frequency, route of administration) and depressed mood measurement. Past-year prevalence of NMUPS was 6.0% (n = 212). Approximately 50% of frequent or nonoral NMUPS reported depressed mood. Adjusted odds of depressed mood were over two times greater among frequent monthly NMUPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-5.15) and nonoral routes of administration (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.36-3.70), after controlling for other variables. Nonmedical users of prescription stimulants should be screened for depressed mood, especially those who report frequent and nonoral routes of administration.

  7. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Prevalence of self-reported nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in North Carolina Doctor of Pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volger, Emily J; McLendon, Amber N; Fuller, Stephen H; Herring, Charles T

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and opinions regarding nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. An electronic survey was distributed to professional year 1 through 4 for students at 2 schools of pharmacy (public and private) in North Carolina. The survey was available for 3 weeks. Descriptive statistics (proportion of responders plus 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were used to describe the primary objective. Of the 1043 surveys distributed, 407 were completed giving a 39% response rate. The results indicated that 9% (95% CI: 6.44-11.93) of PharmD students acknowledge NMUPS at least once during their pharmacy education. Additionally, 3% (95% CI: 1.90-5.45) acknowledge NMUPS at least once during the current pharmacy school year (past 5 months). Nonmedical prescription stimulant users were 9 times more likely to participate in NMUPS prior to pharmacy school (P risk of abuse of prescription drug stimulants, which requires further research and attention. Additionally, there was a clear upward trend in the prevalence of NMUPS, and this misuse was associated with other detrimental behaviors.

  9. Non-Medical Use of Prescription Stimulants: A Comparison of College Students and their Same-Age Peers Who Do Not Attend College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Pomykacz, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Data show that the prevalence of non-medical use of prescription stimulants is higher among college students than their same-age peers who do not attend college. Because of this, most of the research in this area focuses on data from samples of college students and on use motivated by academic demands. There is little research that examines whether attending college increases the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants while including important covariates in the analytical models. The current research addresses this gap in the literature using data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health for respondents aged 18 to 25 years old. We estimate a multivariate logistic regression model to determine whether college attendance increased the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants. The analysis showed that young adults who enrolled in college full-time were more likely to report non-medical use of prescription stimulants than their same-age peers who did not attend college. There was no significant difference between part-time college students and non-college students. Future research should focus on how specific aspects of the college environment, other than academic stress, may increase the risk of non-medical use of prescription stimulants.

  10. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  11. Nonmedical Use of Antihistaminergic Anxiolytics and Other Prescription Drugs among Persons with Opioid Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Tove; Kral, Alex H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N = 73) and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs. Results. The majority of the sample reported lifetime NMPDU: 60% for benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-drugs), 21% for pregabalin, 19% for stimulants, and 12%–15% for antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Lower age was associated with nonmedical benzodiazepine use (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.82–0.97). Illicit acquisition was reported by 61% of people using z-drugs, 46% of people using pregabalin, and 38% of people using prescription stimulants, but only by 6–10% of people using antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Conclusions. The substantial nonmedical use of pregabalin, z-drugs, and prescription stimulants found in this study suggests that clinicians should prescribe these drugs with great caution. Nonmedical use of antihistaminergic anxiolytics does not seem to be a clinical issue among people in OMT in a Swedish setting, but we propose future studies to monitor their use. PMID:28097037

  12. Nonmedical Use of Antihistaminergic Anxiolytics and Other Prescription Drugs among Persons with Opioid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa Dahlman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N=73 and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs. Results. The majority of the sample reported lifetime NMPDU: 60% for benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-drugs, 21% for pregabalin, 19% for stimulants, and 12%–15% for antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Lower age was associated with nonmedical benzodiazepine use (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.82–0.97. Illicit acquisition was reported by 61% of people using z-drugs, 46% of people using pregabalin, and 38% of people using prescription stimulants, but only by 6–10% of people using antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Conclusions. The substantial nonmedical use of pregabalin, z-drugs, and prescription stimulants found in this study suggests that clinicians should prescribe these drugs with great caution. Nonmedical use of antihistaminergic anxiolytics does not seem to be a clinical issue among people in OMT in a Swedish setting, but we propose future studies to monitor their use.

  13. Sexual orientation and first-year college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Students completed questionnaires on demographic variables and NMUPD. Any NMUPD was examined, as were stimulants, anxiolytics, and painkillers. Hierarchical regression was used to examine differential NMUPD based on sexual orientation, gender, and race. For any NMUPD and painkillers, bisexual and questioning students reported higher rates of nonmedical use than heterosexual students and gay men. When compared with heterosexual females, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning females reported higher any NMUPD and nonmedical painkiller use. For stimulants and anxiolytics, bisexual students reported the highest nonmedical use, followed by gay and lesbian students. There may be particular risk for NMUPD associated with membership in marginalized groups in terms of both sexual orientation and gender.

  14. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications Among Medical Students in Greece: Prevalence of and Motivation for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Tsakiridis, Ioannis; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Apostolidou, Eirini; Spachos, Dimitrios; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2017-08-04

    Non-medical use of prescription medications has risen to unprecedented levels over the past decade worldwide; however, studies assessing misuse across medical students are sparse. The purpose of this study was to1) estimate the lifetime and the past-year prevalence of non-medical use of prescription medications among medical students in Greece 2) identify the motivation for use. 591 medical students completed an anonymous, self-administered, web-based survey assessing lifetime and past-year prevalence of non-medical use of four classes of prescription drugs (opioid painkillers, tranquillizers, sleeping and stimulant medications). According to the motivation to use the responders were classified into three subtypes (selftreatment, recreational, and mixed). The prevalence of lifetime use was 10.7% for at least one of the four prescription drug classes and 9% of the respondents reported lifetime misuse of multiple categories of prescription drugs. The past-year prevalence was approximately 7.7% for at least one of the four prescription drug classes, while the majority misused the drugs "1-2 times per year". Senior students used tranquilizers more than junior students. Self-treatment and mixed subtypes of tranquillizers misuse was more prevalent among women than men while the self-treatment subtype was the most prevalent subtype in all the four drug classes. This is the first study investigating non-medical use of prescription medications among Greek medical students and indicates a high prevalence of misuse of some categories of prescription drugs, mostly for self-treatment purposes.

  15. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  16. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  17. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Adolescents: The Influence of Bonds to Family and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents in recent years. Research now indicates that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use is greater than the prevalence of other illicit drug use, excluding marijuana. Despite these recent trends, there is a dearth of research in the…

  18. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p stress symptom frequency was positively associated with hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use, after controlling for gender, depressive symptoms, and hazardous alcohol use (p stress symptom frequency was higher for those with any nonmedical prescription drug dependence symptoms (p student had ever engaged in nonmedical prescription drug use. Findings suggest that consideration of the types of behaviors and problems a college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency than dichotomous measures of nonmedical prescription drug use alone. Further, the association between the frequency of posttraumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use and dependence symptoms among college students with a trauma history deserves

  20. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in transgender women in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Pierce, Juan; McNulty, Shawn; Heck, Ted; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Male-to-female transgender women (TGW) experience high rates of substance use and HIV. A recent substance use trend is the use of prescription medication without a doctor's consent. No research to date has examined the associations between this non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in TGW. In the present study, TGW recruited from community venues (N = 104) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed surveys assessing demographic information, non-medical use of prescription drugs, other substance use, injection practices and sexual risk behaviour. Twenty-four per cent of the sample reported lifetime non-medical use of prescription drugs across the following categories: analgesics (21.2%), anxiolytics (14.4%), stimulants (12.5%) and sedatives (8.7%). Participants reporting non-medical use of prescription drugs were more likely to report other substance use, needle use to inject drugs, injecting silicone and sharing needles. In multivariable analyses, non-medical use of prescription drugs was associated with unprotected sex, sex after engaging in substance use, and commercial sex work, after controlling for demographic factors. Self-esteem and social support from family served as protective factors for non-medical use of prescription drugs. HIV-prevention programmes focused on TGW in the United States may wish to expand their assessment of substance use to include the use of prescription medications without a physician's consent.

  1. Personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards the use of nonmedical prescription stimulants to improve academic performance among university students in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmer, S M; Pischke, C R; Van Hal, G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overestimations of non-prescribed stimulant use of peers are well documented in the USA and have also been identified as predictive of personal stimulant consumption. This study aimed to examine whether overestimations of peer use and approval of the use are associated with personal use...... and attitude towards the use of non-prescribed stimulants among European university students. METHOD: The EU funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE)' study was conducted in seven European countries. In a web-based questionnaire, 4482 students were asked about their personal...... use and their attitude towards non-prescribed stimulant use, as well as the perceived peer use and peer attitude. RESULTS: 59% of students thought that the majority of their peers used non-prescribed stimulants more frequently than themselves, and only 4% thought that the use of the majority was lower...

  2. Personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards the use of nonmedical prescription stimulants to improve academic performance among university students in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Pischke, C R; Van Hal, G; Vriesacker, B; Dempsey, R C; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Zeeb, H

    2016-11-01

    Overestimations of non-prescribed stimulant use of peers are well documented in the USA and have also been identified as predictive of personal stimulant consumption. This study aimed to examine whether overestimations of peer use and approval of the use are associated with personal use and attitude towards the use of non-prescribed stimulants among European university students. The EU funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE)' study was conducted in seven European countries. In a web-based questionnaire, 4482 students were asked about their personal use and their attitude towards non-prescribed stimulant use, as well as the perceived peer use and peer attitude. 59% of students thought that the majority of their peers used non-prescribed stimulants more frequently than themselves, and only 4% thought that the use of the majority was lower than their personal use. The perception that the majority of peers had used non-prescribed stimulants at least once was significantly associated with higher odds for personal use of non-prescribed stimulants (OR: 3.30, 95% CI: 2.32-4.71). In addition, the perception that the majority of peers approved of the non-prescribed use of stimulants was associated with a 4.03 (95% CI: 3.35-4.84) times higher likelihood for personal approval. European university students generally perceived the non-prescribed use of stimulants of peers to be higher than their personal use. This perception, as well as a perception of higher approval in the peer group, was associated with a higher likelihood of personal non-prescribed stimulant medication use and approval. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  4. Understanding the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in the U.S. High School Adolescents

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    Ayres, Cynthia G.; Pontes, Nancy M.; Pontes, Manuel C. F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between sleep insufficiency, depressive symptoms, demographic factors, and the nonmedical use of prescription medications (NMUPMs) in the U.S. high school students. Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System were used (n = 13,570) and analyzed using IBM SPSS 23™ (complex…

  5. Sexual Orientation and First-Year College Students' Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). Participants: First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Methods: Students completed…

  6. How patients understand the term "nonmedical use" of prescription drugs: insights from cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jennifer; Halkitis, Perry N; Horton, Ariana; Khan, Rubina; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With rising rates of prescription drug abuse and associated overdose deaths, there is great interest in having accurate and efficient screening tools that identify nonmedical use of prescription drugs in health care settings. The authors sought to gain a better understanding of how patients interpret questions about misuse of prescription drugs, with the goal of improving the accuracy and acceptability of instruments intended for use in primary care. A total of 27 English-speaking adult patients were recruited from an urban safety net primary care clinic to complete a cognitive interview about a 4-item screening questionnaire for tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs. Detailed field notes were analyzed for overall comprehension of the screening items on illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, the accuracy with which participants classified drugs into these categories, and whether the screening response correctly captured the participant's substance use behavior. Based on initial responses to the screening items, 6 (22%) participants screened positive for past-year prescription drug misuse, and 8 (30%) for illicit drug use. The majority (26/27) of participants correctly interpreted the item on illicit drug use, and appropriately classified drugs in this category. Eleven (41%) participants had errors in their understanding of the prescription drug misuse item. The most common error was classifying use of medications without abuse potential as nonmedical use. All cases of misunderstanding the prescription drug misuse item occurred among participants who screened negative for illicit drug use. The results suggest that terminology used to describe misuse of prescription medications may be misunderstood by many primary care patients, particularly those who do not use illicit drugs. Failure to improve upon the language used to describe prescription drug misuse in screening questionnaires intended for use in medical settings could

  7. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Divin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.

  8. Surveillance of Diversion and Nonmedical Use of Extended-Release Prescription Amphetamine and Oral Methylphenidate in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sembower, Mark A.; Ertischek, Michelle D.; Buchholtz, Chloe; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Schnoll, Sidney H.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines rates of nonmedical use and diversion of extended-release amphetamine and extended-release oral methylphenidate in the United States. Prescription dispensing data were sourced from retail pharmacies. Nonmedical use data were collected from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Drug Diversion Program and Poison Center Program. Drug diversion trends nearly overlapped for extended-release amphetamine and extended-release oral met...

  9. Development and Reliability of Items Measuring the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Results Froman Initial Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa M.; Weiler, Robert M.; Haddox, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability of self-report survey items designed to monitor the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among adolescents. Methods: Eighteen nonmedical prescription drug items designed to be congruent with the substance abuse items in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's…

  10. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants.

  11. Exploring the Use of Nonmedical Sources of Prescription Drugs among Immigrant Latinos in the Rural Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissman, Aaron T.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Bachmann, Laura H.; Montano, Jaime; Topmiller, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about access to medicine among immigrant Latinos in the United States (US). This study explored access to, and use of, prescription drugs obtained from nonmedical sources among recently arrived, Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina (NC). Methods: Our community-based participatory research…

  12. Religiosity in the non-medical use of prescription medication in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Benotsch, Eric G; McCauley, Jessica; Bannerman, Dana; Granger, Catherine; Martin, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is a hazardous health behavior popular among young adults and college students. Past research has documented prevalence rates and risk factors associated with NMUPD, while little research has addressed protective factors. The present study examined the associations of religiosity and NMUPD in a sample of college students. Young adult (ages 18-25) college students (n = 767) completed an anonymous online survey assessing demographic variables, NMUPD, personality factors, perceptions of risk, mental health, and religiosity. Results showed that greater religiosity scores were consistently associated with lower odds of engaging in NMUPD in the past 3 months. These associations were partially mediated by the personality characteristics of conscientiousness and openness to experience as well as perceived risk of NMUPD. The effect of religiosity on NMUPD was moderated by Greek (i.e., fraternity or sorority) membership, such that those in a Greek organization showed no relation between religiosity and NMUPD, while religiosity served as a protective factor for NMUPD among those who did not have Greek membership. These results extend past research demonstrating that religiosity is protective against substance abuse/misuse. Greek status appears to negate the protective influence of religiosity on NMUPD.

  13. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids and Heroin Use Among Adolescents Involved in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Philip; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2017-03-01

    Examine the past-year prevalence of nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NUPOs), heroin use, and the concurrent NUPO and heroin in a sample of 12th graders involved in 16 different sports. A secondary analysis of nationally representative data from nine cohorts (2006-2014) of the Monitoring the Future study (n = 21,557). No differences were found between 12th graders who participated in at least one competitive sport and nonparticipants with respect to past-year NUPO, heroin use, and concurrent NUPO and heroin use. Most of the 16 sports analyzed were not associated with the three drug use outcomes. However, 12th graders who participated in ice hockey had substantially greater odds of both past-year heroin use and concurrent NUPO and heroin, while those who participated in weightlifting (NUPO and heroin) and wrestling (NUPO) had slightly higher odds of using these drugs. The study provides critical information to inform physicians, parents, and school officials of the risks associated with participating in certain high contact sports, particularly ice hockey. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital social media, youth, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-07-26

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies-particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet.

  15. Adolescents' nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications and the identification of substance use subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of adolescents based on their past 12 months use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, illicit drugs, and nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications. A cross-sectional Web-based survey of adolescents from two middle and high school districts in Southeastern Michigan was conducted. The sample included 2,744 middle school (7th and 8th grade) and high school (9th through 12th grade) students. Participants had a mean age of 14.8 years (SD = 1.9 years); 50.4% were female, 64.1% were Caucasian, and 30.6% were African American. Participants completed measures of the past 12 months of substance use, parental monitoring, parental substance use, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Exploratory latent class analysis (LCA) indicated four classes. The largest class was composed of participants with low probabilities of using any substances (low/no use class), and the smallest class was composed of participants with relatively high probabilities of using all substances (multiple substances class). A third class included participants with high probabilities of using tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana (TAM). The fourth class consisted of participants with relatively high probabilities of alcohol use, nonmedical prescription drug use, and excessive medical use of prescription drugs (ANM). Female gender predicted membership in the ANM and multiple substance classes, and parental monitoring, parental substance use problems, internalizing, and externalizing problems uniquely predicted membership in all three high-risk risk classes. Results indicated three high-risk subgroups of adolescents, each characterized by a different pattern of substance use. Two risk groups are characterized by relatively high probabilities of nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress, Drugs, and Alcohol Use Among Health Care Professional Students: A Focus on Prescription Stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwal, Monica K; Ip, Eric J; Shah, Bijal M; Serino, Melissa J

    2015-12-01

    To contrast the characteristics of pharmacy, medicine, and physician assistant (PA) students regarding the prevalence of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use and to identify risk factors associated with prescription stimulant use. Five hundred eighty nine students were recruited to complete a 50-item Web-based survey. Demographics, nonmedical prescription medication use, illicit drug and alcohol use, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric diagnoses, and perceived stress scale (PSS) scores. Medicine and PA students reported greater nonmedical prescription stimulant use than pharmacy students (10.4% vs 14.0% vs 6.1%; P students were more likely to report a history of an anxiety disorder (12.1% vs 18.6% vs 5.9%; P students. PSS scores for all 3 groups (21.9-22.3) were roughly twice as high as the general adult population. Illicit drug and prescription stimulant use, psychiatric disorders, and elevated stress levels are prevalent among health care professional students. Health care professional programs may wish to use this information to better understand their student population which may lead to a reassessment of student resources and awareness/prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users: A case study on an online drug forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkä, Sanna; Katainen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum. Using actor network theory (ANT), we analysed translations that mediate the online user community's relationship with pharmaceutical drugs. Differences in experienced drug effects are explained both as a process of 'learning' and as differences in brain chemistry at the receptor level. Both science- and experience-based information are shared on best practices to optimise use, avoid adverse health effects and maximise the experience of intoxication. The expanded context of doctors' practices places stress on the medical framework for drug use. Our analysis shows how the non-medical use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals relates to joint, medicalised ideas of bodies as sites of medical experimentation, as well as to the collective process of constructing 'pharmaceutical competences' in user networks. Understandings of intoxication have increasingly been permeated with the pharmacological and scientific logic of knowledge. The forum works as a platform for harm reduction inspired exchange of knowledge. However, the user community's knowledge sharing practices can generate a shared perception of a sufficient or even superior drug use experience and knowledge. This may lead to overdoses and other risky behaviour, and thereby contribute to increased harms related to non-medical use of prescription drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social context and perspectives of non-medical prescription opioid use among young adults in Rhode Island: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedinak, Jesse L; Kinnard, Elizabeth N; Hadland, Scott E; Green, Traci C; Clark, Melissa A; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2016-12-01

    This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and key themes were analyzed. Participants discussed high levels of access to prescription opioids for nonmedical use via prescriptions originally provided to family and friends. The contexts described by participants included social environments such as parties, in which mixing opiates with benzodiazepines, alcohol or other types of drugs, and incidents of unintentional overdose were reported. Participants attributed risk for overdose to individual-level factors (eg, users who "couldn't handle it"), rather than contextual factors, and described negative reactions to being labeled as an "addict" or "addicted." Professional service providers had first-hand experience with young adults in treatment settings, yet limited exposure to young adults who were treatment-naïve. Young adult NMPO users described social settings where polysubstance use and pill use were common, and highlighted an aversion to being labeled as having a substance use disorder. To reduce harms of NMPO use among young adults, interventions should address the social context in which drug use and risk behaviors occur. (Am J Addict 2016;25:659-665). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses: A Theory-Guided Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R; Ketcham, Patricia L; Smit, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess prevalence, elucidate the behavior's multietiological nature, and discuss prevention implications. Peer-reviewed studies were located through key phrase searches (prescription stimulant misuse and college, "prescription stimulant misuse" and "college," illicit use of prescription stimulants in college, and nonmedical prescription stimulant use in college students) in electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, and EBSCO Host) for the period 2000 to 2013. Studies meeting inclusion criteria had their references reviewed for additional eligible literature. Statistically significant correlates of IUPS in the 62 retrieved studies were organized using the three streams of influence and four levels of causation specified in the TTI. Results show that the prevalence of IUPS varies across campuses. Additionally, findings suggest the behavior is multifaceted, as correlates were observed within each stream of influence and level of causation specified by the TTI. We conclude that IUPS is prevalent in, but varies across, colleges and is influenced by intrapersonal and broader social and societal factors. We discuss implications for prevention and directions for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Study Drugs and Academic Integrity: The Role of Beliefs about an Academic Honor Code in the Prediction of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use for Academic Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…

  1. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  2. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  3. Nonmedical prescription drug use among US college students at a Midwest university: a partial test of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Steele, Jennifer L

    2010-05-01

    We estimate the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug (NMPD) use and test social learning theory as an explanation for NMPD use based upon data from a large pilot study. Data were collected from 465 college students at a Midwestern university in the USA using a self-administered questionnaire. The sample was predominantly white (88%), 43% were female and the mean age was 22. Most participants (80%) were not members of social fraternities or sororities. A majority of students did not report NMPD use: 39.4% of respondents reported lifetime NMPD use, 31% reported past-year use, and 14.4% reported past-month use. Multivariate regression results partially supported social learning theory as an explanation for lifetime NMPD use. Limitations and suggestions for future research are suggested.

  4. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%-4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  5. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  6. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

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    Andreas G Franke

    Full Text Available Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  7. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Lieb, Klaus; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  8. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Sebastian; Schunck, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    While the number of studies of the non-medical use of prescription drugs to augment cognitive functions is growing steadily, psychological factors that can potentially help explain variance in such pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE) behavior are often neglected in research. This study investigates the association between the Big Five personality traits and a retrospective (prior CE-drug use) as well as a prospective (willingness to use CE drugs) measure of taking prescription drugs with the purpose of augmenting one's cognitive functions (e.g., concentration, memory, or vigilance) without medical necessity. We use data from a large representative survey of German employees (N = 6454, response rate = 29.8%). The Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was measured with a short version of the Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S), which includes: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together with this, demographic variables such as gender, age, education, and income were used as potential confounders in multiple logistic regression models. Our results show a 2.96% lifetime prevalence of CE-drug use and a 10.45% willingness to (re)use such drugs in the future. We found that less conscientious and more neurotic respondents have a higher probability of prior CE-drug use and a greater willingness to use CE drugs in the future. No significant effects were found for openness, extraversion, or agreeableness. Prior CE-drug use was strongly associated with a greater willingness to take such drugs in the future. This study shows that specific personality traits are not only associated with prior enhancement behavior, but also affect the willingness to (re)use such drugs. It helps increase understanding of the risk factors of CE-drug use, which is a health-related behavior that can entail severe side-effects for consumers. The knowledge gathered can thus help improve interventions aimed at minimizing health

  9. An Examination of Prescription Stimulant Misuse and Psychological Variables among Sorority and Fraternity College Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Crystal L.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine nonmedical stimulant use among fraternity/sorority members and nonmembers and whether psychological variables (e.g., internal restlessness, depression, anxiety, and stress) were related to nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 1,033 undergraduate students from five…

  10. Concurrent versus simultaneous use of alcohol and non-medical use of prescription drugs: is simultaneous use worse for mental, social, and health issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; Studer, Joseph; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the difference between concurrent and simultaneous use of alcohol and non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in relation to mental, social, and health issues. The 544 study participants of the Swiss ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) had a combined use of alcohol with NMUPD during the previous 12 months. Alcohol-related problems (i.e., dependence and consequences), as well as mental, social, and health concerns (i.e., depression, general mental/physical health, and social/health consequences), were assessed. The simultaneous use of alcohol and NMUPD proved to be a greater risk factor for mental, social, and health issues than concurrent use. This study adds information regarding simultaneous polydrug use, which results in distinct effects compared to concurrent use, including important social, psychosocial, and health-related consequences.

  11. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Jian-Xiong; Huang, Jing-Hui; Huang, Guo-Liang; Gao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ci-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide has not been clearly elucidated. Some studies have suggested that the relationship between substance use and suicidal ideation may be spurious and could be explained by other variables. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed in Guangzhou. A total of 5853 students completed questionnaires and were included in the study. NMUPD, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors were examined using a structural equation model. In the simple model without mediation, a positive relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors in adolescents was found, which was independent of effects from the use of other substances. Both depressive symptoms and sleep quality were significant mediators of this relationship. Public health and educational professionals should survey depressive symptoms and sleep quality and provide interventions when managing suicidal behaviors among adolescents engaging in NMUPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily sleep quality affects drug craving, partially through indirect associations with positive affect, in patients in treatment for nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Staley, David M; Cleveland, H Harrington; Huhn, Andrew S; Cleveland, Michael J; Harris, Jonathan; Stankoski, Dean; Deneke, Erin; Meyer, Roger E; Bunce, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbance has been identified as a risk factor for relapse in addiction to a range of substances. The relationship between sleep quality and treatment outcome has received relatively little attention in research on nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). This study examined the within-person association between sleep quality and craving in medically detoxified patients in residence for the treatment of NMUPD. Participants (n=68) provided daily reports of their sleep quality, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and craving for an average of 9.36 (SD=2.99) days. Within-person associations of sleep quality and craving were examined using multilevel modeling. Within-person mediation analyses were used to evaluate the mediating roles of NA and PA in the relationship between sleep quality and craving. Greater cravings were observed on days of lower than usual sleep quality (γ10=-0.10, p=0.003). Thirty-one percent of the overall association between sleep quality and craving was explained by PA, such that poorer sleep quality was associated with lower PA and, in turn, lower PA was associated with greater craving. No evidence emerged for an indirect association between sleep quality and craving through NA. Daily fluctuations in sleep quality were associated with fluctuations in craving, an association partially explained by the association between sleep quality and daily PA. These data encourage further research on the relationship between sleep, affect, and craving in NMUPD patients, as well as in patients with other substance use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do prescription stimulants increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events?: A systematic review

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    Westover Arthur N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern that prescription stimulants may be associated with adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Public health concerns are amplified by increasing use of prescription stimulants among adults. Methods The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the evidence of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar searches were conducted using key words related to these topics (MESH: ADHD; Adults; Amphetamine; Amphetamines; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cardiovascular System; Central Nervous Stimulants; Cerebrovascular; Cohort Studies; Case–control Studies; Death; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Dextroamphetamine; Drug Toxicity; Methamphetamine; Methylphenidate; Myocardial Infarction; Stimulant; Stroke; Safety. Eligible studies were population-based studies of children, adolescents, or adults using prescription stimulant use as the independent variable and a hard cardiovascular outcome as the dependent variable. Results Ten population-based observational studies which evaluated prescription stimulant use with cardiovascular outcomes were reviewed. Six out of seven studies in children and adolescents did not show an association between stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast, two out of three studies in adults found an association. Conclusions Findings of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes are mixed. Studies of children and adolescents suggest that statistical power is limited in available study populations, and the absolute risk of an event is low. More suggestive of a safety signal, studies of adults found an increased risk for transient ischemic attack and sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia. Interpretation was limited due to differences in population, cardiovascular outcome

  14. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  15. Prescription Stimulants and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among U.S. Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    prescription stimulants were defined as a prescription for methylphenidate , dextroamphetamine, amphetamine, modafinil, armodafinil, methamphetamine...personal exposure to least one of the following: witnessing death, physical abuse , dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, or...stimulant initially prescribed was modafinil (n=99, 39%), followed by methylphenidate (n=83, 32%), dextroamphetamine (n=41, 16%), and other

  16. Development of an erythropoietin prescription simulator to improve abilities for the prescription of erythropoietin stimulating agents: Is it feasible?

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    Weibel Nadir

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of erythropoietins with long half-lives and the tendency to lengthen the administration interval to monthly injections call for raising awareness on the pharmacokinetics and risks of new erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA. Their pharmacodynamic complexity and individual variability limit the possibility of attaining comprehensive clinical experience. In order to help physicians acquiring prescription abilities, we have built a prescription computer model to be used both as a simulator and education tool. Methods The pharmacokinetic computer model was developed using Visual Basic on Excel and tested with 3 different ESA half-lives (24, 48 and 138 hours and 2 administration intervals (weekly vs. monthly. Two groups of 25 nephrologists were exposed to the six randomised combinations of half-life and administration interval. They were asked to achieve and maintain, as precisely as possible, the haemoglobin target of 11-12 g/dL in a simulated naïve patient. Each simulation was repeated twice, with or without randomly generated bleeding episodes. Results The simulation using an ESA with a half-life of 138 hours, administered monthly, compared to the other combinations of half-lives and administration intervals, showed an overshooting tendency (percentages of Hb values > 13 g/dL 15.8 ± 18.3 vs. 6.9 ± 12.2; P Conclusions Computer-based simulations can be a useful tool for improving ESA prescription abilities among nephrologists by raising awareness about the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the various ESAs and recognizing the factors that influence haemoglobin variability.

  17. Comparison of awareness, attitude and use of non-prescription drugs among medical and non-medical undergraduates: a questionnaire based study

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    Deepika Tikoo

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: There is an increasing trend of self-medication among the youth today. Medical students have a better access to such drugs hence are expected to self-medicate more. But the easy availability about drug information on the internet and their unrestricted supply in the pharmacies are escalating the practice of self-medication among the general population too. It therefore becomes imperative to create awareness against the injudicious use of over the counter drugs without a valid medical prescription to promote rational drug use. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 243-250

  18. A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use: Findings From a Northern California University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; McMullen, Jaimie; Flay, Brian R; Kodama, Cathy; Martin, Melissa; Saltz, Robert F

    2017-02-27

    Preventing the illicit use of prescription stimulants, a particularly high-risk form of substance use, requires approaches that utilize theory-guided research. We examined this behavior within the context of a random sample of 554 undergraduate students attending a university in northern California. Approximately 17% of students self-reported engaging in this behavior during college; frequency of misuse per academic term ranged from less than once to 40 or more times. Although most misusers reported oral ingestion, a small proportion reported snorting and smoking the drug. The majority of misusers reported receiving the drug at no cost, and the primary source of the drug was friends. Misusers were motivated by both academic (e.g., to improve focus) and non-academic (e.g., to experiment) reasons. Our thematic analyses of an open-end question revealed that students abstaining from illicit use of prescription stimulants did so primarily for reasons related to health risks, ethics, and adherence regulations. Results from adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that correlates of the behavior were intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental in nature. We conclude that characteristics of misuse are a cause for concern, and correlates of the behavior are multifaceted. These findings, in addition to insights provided by students who choose not to engage in this behavior, suggest that a number of prevention approaches are plausible, such as a social norms campaign that simultaneously corrects exaggerated beliefs about prevalence while also illustrating why abstainers, in their own words, choose to abstain.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  20. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (p<0.0001). Logistic regression revealed that among males (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers were 4.4 times more likely to report opioid NMU than non-smokers (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7). Among females (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers and alcohol users were more likely to report opioid NMU than those who had never smoked or used alcohol (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 7.0 and OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.4, respectively). These results suggest that further research on gender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Educating nonmedical prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Derek; MacLure, Katie; George, Johnson

    2012-10-01

    The last decade has seen developments in nonmedical prescribing, with the introduction of prescribing rights for healthcare professionals. In this article, we focus on the education, training and practice of nonmedical prescribers in the UK. There are around 20,000 nurse independent prescribers, 2400 pharmacist supplementary/independent prescribers, several hundred allied health professional supplementary prescribers and almost 100 optometrist supplementary/independent prescribers. Many are active prescribers, managing chronic conditions or acute episodes of infections and minor ailments. Key aims of nonmedical prescribing are as follows: to improve patient care; to increase patient choice in accessing medicines; and to make better use of the skills of health professionals. Education and training are provided by higher education institutions accredited by UK professional bodies/regulators,namely, the Nursing and Midwifery Council, General Pharmaceutical Council, Health Professions Council and General Optical Council. The programme comprises two main components: a university component equivalent to 26 days full-time education and a period of learning in practice of 12 days minimum under the supervision of a designated medical practitioner. Course content focuses on the following factors: consultation, decision making, assessment and review; psychology of prescribing; prescribing in team context; applied therapeutics; evidence-based practice and clinical governance; legal, policy, professional and ethical aspects; and prescribing in the public health context. Nonmedical prescribers must practise within their competence, demonstrating continuing professional development to maintain the quality engendered during training. Despite the substantial progress, there are several issues of strategy, capacity, sustainability and a research evidence base which require attention to fully integrate nonmedical prescribing within healthcare. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of

  2. Rewarding electrical brain stimulation in rats after peripheral nerve injury: decreased facilitation by commonly abused prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is a significant concern in treating chronic pain, yet few studies examine how neuropathic pain alters the abuse liability of commonly abused prescription opioids. Normal and spinal nerve ligated (SNL) rats were implanted with electrodes into the left ventral tegmental area (VTA). Rats were trained to lever press for intracranial electrical stimulation (VTA ICSS), and the effects of methadone, fentanyl, hydromorphone, and oxycodone on facilitation of VTA ICSS were assessed. A second group of neuropathic rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters, and the effects of intrathecal clonidine, adenosine, and gabapentin on facilitation of VTA ICSS were assessed. The effects of electrical stimulation of the VTA on mechanical allodynia were assessed in SNL rats. Responding for VTA ICSS was similar in control and SNL rats. Methadone, fentanyl, and hydromorphone were less potent in facilitating VTA ICSS in SNL rats. Oxycodone produced a significant facilitation of VTA ICSS in control (maximum shift 24.10 ± 6.19 Hz) but not SNL rats (maximum shift 16.32 ± 7.49 Hz), but also reduced maximal response rates in SNL rats. Intrathecal administration of clonidine, adenosine, and gabapentin failed to facilitate VTA ICSS in SNL rats, and electrical stimulation of the VTA did not alter mechanical allodynia following nerve injury. The present data suggests that the positive reinforcing effects of commonly abused prescription opioids are diminished following nerve injury. In addition, alleviation of mechanical allodynia with nonopioid analgesics does not appear to stimulate limbic dopamine pathways originating from the VTA in SNL rats.

  3. Neurocognitive enhancement or impairment? A systematic meta-analysis of prescription stimulant effects on processing speed, decision-making, planning, and cognitive perseveration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, Marisa E; Weyandt, Lisa L; Rossi, Joseph S; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda

    2016-08-01

    Increasing numbers of adults, particularly college students, are misusing prescription stimulants primarily for cognitive/academic enhancement, so it is critical to explore whether empirical findings support neurocognitive benefits of prescription stimulants. Previous meta-analytic studies have supported small benefits from prescription stimulants for the cognitive domains of inhibitory control and memory; however, no meta-analytic studies have examined the effects on processing speed or the potential impairment on other domains of cognition, including planning, decision-making, and cognitive perseveration. Therefore, the present study conducted a meta-analysis of the available literature examining the effects of prescription stimulants on specific measures of processing speed, planning, decision-making, and cognitive perseveration among healthy adult populations. The meta-analysis results indicated a positive influence of prescription stimulant medication on processing speed accuracy, with an overall mean effect size of g = 0.282 (95% CI [0.077, 0.488]; n = 345). Neither improvements nor impairments were revealed for planning time, planning accuracy, advantageous decision-making, or cognitive perseveration; however, findings are limited by the small number of studies examining these outcomes. Findings support that prescription stimulant medication may indeed act as a neurocognitive enhancer for accuracy measures of processing speed without impeding other areas of cognition. Considering that adults are already engaging in illegal use of prescription stimulants for academic enhancement, as well as the potential for stimulant misuse to have serious side effects, the establishment of public policies informed by interdisciplinary research surrounding this issue, whether restrictive or liberal, is of critical importance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Prescription drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monheit, Benny

    2010-08-01

    Recognising and dealing with patients who seek drugs for nonmedical purposes can be a difficult problem in general practice. 'Prescription shoppers' and patients with chronic nonmalignant pain problems are the main people who constitute this small but problematic group. The main drugs they seek are benzodiazepines and opioids. To provide data on current trends in prescription drug abuse and to discuss different strategies on how to deal with this issue in the clinic setting. Misuse of prescription drugs can take the form of injecting oral drugs, selling them on the street, or simply overusing the prescribed amount so that patients run short before the due date and then request extra prescriptions from the doctor. Currently oxycontin and alprazolam are the most abused drugs in Australia. Adequate prescription monitoring mechanisms at the systems level are lacking so we need to rely on our clinical skills and the patient's behaviour pattern over time to detect problematic prescription drug misuse. Management strategies may include saying 'no' to patients, having a treatment plan, and adopting a universal precaution approach toward all patients prescribed drugs of addiction. Among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain, requests for increasing opioid doses need careful assessment to elucidate any nonmedical factors that may be at play.

  5. An examination of the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew; Martin, Ryan; Beaujean, Alex; Usdan, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS) is an emergent adverse health behavior among undergraduate college students. However, current research on MPS is largely atheoretical. The purpose of this study was to validate a survey to assess MPS-related theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and determine the relationship between these constructs, MPS-related risk factors (e.g. gender and class status), and current MPS (i.e. past 30 days use) among college students. Participants (N = 978, 67.8% female and 82.9% Caucasian) at a large public university in the southeastern USA completed a survey assessing MPS and MPS-related TPB constructs during fall 2010. To examine the relationship between MPS-related TPB constructs and current MPS, we conducted (1) confirmatory factor analyses to validate that our survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and (2) a series of regression analyses to examine associations between MPS-related TPB constructs, potential MPS-related risk factors, and MPS in this sample. Our factor analyses indicated that the survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and our multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that perceived behavioral control was significantly associated with current MPS. In addition, analyses found that having a prescription stimulant was a protective factor against MPS when the model included MPS-related TPB variables.

  6. Effectiveness of Prescription-Based CNS Stimulants on Hospitalization in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Asztalos, Marton

    2017-01-01

    stimulants use was associated with a reduction in number of psychiatric admissions from 3.43 (95% CI = 2.86 to 4.01) to 2.62 (95% CI = 1.99 to 3.25) (P = .009), with a more pronounced reduction for women (mean difference: -1.37, 95% CI = -2.34 to -0.40, P = .006). Psychiatric bed-days were reduced by 40 (95...

  7. Going to the doctor with enhancement in mind – An ethnographic study of university students’ use of prescription stimulants and their moral ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: With this article, we aim to use students’ moral ambivalence towards prescription stimulants and the doctor’s who prescribe them to problematize the distinction between enhancement and treatment. We do this by investigating a case in which students obtain legitimate prescriptions for (covert......) enhancement purposes. Methods: The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 20 university students from multiple universities in New York City, from which the case is drawn. Findings: Three main themes were identified in the analysis. “The doctor prescribed them” illustrates how...... these students use doctors as easy access to study drugs, and legitimize their use of stimulants because they were prescribed. The second theme, “A good cause”, shows that the purpose is what counts as a measure for whether stimulant use is considered morally acceptable or not. The third theme, “Being...

  8. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs
non-medical use and diversion of psychotropic prescription drugs in North America: a review of sourcing routes and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Bibby, Meagan; Bouchard, Martin

    2010-12-01

    North America features some of the world's highest consumption levels for controlled psychoactive prescription drugs (PPDs; e.g. prescription opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants), with non-medical use and related harms (e.g. morbidity, mortality) rising in key populations in recent years. While the determinants, characteristics and impacts of these 'use' problems are increasingly well documented, little is known about the 'supply' side of non-medical PPD use, much of which is facilitated by 'diversion' as a key sourcing route. This paper provides a select review of the phenomenon of PPD diversion in North America, also considering interventions and policy implications. A conceptual and empirical review of select-peer- and non-peer-reviewed research literature from 1991 to 2010 focusing upon PPD diversion in North America was conducted. The phenomenon of PPD diversion is heterogeneous. Especially among general populations, a large proportion of PPDs for non-medical use are obtained from friends or family members. Other PPD diversion routes involve 'double doctoring' or 'prescription shopping'; street drug markets; drug thefts, prescription forgeries or fraud; as well as PPD purchases from the internet. The distinct nature and heterogeneity make PPD diversion a complex and difficult target for interventions. Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) appear to reduce overall PPD use, yet their impact on reducing diversion or non-medical use is not clear. Law enforcement is unlikely to reach PPD diversion effectively. Effective reduction will probably require reductions in overall PPD consumption volumes, although such will need to be accomplished without compromising standards of good medical (e.g. pain) care. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  10. Central stimulants in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A naturalistic study of the prescription in Sweden, 1977-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janols, Lars-Olof; Liliemark, Jan; Klintberg, Karin; von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2009-11-01

    An increased prescription of central stimulants (CS) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents has been reported in Sweden. To follow-up the treatment with CS as concerns total as well as regional differences in prescription rate. Efficacy and side-effects reported and gender differences in prescription over time also have been summarized. Data from the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) of individual licences, annual reports about patients on individual or clinic licences from the MPA and sales statistics from the National Pharmacy (Apoteket AB) have been used. The number of new licences and prescriptions increased dramatically from 1992 to 2007 and a change of preparations was seen. Great differences (fivefold) between the 21 counties of Sweden were noticed. In the follow-up reports to the MPA, a good/moderate treatment effect was reported in 92% and adverse effects were reported in 4% leading to discontinuation of medication in 46% of them. Abuse/misuse of the preparation was suspected in 0.2% of the reports. A tendency of a reduction of the proportion of boys to girls treated through individual licences has been seen. The study, although observational, supports good efficacy, limited adverse effects and a low degree of misuse in clinical use of CS for children and adolescents with ADHD.

  11. Stimulant medication use in college students: comparison of appropriate users, misusers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Cynthia M; Canu, Will H; Cleveland, Carolyn S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Mignogna, Melissa J; Fedele, David A; Correia, Christopher J; Leffingwell, Thad R; Clapp, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    While stimulant medication is commonly prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents (Merikangas, He, Rapoport, Vitiello, & Olfson, 2013; Zuvekas & Vitiello, 2012) and is considered an empirically supported intervention for those groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Safren et al., 2005) surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of stimulants in the slightly older emerging adult population. A focus has emerged, however, on illicit stimulant use among undergraduates, with studies suggesting such behavior is not uncommon (e.g., Arria et al., 2013). Unfortunately, details are lacking regarding outcomes and personal characteristics associated with different patterns of stimulant misuse. The current study compares the characteristics of four groups of college students, including those with stimulant prescriptions who use them appropriately (i.e., appropriate users), those who misuse their prescription stimulants (i.e., medical misusers), those who obtain and use stimulants without a prescription (i.e., nonmedical misusers), and those who do not use stimulant medications at all (i.e., nonusers). Undergraduates (N = 1,153) from the Southeastern, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions completed online measures evaluating patterns of use, associated motives, side effects, ADHD symptomatology, and other substance use. Both types of misusers (i.e., students who abused their prescriptions and those who obtained stimulants illegally) reported concerning patterns of other and combined substance use, as well as higher prevalence of debilitating side effects such as insomnia and restlessness. Research and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racine Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin, is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  13. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Non-medical Prescribing versus Medical Prescribing for Acute and Chronic Disease Management in Primary and Secondary Care. Cochrane Database Syst Ver. 2016;11:CD011227.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Silva Duarte

    2017-01-01

    of evidence, among others. Prescription by pharmacists and nurses with different levels of undergraduate, specific and postgraduate education could provide comparable outcomes to medical prescription, specifically with regards to adherence to therapy, adverse events, overall satisfaction, quality of life, and resource utilisation (hospitalisations, visits to the emergency department, and consultations. Non-medical prescribers frequently had medical support available to facilitate a collaborative practice. With appropriate training and support, non-medical prescription by nurses and pharmacists can be as effective as when carried out by doctors.

  14. Prescription opioid use among university students: assessment of post-cue exposure craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Carels, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of prescriptions written to adolescents and young adults for opioid analgesics, the rise in non-medical use of such drugs among university students, and the potential role of craving in the misuse of opioids, there have been no published studies assessing craving for prescription opioids in this population. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the impact of prescription opioid-related cue exposure on craving in university students. Students (n=277) recruited from a large university in the Midwestern United States were randomly assigned to two conditions to test the impact of cue exposure to either prescription opioid-related stimuli or control stimuli. Relative to the control condition, prescription opioid-related cue exposure significantly increased overall craving, desire and intention to use prescription opioids, relief from negative states by using prescription opioids, and perceived control over prescription opioid use. In addition, when assessing correlates of post-cue exposure craving, negative mood and procurement of prescription opioids from non-medical sources were the only measured variables that were significantly associated with overall craving and/or any of the craving measure's subscales. Craving may be important aspect of prescription opioid use among university students. Future research assessing craving as a function of non-medical user subtype is warranted.

  15. 42 CFR 434.12 - Contracts with private nonmedical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts with private nonmedical institutions. 434... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS CONTRACTS Contracts with Fiscal Agents and Private Nonmedical Institutions § 434.12 Contracts with private nonmedical institutions. Contracts...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  17. Jueming prescription and its ingredients, semen cassiae and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, stimulate lipolysis and enhance the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase in cultured rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiaojiao; Wen, Xiuying

    2017-08-22

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of jueming prescription (JMP) and its ingredients, semen cassiae (SC) and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (RCL), on lipolysis, and to examine their effect on the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase (HSL) in cultured rat white adipose tissue (WAT). Retroperitoneal WAT was aseptically excised from adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, minced into uniform sections and subjected to ex vivo culture for 24 h. The tissue sections were then distributed into a 24‑well culture plate and treated with normal saline (vehicle), isoproterenol (ISO), JMP, SC and RCL. Non‑esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol release from the intact WAT explants were determined as a measurement of lipolysis, which were measured using NEFA and glycerol assay kits. The phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 (P‑HSL S563) and 660 residues (P‑HSL S660) were determined using western blot analysis. The size of the adipocytes was visualized using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It was found that JMP‑, SC‑ and RCL‑stimulated lipolysis was responsible for increasing the release of NEFAs and glycerol from the intact WAT in vitro. In addition, JMP, SC and RCL increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser563: JMP water (JW) extract, 3.52‑fold; JMP ethanol (JE) extract, 3.38‑fold; SC water (SW) extract, 4.60‑fold; SC ethanol (SE) extract, 4.20‑fold; RCL water (RW) extract, 6.98‑fold; RCL ethanol (RE) extract, 6.60‑fold. JMP, SC and RCL also increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser660: JW extract, 3.16‑fold; JE extract, 2.92‑fold; SW extract, 4.57‑fold; SE extract, 4.13‑fold; RW extract, 5.41‑fold; RE 4.96‑fold) in the WAT. The RW extract had the most marked effect. The HE staining revealed that JMP, SC and RCL reduced the size of adipocytes in the WAT. In conclusion, JMP and its ingredients, SC and RC, stimulated lipolysis and reduced the size of adipocytes, possibly via the phosphorylation of HSL in cultured rat WAT.

  18. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jackets, Yellows, and Zombie Pills Stimulants: Bennies, Black Beauties, Hearts, Roses, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Speed, and ... used to relieve anxiety or help a person sleep, such as Valium or Xanax Stimulants — used for ...

  19. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  20. Prescriptive unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a prescriptive approach to generalized unitarity, resulting in a strictly-diagonal basis of loop integrands with coefficients given by specifically-tailored residues in field theory. We illustrate the power of this strategy in the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM), where we construct closed-form representations of all ( n-point N k MHV) scattering amplitudes through three loops. The prescriptive approach contrasts with the ordinary description of unitarity-based methods by avoiding any need for linear algebra to determine integrand coefficients. We describe this approach in general terms as it should have applications to many quantum field theories, including those without planarity, supersymmetry, or massless spectra defined in any number of dimensions.

  1. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  2. Opioid Basics: Prescription Opioids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Violence Prevention WISQARS (Injury & Death Data) Prescription Opioids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prescription opioids ... overdose before they start. Risk Factors for Prescription Opioid Abuse and Overdose Research shows that some risk ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  4. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Freese, Luana; Signor,Luciana; Machado,Cassio; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros,Helena Maria Tannhauser

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use...

  5. Nonmedically indicated induction vs expectant treatment in term nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William; Zhao, Yuan; Wapner, Ronald J; Reddy, Uma M; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women with nonmedically indicated inductions at term vs those expectantly treated. Data were obtained from maternal and neonatal charts for all deliveries on randomly selected days across 25 US hospitals over a 3-year period. A low-risk subset of nulliparous women with vertex nonanomalous singleton gestations who delivered 38 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks were selected. Maternal and neonatal outcomes for nonmedically indicated induction within each week were compared with women who did not undergo nonmedically indicated induction during that week. Multivariable analysis was used to adjust for hospital, maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, cigarette use, and insurance status. We found 31,169 women who met our criteria. Neonatal complications were either less frequent with nonmedically indicated induction or no different between groups. Nonmedically indicated induction was associated with less frequent peripartum infections (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.98) at 38 weeks of gestation and less frequent third- and fourth-degree lacerations (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.86) and less frequent peripartum infections (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.90) at 39 weeks of gestation. Nonmedically indicated induction was associated with a longer admission-to-delivery time by approximately 3-4 hours and increased odds of cesarean delivery at 38 (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08) and 40 weeks (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.15-1.46) of gestation. At 39 weeks of gestation, nonmedically indicated induction is associated with lower maternal and neonatal morbidity than women who are expectantly treated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prescription of medicines by medical students of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Faria A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is an issue with serious global implications. To our knowledge prescription of drugs by medical and non-medical students has not been studied before. We aimed to determine the practice and attitudes of drug prescription by medical students and: a how non-medical students respond to this practice, b How this compares with the attitudes and practices of non-medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 students randomly selected from 2 medical and 2 non-medical universities. Ethical requirements were ensured and data was collected using self administered questionnaires. The Chi square tests and logistic univariate regression analyses were performed using SPSS v 14 to identify associations and differences. Results A total of 572 forms were completed and the sample consisted of 295 medical students and 277 non-medical students with no significant difference in their demographic profile. Of the 295 medical students 163 (55.3% had prescribed a medicine independently and most (48.5% said that they did this 2–3 times a year. The commonest reasons for this were 'previous experience' (68.7%, 'problem too trivial' (34.4% and 'we knew everything about the condition' (31.3%. One-third (33.6% of the undergraduate medical students thought that it was alright to independently diagnose an illness while a vast majority (78.3% thought that it was alright for them to prescribe medicines to others. Common prescriptions were pain-killers, antipyretics, antiallergics and antibiotics. Medical students who prescribed medicines were of lesser age (CI = 1.366–1.887 and more likely to belong to the 1st (CI = 3.588–21.731, 2nd (CI = 2.059– 10.869 or 3rd (CI = 4.331–26.374 year of medical college. One-third (33.9% of the non-medical students reported that a medical student had prescribed medicines to them and 21.3% said that they trusted medical students and would

  7. Using Social Listening Data to Monitor Misuse and Nonmedical Use of Bupropion: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael; Davidson, Julie E; Winter, Christina; Barratt, Monica J; Win, Beta; Painter, Jeffery L; Menone, Christopher; Sayegh, Jonathan; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2017-01-01

    .8% (14/130) for bupropion, amitriptyline, and venlafaxine, respectively. The most commonly reported desired effects were similar to stimulants with bupropion, sedatives with amitriptyline, and dissociatives with venlafaxine. The nasal route of administration was most frequently reported for bupropion, whereas the oral route was most frequently reported for amitriptyline and venlafaxine. Bupropion and venlafaxine were most commonly procured from health care providers, whereas amitriptyline was most commonly obtained or stolen from a third party. The Fleiss kappa for interrater agreement among 20 items with 7 categorical response options evaluated by all 11 raters was 0.448 (95% CI 0.421-0.457). Conclusions Social listening, conducted in collaboration with harm-reduction Web forums, offers a valuable new data source that can be used for monitoring nonmedical use of antidepressants. Additional work on the capabilities of social listening will help further delineate the benefits and limitations of this rapidly evolving data source. PMID:28148472

  8. Prescription Opioid Analgesics Commonly Unused After Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, Mark C; Long, Jane J; Pronovost, Peter J; Alexander, G Caleb; Wu, Christopher L

    2017-08-02

    Prescription opioid analgesics play an important role in the treatment of postoperative pain; however, unused opioids may be diverted for nonmedical use and contribute to opioid-related injuries and deaths. To quantify how commonly postoperative prescription opioids are unused, why they remain unused, and what practices are followed regarding their storage and disposal. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from database inception to October 18, 2016, for studies describing opioid oversupply for adults after a surgical procedure. The primary outcome-opioid oversupply-was defined as the number of patients with either filled but unused opioid prescriptions or unfilled opioid prescriptions. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the study quality. Six eligible studies reported on a total of 810 unique patients (range, 30-250 patients) who underwent 7 different types of surgical procedures. Across the 6 studies, 67% to 92% of patients reported unused opioids. Of all the opioid tablets obtained by surgical patients, 42% to 71% went unused. Most patients stopped or used no opioids owing to adequate pain control, and 16% to 29% of patients reported opioid-induced adverse effects. In 2 studies examining storage safety, 73% to 77% of patients reported that their prescription opioids were not stored in locked containers. All studies reported low rates of anticipated or actual disposal, but no study reported US Food and Drug Administration-recommended disposal methods in more than 9% of patients. Postoperative prescription opioids often go unused, unlocked, and undisposed, suggesting an important reservoir of opioids contributing to nonmedical use of these products, which could cause injuries or even deaths.

  9. Route of administration for illicit prescription opioids: a comparison of rural and urban drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havens Jennifer R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA involved in nonmedical prescription opioid use among rural and urban drug users. The purpose of this study was to describe rural-urban differences in ROA for nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods A purposive sample of 212 prescription drug users was recruited from a rural Appalachian county (n = 101 and a major metropolitan area (n = 111 in Kentucky. Consenting participants were given an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported nonmedical use and ROA (swallowing, snorting, injecting for the following prescription drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, OxyContin® and other oxycodone. Results Among urban participants, swallowing was the most common ROA, contrasting sharply with substance-specific variation in ROA among rural participants. Among rural participants, snorting was the most frequent ROA for hydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone, while injection was most common for hydromorphone and morphine. In age-, gender-, and race-adjusted analyses, rural participants had significantly higher odds of snorting hydrocodone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone than urban participants. Urban participants had significantly higher odds of swallowing hydrocodone and oxycodone than did rural participants. Notably, among rural participants, 67% of hydromorphone users and 63% of morphine users had injected the drugs. Conclusions Alternative ROA are common among rural drug users. This finding has implications for rural substance abuse treatment and harm reduction, in which interventions should incorporate methods to prevent and reduce route-specific health complications of drug use.

  10. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  12. Use of the Internet to Obtain Drugs without a Prescription Among Treatment-involved Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Clements, Nicolle; Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; McLellan, A Thomas; Arria, Amelia M

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is common and poses risks such as injury, overdose, and development of abuse and dependence. Internet pharmacies offer prescription drugs without a prescription, creating a source of illicit drugs accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. We examined this issue in a convenience sample of 1,860 adolescents and young adults from 24 residential and outpatient treatment programs. Few individuals obtained drugs from the Internet (n = 26, 2.3%). Pain relievers were the most frequently purchased type of drug. The majority of adolescents and young adult online purchasers made the purchases from their own or a friend's house.

  13. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F Ghaieth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%. Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Results: Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42% out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48% took antibiotics based on doctor′s prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27% who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29% of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor′s prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Conclusion: Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners.

  14. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaieth, Mohamed F; Elhag, Sara R M; Hussien, Mamoun E; Konozy, Emad H E

    2015-01-01

    Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%). Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42%) out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48%) took antibiotics based on doctor's prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27%) who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29%) of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor's prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners.

  15. Inpatients’ medical prescription errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melo Santos Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and quantify the most frequent prescription errors in inpatients’ medical prescriptions. Methods: A survey of prescription errors was performed in the inpatients’ medical prescriptions, from July 2008 to May 2009 for eight hours a day. Rresults: At total of 3,931 prescriptions was analyzed and 362 (9.2% prescription errors were found, which involved the healthcare team as a whole. Among the 16 types of errors detected in prescription, the most frequent occurrences were lack of information, such as dose (66 cases, 18.2% and administration route (26 cases, 7.2%; 45 cases (12.4% of wrong transcriptions to the information system; 30 cases (8.3% of duplicate drugs; doses higher than recommended (24 events, 6.6% and 29 cases (8.0% of prescriptions with indication but not specifying allergy. Cconclusion: Medication errors are a reality at hospitals. All healthcare professionals are responsible for the identification and prevention of these errors, each one in his/her own area. The pharmacist is an essential professional in the drug therapy process. All hospital organizations need a pharmacist team responsible for medical prescription analyses before preparation, dispensation and administration of drugs to inpatients. This study showed that the pharmacist improves the inpatient’s safety and success of prescribed therapy.

  16. Typologies of prescription opioid use in a large sample of adults assessed for substance abuse treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci C Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a population, non-medical prescription opioid users are not well-defined. We aimed to derive and describe typologies of prescription opioid use and nonmedical use using latent class analysis in an adult population being assessed for substance abuse treatment. METHODS: Latent class analysis was applied to data from 26,314 unique respondents, aged 18-70, self-reporting past month use of a prescription opioid out of a total of 138,928 cases (18.9% collected by the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV®, a national database for near real-time prescription opioid abuse surveillance. Data were obtained from November 2005 through December 2009. Substance abuse treatment, criminal justice, and public assistance programs in the United States submitted data to the ASI-MV database (n = 538. Six indicators of the latent classes derived from responses to the ASI-MV, a version of the ASI modified to collect prescription opioid abuse and chronic pain experience. The latent class analysis included respondent home ZIP code random effects to account for nesting of respondents within ZIP code. RESULTS: A four-class adjusted latent class model fit best and defined clinically interpretable and relevant subgroups: Use as prescribed, Prescribed misusers, Medically healthy abusers, and Illicit users. Classes varied on key variables, including race/ethnicity, gender, concurrent substance abuse, duration of prescription opioid abuse, mental health problems, and ASI composite scores. Three of the four classes (81% of respondents exhibited high potential risk for fatal opioid overdose; 18.4% exhibited risk factors for blood-borne infections. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple and distinct profiles of prescription opioid use were detected, suggesting a range of use typologies at differing risk for adverse events. Results may help clinicians and policy makers better focus overdose and blood-borne infection prevention efforts and intervention strategies

  17. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...; these include opioids, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids, and drugs that are... consequences of prescription drug abuse are seen in the data collected by the Substance Abuse and Mental...

  18. Prescription Stimulant Misuse in a Military Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    that nearly 1 in 5 reported mental health concerns. In particular, James et al found that personality traits of neuroticism (assessed using the Big...intention- ally gave misleading answers. In an evaluation of risk and protective factors associated with PTSD, James et al found that neuroticism was linked

  19. Non-Medical Management of Raynaud’s Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    I AD-AIll 032 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA F/B &/ S I NON-MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RAYNAUD’S OISEASE,(U) I JUN 81 J B JOBE. J B...collagen disease, they are referred to as Rana d’s phenomenon or syndrome . Minimal criteria for diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease have long been established...JAMA. l945; 129:1-- s . 2. blain, A 1l1, Coiler, FA, Carver, 6i. Raynaud’s disease: A study ot criteria for prognosis. Surgery. 19)1; 2V:387-31)7. 3

  20. Connecting to young adults: an online social network survey of beliefs and attitudes associated with prescription opioid misuse among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah; Brevard, Julie; Budman, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A survey of motives and attitudes associated with patterns of nonmedical prescription opioid medication use among college students was conducted on Facebook, a popular online social networking Web site. Response metrics for a 2-week random advertisement post, targeting students who had misused prescription medications, surpassed typical benchmarks for online marketing campaigns and yielded 527 valid surveys. Respondent characteristics, substance use patterns, and use motives were consistent with other surveys of prescription opioid use among college populations. Results support the potential of online social networks to serve as powerful vehicles to connect with college-aged populations about their drug use. Limitations of the study are noted.

  1. Getting a prescription filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are located inside of a grocery or large "chain" store. It is best to fill all prescriptions ... be used for long-term medicines and medical supplies. The website should have clear directions for filling ...

  2. Nonmedical factors associated with feather picking in pet psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Lori A; Hungerford, Laura

    2014-06-01

    A nested case-control study was performed to determine nonmedical risk factors associated with feather picking in psittacine birds. Forty-two case birds, reported by their owners to pick their feathers, and 126 unaffected birds were compared. The odds of feather picking were higher in 2 species categories, African grey parrots (Psitticus erithacus, adjusted odds ratio [ORadj = 8.4, P picking also were higher for birds that were out of their cages more than 8 hours per day (ORadj = 7.4, P picking decreased by almost 90% (ORadj = 0.1, P < .005) for birds that interacted with people at least 4 hours a day. These findings identify characteristics that practitioners may want to include when asking bird owners about behavioral history and may be useful in focusing future research regarding this behavior.

  3. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard William Meek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  4. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Richard William; Vyas, Hrushi; Piddock, Laura Jane Violet

    2015-10-01

    The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  5. Prevalence of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barchha Nina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit methamphetamine use continues to be a public health concern in the United States. The goal of the current study was to use a relatively inexpensive methodology to examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States. Methods The sample was obtained through an internet survey of noninstitutionalized adults (n = 4,297 aged 18 to 49 in the United States in 2005. Propensity weighting methods using information from the U.S. Census and the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH were used to estimate national-level prevalence rates. Results The overall prevalence of current nonmedical methamphetamine use was estimated to be 0.27%. Lifetime use was estimated to be 8.6%. Current use rates for men (0.32% and women (0.23% did not differ, although men had a higher 3-year prevalence rate (3.1% than women (1.1%. Within the age subgroup with the highest overall methamphetamine use (18 to 25 year olds, non-students had substantially higher methamphetamine use (0.85% current; 2.4% past year than students (0.23% current; 0.79% past year. Methamphetamine use was not constrained to those with publicly funded health care insurance. Conclusion Through the use of an internet panel weighted to reflect U.S. population norms, the estimated lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use among 18 to 49 year olds was 8.6%. These findings give rates of use comparable to those reported in the 2005 NSDUH. Internet surveys are a relatively inexpensive way to provide complimentary data to telephone or in-person interviews.

  6. [Non-medical applications for brain MRI: Ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, S; Fagot-Largeault, A; Leboyer, M; Houenou, J

    2015-04-01

    The recent neuroimaging techniques offer the possibility to better understand complex cognitive processes that are involved in mental disorders and thus have become cornerstone tools for research in psychiatry. The performances of functional magnetic resonance imaging are not limited to medical research and are used in non-medical fields. These recent applications represent new challenges for bioethics. In this article we aim at discussing the new ethical issues raised by the applications of the latest neuroimaging technologies to non-medical fields. We included a selection of peer-reviewed English medical articles after a search on NCBI Pubmed database and Google scholar from 2000 to 2013. We screened bibliographical tables for supplementary references. Websites of governmental French institutions implicated in ethical questions were also screened for governmental reports. Findings of brain areas supporting emotional responses and regulation have been used for marketing research, also called neuromarketing. The discovery of different brain activation patterns in antisocial disorder has led to changes in forensic psychiatry with the use of imaging techniques with unproven validity. Automated classification algorithms and multivariate statistical analyses of brain images have been applied to brain-reading techniques, aiming at predicting unconscious neural processes in humans. We finally report the current position of the French legislation recently revised and discuss the technical limits of such techniques. In the near future, brain imaging could find clinical applications in psychiatry as diagnostic or predictive tools. However, the latest advances in brain imaging are also used in non-scientific fields raising key ethical questions. Involvement of neuroscientists, psychiatrists, physicians but also of citizens in neuroethics discussions is crucial to challenge the risk of unregulated uses of brain imaging. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by

  7. Characteristics and motives of college students who engage in nonmedical use of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Robert L; Coleman, John J; Bucher, Richard H; Wilford, Bonnie B

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) has a long history of being an effective medication for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, the nonmedical use of MPH has increased, particularly among college students. To investigate this, we surveyed 2,087 students regarding MPH misuse. Of 2,087 respondents, 110 (5.3%) used MPH nonmedically at least once. Most obtained MPH free from a friend, acquaintance, or family member. Misuse of Ritalin(R) occurred four times more frequently than Concerta. Among Ritalin abusers, Intranasal use was reported more often than oral. Students reported using MPH nonmedically for recreational reasons as well as to improve academic performance.

  8. Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the epidemic of prescription drug overdose, especially in women, and what can be done about it.  Created: 7/2/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  9. Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Manual (PDBM) is user guide to Part D Prescription Drug Program. It includes information on general provisions, benefits,...

  10. Prescription in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van

    2006-01-01

    The second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) has combined registration data on morbidity and prescription, making it possible to unravel diagnosis-specific prescription behaviour of general practitioners(GPs). Prescription rates for different disorders vary considerably, especially

  11. Quantitative assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Helene; Zeiter, Stephan; Andersen, Ole K; Wieling, Ronald; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-04-22

    This study aimed to characterize the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and to define the nociceptive threshold in 25 healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep in standing posture. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral digital nerves of the right thoracic and the pelvic limb was performed and surface-electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid (all animals) and the femoral biceps (18 animals) or the peroneus tertius muscles (7 animals) was recorded. The behavioural reaction following each stimulation was scored on a scale from 0 (no reaction) to 5 (strong whole body reaction). A train-of-five 1ms constant-current pulse was used and current intensity was stepwise increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The NWR threshold intensity (It) was defined as the minimal stimulus intensity able to evoke a reflex with a minimal Root-Mean-Square amplitude (RMSA) of 20μV, a minimal duration of 10ms and a minimal reaction score of 1 (slight muscle contraction of the stimulated limb) within the time window of 20 to 130ms post-stimulation. Based on this value, further stimulations were performed below (0.9It) and above threshold (1.5It and 2It). The stimulus-response curve was described. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. At the deltoid muscle It was 4.4mA (2.9-5.7) with an RMSA of 62μV (30-102). At the biceps femoris muscle It was 7.0mA (4.0-10.0) with an RMSA of 43μV (34-50) and at the peroneus tertius muscle It was 3.4mA (3.1-4.4) with an RMSA of 38μV (32-46). Above threshold, RMSA was significantly increased at all muscles. Below threshold, RMSA was only significantly smaller than at It for the peroneus tertius muscle but not for the other muscles. Data achieved in this study serve as reference for experimental or clinical applications of the conscious sheep model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Australian university students’ coping strategies and use of pharmaceutical stimulants as cognitive enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine eJensen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are reports that some university students are using prescription stimulants for non-medical ‘pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE’ to improve alertness, focus, memory, and mood in an attempt to manage the demands of study at university. Purported demand for PCEs in academic contexts have been based on incomplete understandings of student motivations, and often based on untested assumptions about the context within which stimulants are used. They may represent attempts to cope with biopsychosocial stressors in university life by offsetting students’ inadequate coping responses, which in turn may affect their cognitive performance. This study aimed to identify (a what strategies students adopted to cope with the stress of university life and, (b to assess whether students who have used stimulants for PCE exhibit particular stress or coping patterns.Methods: We interviewed 38 university students (with and without PCE experience about their experience of managing student life, specifically their educational values, study habits and achievement, stress management, getting assistance, competing activities and responsibilities, health habits, and cognitive enhancement practices. All interview transcripts were coded into themes and analysed.Results: Our thematic analysis revealed that, generally, self-rated coping ability decreased as students’ self-rated stress level increased. Students used emotion- and problem-focused coping for the most part and adjustment-focused coping to a lesser extent. Avoidance, an emotion-focused coping strategy, was the most common, followed by problem-focused coping strategies, the use of cognition on enhancing substances, and planning and monitoring of workload. PCE users predominantly used avoidant emotion-focused coping strategies until they no longer mitigated the distress of approaching deadlines resulting in the use of prescription stimulants as a substance-based problem-focused coping

  13. How medical services mask provision of non-medical supportive care in palliative oncology ?

    OpenAIRE

    Buthion, Valérie; Moumjid, Nora; Margier, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the context of cancer, non-medical supportive care improves quality of life. While policymakers expect it to be cheaper than high-tech medical care, we hypothesized that it is in fact embedded in and camouflaged by hospital medical services. METHODS In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we conducted qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and family caregivers in France. We first performed a functional analysis to identify non-medical supportive care functio...

  14. Fermion field renormalization prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yong

    2005-01-01

    We discuss all possible fermion field renormalization prescriptions in conventional field renormalization meaning and mainly pay attention to the imaginary part of unstable fermion Field Renormalization Constants (FRC). We find that introducing the off-diagonal fermion FRC leads to the decay widths of physical processes $t\\to c Z$ and $b\\to s \\gamma$ gauge-parameter dependent. We also discuss the necessity of renormalizing the bare fields in conventional quantum field theory.

  15. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  16. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, James M; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. A total of 1,248 (46%) respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%), anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6%) and antidepressants (12.7%). A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87-5.43) greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27-2.16) greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p=0.58), but this difference was not statistically significant. These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical cannabis may not be influencing individual

  17. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... politico-cultural antagonisms in Northern Ireland. However, the terms ‘consociationalism’ or ‘consociational democracy’ are wholly absent from political discourses: they are never used in any of the governmental and constitutional documents between 1969 and 2006. As such, juxtaposing academic literature...... to integration, eventually converged in authoritative academic and political discourses....

  18. [Delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. Options and limits from a legal viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2009-11-01

    Increasing specialization and growing mechanization in medicine have strongly supported the transfer of originally medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. The enormous pressure of costs as a result of limited financial resources in the health system make the delegation of previously medical functions to cheaper non-medical ancillary staff expedient and the sometimes obvious lack of physicians also gains importance by the delegation of many activities away from medical staff. In the German health system there is no legal norm which clearly and definitively describes the field of activity of a medical doctor. Fundamental for a reform of the areas of responsibility between physicians and non-medical personnel is a terminological differentiation between instruction-dependent, subordinate, non-independent assistance and the delegation of medical responsibilities which are transferred to non-medical personnel for independent and self-determined completion under the supervision and control of a physician. The inclination towards risk of medical activities, the need of protection of the patient and the intellectual prerequisites required for carrying out the necessary measures define the limitations for the delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical ancillary staff. These criteria demarcate by expert assessment the exclusively medical field of activity in a sufficiently exact and convincing manner.

  19. Caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Tina; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Neilson, James P; Kingdon, Carol; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2012-03-14

    controlled trials, upon which to base any practice recommendations regarding planned caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term. In the absence of trial data, there is an urgent need for a systematic review of observational studies and a synthesis of qualitative data to better assess the short- and long-term effects of caesarean section and vaginal birth.

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  1. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  2. A prescription fraud detection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    current prominent position within the academy. Structuring these interpretations alongside evolving constitutional policy, the paper will argue that although consociationalism has developed as an indeterminate research design, the inherent logic of managing diversity on the basis of equality as opposed......From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... by the Dutch political scientist Arend Lijphart in a World Politics article from 1969, it has since increased in importance, both as an authoritative explanatory framework for the institutional design inherent in political agreements and as a desirable approach to manage, balance and potentially dissolve...

  4. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among rural and urban women with protective orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors for lifetime nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among a sample of rural and urban women with recent partner violence victimization (n=756). Nearly one third of the sample (32.8%) reported ever using illicit sedative-hypnotics or opiates. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates was significantly associated with lifetime cumulative exposure to interpersonal victimization, rural Appalachian residency, past-year use of other substances and other substance-related problems, and lifetime unmet health care needs. Findings have implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment and victim advocacy programs.

  5. 42 CFR 403.764 - Basis and purpose of religious nonmedical health care institutions providing home service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose of religious nonmedical health care institutions providing home service. 403.764 Section 403.764 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Religious Nonmedical Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment §...

  6. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR......), contains information on dispensed prescriptions, including variables at the level of the drug user, the prescriber, and the pharmacy. Validity and coverage: Reimbursement-driven record keeping, with automated bar-code-based data entry provides data of high quality, including detailed information...

  7. Usage of emergency contraception between medical related and non-medical related students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, A K

    2009-04-01

    Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.

  8. Anxiety sensitivity and nonmedical benzodiazepine use among adults with opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Bogunovic, Olivera; Karakula, Sterling L; Griffin, Margaret L; Weiss, Roger D

    2017-02-01

    Nonmedical benzodiazepine use is common among adults with opioid use disorder; however, little is known about this co-occurrence. Anxiety sensitivity-the fear of anxiety symptoms and sensations-motivates behaviors to escape and avoid distressing states, and accordingly is associated with coping motives for substance use. This might be particularly relevant among women, who report using substances to cope with negative emotions more often than men. The aim of the current study was to examine whether nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with higher anxiety sensitivity among treatment-seeking adults diagnosed with opioid use disorder, and to investigate whether gender moderated this association. A sample of adults (ranging in age from 18 to 81years) receiving inpatient treatment for opioid use disorder (N=257) completed measures of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and benzodiazepine use frequency. Results of an analysis of variance indicated that frequency of past-month nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with significantly higher anxiety sensitivity. This effect remained when controlling for the effect of anxiety symptoms (F[1, 251]=3.91, p=0.049, ηp(2)=0.02). Gender moderated this association, and post-hoc analyses found a strong association between nonmedical benzodiazepine use and anxiety sensitivity in women, and not men. Anxiety sensitivity, which can be reduced with treatment, might be a candidate therapeutic target in this population, particularly in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  10. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  11. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  12. Assessment and care for non-medical risk factors in current antenatal health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); Leeman, A. (Annemiek); W. Waelput (Wim); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: this study aims to identify current practice in risk assessment, current antenatal policy and referral possibilities for non-medical risk factors (lifestyle and social risk factors), and to explore the satisfaction among obstetric caregivers in their collaboration with

  13. A new strategy for antidepressant prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lavergne

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available From our research and literature search we propose an understanding of the mechanism of action of antidepressants (ADs that should lead to increase efficacy and tolerance.We understand that ADs promote synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. This promotion is linked with dopamine (DA stimulation. Literature shows that all ADs (chemical, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, sleep deprivation increase at least one neuromodulator (serotonin, noradrenaline or DA; this article focuses on DA release or turn-over in the frontal cortex. DA increase promotes synaptic plasticity with an inverted U shape dose-response curve. Specific interaction between DA and glutamate relies on DA (D1 receptors and Glutamate (NMDA receptors and/or on neurotrophic factors activation. With the understanding that all ADs have a common, final, DArgic stimulation that promotes synaptic plasticity we can predict that:1AD efficiency is related to the compound strength for inducing DArgic stimulation.2AD efficiency presents a therapeutic window that coincides with the inverted U shape DA response curve.3AD delay of action is related to a synaptogenesis and neurogenesis delay of action.4The minimum efficient dose can be found by starting at a low dosage and increasing up to the patient response. 5An increased tolerance requires a concomitant prescription of a few ADs, with different or opposite adverse effects, at a very low dose.6ADs could improve all diseases with cognitive impairments and synaptic depression by increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis.

  14. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on past-month use for illicit drugs (including marijuana and prescription drugs), alcohol, and tobacco. ... neonatal abstinence syndrome, and provides evidence-based treatment options that have been shown to be safe ...

  15. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR...... on the dispensed drug. Conclusion: The possibility of linkage with many other nationwide individual-level data sources renders the DNPR a very powerful pharmacoepidemiological tool...

  16. Antipsychotics dosage and antiparkinsonian prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasquet Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the link between the dosage of several antipsychotics and the prescription of antiparkinsonians in an observational study. Methods In the context of a national naturalistic prospective observational study, a database containing all the prescriptions from 100 French psychiatrists during the year 2002 was analysed. The inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and age over 18. The mean dosage of antipsychotics with and without antiparkinsonians was compared. Since there were multiple prescriptions for a given subject, generalised mixed linear models were also used to study the link between antiparkinsonian prescription and antipsychotic dosage. Results antiparkinsonians were prescribed to 32,9% of the patients. Two groups of antipsychotics were observed relating to differences in dosage when an antiparkinsonian was co prescribed or not : a first group, where the mean dosage was higher with antiparkinsonians (risperidone, amisulpride and haloperidol and a second group (clozapine, olanzapine, in which antiparkinsonian co prescription was not related to the dosage of antipsychotics. Conclusion As a conclusion, it can be said that it is important to consider the dosage and the type of antipsychotic in the treatment of patients suffering of schizophrenia, because neurological side effects are frequent and can impair quality of life. Moreover the prescription of antiparkinsonians can lead to different side effects such anticholinergic effects.

  17. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corroon Jr JM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James M Corroon Jr,1 Laurie K Mischley,2 Michelle Sexton3 1Center for Medical Cannabis Education, Del Mar, CA, 2Bastyr University Research Institute, Kenmore, WA, 3Department of Medical Research, Center for the Study of Cannabis and Social Policy, Seattle, WA, USA Background: The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs.Methods: A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State.Results: A total of 1,248 (46% respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%, anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6% and antidepressants (12.7%. A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87–5.43 greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27–2.16 greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p=0.58, but this difference was not statistically significant.Discussion: These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs

  18. Shifting blame: Buprenorphine prescribers, addiction treatment, and prescription monitoring in middle-class America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sonia; Rivera-Cabrero, Allyssa S; Hansen, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Growing nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic use among suburban and rural Whites has changed the public's perception of the nature of opioid addiction, and of appropriate interventions. Opioid addiction has been recast as a biological disorder in which patients are victims of their neurotransmitters and opioid prescribers are irresponsible purveyors of dangerous substances requiring controls. This framing has led to a different set of policy responses than the "War on Drugs" that has focused on heroin trade in poor urban communities; in response to prescription opioid addiction, prescription drug monitoring programs and tamper-resistant opioid formulations have arisen as primary interventions in place of law enforcement. Through the analysis of preliminary findings from interviews with physicians who are certified to manage opioid addiction with the opioid pharmaceutical buprenorphine, we argue that an increase in prescriber monitoring has shifted the focus from addicted people to prescribers as a threat, paradoxically driving users to illicit markets and constricting their access to pharmaceutical treatment for opioid addiction. Prescriber monitoring is also altering clinical cultures of care, as general physicians respond to heightened surveillance and the psychosocial complexities of treating addiction with either rejection of opioid dependent patients, or with resourceful attempts to create support systems for their treatment where none exists.

  19. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy S L; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

  20. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    ... of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials...

  1. The non-medical workforce and its role in surgical training: Consensus recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, Vimal J; Peckham-Cooper, Adam; Bunting, David; Beamish, Andrew J; Williams, Adam; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the delivery of the healthcare structure have led to the expansion of the non-medical workforce (NMW). The non-medical practitioner in surgery (a healthcare professional without a medical degree who undertakes specialist training) is a valuable addition to a surgical firm. However, there are a number of challenges regarding the successful widespread implementation of this role. This paper outlines a number of these concerns, and makes recommendations to aid the realisation of the non-medical practitioner as a normal part of the surgical team. In summary, the Association of Surgeons in Training welcomes the development of the non-medical workforce as part of the surgical team in order to promote enhanced patient care and improved surgical training opportunities. However, establishing a workforce of independent/semi-independent practitioners who compete for the same training opportunities as surgeons in training may threaten the UK surgical training system, and therefore the care of our future patients.

  2. Attitude and Behavior of Nonmedical Students towards Transmission and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Rafsanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ravari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent AIDS it is required to create essential changes in attitudes and behaviors of the society. This work was conducted to evaluate attitude and behavior of nonmedical students towards transmission and prevention ways of AIDS. Materials and Methods: This work was conducted based on stratified random sampling on 384 numbers of nonmedical students. Research instrument was a three-part questionnaire designed by the author. Results: Findings indicated that 19.8% and 80.2% of the students have negative and positive attitudes toward AIDS, respectively. Besides, 47.4% of them had a relatively risky behavior whereas 52.6% of them had a secure behavior. Conclusion: Efficient programs about changing the attitude and prevention of risky behaviors seem to be necessary.

  3. The Berlin Brain–Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Fazli, Siamac; Sannelli, Claudia; Haufe, Stefan; Maeder, Cecilia; Ramsey, Lenny; Sturm, Irene; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a steadily growing area of research. While initially BCI research was focused on applications for paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications in healthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular, monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states have seen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples of such novel applications which provide evidence for the promising potential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, we discuss distinct methodological improvements required to bring non-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of layperson target groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability, short control latencies. PMID:21165175

  4. Periodontal health knowledge of nonmedical professionals and their oral hygiene behavior in a teaching hospital in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike; Adebayo Temitayo Onajole; Patricia Omowunmi Ayanbadejo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The awareness of periodontal diseases is generally poor among Nigerians. Working within the hospital environment should give an edge to nonmedical professionals, who could help to promote periodontal health awareness in countries with an inadequate number of dental health professionals. This study aimed to determine the awareness, knowledge of periodontal diseases and oral hygiene behavior of nonmedical professionals within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectio...

  5. Role of Religiosity in Psychological Well-Being Among Medical and Non-medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen

    2016-12-27

    Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.

  6. Routes of administration of cannabis used for nonmedical purposes and associations with patterns of drug use.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S.; Deline, S.; Studer, J.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known regarding cannabis administration routes for nonmedical use-that is, its delivery methods (e.g., joints, water pipe, food). Therefore, we examined the prevalence rates of different cannabis delivery methods and assessed the relationship of the distinct administration routes with problematic drug use. Subgroups of cannabis users were also investigated (i.e., "pure" cannabis users, previously described as employing a harmless route of administration, and water pipe user...

  7. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Amanda Vos; Mieke J van Veen; Erwin Birnie; Semiha Denktas; Eric AP Steegers; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenata...

  8. Associations between statewide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) requirement and physician patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Wang, Zhi; Boyd, Carol; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Buu, Anne

    2018-01-01

    State-level prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have been implemented in most states. PDMPs enable registered prescribers to obtain real-time information on patients' prescription history to reduce non-medical use of controlled drugs. This study examined whether PDMP implementation and different levels of PDMP requirements were associated with physicians' patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain. This is a secondary analysis study using cross-sectional national data. Patients with non-cancer chronic pain from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were included (weighted N=81,018,131; unweighted N=3295). Heckman two-step selection procedure employing two logistic regressions was used to explore the associations between PDMP requirements and physicians' prescribing behaviors, controlling for physician characteristics, patient characteristics, physician-healthcare system interaction, and physician-patient relationship, guided by the Eisenberg's model of physician decision making. State PDMP implementation status and requirement levels were not associated with physician opioid prescribing for non-cancer chronic pain treatment (p's ranged 0.30-0.32). Patients with Medicare coverage were more likely to be prescribed opioid analgesics than those with private health insurance (OR=1.55, prequirements and enforcement for prescribers and related stakeholders. Future studies also are needed to identify characteristics contributing to PDMP effectiveness in reducing non-medical use of prescription opioids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-medical aspects of civilian-military collaboration in management of major incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram-Manesh, A; Lönroth, H; Rotter, P; Wilhelmsson, M; Aremyr, J; Berner, A; Andersson, A Nero; Carlström, E

    2017-03-02

    Disasters and major incidents demand a multidisciplinary management. Recent experiences from terrorist attacks worldwide have resulted in a search for better assessment of the needs, resources, and knowledge in the medical and non-medical management of these incidents and also actualized the need for collaboration between civilian and military healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the civilian-military collaboration in a Swedish context with the main focus on its non-medical management. An exercise, simulating a foreign military attack centrally on Swedish soil, was designed, initiated, and conducted by a team consisting of civilian and military staff. Data were collected prospectively and evaluated by an expert team. Specific practical and technical issues were presented in collaboration between civilian and military staffs. In addition, shortcomings in decision-making, follow-up, communication, and collaboration due to prominent lack of training and exercising the tasks and positions in all managerial levels of the hospital were identified. Current social and political unrests and terror attacks worldwide necessitate civilian-military collaboration. Such collaboration, however, needs to be synchronized and adjusted to avoid preventable medical and non-medical consequences. Simulation exercises might be one important source to improve such collaboration.

  10. Using pay-for-success to increase investment in the nonmedical determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Ian

    2014-11-01

    The combination of fee-for-service payments and the US health care system's standing commitment to treating existing illness discourages spending on the behavioral, social, and environmental (that is, the nonmedical) conditions that contribute most to long-term health. Pay-for-success, alternatively known as social impact bonds, or SIBs, offers a possible solution. The pay-for-success model relies on an investor that is willing to fund a nonmedical intervention up front while bearing the risk that the intervention may fail to prevent disease in the future. Should the intervention succeed, however, the investor is repaid in full by a predetermined payer (such as a public health agency) and receives an additional return on its investment as a reward for taking on the risk. Pay-for-success pilots are being developed to reduce asthma-related emergencies among children, poor birth outcomes, and the progression of prediabetes to diabetes, among other applications. These efforts, supported by key policy reforms such as public agency data sharing and coordinated care, promise to increase the number of evidence-based nonmedical service providers and seed a new market that values health, not just health care.

  11. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2006-09-01

    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.

  12. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hamilton; Wallach, Jason

    2014-01-01

    PCP or phencyclidine was discovered in 1956 and soon became a popular street drug. Dissociatives including PCP, ketamine, and dextromethorphan have been used non-medically for their mind-altering effects for over 60 years. Many of these compounds have also been used clinically and in legitimate research. At least 14 derivatives of PCP were sold for non-medical and illict use from the late 1960s until the 1990s. With the advent of the Internet, the drug market underwent a dramatic evolution. While initially gray-market chemical vendors offering dextromethorphan and ketamine thrived, most recently the market has shifted to legal high and online-based research chemical vendors. Starting with the first dissociative research chemical, 4-MeO-PCP in 2008, the dissociative research chemical market has rapidly evolved and currently comprises at least 12 dissociatives, almost half of which were unknown in the scientific literature prior to their introduction. Several of these, including methoxetamine, have reached widespread use internationally. A historical account of non-medical use of over 30 dissociative compounds was compiled from a diverse collection of sources. The first complete portrait of this underground market is presented along with the relevant legal, technological, and scientific developments which have driven its evolution. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reproduction opportunists in the new global sex trade: PGD and non-medical sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory differences between countries are an important driver of the cross-border trade in assisted reproduction as people move to seek services unavailable in their home countries. The development of a lucrative global trade in non-medical sex selection needs to be considered in ethical debates over its availability. I suggest that depictions of non-medical sex selection as a means of 'family balancing' or supportive of reproductive autonomy serve to distance the technologies rhetorically from the gender stereotyping inherent in their use and the commodification upon which they depend. They construct new social categories such as the 'unbalanced' family, the pathologization of 'gender disappointment' and a limited and highly individualized definition of reproductive freedom that permits medical interventions on healthy bodies. Orientalism pervades ethical debate depicting non-medical sex selection in the West as more acceptable to practices in 'Asia'. A case study of the interconnections between Australia and Thailand highlights the global economy sustaining the practice. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  15. Medication safety: Filling your prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines. Also learn what each medicine looks like. Filling Your Prescriptions Your health plan may require you to use certain pharmacies. ... standards. The website should have clear directions for filling or ... seeing you. Make sure your health plan will cover the cost of using the ...

  16. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  17. Therapeutic Audit Of Dermatological Prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thawani V.R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological prescribing trends in outdoor patients attending Dermatology Clinic of Govt. Medical College Hospital, Nagpur were studied. In all 190 prescriptions were audited to find number of drugs per prescription, use of generic/brand names, dosage forms, frequency, duration of treatment, dose and categorywise drug consumption. The age and sex distributions of patients and disease distribution were also studied. Polypharmacy was found to be widely prevalent. More drugs were prescribed by brand names than generic. Dosage form, frequency and duration were mentioned in most of the prescriptions; however, doses of the drugs were not, in majority. The major drugs in the prescriptions were antihistaminics followed by antimicrobials , steroids and vitamins. Not much difference was found in sexes attending the Clinic. There were more female patients of acne vulgaris, disseminated lupus erythematosus and Hansen’s disease. More males suffered from scables and tinea infections. There were 4 patients who were prescribed drugs without diagnosis. Except in some cases, the prescribing was relational.

  18. E-prescription across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    . The study concludes that member states have varying degrees of health care policy, privacy enforcement and laws concerning data protection, telecommunication services and digital signature with regards to e-Prescription. Interoperability of different systems is only a partial solution. Security...

  19. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, James M; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. Methods A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days. Subjects were surveyed via an online anonymous questionnaire on cannabis substitution effects. Participants were recruited through social media and cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. Results A total of 1,248 (46%) respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%), anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6%) and antidepressants (12.7%). A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent. The odds of reporting substituting were 4.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.87–5.43) greater among medical cannabis users compared with non-medical users and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.27–2.16) greater among those reporting use for managing the comorbidities of pain, anxiety and depression. A slightly higher percentage of those who reported substituting resided in states where medical cannabis was legal at the time of the survey (47% vs. 45%, p=0.58), but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical

  20. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a...

  1. Prescription Opioid Abuse: A Literature Review of the Clinical and Economic Burden in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha M.; Rattana, Stacy K.; Quock, Tiffany P.; Mody, Samir H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole. (Population Health Management 2014;17:372–387) PMID:25075734

  2. Prescription opioid abuse: a literature review of the clinical and economic burden in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roxanne; Patel, Anisha M; Rattana, Stacy K; Quock, Tiffany P; Mody, Samir H

    2014-12-01

    Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole.

  3. [Exercise prescription and nutrition therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masatoshi; Sone, Ryoko; Matsuo, Eriko; Matsubara, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-08-01

    In the report of World Health Organization, the leading global risks for mortality in the world are high blood pressure (12.8%), tobacco use (8.7%), high blood glucose (5.8%), physical inactivity (5.5%), and overweight and obesity (4.8%). Increased blood pressure levels cause the increased morbidity and mortality of chronic diseases, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease. Improving the high blood pressure is considered as common challenges around the world. Exercise prescription and nutrition therapy might be important non-pharmacologic therapies in the control of hypertension. Applying these therapies to the general population can help to prevent an increase in blood pressure and decrease elevated blood pressure levels for those with hypertension. Exercise prescription and nutrition therapy are discussed using the international guidelines.

  4. Prescription Painkiller Overdoses PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.  Created: 7/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/2/2013.

  5. Laboratory Testing for Prescription Opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Milone, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Opioid analgesic misuse has risen significantly over the past two decades, and these drugs now represent the most commonly abused class of prescription medications. They are a major cause of poisoning deaths in the USA exceeding heroin and cocaine. Laboratory testing plays a role in the detection of opioid misuse and the evaluation of patients with opioid intoxication. Laboratories use both immunoassay and chromatographic methods (e.g., liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection),...

  6. Non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing for acute and chronic disease management in primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Greg; George, Johnson; Maclure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-22

    A range of health workforce strategies are needed to address health service demands in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Non-medical prescribing involves nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals, and physician assistants substituting for doctors in a prescribing role, and this is one approach to improve access to medicines. To assess clinical, patient-reported, and resource use outcomes of non-medical prescribing for managing acute and chronic health conditions in primary and secondary care settings compared with medical prescribing (usual care). We searched databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and five other databases on 19 July 2016. We also searched the grey literature and handsearched bibliographies of relevant papers and publications. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies (with at least two intervention and two control sites) and interrupted time series analysis (with at least three observations before and after the intervention) comparing: 1. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in acute care; 2. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in chronic care; 3. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in secondary care; 4 non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in primary care; 5. comparisons between different non-medical prescriber groups; and 6. non-medical healthcare providers with formal prescribing training versus those without formal prescribing training. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed study quality with discrepancies resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies according to EPOC criteria. We undertook meta-analyses using the fixed-effect model where studies were examining the same treatment effect and to account for small sample sizes. We compared

  7. Laboratory testing for prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Opioid analgesic misuse has risen significantly over the past two decades, and these drugs now represent the most commonly abused class of prescription medications. They are a major cause of poisoning deaths in the USA exceeding heroin and cocaine. Laboratory testing plays a role in the detection of opioid misuse and the evaluation of patients with opioid intoxication. Laboratories use both immunoassay and chromatographic methods (e.g., liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection), often in combination, to yield high detection sensitivity and drug specificity. Testing methods for opioids originated in the workplace-testing arena and focused on detection of illicit heroin use. Analysis for a wide range of opioids is now required in the context of the prescription opioid epidemic. Testing methods have also been primarily based upon urine screening; however, methods for analyzing alternative samples such as saliva, sweat, and hair are available. Application of testing to monitor prescription opioid drug therapy is an increasingly important use of drug testing, and this area of testing introduces new interpretative challenges. In particular, drug metabolism may transform one clinically available opioid into another. The sensitivity of testing methods also varies considerably across the spectrum of opioid drugs. An understanding of opioid metabolism and method sensitivity towards different opioid drugs is therefore essential to effective use of these tests. Improved testing algorithms and more research into the effective use of drug testing in the clinical setting, particularly in pain medicine and substance abuse, are needed.

  8. Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhoo Dayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Methods: Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Results: Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39% used prescription opioids and 11 (36% used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71% women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%. Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%, cluster B traits/disorder (19% and somatoform disorder (13%. Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of

  9. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  10. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  11. NON-MEDICAL DRUG USE AMONG INTERNS AND HOUSE-OFFICERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Singh, Rajpal; Avasthi, Ajit; Gupta, Rajeev

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Self-administered questionnaire was given to a sample of 105 interns and house officers working in Govt. Medical College, Jammu. Questionnaire was designed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of non-medical drug use during the last one year and to enquire about “reasons” for drug intake. It was found that drugs commonly used were alcohol, tobacco, tranquillizers, amphetamines, cannabis. Most of the subjects used the same for ‘company’, festivity or curiosity. PMID:22058486

  12. Oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE) is a preventive intervention, neither social nor nonmedical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-05-01

    The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion.

  13. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blankertz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI is a steadily growing area ofresearch. While initially BCI research was focused on applicationsfor paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications inhealthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular,monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states haveseen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples ofsuch novel applications which provide evidence for the promisingpotential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, wediscuss distinct methodological improvements required to bringnon-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of laypersontarget groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability,short control latencies.

  14. Nonmedical out-of-pocket expenses: a hidden cost of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel; Vessey, Judith

    2011-02-01

    Health care reform has primarily focused on the costs incurred by the health care delivery system. Little attention has been placed on the magnitude of out-of-pocket (OOP) costs imposed on families as caregivers. Nonmedical OOP expenses (NOOPEs) are usually overlooked. The economic burden created by NOOPEs significantly inflates the total costs families must bear. Health care workers and policy makers must gain a better understanding of these realities. This article will discuss NOOPEs, provide a case study for illustration, and discuss strategies for nurses to assist families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Recognition of flavor in non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei

    2010-02-01

    By systemically sorting of non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty such as the Thirteen Confucian Classics, etc, this article made an analysis on the meaning and content of flavor in that period with the Genesis and Epistemology, and pointed out that there were two meanings of the flavor: the first is the flavor or taste obtained by tasting, and the other is the five-elements flavor, a abstract flavor. The former flavor should be originated early than the later one. Besides, the article made a brief view on the functions of flavors in the health keeping and medicine.

  16. Physicians' decision process for drug prescription and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing mix instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Katia; De Staebel, Odette; Gijsbrechts, Els; van Waterschoot, Walter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative analysis of the physicians' decision process for drug prescription. Drugs in the considered therapeutic classes are mainly prescribed by specialists, treating patients with obligatory medical insurance, for a prolonged period of time. The research approach is specifically designed to capture the full complexity and sensitive nature of the physician's choice behavior, which appears to be more hybrid and less rational in nature than is often assumed in quantitative, model-based analyses of prescription behavior. Several interesting findings emerge from the analysis: (i) non-compensatory decision rules seem to dominate the decision process, (ii) consideration sets are typically small and change-resistant, (iii) drug cost is not a major issue for most physicians, (iv) detailing remains one of the most powerful pharmaceutical marketing instruments and is highly appreciated as a valuable and quick source of information, and (v) certain types of non-medical marketing incentives (such as free conference participation) may in some situations also influence drug choices.

  17. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy.

  18. [Quality analysis by external users of the non-medical health transport unit of Alicante].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Clemor, C; Cano, F Soriano; Gimeno, F Morant

    2011-01-01

    Non-medical health transport has great health, media and social repercussions and requires a very considerable amount of human and economic resources. To describe the quality, evaluated by external users of our Health Department, in order to know what are the most important elements for external users. Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Population to study: patients with a social security health card who come to the Hospital of Alicante and are non-medical health transport unit users. Waiting time to be delivered to hospital in 92.7% of the cases was less than an hour, and was between one and two hours for 7.2%. The most frequent destinations were rehabilitation service and outpatient clinics. When users were asked if the would recommend this service, 60.9% said "for sure" and 39.1% said "probably yes". This study allows us to know patient needs and expectations, as well as the factors they value the most and which of our work areas to improve. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonmedical Opioid Pain Relievers and All-Cause Mortality: A 27-Year Follow-Up From the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Smallwood, Bryan A.; Anthony, James C.; Wu, Li-Tzy; Eaton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonmedical opioid pain reliever use is associated with higher mortality in the general US population. Methods. We assessed the history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use among 9985 people interviewed at baseline of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program initiated in 1981 to 1983 in Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Durham, North Carolina. We linked the data with the National Death Index through 2007. Results. Nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was 1.4%. Compared with no nonmedical drug use, mortality was increased for nonmedical opioid pain reliever use (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 2.53) or nonmedical use of other drugs (HR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.62). Mortality was also higher for males and for those beginning nonmedical opioid pain reliever use before aged 15 years. Conclusions. A history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was associated with increased mortality, in particular for males and early onset users. PMID:26691106

  20. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Rasubala; Lavanya Pernapati; Ximena Velasquez; James Burk; Yan-Fang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Bas...

  1. Experimental Study of Angeng Prescription for Climacteric Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Da-shuai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Angeng Formula on climacteric syndrome in rats. Methods: The ovaries of female SD rats were removed for the establishment of menopausal syndrome rat models. After drug delivery for 30 d, serum sex hormone levels and indexes of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary were detected. Meanwhile, the effects of drugs on the histopathology of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in rats were observed. Results: Angeng prescription could increase the level of estradiol (E2 in castrated rat (P<0.01 and had a tendency to increase the level of progestin (P, lower the level of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH as well as increase the indexes of the uterus and adrenal gland. Moreover, Angeng prescription could improve the pathologic condition of the uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in castrated rats. Conclusion: Angeng prescription has a therapeutic effect on climacteric syndrome, the mechanism of which might be related with the function of regulating sex hormone.

  2. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  3. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  4. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  5. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron PN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Lionel Trueb, Bertrand YersinEmergency Service, University Hospital Center, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High-fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications.Keywords: high-fidelity simulation, crew resource management, experiential learning

  6. Medical and non-medical expenditure for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xian-Zhen; Shi, Ju-Fang; Liu, Jing-Shi; Huang, Hui-Yao; Guo, Lan-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Xiao, Hai-Fan; Wang, Le; Bai, Ya-Na; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Mai, Ling; Liu, Yu-Qin; Song, Bing-Bing; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Cao, Rong; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Ying; Lou, Pei-An; Lan, Li; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wang, Yuan-Zheng; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2017-07-03

    We aimed to assess economic burden of breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment in China through a multicenter cross-sectional study, and to obtain theoretical evidence for policy-making. This survey was conducted in 37 hospital centers across 13 provinces in China from September 2012 to December 2014. We collected information on the subject characteristics. We then assessed the medical and non-medical expenditure for BC diagnosis and treatment, factors influencing the average case expense, variations between medical and non-medical expenditure at different clinical stages, economic impact of overall expenditure in newly diagnosed course after reimbursement to the patient's family, composition of non-medical expenditure and time loss for the patient and family. Among 2746 women with BC (72.6% were admitted to specialized hospitals), the overall average expenditure was US $8450 (medical expenditure: $7527; non-medical expenditure: $922). Significant differences were found among the overall expenditure in the four clinical stages (P < 0.0001); the expenditure was higher in stages III and IV than that in stages I and II, whereas the stage IV was the highest (P < 0.0001). Moreover, a higher self-reported predicted reimbursement ratio was associated with a less economic impact on the patient's family, and the average time lost was estimated as $1529. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer might be effective for decreasing the economic burden, because costs escalate as the degree of malignancy increases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of pharmacist factors on physician prescription decisions was identified ... Keywords: Physician prescription behaviour, Pharmacist factor, ... addition to the influence of marketing promotion .... from the drug sales, obtaining clinic rental ... also analyzed the current status of pharmacist's ..... the buyer-seller dyad.

  8. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  9. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Takeo; Mackey, Tim Ken; Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-12-16

    Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are concerning, as our study found over 45,000 tweets

  10. Non-medical out-of-pocket expenses incurred by families during their child's hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Vessey, Judith A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the nonmedical out of pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of hospitalized children. The purpose of this study is to help nurses, other healthcare providers, hospital administrators, and policymakers better understand the NOOPEs incurred by families during their child's hospitalization. Parents of children (n = 50) who underwent orthopedic surgery at a major tertiary-care children's hospital reported all NOOPEs incurred during their child's hospitalization. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The total NOOPEs ranged from $17.00 to $4745.00 (M = $736.21) per hospitalization, with 2096 missed hours from work. Length of stay, gross family income, distance from the hospital, and Hollingshead score are significant predictors of expenses (F-ratio = 732.88, p Hospitalization is associated with numerous NOOPEs. Future research needs to investigate the total array of expenses to families.

  11. Medical and non-medical complications among children and adolescents with excessive body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Martin, Xavier E; Saunders Gasser, Catherine; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Chamay-Weber, Catherine

    2014-09-14

    The burden of disease from childhood obesity is considerable worldwide, as it is associated with several co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), orthopedic and psychosocial problems. We aimed at determining the prevalence of these complications in a population of children and adolescents with body weight excess. This is a cohort study including 774 new patients (1.7 - 17.9 yrs, mean 11.1 ± 3.0) attending a pediatric obesity care center. We assessed personal and family medical histories, physical examination, systemic blood pressure, biochemical screening tests. We found that the great majority of the children suffered from at least one medical complication. Orthopedic pathologies were the most frequent (54%), followed by metabolic (42%) and cardiovascular disturbances (31%). However, non-medical conditions related to well-being, such as bullying, psychological complaints, shortness of breath or abnormal sleeping patterns, were present in the vast majority of the children (79.4%). Family history of dyslipidemia tends to correlate with the child's lipids disturbance (p = .053), and ischemic events or T2DM were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors present in the child (p = .046; p = .038, respectively). The vast majority of obese children suffer from medical and non-medical co-morbidities which must be actively screened. A positive family history for cardiovascular diseases or T2DM should be warning signs to perform further complementary tests. Furthermore, well-being related-complaints should not be underestimated as they were extremely frequent.

  12. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabenko, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

  13. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  14. Periodontal health knowledge of nonmedical professionals and their oral hygiene behavior in a teaching hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The awareness of periodontal diseases is generally poor among Nigerians. Working within the hospital environment should give an edge to nonmedical professionals, who could help to promote periodontal health awareness in countries with an inadequate number of dental health professionals. This study aimed to determine the awareness, knowledge of periodontal diseases and oral hygiene behavior of nonmedical professionals within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 302 nonmedical professionals in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Pretested, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires were utilized for data collection on sociodemography, number of years of work experience in the hospital, work cadre, awareness and knowledge of periodontal diseases, oral self-care and dental attendance pattern. Results: The awareness of periodontal disease was relatively high (60.2% in the nonmedical professionals. However, only 29.8% had adequate knowledge of periodontal diseases. Their knowledge was significantly associated with male gender (P = 0.042, higher education (P = 0.006 and nonYoruba ethnicity (P = 0.015. Their duration of work within the hospital premises did not significantly affect their periodontal health knowledge. Less than half (42.7% practiced twice or more daily brushing while only 11.9% used interdental floss for interproximal plaque removal. Their dental attendance pattern was mostly (83.5% problem-oriented rather than preventive. Conclusion: The nonmedical professionals had fairly high awareness but inadequate periodontal health knowledge and oral hygiene practices. These findings may make their role as oral health promoters a questionable one, unless, this is addressed urgently.

  15. The War on Drugs That Wasn't: Wasted Whiteness, "Dirty Doctors," and Race in Media Coverage of Prescription Opioid Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherland, Julie; Hansen, Helena B

    2016-12-01

    The past decade in the U.S. has been marked by a media fascination with the white prescription opioid cum heroin user. In this paper, we contrast media coverage of white non-medical opioid users with that of black and brown heroin users to show how divergent representations lead to different public and policy responses. A content analysis of 100 popular press articles from 2001 and 2011 in which half describe heroin users and half describe prescription opioid users revealed a consistent contrast between criminalized urban black and Latino heroin injectors with sympathetic portrayals of suburban white prescription opioid users. Media coverage of the suburban and rural opioid "epidemic" of the 2000s helped draw a symbolic, and then legal, distinction between (urban) heroin addiction and (suburban and rural) prescription opioid addiction that is reminiscent of the legal distinction between crack cocaine and powder cocaine of the 1980s and 1990s. This distinction reinforces the racialized deployment of the War on Drugs and is sustained by the lack of explicit discussion of race in the service of "color blind ideology." We suggest potential correctives to these racially divergent patterns, in the form of socially responsible media practices and of clinical engagement with public policy.

  16. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rasubala

    Full Text Available Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%, 190 (14.1%, and 140 (9.6% received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05. Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05. We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  17. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Design and Setting: A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003.Results: From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785.Conclusions: PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  18. Monitoring physicians' prescription patterns on electronic health record: the prescription pattern around clinical event (PACE) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Inwhee; Park, Man Young; Hong, Seung Kwon; Park, Rae Woong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have gained attention as a valuable data source for medical research, as its adoption rate continues to rise. However, no method for the monitoring of physicians' prescription patterns has been established. Since EHR maintain all prescription data as well as clinical events that occur during the care of patients, we hypothesized that a physician's prescription pattern can be monitored from EHR. In this study, we developed a novel algorithm named PACE, Prescription pattern Around Clinical Event. This algorithm analyzes distribution of the prescription of specific drugs around the time of a clinical event. In the proof of concept study, prescription changes with regard to hyperkalemia were well represented by the algorithm, and the observed patterns well correlated with the physician's knowledge on hyperkalemia (Cohen's kappa, 0.457-0.653). We expect that this algorithm can be used to monitor the guideline adherence of physicians.

  19. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MMA legislation provides seniors and people with disabilities with the first comprehensive prescription drug benefit ever offered under the Medicare program, the...

  20. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics showed that retail sales of five major painkillers rose 90 percent from 1997 to 2005. The report revealed that ever-increasing amounts of prescription painkillers called opioid analgesics are being used on a ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Opioids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reporting and access, integration with electronic health records, proactive unsolicited reporting, incentives for provider use, and interoperability ... – Office of Diversion Control Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Prescription Drugs U.S. Food ...

  2. Prescription drug abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-12-01

    The increased use of prescription drugs has brought pain relief too many and often improved the quality of life of elderly patients. But the increase in use and availability of prescription medications-especially controlled substances-brings with it an increased potential for abuse. Studies have shown that intentional abuse of prescription drugs is increasing among all age groups. As the number of persons 65 years of age and older skyrockets with the aging of the baby boomers, experts predict that prescription drug abuse among the elderly also will rise significantly. Efforts to increase awareness of drug abuse among elderly patients, caregivers, and health care practitioners, as well as research into how best to prevent and treat the elderly drug abuser, will be necessary to thwart what could become a significant public health problem.

  3. Assessment of prescription sales in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Teterich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the state of the national health system (health is characterized by a low level of funding for medical and pharmaceutical care and the lack of effective methods of free and preferential dispensing of medicines (drugs and compensation of their value. Thus the most urgent problem arises is unregulated drugs prescription, which is one of the main negative factors behind the rapid spread of self-medication and polypragmasy. Thus, improving drugs prescription dispensing is one of the current challenges of medicine and pharmacy management which should be solved to provide a safe, rational and effective drug therapy. The results of the questionnaire survey of doctors and pharmaceutical workers identified and explored key factors that contribute to a violation of drugs prescription. The authors analyzed the literature on the current state of drugs prescription in Ukraine, which resulted in selected priority issues that need resolution as soon as possible. Established that the main disadvantages of the national health care system is unreasonable approach to state regulation of the relevant system and the low level of funding. This situation prevents rational regulation of free and preferential delivery of drugs, the introduction of obligatory medical insurance and the reimbursement cost of drugs and other modern approaches that are effective in developed countries. Тhe main motive of view of legislative acts to implement strict drugs prescription in Ukraine is a link to international experience, guided by the standards of European and international practices that do not comply with the Law of Ukraine issued on 18.03.2004 № 1629-IV «On the National Program for Adaptation of Ukraine to the European Union, "and points to the disparity modern domestic rule-making European practice. The fundamental problem here is the comparison of the legal, social, financial and economic status of the counter in Ukraine with the countries in which the system

  4. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade; Larissa Santos França; Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo; Marcelo Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Su...

  5. [Good prescription practice for out-patients-quality requirements of prescriptions in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christine K; Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-06-01

    Because the written prescription is a central communication medium between the prescribing physician and the dispensing pharmacist measures to improve the prescription quality are top priorities. While most primary care physicians in Germany use electronic systems, in outpatient clinics and nursing homes and on special occasions such as emergency services and home visits, many prescriptions are still handwritten. Incorrectly and illegibly issued prescriptions impair the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship and thus represent a risk factor in the context of medication safety. Well issued prescriptions expedite the dispensing and thus the continuity of treatment of the patients and spare human resources by avoiding queries and unnecessary steps in the care process. At the same time, legible and unequivocal prescriptions facilitate measures for quality assurance by the dispensing pharmacists and are essential preconditions needed for insurance reimbursement. Probably the most important step to high quality prescriptions is the consistent use of suitable electronic prescription software. This is only possible if physicians are willing to cooperate and understand the significance and benefits of an electronic prescription system.

  6. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (pPrescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (pprescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  7. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. Methods...

  8. Other-regarding behavior and motivation in health care provision: an experiment with medical and non-medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Wiesen, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Other-regarding motivation is a fundamental determinant of public service provision. In health care, one example is physicians who act benevolently towards their patients when providing medical services. Such patient-regarding motivation seems closely associated with a personal sacrifice that health service providers are willing to make. Surprisingly, evidence on physicians' motivation is rare. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating prospective physicians', in particular, medical students', motivations and behavior. We measure the willingness to sacrifice own profit in order to increase the patients' health benefit. We conduct the same analysis for non-medical students. In a controlled incentivized laboratory experiment, participants decide, in the role of physicians, on the provision of medical services under fee-for-service or capitation schemes. Overall, 42 medical students and 44 non-medical students participated in five experimental sessions conducted between 2006 and 2008. We find substantial differences under both payment systems: compared to medical students, students of non-medical majors are less patient-regarding, less willing to sacrifice their own profit, and they state less motivation to improve patients' health. This results in significantly lower patient health benefits. Some implications for health care policies in light of physician shortage and for physician payment systems are discussed.

  9. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers’ scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. Methods: This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Results: Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran’s scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. Conclusion: The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research. PMID:28077903

  10. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  11. Parents’ Source of Vaccine Information and Impact on Vaccine Attitudes, Beliefs, and Nonmedical Exemptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey M. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their child’s healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18–2.35, vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32–2.53, and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49–2.90 and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61–4.76. These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.

  12. Determinants of non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Charles; Ridde, Valéry; Kouanda, Seni; Agier, Isabelle; Queuille, Ludovic; Dumont, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    To identify the factors associated with non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries (NMIC) in Burkina Faso in centers where user fees for cesarean delivery were partially removed. We carried out a criteria-based audit in 22 referral hospitals, using data from a 6-month prospective observational study, to assess the proportion of NMIC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with NMIC. The decision of cesarean delivery was not medically indicated in 24% of cases. The factors independently associated with NMIC were urban residence (adjusted OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.12; P=0.006), spouse's occupation other than breeder or farmer (aOR varying from 1.77 [95% CI, 1.19-2.62] to 2.15 [95% CI, 1.38-3.32] according to the profession), and cesarean decided by a general practitioner (aOR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.13-2.30; P=0.009). The high percentage of unnecessary cesarean deliveries is in contrast to the unmet needs of women who still deliver outside health facilities. NMIC is associated with both socioeconomic determinants and medical factors. Hence, interventions are needed to improve the skills of healthcare professionals and awareness of women concerning the risks associated with unnecessary cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Meta-analysis of non-medical treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M D; Strube, M J; Scogin, F R

    1988-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on 109 published studies which assessed the outcome of various non-medical treatments for chronic pain. Of these studies, 48 provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes. The remainder were examined according to proportion of patients rated as improved. Studies were compared as a function of type of treatment, type of pain, and type of outcome variable. In general, effect sizes were positive and of modest magnitude indicating the short-term efficacy of most treatments for most types of pain. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of treatments may be attributable not to the differences between treatments, but to the features they have in common. Mood and number of subjective symptoms consistently showed greater responses to treatment than did pain intensity, pain duration, or frequency of pain, indicating the importance of using a multidimensional framework for pain assessment. This finding also suggests that the benefit of psychological approaches to pain management may lie in reducing the fear and depression associated with pain, rather than relieving the pain itself. The present study also highlights the advantages of meta-analytic reviews.

  14. Initiation into prescription drug misuse: differences between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Iverson, Ellen; Lankenau, Stephen E

    2012-11-01

    Prescription drug misuse is an important public health problem in the U.S., particularly among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have examined factors contributing to initiation into prescription drug misuse, including sexual orientation and childhood abuse and neglect. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between initiation into the misuse of prescription drugs (opioids, tranquilizers, and stimulants), sexual identity, and individual and family determinants. Results are based upon data from a cross-sectional survey of 596 youth (polydrug users, homeless youth, and injection drug users) aged 16 to 25 who reported current prescription drug misuse. Participants were recruited in Los Angeles and New York City between 2009 and 2011. We compared initiation behaviors between sexual minority and heterosexual youth and examined factors modifying the relationship between sexual identity and earlier initiation into prescription drug misuse. Sexual minority youth were more likely to report histories of initiation into misuse of prescription opioids and tranquilizers. Further, they were more likely to report various types of childhood abuse than heterosexual youth. However, multivariate analyses indicated that age of first prescribed drug was the most significant factor associated with initiation into misuse of all three categories of prescription drugs. The correlates of initiation into prescription drug misuse are multidimensional and offer opportunities for further research. Identifying additional factors contributing to initiation into prescription drug misuse is essential towards developing interventions that may reduce future drug use among young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity students of the medical and non-medical degree courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Sochocka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of the multiple positive effects of the physical activity confirms its influence on human’s health. Undertaking of the health oriented conducts plays an important role in the promotion of the health and in the creating of the healthier future. Academic youth should be aware of the influence of certain activities on health. The aim of the research was to analyse the physical activity performed by the full-time students of the medical and nonmedical degree courses. Material and methods: The research was conducted at the turn of 2012 and 2013. The research group, containing 553 person (n4553, consisted of the students from six Polish, both medical and non-medical, university colleges. The research utilizes the method of the diagnostic survey. Technique of the research based on the poll whose questionnaire had been created by the authors for the purpose of the research. Accuracy of the research tool was established within the method of objective judges, splithalf method was used to determine reliability (according to Spearman-Brown result 0.86. In order to define the existence of the differences or correlations between analysed immeasurable parameters chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used. Results: The substantial majority of the respondents – 79,5% (n4439 described themselves as physically active. The forms of activity that are performed most often among the students are: cycling – 40,5% (n4220, team sport – 27,1% (n4147, dog walking – 27,1% (n4147, group activities (aerobics, zumba, salsa – 21,2% (n4115 and swimming – 20,8% (n4113. The sex and the faculty of the studies are both important variables that have got statistically significant impact on the choice of the form of activity. Majority of the respondents – 78,3% (n4432 chooses the type of the physical activity basing on their likings and the amount of the spare time – 42,9% (n4237. Exercising of the physical activity is regarded as a

  16. Antibiotic Prescription in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov

    2016-01-01

    will explore how the GPs prescription behaviour is influenced by selected factors. Antibiotics are essential when treating potentially lethal infections. An increasing development of resistant bacteria is considered one of the primary threats to public health. The majority of antibiotics (90%) are prescribed...... from general practice. The prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics can cause unnecessary side effects for the individual and increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. Both the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the level of resistant bacteria......1. Background & Aim The overall aim of the project is to describe antibiotic consumption in Danish general practice with emphasis on specific types of antibiotics. The project will shed light on the impact of microbiological diagnostic methods (MDM) on the choice of antibiotic and the project...

  17. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Turnover of Non-medical Staff in Outpatient Oncology Practices: Is Building Social Capital a Solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, T D; Ernstmann, N; Baumann, W; Groß, S E; Ansmann, L; Nitzsche, A; Neumann, M; Wirtz, M; Schmitz, S; Schulz-Nieswandt, F; Pfaff, H

    2015-11-01

    While a lot is known about potential and actual turnover of non-medical hospital staff, only few data exist for the outpatient setting. In addition, little is known about actual instruments which leaders can use to influence staff turnover in physician practices. In the literature, the social capital of an organisation, which means the amount of trust, common values and reciprocal behaviour in the organisation, has been discussed as a possible field of action. In the present study, staff turnover as perceived by outpatient haematologists and oncologists is presented and analysed as to whether social capital is associated with that staff turnover. In conclusion, measures to increase the social capital of a practice are presented. The present study is based on data gathered in a questionnaire-based survey with members of the Professional Organisation of -Office-Based Haematologists and Oncologists (N=551). The social capital of the practice was captured from the haematologists and oncologists using an existing and validated scale. To analyse the impact of the practice's social capital on staff turnover, as perceived by the physicians, bivariate correlations and linear regression analyses were calculated. In total, 152 haematologists and oncologists participated in the study which represents a response rate of 28%. In the regression analyses, social capital appears as a significant and strong predictor of staff turnover (beta=-0.34; pstaff turnover although the underlying study design does not allow for drawing causal conclusions regarding this relationship. To create social capital in their practice, outpatient physicians may apply measures that facilitate social interaction among staff, foster trust and facilitate cooperation. Such measures may already be applied when hiring and training new staff, but also continuously when leading employees and when organising work tasks, e.g., by establishing regular team meetings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuszkiewicz, E. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Astrophysik)

    1990-05-15

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim discs. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard {alpha}-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic black hole candidates and LMXBs. We show here that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations. (author).

  20. The law on electronic medical prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis de Clippele

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care is one of the most important economic and business areas. The European Union has therefore worked out an e-health care strategy to achieving stronger growth and increased effectiviness of services. The application of information and communications technologies (ICT that affect the health care sector, is developing fast in Europe. In this respect various countries have launched pilot projects in order to modernize their medical prescription practices. A model of the electronic medical prescription must respect patient's rights and can only be deployed in a system of security in order to protect the confidentiality.

  1. On prescription-syndrome correspondence of classic prescriptions%认识经方方证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯世纶

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some considerations on prescription-syndrome correspondence of classic prescription.Prescription-syndrome is the basic structure of Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Disease and originates from Shennong era.The accumulation of application experience of prescription-syndrome produces six meridian differentiation.What' s more, the theoretical basis of prescription correspondence to syndrome is eight principal syndromes, and prescription correspondence to syndrome includes the correspondence of prescription and syndrome, herb dosage and disorder severity, decoction-administration methods and disease condition.%介绍对经方方证的几点认识.认为方证是《伤寒杂病论》的基本构成,其形成起源于神农时代,方证应用经验的积累促使六经辨证的产生;方证相应的基础理论是八纲,方证是辨证的尖端,方证相应包括方与证对应、药量与病情对应、煎服法与病情对应.

  2. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising.

  3. Mystery Written on Prescription Pads: Exploring Marketing Factors Influencing Prescription Behaviour using the AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Pharma market is highly fragmented & nature of competition is intense. Further, in modern times influencing doctors’ prescription decision has become very complex as there is little systematic knowledge about factors affecting the doctors’ prescription behaviour and the weight of individual factor. This study aims to demystify this complex prescription behaviour of doctors, through examining the above mentioned factors. For this purpose, a focus group study will be followed by a quantitative study using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP approach. The findings of the study will have important implications for the marketers in order to do proper allocation of their resources, to improve their promotional efficiency.

  4. Non-medical use of opioids among HIV-infected opioid dependent individuals on opioid maintenance treatment: the need for a more comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Perrine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT has a positive impact on substance use and health outcomes among HIV-infected opioid dependent patients. The present study investigates non-medical use of opioids by HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals treated with buprenorphine or methadone. Methods The MANIF 2000 study is a longitudinal study that enrolled a cohort of 476 HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals. Data were collected in outpatient hospital services delivering HIV care in France. The sample comprised all patients receiving OMT (either methadone or buprenorphine who attended at least one follow-up visit with data on adherence to OMT (N = 235 patients, 1056 visits. Non-medical use of opioids during OMT was defined as having reported use of opioids in a non-medical context, and/or the misuse of the prescribed oral OMT by an inappropriate route of administration (injection or sniffing. After adjusting for the non-random assignment of OMT type, a model based on GEE was then used to identify predictors of non-medical use of opioids. Results Among the 235 patients, 144 (61.3% and 91 (38.9% patients were receiving buprenorphine and methadone, respectively, at baseline. Non-medical use of opioids was found in 41.6% of visits for 83% of individual patients. In the multivariate analysis, predictors of non-medical use of opioids were: cocaine, daily cannabis, and benzodiazepine use, experience of opioid withdrawal symptoms, and less time since OMT initiation. Conclusions Non-medical use of opioids was found to be comparable in OMT patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine. The presence of opioid withdrawal symptoms was a determinant of non-medical use of opioids and may serve as a clinical indicator of inadequate dosage, medication, or type of follow-up. Sustainability and continuity of care with adequate monitoring of withdrawal symptoms and polydrug use may contribute to reduced harms from ongoing non-medical use of opioids.

  5. Travel Pattern and Prescription Analysis at a Single Travel Clinic Specialized for Yellow Fever Vaccination in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bum Sik; Kim, Jae Yoon; Gianella, Sara; Lee, Myunghee

    2016-03-01

    Travel-related risks for infectious diseases vary depending on travel patterns such as purpose, destination, and duration. In this study, we describe the patterns of travel and prescription of vaccines as well as malaria prophylaxis medication (MPM) at a travel clinic in South Korea to identify the gaps to fill for the optimization of pre-travel consultation. A cohort of travel clinic visitors in 2011 was constructed and early one-third of the visitors of each month were reviewed. During the study period, 10,009 visited the travel clinic and a retrospective chart review was performed for 3,332 cases for analysis of travel patterns and prescriptions. People receiving yellow fever vaccine (YFV) (n = 2,933) were traveling more frequently for business and tourism and less frequently for providing non-medical service or research/education compared to the 399 people who did not receive the YFV. Overall, most people were traveling to Eastern Africa, South America, and Western Africa, while South-Eastern Asia was the most common destination for the non-YFV group. Besides YFV, the typhoid vaccine was the most commonly prescribed (54.2%), while hepatitis A presented the highest coverage (74.7%) considering the natural immunity, prior and current vaccination history. Additionally, 402 (82.5%) individuals received a prescription for MPM among the 487 individuals travelling to areas with high-risk of malaria infection. Age over 55 was independently associated with receiving MPM prescription, while purpose of providing service and travel duration over 10 days were associated with no MPM prescription, despite travelling to high-risk areas. Eastern Africa and South America were common travel destinations among the visitors to a travel clinic for YFV, and most of them were travelling for tourism and business. For the individuals who are traveling to areas with high-risk for malaria, more proactive approach might be required in case of younger age travelers, longer duration, and

  6. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting.

  7. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. Participants We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. Methods We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants’ demographic factors, living situations and working environments. Results We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees’ intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Conclusions Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. PMID:27436669

  8. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French and distinguishes…

  9. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Act (ACA). The regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing... Clearance Officer, SE:W:CAR:MP:T:T:SP, Washington, DC 20224. Comments on the collection of information... business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs by section 9008 of the ACA. The text of...

  10. An Expert System for Designing Fire Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    1987-01-01

    Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...

  11. The Prescription Opioid Pain Medication Overdose Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-04-19

    Overdose related to prescription opioids has become an epidemic. This podcast discusses the risks of this type of drug sometimes used to treat pain, and how to protect yourself. .  Created: 4/19/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/19/2016.

  12. Respiratory infection and antibiotic prescription rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otters, H.; Wouden, J. van der; Schellevis, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the October issue of the BJGP, Fleming et al showed that a decrease in antibiotic prescription rates is directly related to a decrease in respiratory infections presented in general practice. We compliment the authors for their interesting study and the clear presentation of their results.

  13. Prescriptions Guiding Prospective Teachers in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Ismail Özgür; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the nature of different mathematics teaching modes (prescriptions) that guide prospective teachers during their instruction. The participants were 24 junior prospective middle school mathematics teachers (19 females and 5 males) who were attending a mathematics methods course at a private university in central…

  14. COLOR PRESCRIPTION FORM FOR COSMETIC GLOVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is described for achieving more custom-like coloring of cosmetic gloves. The method involves the use of a color prescription form which...can be used to describe in greater detail the characteristics of those portions of the human hand of greater cosmetic significance.

  15. Preparing for a Hurricane: Prescription Medications

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    What you should do to protect yourself and your family from a hurricane. As you evacuate, remember to take your prescription medicines with you.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/17/2008.

  16. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs they make are covered during the coverage gap for that calendar year. This includes prescription drugs on the plan’s formulary ( ... you pay for generic drugs during the coverage gap will decrease each year until it reaches 25% in 2020. The coverage ...

  17. New patient asking for a benzodiazepine prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon de Lusignan; Andy Kent

    2008-01-01

    @@ Your final patient on a Friday is a 26 year old man who is new to the list. He asks you for a repeat prescription for two months of diazepam, 5 mg up to four a day. He says he has been taking these for a whil for his "newves" and he has run out. You do not hold this patient's records.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  19. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  20. Disparities in HIV knowledge and attitudes toward biomedical interventions among the non-medical HIV workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Raniyah M; Wilson, Phill; Betancourt, Gabriela; Garcia, David; Penner, Murray; Abravanel, Rebecca; Wong, Eric Y; Parisi, Lori D

    2017-04-27

    Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes. A 62-question, web-based survey was completed in English or Spanish between 2012 and 2014 by 3663 US-based employees, contractors, and volunteers working in AIDS service organizations, state/local health departments, and other community-based organizations in a non-medical capacity. Survey items captured the following: respondent demographics, HIV science and treatment knowledge, and familiarity with and attitudes toward biomedical interventions. An average of 61% of HIV knowledge questions were answered correctly. Higher knowledge scores were associated with higher education levels, work at organizations that serve people living with HIV/AIDS or who are at a high risk of acquiring HIV, and longer tenure in the field. Lower knowledge scores were associated with non-Hispanic Black or Black race/ethnicity and taking the survey in Spanish. Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that respondents who were non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white), as well as those located in the South (versus other regions) scored significantly lower. These subpopulations were also less familiar with and had less positive attitudes toward newer biomedical prevention interventions. Respondents who took the survey in Spanish (versus English) had lower knowledge scores and higher familiarity with, but generally less positive attitudes toward, biomedical interventions

  1. Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167031.html Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People With Mental Illness Those ... disorders receive a troubling percentage of the nation's opioid prescriptions, a new study finds. Of the 115 ...

  2. U.S. Opioid Prescriptions Fall, But Numbers Still High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167050.html U.S. Opioid Prescriptions Fall, But Numbers Still High: CDC And ... THURSDAY, July 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Prescriptions for opioid painkillers have dropped since 2010 in the United ...

  3. Medical prescription pitfalls of uncomplicated urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated .... encourage laboratory tests to support antibiotic drug treatment. ... relevant systems such as prescriptions monitoring and adverse drug ... registration house officer year: how prepared.

  4. Prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of hypertension in urban hospitals of Jos, Plateau State. ... Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Results of this study revealed several rational and non-rational prescription practices in ...

  5. Prescription patterns of general practitioners in peshawar, pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raza, Usman Ahmad; Khursheed, Tayyeba; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Maryam; Irfan, Uma Maheswari

    2014-01-01

    To find out prescription patterns of general practitioners in Peshawar. Cross-sectional survey of drug prescriptions was done at six major hospitals and pharmacies of Peshawar between April and May 2011...

  6. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... Interview Survey, alternative therapies, medication Adults used several strategies to reduce prescription drug costs. Figure 1. Percentages ...

  7. Prescription Drug Plan Formulary, Pharmacy Network, and P...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These public use files contain formulary, pharmacy network, and pricing data for Medicare Prescription Drug Plans and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans...

  8. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to...

  9. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions in patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2016-01-01

    the most frequent PIP. Predictive factors for PIP were polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and having one or more somatic diagnoses. Conclusion PIP is common in psychiatric patients and potentially fatal. Particularly polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and concomitant somatic illness were associated...

  10. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  11. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales - psychoactive and others - subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  12. Literacy and misunderstanding prescription drug labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Thompson, Jason A; Tilson, Hugh H; Neuberger, Marolee; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-12-19

    Health literacy has increasingly been viewed as a patient safety issue and may contribute to medication errors. To examine patients' abilities to understand and demonstrate instructions found on container labels of common prescription medications. Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews. 3 primary care clinics serving mostly indigent populations in Shreveport, Louisiana; Jackson, Michigan; and Chicago, Illinois. 395 English-speaking adults waiting to see their providers. Correct understanding of instructions on 5 container labels; demonstration of 1 label's dosage instructions. Correct understanding of the 5 labels ranged from 67.1% to 91.1%. Patients reading at or below the sixth-grade level (low literacy) were less able to understand all 5 label instructions. Although 70.7% of patients with low literacy correctly stated the instructions, "Take two tablets by mouth twice daily," only 34.7% could demonstrate the number of pills to be taken daily. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, low (adjusted relative risk, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.26 to 4.28]) and marginal (adjusted relative risk, 1.94 [CI, 1.14 to 3.27]) literacy were significantly associated with misunderstanding. Taking a greater number of prescription medications was also statistically significantly associated with misunderstanding (adjusted relative risk, 2.98 [CI, 1.40 to 6.34] for > or =5 medications). The study sample was at high risk for poor health literacy and outcomes. Most participants were women, and all spoke English. The authors did not examine the association between misunderstanding and medication error or evaluate patients' actual prescription drug-taking behaviors. Lower literacy and a greater number of prescription medications were independently associated with misunderstanding the instructions on prescription medication labels.

  13. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  14. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Fumiko; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, Kanako

    2007-03-22

    We developed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale method for determining the re-uptake and release of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine) using rat brain synaptosomes. These assays were then applied to study the effects of different kinds of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine re-uptake and release. The phenethylamine derivatives, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 2-methylamino-3,4-methylene-dioxy-propiophenone (methylone), 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB), and N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), had strong inhibitory effects on the re-uptake of dopamine, 5-HT and norepinephrine. 4-Fluoroamphetamine, methylone and BDB also strongly increased the release of the three monoamines, but MBDB increased 5-HT and norepinephrine release, but had little effect on dopamine release. However, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) and 2,4,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-6), which are methoxylated phenethylamine derivatives, slightly influenced the re-uptake and release of monoamines. Alpha-metyltryptamine (AMT), a tryptamine derivative, was one of the strongest re-uptake inhibitors and releasers of the three monoamines. The tryptamine derivative, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), also strongly inhibited re-uptake and increased the release of the three monoamines. N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) inhibited monoamine re-uptake, but had a few effects on monoamine release. 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP) and 1-(methoxyphenyl)piperazine (4MPP), which are piperazine derivatives, inhibited monoamine re-uptake and accelerated their release. The results suggest that some designer drugs strongly act on the central nerve system to the same

  15. Sinus node dysfunction in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. А.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinus node dysfunction or sick sinus syndrome (SSS includes clinical conditions such as symptomatic sinus bradycardia, sinus pauses or arrest, sinus node exit block, atrial tachycardias and chronotropic incompetence. Even though SSS incidence increases in an exponential-like manner with age, it can occur at all ages, including in the newborn. The mean age of patients with the syndrome is 68 years, with both genders being affected in approximately equal proportion. This condition occurs in 1 of every 600 cardiac patients over 65. Degenerative fibrosis of the tissues of the node has been suggested to be a common cause of SSS. Although it is still disputed. SSS is frequently associated with atrial fibrillation and flutter, tachy-bradycardia syndrome. Tachy-bradycardia syndrome is defined as sinus bradycardia coupled with atrial flutter/fibrillation or reciprocal atrial tachycardia. This syndrome is common in young patients following a surgical treatment of a congenital heart disease. Patients with chronic or persistent atrial flutter/fibrillation show high rates of cardiovascular disorders and mortality while sinus bradycardia is thought as an independent risk factor of atrial flutter/fibrillation. There are certain restrictions to medical treatment: long-term administration of the same medication (sotalol, amiodarone for atrial flutter/fibrillation can cause symptomatic bradycardia while administration of other medication (a class 1 drug increases the likelihood of ventricular arrythmias or evident bradycardia that enhances the risk of sudden cardiac death. Following atrial fibrillation ablation patients saw a significant improvement in the sinus node function, or saw a better sinus node function disrupted due to remodelling that takes place during atrial fibrillation. The surgical methods applications proved most efficient in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation. In the late 1980s American surgeon J. L. Cox developed a so-called Maze

  16. Irrational drug use in India: A prescription survey from Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding the irrational production, prescription and use of drugs in India. This study aimed to describe the quality of prescriptions by medical practitioners, including both the layout of the prescription and the type and number of drugs prescribed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of all prescriptions dispensed at a busy pharmacy in the state of Goa, India, was carried out over a consecutive seven-day period. Each prescription was rated on the basis of a priori and pilot-tested variable list. The prescriptions by private practitioners were compared with those from practitioners in the public healthcare system. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety prescriptions were collected. The majority (83.9% were from private practitioners. The quality of the layout of the prescriptions was unsatisfactory: information to identify the practitioner was incomplete in more than a third of the prescriptions and information to identify the patient was incomplete in more than half. Clarity of written instructions on how to take the medicines was unsatisfactory in the majority of prescriptions. Polypharmacy was the norm, with more than half (52.7% the prescriptions containing at least 3 medicines. Forty per cent of prescriptions included a vitamin or tonic preparation and a quarter of the prescriptions included an antibiotic and an analgesic. Over 90% of prescriptions contained only branded medicines. Private practitioners prescribed significantly greater number of medicines and were more likely to prescribe vitamins and antibiotics, and branded medicines. DISCUSSION: This study confirms that the quality of prescriptions, both in terms of layout and the content of the drugs prescribed, is inadequate. There is a need to standardize the format of prescriptions in India so that all essential information is included. There is a need to strengthen an independent mechanism for continuing professional development of practitioners to ensure that

  17. Exercise on Prescription: trial protocol and evaluation of outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Puggaard Lis; Kjær Kirsten; Kragstrup Jakob; Sørensen Jes B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In many countries exercise prescriptions are used in an attempt to initiate a physically active lifestyle in sedentary populations. Previous studies have primarily evaluated low intensive exercise prescription interventions and found moderately positive effects on physical activity and aerobic fitness. In a highly intensive Danish exercise prescription scheme called 'Exercise on Prescription' (EoP) the general practitioners can prescribe EoP to sedentary patients with life...

  18. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1) The... ingredients in the advertisement shall be the same as the order of listing of ingredients on the label of...

  19. The Philosophical Foundations of Prescriptive Statements and Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    From the perspectives of the philosophy of science and statistical inference, we discuss the challenges of making prescriptive statements in quantitative research articles. We first consider the prescriptive nature of educational research and argue that prescriptive statements are a necessity in educational research. The logic of deduction,…

  20. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  1. The Philosophical Foundations of Prescriptive Statements and Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    From the perspectives of the philosophy of science and statistical inference, we discuss the challenges of making prescriptive statements in quantitative research articles. We first consider the prescriptive nature of educational research and argue that prescriptive statements are a necessity in educational research. The logic of deduction,…

  2. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... constitutes dispensing by means of the Internet unless such person is a pharmacist who is acting in the...

  3. Patterns of Prescription Medication Diversion among Drug Dealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South…

  4. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bazarganipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran.The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students. A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms.The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims.The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness.

  5. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  6. Performing 'pragmatic holism': Professionalisation and the holistic discourse of non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine practitioners have often utilised 'holism' as a key identification mark of their practice, distancing themselves from 'the reductionist biomedicine'. However, the past couple of decades have witnessed increased engagement of several complementary and alternative medicines in professionalisation, which includes a degree of biomedical alignment while 'reducing' holistic claims in order to provide practice with a 'credible outlook' and move closer to the mainstream, a development which challenges the role of holism in complementary and alternative medicine practices. This article explores the strategies by which two groups of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, namely, non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom, pragmatically accommodate holistic notions as a professional resource, a process of negotiation between maintaining their holistic premise, on the one hand, and the drive to professionalise and enhance their societal status, on the other. Based on in-depth interviews with non-medically qualified acupuncture and homeopathy practitioners and school principals, textual analysis of practitioners' web sites and observation of practice, the findings demonstrate the dynamic approach to 'holism' in complementary and alternative medicine practice. This discourse, through which practitioners use a range of strategies in order to 'narrow' or 'expand' their holistic expression, can be described as 'pragmatic holism', by which they try to make gains from the formalisation/standardisation processes, without losing the therapies' holistic outlook and appeal.

  7. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  8. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  9. [Drug design ideas and methods of Chinese herb prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun-guo; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-09-01

    The new drug of Chinese herbal prescription, which is the best carrier for the syndrome differentiation and treatment of Chinese medicine and is the main form of the new drug research and development, plays a very important role in the new drug research and development. Although there are many sources of the prescriptions, whether it can become a new drug, the necessity, rationality and science of the prescriptions are the key to develop the new drug. In this article, aiming at the key issues in prescriptions design, the source, classification, composition design of new drug of Chinese herbal prescriptions are discussed, and provide a useful reference for research and development of new drugs.

  10. A polycarbonate ophthalmic-prescription lens series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J K

    1978-08-01

    Improvements in polycarbonate material, production techniques, and scratch-resistant coatings, combined with a process-oriented design, have resulted in a precision lens series. Surface quality is comparable to that of untreated glass ophthalmic lenses. The repeatability of the process results in closely controlled axial power and off-axis performance. For most lens prescriptions, the ANSI Z80.1 optical-center specifications for prescription accuracy are maintained through a total field of view of 40 deg for an 8-mm range of center-of-rotation distances. Off-axis astigmatism is controlled for near-point seeing. The lenses are both lighter and thinner than those of crown glass. A scratch-resistant coating reduces the reflections normally associated with high-index (1.586) materials. Impact resistance exceeds that required by ANSI Z80.7 and is many times that required by ANSI Z80.1.

  11. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  12. Information prescriptions: A tool for veterinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Kogan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.

  13. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest so...... price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from −0.2 to −0.7. Individuals with chronic disease and especially individuals above the age of 65 respond less to the price of drugs.......We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest some...

  14. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  15. Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  16. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  18. [Evaluation of quality medication prescription of a teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Patrícia Taveira de Brito; Uchôa, Severina Alice Costa

    2011-01-01

    The errors from doctor prescriptions can cause damage to the patient's health, consequently it is necessary to identify and to prevent them. This work aimed to evaluate if the legal and institutional aspects that are present in doctor prescription at the public and university pediatric hospital to make a diagnosis from the situation, and then to correct the problems. A survey was made was made using a cross-sectional method, where copies of 1,590 prescriptions were studied after the University Committee of Research approved the survey. The average was 4.47 drugs per prescription and following data were detectable: readable--32.39% of the prescriptions were unreadable, 49.81% presented only the commercial name, 5.25% of the drugs were not standardized. Quality of prescription in the chosen hospital needs to be better to avoid medication errors and the health care process gets safer. When prescription is unreadable, they can confuse health professionals and damage patients.

  19. Increasing access to emergency contraception through online prescription requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah; Wendt, Jacqueline Moro; Levine, Deborah K; Philip, Susan S; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    To describe a pilot program, Plan B Online Prescription Access, to provide easy access to prescriptions for emergency contraception via the Internet. We measured electronic prescriptions for Plan B (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, Ohio) by month over time. Pharmacists faxed patient-generated prescriptions back to the Department of Public Health for confirmation. Despite no marketing, within the first 18 months of the program, 152 electronic prescriptions for Plan B were requested by 128 female San Francisco residents. Seventy-eight prescriptions were filled (51%) by pharmacists. If correctly marketed, online prescriptions for Plan B have the potential to be an effective means of increasing emergency contraception access in both urban and rural settings across the United States. Further user-acceptability studies are warranted.

  20. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  1. Image-producing procedures for non-medical applications. Benefits, risks, radiation protection; Bildgebende Verfahren im nicht medizinischen Bereich. Nutzen, Risiken, Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarwinski, Renate [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Estier, Sybille [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Liebefeld (Switzerland). Direktionsbereich Verbraucherschutz; Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany); Vahlbruch, Jan [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS); Henning, Ulrich; Michel, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A survey is given of image-producing procedures for non-medical applications, and this under technical, juridical and radiation protection aspects. The historical development of these procedures is also described. An example is given for today's practical application.

  2. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  3. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  4. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases among the academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University of Malaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Y K; Reddy, S C; Karina, R

    2004-08-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases (cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and refractive errors) among 473 academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University Malaya. The awareness of cataract was in 88.2%, diabetic retinopathy in 83.5%, refractive errors in 75.3% and glaucoma in 71.5% of the study population. The knowledge about all the above common eye diseases was moderate, except presbyopia which was poor. Multivariate analysis revealed that females, older people, and those having family history of eye diseases were significantly more aware and more knowledgeable about the eye diseases. Health education about eye diseases would be beneficial to seek early treatment and prevent visual impairment in the society.

  6. Enhancing the Clinical Reasoning Skills of Postgraduate Students in Internal Medicine Through Medical Nonfiction and Nonmedical Fiction Extracurricular Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, H S; Chacko, Thomas V; Murthy, K A Sudharshana; Gowdappa, H Basavana

    2016-12-01

    To improve the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine through 2 kinds of extracurricular books: medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction. Clinical reasoning is difficult to define, understand, observe, teach, and measure. This is an educational innovation under an experimental framework based on a cognitive intervention grounded in constructivist and cognitivist theories. This study was conducted from June 1, 2014, through May 31, 2015. It was a pre-post, randomized, controlled, prospective, mixed-methods, small-group study. The intervention was through medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction books. The process was structured to ensure that the students would read the material in phases and reflect on them. Clinical reasoning (pretests and posttests) was quantitatively assessed using the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) and clinical reasoning exercises (CREs) and their assessment using a rubric. A qualitative design was used, and face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted. Posttest total scores (DTI=188.92; CREs=53.92) were higher for the study group after the intervention compared with its own pretest scores (DTI=165.25; CREs=41.17) and with the pretest (DTI=159.27; CRE=40.73) and posttest (DTI=166.91; CREs=41.18) scores of the control group. Interviews with the study group confirmed that the intervention was acceptable and useful in daily practice. We introduced, evaluated, and proved an approach to teaching-learning clinical reasoning based on the assumption that the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine can be enhanced through 2 kinds of extracurricular books and that fun as well as interest will enhance learning. This study is not only about teaching-learning clinical reasoning but also about the humanities in medical education. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections: a mixed-methods study of patient experiences of non-medical prescriber management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; MacLure, Katie; Peters, Sarah; Stewart, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Objective To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. Design Mixed methods. Setting Primary care. Participants Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22 patients and 16 nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescribers (NMPs). Results Patients had multiple expectations of their consultation with 43% expecting to be prescribed an antibiotic. There was alignment between self-reported patient expectations and those perceived by NMPs. Patient expectations for non-antibiotic strategies, such as education to promote self-management, were associated with receipt of those strategies, whereas patient expectations for an antibiotic were not associated with receipt of these medications. ‘Patient-centred’ management strategies (including reassurance and providing information) were received by 86.7% of patients. Regardless of patients' expectations or the management strategy employed, high levels of satisfaction were reported for all aspects of the consultation. Taking concerns seriously, conducting a physical examination, communicating the treatment plan, explaining treatment decisions and lack of time restrictions were each reported to contribute to patient satisfaction. Conclusions NMPs demonstrate an understanding of patient expectations of RTI consultations and use a range of non-antibiotic management strategies, particularly those resembling a patient-centred approach. Overall, patients' expectations were met and prescribers were not unduly influenced by patient expectations for an antibiotic. Patients were satisfied with the consultation, indicating that strategies used by NMPs were acceptable. However, the lower levels of satisfaction among patients who

  8. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Álvarez R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78

  9. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ju Ryoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visits to the emergency department (ED for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN. All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results: Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]. Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02-1.22], for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15-1.40], and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17-1.43]. This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion: Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes.

  10. Growth Stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Nyle J.

    1989-01-01

    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  11. OxyContin, prescription opioid abuse and economic medicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Poitras, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Geoffrey PoitrasFaculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: This paper examines the relevance of OxyContin diversion and abuse to the economic medicalization of substance abuse and addiction. Given that medicalization is the general social process of nonmedical problems being transformed into medical problems, economic medicalization occurs where the motivation for the transformation is commercial profitability or, in a corporate context, achiev...

  12. Diagnosis-prescription studies – important steps towards a national drug prescription statistics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørund Straand

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTIn the first part of this article, drug utilization and prescribing practice is discussed as seen from aNorwegian general practice perspective. Which are the data sources available? What kind of studieshave been performed? Prescription-diagnosis studies are reviewed, in particular the Møre & RomsdalPrescription Study (MRPS. Because the wholesales drug statistics do not include information aboutneither patients, prescribers or diagnoses, there is a current need for establishing a more comprehensivestatistics giving wider and deeper insights into the prescribing and utilization of drugs in the Norwegiansociety. The proposed Norwegian prescription statistics is discussed in relation to previous experiencesfrom prescription-diagnosis studies and current needs for research and statistics in the field. Someexamples are given illustrating why the 11-digit person number probably should be included in thedatabase. Lack of diagnostic information may to some extent be compensated for by introducing a moredifferentiated list of diagnoses for the drugs reimbursed. The use of data from this statistics for qualityassurance in e.g. general practice is discussed. Finally, some suggestions are given for how the Norwegianprescription statistics may be organised.

  13. [Medicinal products for human use in veterinary prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Jozef; Vargová, Lucia; Ambrus, Tünde

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with the problem of prescription and use of the medicinal products for human use in veterinary medicine. Using partial model analysis describes volume and structure of the prescription of medicinal products for human use in the veterinary practice in the years 2007-2011. Prescriptions included to the study were dispensed in a community pharmacy located in a county town in the Slovak Republic. Data were obtained from the basic collection of 845 veterinary prescriptions that included 1178 prescribed items in a total of 2954 packages.

  14. Prescription Writing Errors of Midwifery Students in Common Gynecological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serveh Parang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Giving improper prescriptions is common among medical practitioners, mostly graduates, in most communities even developed countries. So far, to our knowledge, no study has been conducted on prescription writing of graduate midwifery students. Therefore, this study aimed to detect prescription writing errors of midwifery students in common gynecological problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 56 bachelor midwifery students, who had passed the theoretical and clinical courses of gynecology, were evaluated by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. A demographic questionnaire and a standard checklist for writing the prescriptions and medications were used for data collection. SPSS Version 16 was used to carry out descriptive statistics. Findings: Most of the students were single, with the mean age of 23.0±1.7 years. Most errors were related to not recording the patients’ age and sex, diagnosis, chief complaint, and the prescriber’s name (observed in less than 10% of the prescriptions. The complete dosage schedule and drug name were stated only in 1.8±4.8 and 14±18.6 of prescriptions, respectively. In more than 93% of the cases, route of use and treatment duration were not recorded. Conclusion: According to the results, the number of prescription errors of midwifery students was high. Therefore, it is recommended to run educational courses on prescription writing skills (e.g. writing prescriptions based on World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for the midwifery students.

  15. Prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beau, Anna-Belle; Didier, Alain; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Asthma affects between 3 to 8% of pregnant women. Previous studies have suggested that women's prescriptions for asthma medication change during pregnancy. The aim was to describe the prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France. METHODS: Women from the EFEM......OBJECTIVE: Asthma affects between 3 to 8% of pregnant women. Previous studies have suggested that women's prescriptions for asthma medication change during pregnancy. The aim was to describe the prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France. METHODS: Women from...

  16. Prescription analysis of pediatric outpatient practice in Nagpur city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anuja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication errors are probably one of the most common types of medical errors, as medication is the most common health-care intervention. Knowing where and when errors are most likely to occur is generally felt to be the first step in trying to prevent these errors. Objective: To study prescribing patterns and errors in pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four community pharmacies across Nagpur city and to compare the prescription error rates across prescriber profiles. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 1376 valid pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four randomly selected community pharmacies in Nagpur, collected over a period of 2 months. Confirmed errors in the prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed. The core indicators for drug utilization studies, mentioned by WHO, were used to define errors. Results: The 1376 prescriptions included in the study were for a total of 3435 drugs, prescribed by 41 doctors. Fixed dose formulations dominated the prescribing pattern, many of which were irrational. Prescribing by market name was almost universal and generic prescriptions were for merely 254 (7.4% drugs. The prescribing pattern also indicated polypharmacy with the average number of drugs per encounter of 2.5. Antibiotics were included in 1087 (79% prescriptions, while injectable drugs were prescribed in 22 (1.6% prescriptions. The prescription error score varied significantly across prescriber profiles. Conclusion: The findings of our study highlight the continuing crisis of the irrational drug prescribing in the country.

  17. Mirror Prescription Regression: A Differential Interferometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a remote, differential method for measuring the prescription of aspheric mirrors using null interferometry in the center-of-curvature configuration. The method requires no equipment beyond that used in a basic interferometery setup (i.e., there are no shearing elements or absolute distance meters. We chose this configuration because of its widespread use. However, the method is generalizable to other configurations with an adjustment of the governing equation. The method involves taking a series of interferograms before and after small, known misalignments are applied to the mirror in the interferometry setup and calculating the prescription (e.g., radius of curvature and conic constant of the mirror, based on these differential measurements, using a nonlinear regression. We apply this method successfully to the testing of a Space Optics Research Lab off-axis parabola with a known focal length of 152.4 mm, a diameter of 76.2 mm, and an off-axis angle of 12°.

  18. Quantitative Information on Oncology Prescription Drug Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Squiers, Linda B

    2016-09-02

    Our objective was to determine whether and how quantitative information about drug benefits and risks is presented to consumers and healthcare professionals on cancer-related prescription drug websites. We analyzed the content of 65 active cancer-related prescription drug websites. We assessed the inclusion and presentation of quantitative information for two audiences (consumers and healthcare professionals) and two types of information (drug benefits and risks). Websites were equally likely to present quantitative information for benefits (96.9 %) and risks (95.4 %). However, the amount of the information differed significantly: Both consumer-directed and healthcare-professional-directed webpages were more likely to have quantitative information for every benefit (consumer 38.5 %; healthcare professional 86.1 %) compared with every risk (consumer 3.1 %; healthcare professional 6.2 %). The numeric and graphic presentations also differed by audience and information type. Consumers have access to quantitative information about oncology drugs and, in particular, about the benefits of these drugs. Research has shown that using quantitative information to communicate treatment benefits and risks can increase patients' and physicians' understanding and can aid in treatment decision-making, although some numeric and graphic formats are more useful than others.

  19. Diabetic nephropathy: Prescription trends in tertiary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease. Drug utilization studies could promote rational drug use. The objective of this study was to evaluate prescribing trends in hospitalized patients with diabetic nephropathy. A prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. The demographic, disease and treatment data of patients with diabetic nephropathy were collected for a period of six months and analysed. Drugs were classified using World Health Organization recommended Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification. A total of 755 drugs (7.4 drugs per prescription were prescribed to 102 study patients, who were all hypertensive and in late stages of diabetic nephropathy. Drug classes with largest representation were those acting on gastrointestinal tract plus metabolism (37% and cardiovascular drugs (28%. Calcium channel blockers represented the largest antihypertensive drug class (41%. Almost three-fourths of patients received more than one antihypertensive agent. Approximately 37% of patients did not receive any antidiabetic medication. Of those who did, prescriptions for insulin (91% exceeded those of oral hypoglycaemic drugs (9%. Antimicrobials accounted for 10.2% of all drugs prescribed, of which 31.8% were quinolones. Drugs prescribed by generic name accounted for 11.98%. While all patients received antihypertensive therapy, more than a third were not on any antidiabetic treatment. Antihypertensive poly-therapy was observed in the majority with calcium channel blockers being most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drug class. Insulin was the preferred to hypoglycaemic drugs.

  20. The NAL-NL2 prescription procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Keidser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NAL-NL2 is the second generation of prescription procedures from The National Acoustic Laboratories (NAL for fitting wide dynamic range compression (WDRC instruments. Like its predecessor NALNL1 (Dillon, 1999, NAL-NL2 aims at making speech intelligible and overall loudness comfortable. This aim is mainly driven by a belief that these factors are most important for hearing aid users, but is also driven by the fact that less information is available about how to adjust gain to optimise other parameters that affect prescription such as localisation, tonal quality, detection of environmental sounds, and naturalness. In both formulas, the objective is achieved by combining a speech intelligibility model and a loudness model in an adaptive computer- controlled optimisation process. Adjustments have further been made to the theoretical component of NAL-NL2 that are directed by empirical data collected during the past decade with NAL-NL1. In this paper, the data underlying NAL-NL2 and the derivation procedure are presented, and the main differences from NAL-NL1 are outlined.

  1. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories.

  2. Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD; BDO): A literature review with a focus on UK fatalities related to non-medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John M; Loi, Barbara; Claridge, Hugh; Goodair, Christine; Corazza, Ornella; Elliott, Simon; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    Misuse of gamma hydroxybutrate (GHB) and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, being implicated in a rising number of deaths. This paper reviews knowledge on GHB and derivatives, and explores the largest series of deaths associated with their non-medical use. Descriptive analyses of cases associated with GHB/GBL and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) use extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database. From 1995 to September 2013, 159 GHB/GBL-associated fatalities were reported. Typical victims: White (92%); young (mean age 32 years); male (82%); with a drug misuse history (70%). Most deaths (79%) were accidental or related to drug use, the remainder (potential) suicides. GHB/GBL alone was implicated in 37%; alcohol 14%; other drugs 28%; other drugs and alcohol 15%. Its endogenous nature and rapid elimination limit toxicological detection. Post-mortem blood levels: mean 482 (range 0-6500; SD 758)mg/L. Results suggest significant caution is needed when ingesting GHB/GBL, particularly with alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, stimulants, and ketamine. More awareness is needed about risks associated with consumption.

  3. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  4. Prescription writing trends of antihistamines at the university health centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Beenta

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish antihistamines drug prescribing pattern in order to improve the rational prescribing of antihistamines by physicians at Panjab University Health Centre. The study was performed in between the months of November 2005 to April 2006. Five hundred out patients were monitored and data was collected on WHO-based prescription-auditing performa. Demographic analysis of this prospective study revealed that out of the 500 patients, 293 (58.6 %) were male and 207 (41.4 %) were female and maximum patients were in the age group of 21-40 (34.8 %). Chlorpheniramine maleate (235 prescriptions) was the highest prescribed among antihistamine prescriptions (36.89 %) followed by diphenhydramine hydrochloride (186 prescriptions, 29.19%), cetirizine (175 prescriptions, 27.47 %) and promethazine (41 prescriptions, 6.4%). In comparison to generic drugs (169 prescriptions, 26.54%), branded were more prescribed at PUHC. Majority of antihistamines were in form of tablets (414 prescriptions, 64.99%) followed by liquid formulations (195 prescriptions, 30.61%) and injections (28 prescriptions, 4.40%). The average cost of different antihistamine drugs prescribed was as follows: diphenhydramine hydrochloride Rs. 34.74 followed by promethzine Rs. 22.46, chlorpheniramine maleate Rs. 15.30, and cetirizine Rs. 13.50. Average numbers of drugs prescribed per prescription were 1.27. The average consulting and dispensing time was 4.82 and 3.56 min, respectively. Out of the 500 university patients, 258 (51.6%) had the knowledge regarding the medication prescribed and 242 (48.4%) were unaware of the medication prescribed.

  5. Prescription writing trends of antihistamines at the university health centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to establish antihistamines drug prescribing pattern in order to improve the rational prescribing of antihistamines by physicians at Panjab University Health Centre. The study was performed in between the months of November 2005 to April 2006. Five hundred out patients were monitored and data was collected on WHO-based prescription-auditing performa. Demographic analysis of this prospective study revealed that out of the 500 patients, 293 (58.6 % were male and 207 (41.4 % were female and maximum patients were in the age group of 21-40 (34.8 %. Chlorpheniramine maleate (235 prescriptions was the highest prescribed among antihistamine prescriptions (36.89 % followed by diphenhydramine hydrochloride (186 prescriptions, 29.19%, cetirizine (175 prescriptions, 27.47 % and promethazine (41 prescriptions, 6.4%. In comparison to generic drugs (169 prescriptions, 26.54%, branded were more prescribed at PUHC. Majority of antihistamines were in form of tablets (414 prescriptions, 64.99% followed by liquid formulations (195 prescriptions, 30.61% and injections (28 prescriptions, 4.40%. The average cost of different antihistamine drugs prescribed was as follows: diphenhydramine hydrochloride Rs. 34.74 followed by promethzine Rs. 22.46, chlorpheniramine maleate Rs. 15.30, and cetirizine Rs. 13.50. Average numbers of drugs prescribed per prescription were 1.27. The average consulting and dispensing time was 4.82 and 3.56 min, respectively. Out of the 500 university patients, 258 (51.6% had the knowledge regarding the medication prescribed and 242 (48.4% were unaware of the medication prescribed.

  6. [A case management programme for women with breast cancer: results of a written survey of participating medical and non-medical networking-partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, C; Thorenz, A; Grochocka, A; Koch, U; Watzke, B

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer patients are as a rule in need of a multiple sequential in-patient, day-patient and out-patient permanent treatment. The required care demands a trans-sectoral networking of all multi-professional persons involved in diagnostics, therapies, rehabilitation and aftercare. A method to develop the integration of treatment processes, as well as thereby resulting in increased effectiveness and efficiency, can constitute the concept of case management. A prerequisite for an effective implementation of case management and thus the starting point of the present survey is a well-functioning network encompassing optimal cooperation. Within the framework of the evaluation of the case management-based integrated care model "mammaNetz" for women with mamma carcinoma as a whole and against the background of the potential for innovation and improvement of case management on the one hand as well as the existence of only few empirical data otherwise, the present survey of members of a trans-sectoral network of the service centre was accomplished. Medical and non-medical networking partners of the service centre (N=168) were questioned by regular mail about different aspects of the cooperation. Identical items in both surveys were compared. The return rate for the medical networking partners is about 59% (n=35), whereby only medical network partners in private practice participated in the survey. For the non-medical networking partners about 60% (n=66) participated. Medical networking partners assess the cooperation with the service centre in reference to the exchange of information slightly more positively (66%) than the non-medical networking partners (59%). Medical networking partners are in significantly more frequent contact with the service centre and see in the cooperation significantly more advantages for their own office/facility (each with p=0.001) than non-medical networking partners. Overall the results suggest that medical as well as non-medical networking

  7. Predicting students' intention to use stimulants for academic performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.

  8. 21 CFR 1306.06 - Persons entitled to fill prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to fill prescriptions. 1306.06 Section 1306.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... either registered individually or employed in a registered pharmacy, a registered central fill pharmacy...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... pharmacy for a period of two years from the dispensing date. This printout of the day's controlled...

  10. Pharmaceutical interventions on prescription problems in a Danish pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Søndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    International studies regarding pharmacists' interventions towards prescription problems produce highly variable results. The only peer-reviewed study in a Danish setting estimated an intervention rate of 2.3 per 1,000 prescriptions. With the introduction of a new tool for registration, we hypoth...

  11. Relationship between e-prescriptions and community pharmacy workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011. 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Think-aloud protocols and pharmacy group interviews. Pharmacy staff descriptions of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delayed and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. An overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in serious time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, lack of formal training and the disconnect between pharmacy procedures for verifying prescription accuracy and presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases because of legislative mandates, it is essential that the technology supporting e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended increase in medication errors, user frustration, and stress.

  12. Prescriptive Profile Procedure for Children With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Eleanor; Fineman, Carol

    The Prescriptive Profile Procedure (PPP) attempts to provide teachers of learning disabled elementary school children with a procedure of individualized diagnosis and educational prescription which encompasses strengths and weaknesses in prerequisite skills, basic school subjects, and behavioral factors. A competency statement and six to 12…

  13. Asthma prescription patterns for children: can GPs do better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, J.H.J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Willemsen, S.P.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing prescription patterns of asthma medication for children is helpful to optimize prescribing by general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore prescription patterns in children with physician-diagnosed asthma and its determinants in general practice. Methods: We used the Sec

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  15. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Linde, H.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Hofstad, C.J.; Van Limbeek, J.; Postema, K.

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  17. Pattern of prescription drug use in Nigerian army hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To our knowledge, only few studies have been done in Africa on this issue , with inadequate ... high number of drugs per prescription, high rate of antibiotic usage and unscientific prescription by doctors. ..... the managers of Nigerian public health institutions through the ... use promotes drug resistance, increases risk of side.

  18. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  19. Asthma prescription patterns for children: can GPs do better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, J.H.J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Willemsen, S.P.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing prescription patterns of asthma medication for children is helpful to optimize prescribing by general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore prescription patterns in children with physician-diagnosed asthma and its determinants in general practice. Methods: We used the

  20. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6... drug, nor may an advertisement contain a quantitative statement of safety or effectiveness (a) unless... effectiveness is supported by substantial evidence derived from adequate and well-controlled studies as defined...

  1. Overview of Four Prescription Monitoring/Review Programs in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Furlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs.

  2. EXERCISE ON PRESCRIPTION AUDIT : A TOOL FOR PHARMACOLOGY PRACTICAL LESSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeti Biswas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding and perception about rational prescribing among the Undergraduate (UG students, a record based study 'exercise on prescription audit' was undertaken as self-directed learning strategy. Study was conducted on Objectively Structured Evaluation of pharmacotherapy taking one year record of prescriptions in Bed Head Tickets (BHTs of discharged Ophthalmic in-patients. Standard format for prescription writing, WHO guide to Good prescribing and Essential Medicines were followed to assess the in-patient prescriptions. Students improved markedly (p< 0.001 in audit of real prescriptions. Results revealed that 37 types of drugs were prescribed over 948 BHTs. Completeness of the prescription showed 100% perfection in maximum indicators with exception in judicious investigations (99.89%, medication information (89.32% and relevant advices for patient (97.12%. Subsidiary or symptomatic drugs (56.76% were prescribed more than the core drugs (43.24% of total drugs prescribed. Generic prescription was 54.05%. Study in turn improved the understanding and perception about rational prescribing among the students. The students gained knowledge about the utilization of different types of dosage forms of drugs. Prescription audit as self-directed learning must be a tool for practical lesson of Pharmacology for UG-course as well as for PG-curriculum.

  3. 77 FR 8174 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... revised language communicates to contract personnel and program staff that government cost-related... (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA will amend the EPA Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) prescription for the work assignment clause. This final rule provides revised language to the prescription for the...

  4. 76 FR 26232 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) to update policy, procedures, and contract clauses. The proposed rule provides revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language that provides further instructions on use of the related clause. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  5. Do Physicians Change Prescription Practice in Response to Financial Incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sylvia; Han, Euna

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the impact on physician prescription behaviors of an outpatient prescription incentive program providing financial rewards to primary care physicians for saving prescription costs in South Korea. A 10% sample of clinics (N = 1,625) was randomly selected from all clinics in the National Health Insurance claims database for the years 2009-2012, and all claims with the primary diagnosis of peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux diseases were extracted from those clinics' data. A clinic-level random-effects model was used. After the program, clinics in general medicine showed a lower prescription rate (by 0.8 percentage points), lower number of medicines prescribed (by 0.02), lower prescription duration (by 0.15 days), and lower drug expenditure per claim (by 740 won). Small clinics on the <25th percentile of a regional sum of monthly drug expenditure had shorter prescription duration (by 0.76 days), while large clinics on the ≥75th percentile and clinics in group practice had a higher prescription rate (by 1.5 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively) and a higher number of medicines prescribed (by 0.03 for group practice only) after the program. The outpatient prescription incentive program worked as intended only in certain subgroup clinics for the target medicines.

  6. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales.

  7. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in..., health care providers, and industry and private organizations in efforts to improve medication...

  8. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  9. Gender and injuries predict stimulant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine whether injuries in early childhood and gender predict prescriptions of stimulant medication in three groups of children: With attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other psychiatric disorders (OPD...... follow-up of all cases. We found that the number of injuries prior to diagnosis was associated with initiation of stimulant treatment in all three groups of patients. In addition, male gender predicted treatment with ADHD medications. Our results suggest that the number of injuries early in life prior......). Methods: This was a population-based study with prospective and complete follow-up of children with ADHD (n=11,553), ASD (n=9698), and OPD (n=48,468), of whom 61%, 16%, and 3%, respectively, were treated with stimulants. For all 69,719 individual children data on psychiatric diagnoses, injuries, and drug...

  10. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-11

    There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic. Students used podcasts for

  11. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years, all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their

  12. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic

  13. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Other Interventions to Combat Prescription Opioid Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trendsrelated to opioid prescription pain relievers (OPR. In 2008, 20,044 deaths were attributedto prescription drug overdose of which 14,800 (73.8% were due to OPR, an amount greaterthan the number of overdose deaths from heroin and cocaine combined. The majority of thesedeaths were unintentional. Between 1999-2008, overdose deaths from OPR increased almostfour-fold. Correspondingly, sales of OPR were four times greater in 2010 than in 1999. Mostsignificant to emergency physicians is the estimate that 39% of all opioids prescribed, administeredor continued come from the emergency department (ED. We present findings from theCDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current recommendationsand policies for curtailing the OPR epidemic.1

  14. The appropriateness of a proton pump inhibitor prescription.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, N

    2014-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drug in Ireland, at great expense to the Irish healthcare executive. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of PPI prescriptions on admission and discharge in a tertiary referral hospital. All non-elective admissions in the Emergency Department in one week were included in the study. 102 patients in total were included, with 36 (35.4%) treated with a PPI on admission. Of these, only 3 (8.3%) had a clear indication noted as per current NICE guidelines. 18 new in-hospital PPI prescriptions were documented. 11 (61%) of which were present on discharge prescriptions. Continuing PPI prescription on discharge into the community may be inappropriate, costly and potentially harmful. Brief interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate PPI prescriptions have been shown to be effective at reducing the cost and potential harm of unnecessary treatment.

  15. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Geoffrey Kp; Del Mar, Chris B; Dooley, Liz; Foxlee, Ruth; Farley, Rebecca

    2017-09-07

    Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections. For this 2017 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2017), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register; Ovid MEDLINE (2013 to 25 May 2017); Ovid Embase (2013 to 2017 Week 21); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1984 to 25 May 2017); Web of Science (2013 to 25 May 2017); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (1 September 2017); and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 September 2017). Randomised controlled trials involving participants of all ages defined as having an RTI, where delayed antibiotics were compared to immediate antibiotics or no antibiotics. We defined a delayed antibiotic as advice to delay the filling of an antibiotic prescription by at least 48 hours. We considered all RTIs regardless of whether antibiotics were recommended or not. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Three review authors independently extracted and collated data. We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials. We contacted trial authors to obtain missing information. For this 2017 update we added one new trial involving 405 participants with uncomplicated acute respiratory infection. Overall, this review included 11 studies with a total of 3555 participants. These 11 studies involved acute respiratory infections including acute otitis media (three studies

  16. Extending the boundaries of the Declaration of Helsinki: a case study of an unethical experiment in a non-medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E D; Barach, P; Berman, T; Ben-David, G; Weinberger, Z

    2001-04-01

    To examine the ethical issues involved in governmental decisions with potential health risks, we review the history of the decision to raise the interurban speed limit in Israel in light of its impact on road death and injury. In 1993, the Israeli Ministry of Transportation initiated an "experiment" to raise the interurban speed limit from 90 to 100 kph. The "experiment" did not include a protocol and did not specify cut-off points for early termination in the case of adverse results. After the raise in the speed limit, the death toll on interurban roads rose as a result of a sudden increase in speeds and case fatality rates. The committee's decision is a case study in unfettered human experimentation and public health risks when the setting is non-medical and lacks a defined ethical framework. The case study states the case for extending Helsinki type safeguards to experimentation in non-medical settings.

  17. How do community pharmacies recover from e-prescription errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient's medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber's intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber's intent. Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers' intent. Future studies are needed to examine factors that facilitate or hinder recovery

  18. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  19. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical and non-medical students of a national university, and the responses of 224 students were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis and reliability testing were performed based on data collected for 25 adapted EASSI questions and those on the Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale (GARSS). A correlation analysis was performed between the 13 modified EASSI questions and the GARSS, and validity of the modified EASSI was verified by directly comparing stress levels between the two student groups. The 13 questions adapted for the EASSI were called the modified EASSI and classified into four factors through a factor analysis and reliability testing. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the modified EASSI and the Korean version of the GARSS, suggesting a complementary strategy of using both tests. The validity and reliability of the EASSI were verified. The modified Korean EASSI could be a useful stress test for Korean medical students. Our results show that medical students were under more stress than that of non-medical students. Thus, these results could be helpful for managing stress in medical students.

  20. WHAT ROLE SHOULD PUBLIC OPINION PLAY IN ETHICO-LEGAL DECISION MAKING? THE EXAMPLE OF SELECTING SEX FOR NON-MEDICAL REASONS USING PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Bennett, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the prohibition on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non -: medical reasons. We use this as a case study to explore the role that public consultations have and should play in ethico-legal decision-making. Until the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, non-medical sex selection of an embryo was not statutorily regulated, but it was the policy of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority that such selection should not occur. However, since 2009, it has been a criminal offence to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non-medical reasons. We consider the reasons given for this change and explore the role that 'public opinion' had in the decision-making process. On the face of it, asking the public what they think seems reasonable, fair and democratic, and those who are not in favour of public consultations being accorded great weight in matters of policy may appear out of touch and as wanting to impose their moral views on the public at large. But there are problems with doing so, especially when seeking to regulate ethically controversial issues. We discuss whether regulation should be influenced by public opinion obtained via 'public consultations', and utilise sex selection for non-medical reasons as an example of how (apparently) public opinion was used to support the criminalisation of this practice.

  1. Sequential pattern of non-medical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, N S; Wahab, S N; Kulkarni, H R

    1996-12-01

    A study was carried out in a group of opiate addicts who reported to various centers in Nagpur city, India, to know the sequential pattern of nonmedical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur. The mean age of the study group was 28.2 years, the majority were males, educated up to 10th standard, employed in various occupations like petty business, vehicle driving, etc, with an average monthly income of Rs. 316. The average number of drugs ever used per person was 3.7 +/- 1.2, those recently used was 2.6 +/- 0.9 and currently used was 2.2 +/- 0.6. The study group experienced 13 drug types in their addict careers. Beedi¿cigarette was the first drug abused by the majority. Drug careers starting with beedi¿cigarette, progressing to alcohol and then to canabis and finally to heroin were observed in a majority of subjects. There appeared to be a shift from multidrug use to the singular combination of heroin and beedi¿cigarette currently. Use of all other drugs declined in favor of heroin as the career progressed. The study indicates that preventive programs should be directed at reducing the use of initial drugs like beedi¿cigarette and alcohol and also reducing the social acceptability of these drugs as measure for preventing progression to hard drugs like heroin.

  2. a Laboratory-Based X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Scanner with Applications in Biomedical and Non-Medical Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Munro, P. R. T.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Millard, T. P.; Speller, R.; Olivo, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines.

  3. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  4. [Inappropriate prescription in older patients: the STOPP/START criteria].

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delgado Silveira, Eva

    2009-09-01

    Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers\\' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person\\'s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers\\' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP\\/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people.

  5. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further.

  6. Geographical and temporal variations in clozapine prescription for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Schjerning, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Despite its unsurpassed efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine remains underutilized. Trends in the prescription of clozapine in patients with ICD-10 F20.x schizophrenia were assessed using data from Danish national registers. Three substudies were carried out: (i) an assessment...... of differences in national prescription patterns between 1996 and 2007 using a cross-sectional design; (ii) a comparison of time from first schizophrenia diagnosis to first prescription of clozapine in a five-year cohort study, using the Cox regression model, of two patient groups who were first diagnosed...

  7. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  8. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Divekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by examining the psychological factors that explain how managers deviate from rationality in responding to uncertainty.

  9. Viscosity prescription for gravitationally unstable accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2015-01-01

    Gravitationally unstable accretion disks emerge in a variety of astrophysical contexts - giant planet formation, FU Orioni outbursts, feeding of AGNs, and the origin of Pop III stars. When a gravitationally unstable disk is unable to cool rapidly it settles into a quasi-stationary, fluctuating gravitoturbulent state, in which its Toomre Q remains close to a constant value Q_0~1. Here we develop an analytical formalism describing the evolution of such a disk, which is based on the assumptions of Q=Q_0 and local thermal equilibrium. Our approach works in the presence of additional sources of angular momentum transport (e.g. MRI), as well as external irradiation. Thermal balance dictates a unique value of the gravitoturbulent stress \\alpha_{gt} driving disk evolution, which is a function of the local surface density and angular frequency. We compare this approach with other commonly used gravitoturbulent viscosity prescriptions, which specify the explicit dependence of stress \\alpha_{gt} on Toomre Q in an ad hoc...

  10. Expanded pharmacy technician roles: Accepting verbal prescriptions and communicating prescription transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2016-11-29

    As the role of the clinical pharmacist continues to develop and advance, it is critical to ensure pharmacists can operate in a practice environment and workflow that supports the full deployment of their clinical skills. When pharmacy technician roles are optimized, patient safety can be enhanced and pharmacists may dedicate more time to advanced clinical services. Currently, 17 states allow technicians to accept verbal prescriptions called in by a prescriber or prescriber's agent, or transfer a prescription order from one pharmacy to another. States that allow these activities generally put few legal limitations on them, and instead defer to the professional judgment of the supervising pharmacist whether to delegate these tasks or not. These activities were more likely to be seen in states that require technicians to be registered and certified, and in states that have accountability mechanisms (e.g., discipline authority) in place for technicians. There is little evidence to suggest these tasks cannot be performed safely and accurately by appropriately trained technicians, and the track record of success with these tasks spans four decades in some states. Pharmacists can adopt strong practice policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of harm from verbal orders, such as instituting read-back/spell-back techniques, or requiring the indication for each phoned-in medication, among other strategies. Pharmacists may also exercise discretion in deciding to whom to delegate these tasks. As the legal environment becomes more permissive, we foresee investment in more robust education and training of technicians to cover these activities. Thus, with the adoption of robust practice policies and procedures, delegation of verbal orders and prescription transfers can be safe and effective, remove undue stress on pharmacists, and potentially free up pharmacist time for higher-order clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Typewriters Changed Correspondence: An Analysis of Prescription and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sue

    1984-01-01

    Notes changes in the visual organization of correspondence brought about by the typewriter. Discusses the development of these changes, drawing examples both from the prescriptions for and the practice of commercial correspondence. (FL)

  12. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  13. Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seniors Tips for Parents En Español Prescription Drug Advertising Information for Healthcare Professionals (Drugs) FDA Drug Info ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Investigation of Medication Errors: A Prescription Survey from Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Prescription errors are common in outpatient settings of Aluthgama and Kandy areas in. Sri Lanka. ..... irrational drug use in India were similar to the results that were .... and nature of dosing errors in paediatric medications:.

  15. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  16. Prescription and Cost Consideration at a Diabetic Clinic in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    Prescription and Cost Consideration at a Diabetic Clinic in Ibadan,. Nigeria: A Report ... drugs with proven efficacy based on best evidence, the prevailing social ... pharmacy using the current hospital drug-pricing list calculated the cost of the ...

  17. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and involuntary leg movements. 29 Misuse of prescription opioids is also a risk factor for transitioning to heroin use. Read more about ...

  18. Opioid prescriptions before and after high-energy trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Hallas, Jesper; Larsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the legal use of opioids in adult patients before and after high-energy trauma. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective database study. SETTING: Clinical care outside hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients who suffered high-energy trauma and were brought to Odense University...... Hospital (OUH), Denmark, in 2007 and 2008 were retrieved from the trauma database. These patients were linked with data on opioid use from the regional prescription database. In all, 938 patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Redemption of opioid prescription during the 6 months prior...... to a multitrauma or redemption of two or more prescriptions for opioids 6 months or later after a multitrauma. RESULTS: Of the 938 patients brought to OUH with severe trauma within the study period, 61 patients died (7 percent) and six of these had redeemed prescriptions for opioids within 6 months prior...

  19. Toward Validation of the Diagnostic-Prescriptive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Sabatino, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Criticized are recent research efforts to validate the diagnostic prescriptive model of remediating learning disabilities, and proposed is a 6-step psychoeducational model designed to ascertain links between behavioral differences and instructional outcomes. (DB)

  20. Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a specialist ... use in the management of essential hypertension in a specialist hospital and its ... of encounters, there were a total of 1544 drugs and 28 non-drug interventions.

  1. Pattern of Prescription of Antibiotics among Dental Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consistency in the antibiotic prescription pattern among dentists in Jeddah and overall low adherence to the ..... manuscript editing and review. Appendix I: Clinical case ... adhesion deficiency, antibiotic therapy is indicated. a*Adapted from ...

  2. Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Garzon

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The %HRR–%VO2R relationship appears to be the most accurate for exercise training prescription on IE. This study offers new tools to better prescribe, control, and individualize exercise intensity on IE.

  3. Forest Management Prescription : Compartment 9 : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Forest Management Prescription for Compartment 9 of Mingo NWR. It provides a description of the compartment, management objectives, proposed management...

  4. prescriptions involving analgesic drugs at a secondary health facility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per patient were recorded and prescriptions involving analgesics were further ... documentation of any untoward effects in the over ... files were sent to the Pharmacy Department of the ..... Efficacy and safety of metamizol vs. acetylsalicylic acid.

  5. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Prescription Drug Events PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is a Public Use File for Prescription Drug Events drawn from the 2008 Beneficiary Summary File of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled during the calendar year 2008,...

  6. Opioid prescriptions before and after high-energy trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Hallas, Jesper; Larsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the legal use of opioids in adult patients before and after high-energy trauma. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective database study. SETTING: Clinical care outside hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients who suffered high-energy trauma and were brought to Odense University...... Hospital (OUH), Denmark, in 2007 and 2008 were retrieved from the trauma database. These patients were linked with data on opioid use from the regional prescription database. In all, 938 patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Redemption of opioid prescription during the 6 months prior...... to a multitrauma or redemption of two or more prescriptions for opioids 6 months or later after a multitrauma. RESULTS: Of the 938 patients brought to OUH with severe trauma within the study period, 61 patients died (7 percent) and six of these had redeemed prescriptions for opioids within 6 months prior...

  7. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Weyandt LL; Oster DR; Marraccini ME; Gudmundsdottir BG; Munro BA; Zavras BM; Kuhar B

    2014-01-01

    Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, ...

  8. The attitude of the female students of medical and non-medical fields of studies towards the cervical cancer prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Olejniczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mortality of women with cervical cancer is one of the main problems of oncology. Poland is a country with high morbidity and mortality for this type of malignancy. In 2007, the incidence was 11.8 and the mortality was 5.0 per 100.000. Despite the availability of free Pap tests and many prevention campaigns, the incidence in Poland has remained at a constantly high level for several years. This prompted us to examine the degree of knowledge of different groups of the population about prophylaxis Aim of the research: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of students towards the prevention of cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study group are students of medical and non-medical faculties, who in total accounted for a panel of 112 people. The study was conducted at two universities: the Medical University of Warsaw and Kielce University of Technology. The diagnostic survey method: the study took the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 25 closed questions on cervical cancer and its prevention. To determine whether there is a relationship between the subsidiaries, we used statistical methods such as test compliance χ 2 for a confidence level of p = 0.05, and r-Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Training in the medical school is associated with having more knowledge in the field of medicine. Conclusions: Although the respondents most frequently declared that the main reason for them reporting to a gynaecologist was for regular check-ups, the percentage of the response was insufficient to conclude that students appreciate the role of secondary prevention of cervical cancer.

  9. Impact of Non-medical Out-of-pocket Expenses on Families of Children With Cerebral Palsy Following Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A; DiFazio, Rachel L; Strout, Tania D; Snyder, Brian D

    2017-07-24

    Limited research has been conducted on the non-medical out-of-pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of children with chronic health conditions. The study objectives were to: 1) calculate the estimated NOOPEs incurred by families during hospitalization of their child, 2) identify predictors of high NOOPEs, and 3) assess the impact of the child's chronic health condition on the family's finances. Prospective observational study. Parents were included if their child was 3-20years old, had severe, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP), and scheduled for hip or spine surgery. Parents reported all NOOPEs incurred during their child's hospitalization using the Family Expense Diary. Families completed the subscales of the Impact on Family Scale and the Assessment of Caregivers Experience with Neuromuscular Disease. Descriptive and univariate and multiple hierarchical regression models were used in the analysis. Fifty two parents participated. The total NOOPEs ranged from $193.00 to $7192.71 (M=$2001.92) per hospitalization representing an average of 4% of the family's annual earned income. Caregiver age (F=8.393, phospital (F=4.497, p=0.039) were significant predictors of high NOOPEs. The subscale scores indicated that a child's chronic health condition had a significant impact on family finances. Hospitalization is associated with numerous NOOPEs that create additional financial demands for families caring for a child with severe CP. NOOPEs should be addressed when preparing families for their children's planned hospital admissions, especially those families of CSHCN who experience significant financial impacts secondary to their children's care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Exercise Prescription Intervention Program with Periodic Ergometric Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, C. A.; Beard, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    A long term exercise prescription type of physical conditioning program has been available to executive personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for the past two years. Periodic ergometric testing with a heart rate controlled, automatically programmed, bicycle ergometer is used to follow the individual's progress and appropriately alter his exercise prescription from time to time. Such a program appears feasible, and acceptance is excellent, dropout rates small and periodic testing participation good. Subjects training diligently can maintain satisfactory levels of conditioning.

  11. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  12. Rationality of Antimicrobial Prescriptions in Community Pharmacy Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I V C Lima

    Full Text Available Although there is a conflict between the treatment benefits for a single individual and society, restrictions on antibiotic use are needed to reduce the prevalence of resistance to these drugs, which is the main result of irrational use. Brazil, cataloged as a pharmemerging market, has implemented restrictive measures for the consumption of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of antimicrobial prescriptions and user knowledge of their treatment with these drugs.A two-stage cross-sectional, combined and stratified survey of pharmacy users holding an antimicrobial prescription was conducted in the community between May and November 2014. A pharmacist analyzed each prescription for legibility and completeness, and applied a structured questionnaire to the users or their caregivers on their knowledge regarding treatment and user sociodemographic data. An estimated 29.3% of prescriptions had one or more illegible items, 91.3% had one or more missing items, and 29.0% had both illegible and missing items. Dosing schedule and patient identification were the most commonly unreadable items in prescriptions, 18.81% and 12.14%, respectively. The lack of complete patient identification occurred in 90.53% of the prescriptions. It is estimated that 40.3% of users have used antimicrobials without prescription and that 46.49% did not receive any guidance on the administration of the drug.Despite the measures taken by health authorities to restrict the misuse of antimicrobials, it was observed that prescribers still do not follow the criteria of current legislation, particularly relating to items needed for completion of the prescription. Moreover, users receive little information about their antimicrobial treatment.

  13. Self-prescription practices in recent Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Maren J; Shobe, Marcia A; O'Connell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Self-prescription involves the purchase and use of restricted medications without medical advice. Although common in Central and South American countries, little is known about this practice among Latino immigrants in the United States. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore how Latino immigrants obtain and use prescription medications without accessing the formal health care system. This exploratory descriptive study used focus groups to gain an understanding of the use of prescription medications without medical care. Three focus group discussions were held with 19 adult Latino immigrants who were new residents in the United States, and did not have health insurance; most were undocumented. Analysis of the data revealed 4 major themes: (a) health care barriers, (b) cultural norms, (c) self-care, and (d) self-prescription. The data indicate that this population experiences significant barriers to accessing health care, forcing them to seek treatment alternatives including the purchase and use of drugs manufactured in Mexico. There are many public health and safety concerns related to self-prescription practices. Nurses need to be aware of the barriers to health care that lead to these potentially dangerous medication practices, and to recognize and understand self-prescription.

  14. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD, OCS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001. African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  15. Illicit Use of Prescription Opiates among Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D; Parrish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Through this study the authors assessed the prevalence rate, reasons for use, and poly-substance use of prescription opiates among graduate students. The authors employed a cross-sectional survey research design using an online, self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence rates of prescription opiate use among graduate students (N = 1,033), reasons for use, and their likelihood for poly-substance use. The survey was e-mailed to 5,000 graduate students. Graduate students (19.7%) reported illicit use of prescription opiates in their lifetime and 6.6% reported past-year illicit use. Those who indicated illicitly using prescription opiates did so for self-medication reasons; a few respondents indicated recreational use. Students using prescription opiates were 75% less likely to use marijuana; 79% less likely to use cocaine; and 75% less likely to use ecstasy. Graduate students are illicitly using prescription opiates, but primarily for self-medication, and, while doing so, are less likely to use other substances.

  16. Description, prescription and the choice of discount rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Seth D. [Rock Ethics Institute, Pennsylvania State University, 201 Willard Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, 302 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The choice of discount rates is a key issue in the analysis of long-term societal issues, in particular environmental issues such as climate change. Approaches to choosing discount rates are generally placed into two categories: the descriptive approach and the prescriptive approach. The descriptive approach is often justified on grounds that it uses a description of how society discounts instead of having analysts impose their own discounting views on society. This paper analyzes the common forms of the descriptive and prescriptive approaches and finds that, in contrast with customary thinking, both forms are equally descriptive and prescriptive. The prescriptions concern who has standing (i.e. who is included) in society, how the views of these individuals are measured, and how the measurements are aggregated. Such prescriptions are necessary to choose from among the many possible descriptions of how society discounts. The descriptions are the measurements made given a choice of measurement technique. Thus, the labels 'descriptive approach' and 'prescriptive approach' are deeply misleading, as analysts cannot avoid imposing their own views on society. (author)

  17. Doctor Shopping Behavior and the Diversion of Prescription Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    "Doctor shopping" as a means of prescription opioid diversion is examined. The number and percentage of prescriptions and morphine-equivalent milligrams diverted in this manner are estimated by state and molecule for the period 2008-2012. Eleven billion prescriptions with unique patient, doctor, and pharmacy identifiers were used to construct diversion "events" that involved between 1 and 6 unique doctors and between 1 and 6 unique pharmacies. Diversion thresholds were established based on the probability of each contingency. A geographically widespread decline occurred between 2008 and 2012. The number of prescriptions diverted fell from approximately 4.30 million (1.75% of all prescriptions) in 2008 to approximately 3.37 million (1.27% of all prescriptions) in 2012, and the number of morphine-equivalent milligrams fell from approximately 6.55 metric tons (2.95% of total metric tons) in 2008 to approximately 4.87 metric tons (2.19% of total metric tons) in 2012. Diversion control efforts have likely been effective. But given increases in opioid-related deaths, opioid-related drug treatment admissions, and the more specific resurgence of heroin-related events, it is clear that additional public health measures are required.

  18. Bodily differences between Cold- and Heat-prescription groups in Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Park

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In the SY-type men, the chest circumference was significantly greater in the Heat-prescription group compared to the Cold-prescription group. In the TE-type men, the rib-to-pelvic circumference ratio was significantly higher in the Heat-prescription group than in the Cold-prescription group.

  19. Defining risk of prescription opioid overdose: pharmacy shopping and overlapping prescriptions among long-term opioid users in medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuo; Wilsey, Barth; Bohm, Michele; Weyrich, Meghan; Roy, Kakoli; Ritley, Dominique; Jones, Christopher; Melnikow, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Use of multiple pharmacies concurrently (pharmacy shopping) and overlapping prescriptions may be indicators of potential misuse or abuse of prescription opioid medications. To evaluate strategies for identifying patients at high risk, we first compared different definitions of pharmacy shopping and then added the indicator of overlapping opioid prescriptions. We identified a cohort of 90,010 Medicaid enrollees who used ≥ 3 opioid prescriptions for ≥ 90 days during 2008 to 2010 from a multistate Medicaid claims database. We compared the diagnostic odds ratios for opioid overdose events of 9 pharmacy shopping definitions. Within a 90-day interval, a threshold of 4 pharmacies had the highest diagnostic odds ratio and was used to define pharmacy shopping. The overdose rate was higher in the subgroup with overlapping prescriptions (18.5 per 1,000 person-years [PYs]) than in the subgroup with pharmacy shopping as the sole indicator (10.7 per 1,000 PYs). Among the subgroup with both conditions, the overdose rate was 26.3 per 1,000 PYs, compared with 4.3 per 1,000 PYs for those with neither condition. Overlapping opioid prescriptions and pharmacy shopping measures had adjusted hazard ratios of 3.0 and 1.8, respectively, for opioid overdose. Using these measures will improve accurate identification of patients at highest risk of opioid overdose, the first step in implementing targeted prevention policies. Long-term prescription opioid use may lead to adverse events, including overdose. Both pharmacy shopping and overlapping opioid prescriptions are associated with adverse outcomes. This study demonstrates that using both indicators will better identify those at high risk of overdose. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Roles of the non-medical prescribing leads within organisations across a Strategic Health Authority: perceived functions and factors supporting the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rosemary Hwee Mei; Courtenay, Molly; Fleming, Gail

    2013-04-01

    Extending the roles of nurses, pharmacists and allied health professionals to include prescribing has been identified as one way of improving service provision. In the UK, over 50 000 non-medical healthcare professionals are now qualified to prescribe. Implementation of non-medical prescribing ( NMP) is crucial to realise the potential return on investment. The UK Department of Health recommends a NMP lead to be responsible for the implementation of NMP within organisations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NMP leads in organisations across one Strategic Health Authority (SHA) and to inform future planning with regards to the criteria for those adopting this role, the scope of the role and factors enabling the successful execution of the role. Thirty-nine NMP leads across one SHA were approached. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Issues explored included the perceived role of the NMP lead, safety and clinical governance procedures and facilitators to the role. Transcribed audiotapes were coded and analysed using thematic analytical techniques. In total, 27/39 (69.2%) NMP leads were interviewed. The findings highlight the key role that the NMP lead plays with regards to the support and development of NMP within National Health Service trusts. Processes used to appoint NMP leads lacked clarity and varied between trusts. Only two NMP leads had designated or protected time for their role. Strategic influence, operational management and clinical governance were identified as key functions. Factors that supported the role included organisational support, level of influence and dedicated time. The NMP lead plays a significant role in the development and implementation of NMP. Clear national guidance is needed with regards to the functions of this role, the necessary attributes for individuals recruited into this post and the time that should be designated to it. This is important as prescribing is extended to include other groups of

  1. Knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and its early symptoms among medical and non-medical students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Mamoona; Murad, Sheeba; Furqan, Muhammad; Sultan, Aneesa; Bloodsworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally but has an even more significant impact in developing countries. Pakistan has the highest prevalence among Asian countries. A general lack of public awareness regarding the disease often results in late diagnosis and poor treatment outcomes. The literacy rate of the Southern Punjab (Pakistan) is low compared to its Northern part. It is therefore vital that university students and especially medical students develop a sound knowledge about the disease so that they can spread awareness to others who may be less educated. This study therefore considers current knowledge and understanding about the early signs of breast cancer amongst a study group of medical and non-medical university students of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of the university students was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of breast cancer from March to May 2014. A total of 566 students participated in this study, out of which 326 were non-medical and 240 were from a medical discipline. Statistical analysis was carried out using Graph Pad Prism Version 5 with a significance level set at pstudents were aware of the early warning signs of the breast cancer development. Knowledge of medical students about risk factors was significantly better than the non medical ones, but on the whole was insufficient. Our study indicated that knowledge regarding breast cancer was generally insufficient amongst the majority of the university students (75% non-medical and 55% medical) of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This study highlights the need to formulate an awareness campaign and to organize conferences to promote breast cancer awareness among students in this region.

  2. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nishat; Haque, Ahsanul; Aysha, Farjana

    2012-01-01

    Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people) under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol–melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication. PMID:23723537

  3. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  4. [Prescription appropriateness: Indication of citicoline in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Luz, A; Reyes Rodríguez, J F; Gómez Rodríguez de Acuña, A; González Gómez, C M; Álvarez Dorta, I; Pérez Cánovas, M E

    2015-01-01

    The economic situation has made it necessary to optimize resources by adjusting the pharmaceutical expenditure. Citicoline was (2011) the 10th drug by rank of billed amount. Its approved indications are stroke (acute and sub-acute) and head injury, but not cognitive decline associated with age, the presumed indication for most of its use. To assess the conditions of use of citicoline in the Health Area of Tenerife, in order to detect deviations from the indications of use as stipulated in the prescribing information sheet and the pattern of prescription, with emphasis on the analysis of its use in dementia where currently it has no indication or evidence to support it. Cross-sectional study of prescription-indication. A 680 patient sample, segmented by reference hospital (error±5%; CI: 0.95%; P=0.5) was taken from the 4036 patients with a prescription of citicoline billed during august-october 2011 (obtained from the prescription database program, Farmacanarias). We found that 123 patients (18.1%) had an appropriate indication. By including the prescription regimen, 28 patients (4.1%) had adequate indication and dose levels, and in only 2 patients (0.2%) an appropriate indication, dosage and duration were found. "The correct prescription-indication" of citicoline is inappropiate in almost all patients studied. Impact actions are needed in order to optimize prescription, improve patient safety by reducing potential interactions, and the occurrence of adverse effects, and improve efficiency by promoting savings. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Pediatric emergency department discharge prescriptions requiring pharmacy clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Gittelman, Michael A; Widecan, Michelle L; Luria, Joseph W

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze and classify reasons why retail pharmacies need to contact the pediatric emergency department (PED) for clarification on outpatient prescriptions generated using an electronic prescribing system and to categorize the severity of errors captured. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a PED that cares for approximately 92,000 patients annually. All pharmacy callbacks documented in the electronic medical record between August 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 were included. A datasheet was used to capture patient demographics (age, sex, race, insurance), prescriptions written, and reason for callback. Each call was then assigned a severity level, and time to respond to all calls was estimated. Frequencies were used to analyze the data. A total of 731 errors for 695 callbacks were analyzed from 49,583 prescriptions written at discharge. The most common errors included administrative/insurance issues 342/731 (47%) and prescription writing errors 298/731 (41%). The errors were classified as insignificant (340/729 [47%]), problematic (288/729 [40%]), significant (77/729 [11%]), serious (12/729 [1.64%]), and severe (12/729 [1.64%]). Almost 96% of errant prescriptions were not able to be filled as originally written and required a change by the prescriber. These calls required approximately 127 hours to complete. Prescription errors requiring a pharmacy callback are typically insignificant. However, 13.8% of callbacks about an error were considered significant, serious, or severe. Automated dose checking and verifying insurance coverage of prescribed medications should be considered essential components of prescription writing in a PED.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  7. [Artificial illness as a result of non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povzun, S A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old female body builder who had used anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 18 years to build up muscle mass died from liver rupture. The cause of the latter was multiple abscesses caused by Actinomyces, which developed in the presence of immunodeficiency. The postmortem changes in different organs were due to hormonal imbalance. The paper gives the data available in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the effects of AASs taken in supraphysiological doses on the body and their non-medical application.

  8. Outcome disparities between medical personnel and nonmedical personnel patients receiving definitive surgery for colorectal cancer: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality between

  9. Pharmacology as a foreign language: a preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2009-12-18

    Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception) and objective (student use and exam results) usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69) of non-medical prescribing students. The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69) was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70). WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81%) generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73%) used them while referring to their lecture handouts. The majority of

  10. Pharmacology as a foreign language: A preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception and objective (student use and exam results usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69 of non-medical prescribing students. Methods The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69 was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70. Results WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81% generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73% used them while

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  12. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  13. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  14. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  15. Prescription Opioid Abuse: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel P.; Birnbaum, Howard; Brennan, Michael J.; Freedman, John D.; Gilmore, Gary P.; Jay, Dennis; Kenna, George A.; Madras, Bertha K.; McElhaney, Lisa; Weiss, Roger D.; White, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prescription opioid abuse and addiction are serious problems with growing societal and medical costs, resulting in billions of dollars of excess costs to private and governmental health insurers annually. Though difficult to accurately assess, prescription opioid abuse also leads to increased insurance costs in the form of property and liability claims, and costs to state and local governments for judicial, emergency, and social services. This manuscript’s objective is to provide payers with strategies to control these costs, while supporting safe use of prescription opioid medications for patients with chronic pain. Method A Tufts Health Care Institute Program on Opioid Risk Management meeting was convened in June 2010 with private and public payer representatives, public health and law enforcement officials, pain specialists, and other stakeholders to present research, and develop recommendations on solutions that payers might implement to combat this problem. Results While protecting access to prescription opioids for patients with pain, private and public payers can implement strategies to mitigate financial risks associated with opioid abuse, using internal strategies, such as formulary controls, claims data surveillance, and claims matching; and external policies and procedures that support and educate physicians on reducing opioid risks among patients with chronic pain. Conclusion Reimbursement policies, incentives, and health technology systems that encourage physicians to use universal precautions, to consult prescription monitoring program (PMP) data, and to implement Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to6Treatment protocols, have a high potential to reduce insurer risks while addressing a serious public health problem. PMID:23725361

  16. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  17. Americans' access to prescription drugs stabilizes, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukus, Ellyn R; Carrier, Emily R

    2011-12-01

    Despite the weak economy and more people lacking health insurance, the proportion of Americans reporting problems affording prescription drugs remained level between 2007 and 2010, with more than one in eight going without a prescribed drug in 2010, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While remaining stable overall, access to prescription drugs improved for working-age, uninsured people, likely reflecting a decline in visits to health care providers, as well as changes in the composition of the uninsured population. Likewise, elderly people eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid saw a sharp drop in prescription drug access problems. The most vulnerable people--the uninsured, those with low incomes, people in fair or poor health, and those with multiple chronic conditions--continued to face the most unmet prescription needs. For example, 48 percent of uninsured people in fair or poor health went without a prescription drug because of cost concerns in 2010, almost double the rate of insured people with the same reported health status.

  18. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, Nicola; Rossi, Federica; Del Signore, Federica; Bertazzoni, Paolo; Bellazzi, Roberto; Sandrini, Giorgio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Liccione, Davide; Pascale, Alessia; Govoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy. Methods Subjects were recruited from a local nursing home, the Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, general practitioners’ offices, and the local University of the Third Age. For each patient, the amount of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs), sedative and anticholinergic load (SL and AL, respectively), and drug–drug interactions were evaluated. Results Widespread polypharmacy, giving rise to 10.06% of PIPs in the whole collection of prescriptions, was observed. In particular, PIPs mainly concern drugs acting at the central nervous system level, mostly benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Moreover, approximately one-fourth of the subjects had an elevated SL and approximately one-tenth a high AL. Drug–drug interactions were frequent (266 requiring medical attention), up to five for each single patient. Of concern was the underuse of antidementia drugs: only 20 patients received a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, although 183 patients were potentially suitable for this treatment. Conclusion These results demonstrate the need to develop novel strategies aimed at improving the quality of drug prescription. PMID:28228653

  19. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  20. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Hemsing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women’s use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women’s vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  1. Socioeconomic Variations in Use of Prescription Medicines for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine socioeconomic variations in the use of prescription medicines among elderly subjects with COPD. METHODS: Data from the Danish national administrative registers were used. The study population included 1,365 individuals >60 y old residing...... in the Municipality of Copenhagen and diagnosed with COPD in a hospital setting in 2007. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations between the use of all prescription medicines for obstructive pulmonary diseases and the use of long-acting bronchodilators, in subject groups of different...... socioeconomic position. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that approximately 90% of subjects with COPD purchased at least one prescription medicine for obstructive pulmonary diseases, whereas approximately 50% purchased a long-acting bronchodilator. Medicine use did not vary according to educational status...

  2. Getting to the Root of High Prescription Drug Prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Henry; Corr, Bill; Martin, Kristi; Duong, Sophia

    2017-07-01

    ISSUE: Historic increases in prescription drug prices and spending are contributing to unsustainable health care costs in the United States. There is widespread public support for elected officials to address the problem. GOAL: To document the drivers of high U.S. prescription drug prices and offer a broad range of feasible policy actions. METHODS: Interviews with experts and organizations engaged with prescription drug development and utilization, pricing, regulation, and clinical practice. Review of policy documents, proposals, and position statements from a variety of stakeholders. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Congress and regulators can undertake a wide range of policy actions to begin to rebalance incentives for innovation and price competition, prioritize patient access and affordability, and maximize the availability of information to patients, providers, and payers.

  3. Ramp length/grade prescriptions for wheelchair dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, I; Felici, F; Marchetti, M; Ricci, B

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this work was to provide well defined criteria for ramp construction for wheelchair dependent individuals (WDI). Force capability was measured in a large sample (140) of WDI, who presented different levels of motor impairment. Levels of impairment were established on the basis of the answers given in a questionnaire regarding the degree of self sufficiency at home as well as outside the home and active participation in sports events. Taking into account those WDI who exhibited at least a minimal level of self-sufficiency, the following prescriptions are indicated. For a 1 metre ramp length, allowable maximal incline 15%; up to 3 metre ramp length, maximal incline 10%. The reliability of such prescriptions was confirmed by having a test ramp traversed by 43 WDI. These values are suggested as confidence limits when faced with public building accommodations. Special prescriptions could be adopted for selected populations of WDI.

  4. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine...... the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. DESIGN AND SETTING: A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry...... data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number...

  5. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  6. Utilisation of prescription and over-the-counter triptans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Ljunggren, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    triptans in Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS: Register data from 4759 patients dispensed triptans in 2014 were used to study documented diagnosis of migraine, concomitant acute and preventive treatment for migraine, and contraindications. Survey data from 49 patients purchasing OTC triptans in three pharmacies...... were used to capture physician-diagnosed migraine, concomitant acute and preventive treatment for migraine, a behaviour of combining or alternating between prescription and OTC triptans, and pharmacy counselling rates. RESULTS: Among the prescription triptan users, 52 % had a recorded diagnosis...... OTC and prescription triptans was rare. Concomitant acute treatment was reported in 53 % and preventive treatment was rare (4 %), despite high self-reported migraine frequencies. Some off-label use was detected, despite moderate to high counselling rates. CONCLUSION: Triptans are prescribed...

  7. Extending the boundaries of the Declaration of Helsinki: a case study of an unethical experiment in a non-medical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E.; Barach, P.; Berman, T.; Ben-David, G; Weinberger, Z.

    2001-01-01

    To examine the ethical issues involved in governmental decisions with potential health risks, we review the history of the decision to raise the interurban speed limit in Israel in light of its impact on road death and injury. In 1993, the Israeli Ministry of Transportation initiated an "experiment" to raise the interurban speed limit from 90 to 100 kph. The "experiment" did not include a protocol and did not specify cut-off points for early termination in the case of adverse results. After the raise in the speed limit, the death toll on interurban roads rose as a result of a sudden increase in speeds and case fatality rates. The committee's decision is a case study in unfettered human experimentation and public health risks when the setting is non-medical and lacks a defined ethical framework. The case study states the case for extending Helsinki type safeguards to experimentation in non-medical settings. Key Words: Declaration of Helsinki • human experimentation • speed limit PMID:11314157

  8. The role of patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical channels in fruit and vegetable intake among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Martinez, Lourdes; Lewis, Nehama; Freres, Derek; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    Previous research suggests positive effects of health information seeking on prevention behaviors such as diet, exercise, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study builds upon this research and strengthens causal claims from it by examining the lagged effect of patient-clinician information engagement on fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the indirect effect on the outcome through seeking information from nonmedical channels. The results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006 and 2007. There was a 65% response rate for baseline subjects (resulting n = 2,013); of those, 1,293 were interviewed 1 year later, and 1,257 were available for our analyses. Results show a positive lagged main effect of patient-clinician information engagement at baseline on fruit and vegetable consumption at follow-up (B = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .01). The mediation analysis shows that patient-clinician information engagement leads to increased fruit and vegetable consumption among cancer patients, in part through patients' information seeking from nonmedical channels. Implications of these findings for the cancer patient population and for physicians are discussed.

  9. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegri N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Allegri,1 Federica Rossi,2 Federica Del Signore,2 Paolo Bertazzoni,3 Roberto Bellazzi,4 Giorgio Sandrini,5 Tomaso Vecchi,1 Davide Liccione,1 Alessia Pascale,6 Stefano Govoni6 1Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, 2Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, 3”Bertazzoni” Pharmacy General Partnership, Vigevano, 4Nephrology and Dialysis Ward, Civil Hospital of Vigevano, 5C. Mondino National Institute of Neurology Foundation, IRCCS, 6Department of Drug Sciences, Section of pharmacology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Purpose: Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy.Methods: Subjects were recruited from a local nursing home, the Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, general practitioners’ offices, and the local University of the Third Age. For each patient, the amount of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs, sedative and anticholinergic load (SL and AL, respectively, and drug–drug interactions were evaluated.Results: Widespread polypharmacy, giving rise to 10.06% of PIPs in the whole collection of prescriptions, was observed. In particular, PIPs mainly concern drugs acting at the central nervous system level, mostly benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Moreover, approximately one-fourth of the subjects had an elevated SL and approximately one-tenth a high AL. Drug–drug interactions were frequent (266 requiring medical attention, up to five for each single patient. Of concern was the underuse of antidementia drugs: only 20 patients received a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, although 183 patients were potentially suitable for this treatment.Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need to develop

  10. Prescription opioid analgesics increase the risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Svrakic, Dragan M; Freedland, Kenneth E; Chrusciel, Timothy; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Lustman, Patrick J

    2014-03-01

    Prescription opioid analgesic use has quintupled recently. Evidence linking opioid use with depression emanates from animal models and studies of persons with co-occurring substance use and major depression. Little is known about depressogenic effects of opioid use in other populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prescription opioids are associated with increased risk of diagnosed depression. Retrospective cohort study, new user design. Medical record data from 49,770 US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system patients with no recent (24-month) history of opioid use or a diagnosis of depression in 1999 and 2000. Propensity scores were used to control for bias by indication, and the data were weighted to balance the distribution of covariates by duration of incident opioid exposure. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for painful conditions were used to estimate the association between duration of prescription opioid use and the subsequent risk of development of depression between 2001 and 2007. Of 49,770 patients who were prescribed an opioid analgesic, 91 % had a prescription for 180 days. Compared to patients whose prescription was for opioid prescription increased (HR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.46 for 90-180 days, and HR = 1.51; 95 % CI:1.31-1.74 for > 180 days). In this sample of veterans with no recent (24-month) history of depression or opioid analgesic use, the risk of development of depression increased as the duration of opioid analgesic exposure increased. The potential for depressogenic effect should be considered in risk-benefit discussions, and patients initiating opioid treatment should be monitored for development of depression.

  11. Potential misuse and inappropriate prescription practices involving opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Logan, Joseph E; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Zhang, Kun; Jones, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    Opioid misuse and abuse are growing concerns among the medical and public health communities. To examine the prevalence of indicators for potential opioid misuse in a large, commercially insured adult population. We adapted existing indicators developed by expert panels to include having overlapping opioid prescriptions, overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, long-acting/ extended release (LA/ER) opioids for acute pain,and high daily doses of opioids (>100 morphine milligram equivalents). These indicators were assessed among continuously enrolled individuals aged 18-64 years from the 2009 Truven Health MarketScan databases. Analyses were stratified by sex. We identified 3,391,599 eligible enrollees who received at least 1 opioid prescription. On average, enrollees obtained 3.3 opioid prescriptions, and the average annual days of supply was 47 days. Twice as many enrollees received opioid prescriptions for acute pain as for chronic pain. About a quarter of the enrollees had at least 1 indicator of either potential misuse by patients or inappropriate prescription practices by providers. About 15% of enrollees had high daily doses;7.8% had opioid overlap; and 7.9% had opioid and benzodiazepine overlap. Among those prescribed LA/ER opioids, 24.3% were treated for acute pain. Overlap indicators were more common among women. Our findings underscore the critical need to develop programs aimed at promoting appropriate use of opioids. Retrospective opioid utilization reviews similar to our analyses can potentially help managed care organizations and healthcare providers improve patient care and reduce the risk of adverse outcomes related to these medications.

  12. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  13. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  14. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review Uso não terapêutico do metilfenidato: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Freese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use of methylphenidate. METHOD: The PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords in Portuguese: metilfenidato, transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade, facilitadores dos processos cognitivos or agentes nootrópicos, and abuso de substâncias; and in English: methylphenidate, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cognitive enhancement or nootropic agents, and substance abuse. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 were selected for review. RESULTS: Non-medical use of methylphenidate is a relevant topic that raises important ethical and scientific questions in several areas, e.g. pharmacological and neurobiological characteristics, evidence of methylphenidate use, forms of non-medical use of methylphenidate, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic application of methylphenidate. According to the review, methylphenidate can generally influence performance as a result of its stimulatory effect. Notwithstanding, evidence does not support the conclusion that it can enhance cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Health professionals need to acquire expert knowledge and inform patients and their families on the methylphenidate potential for abuse when used with non-medical purposes.INTRODUÇÃO: O metilfenidato é um medicamento psicoestimulante usado no tratamento do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e da narcolepsia. No entanto, a droga também vem sendo utilizada com fins não terap

  15. An exercise prescription primer for people with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda M

    2013-08-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the value of exercise in the treatment of people with depression. The guidelines for exercise prescription, however, are limited, and based on those developed for healthy populations. This article explores the evidence for exercise in the treatment of depression and the role mental health nurses may play in the delivery of this information. A model of exercise prescription is put forward based on the available evidence and taking into account the challenges faced by mental health nurses and people with depression.

  16. Chiropractors' attitudes toward drug prescription rights: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Peter Charles; Stuber, Kent Jason

    2014-01-01

    The right to prescribe drugs remains a contentious issue within the chiropractic profession. Nevertheless, drug prescription by manual therapy providers is currently an important topic. Notably, physiotherapists in the United Kingdom were recently granted limited independent prescribing rights. Reports suggest that physiotherapists in Australia now want those same rights, and as such a review of chiropractors' general attitudes toward drug prescription is needed. To examine the literature concerning chiropractors' attitudes toward drug prescription rights and to compare the opinions of chiropractors currently licensed to prescribe medication with those in the profession who are not. This was a narrative review, consisting of a formal literature search and summary of included articles. Electronic databases searched included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature. Inclusion criteria consisted of prospective studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Studies were required to contain data on chiropractors' opinions toward medication prescription rights. Of 33 articles identified, a total of seven surveys were included in the review. Of these, there was a general split in opinion among chiropractors regarding the right to prescribe drugs in chiropractic practice. Those supportive of prescribing rights favoured a limited number of over-the-counter and/or prescription-based medications such as analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and muscle relaxants. When questioned on full prescribing rights, however, chiropractors were generally opposed. In jurisdictions where chiropractors are currently licensed to prescribe from a limited formulary, such as in Switzerland, the majority perceived this right as an advantage for the profession. Moreover, continuing education in pharmacology was viewed as a necessary component of this privilege. Based on the literature to date there is a general split in

  17. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  18. Justice implications of a proposed Medicare prescription drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-07-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the historical context of Medicare and reviews the proposals for prescription drug coverage, identifying the concerns raised. Literature critiquing the justice dimensions of health care for the elderly population is reviewed. Justice claims are identified and refined, and social justice theories are used in the analysis of the proposed policies.

  19. A Research Report on the Prescription Rights of Chinese Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Fan Han; Rui-Fang Zhu; Hui-Hui Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of the nurse’s prescription right in China,to develop the requirements for the qualification of the applicant for the prescription right of nurse,and to determine the content of certain prescriptions in the specific circumstances.Methods:Literature review on the relevant articles/material with the contents of the nurse’ s right of prescription home and abroad.Semi-structured depth interview method was used to interview 18 experts on whether the nurses can participate in the graded nursing decision and whether nurses with certain ability can make the decision.Using the self-made questionnaire "Nurses involved in graded nursing decision-recognition questionnaire",553 nurses completed questionnaires on willingness to nurse decision-making grading.Using the analytic hierarchy process,the 23 experts’ judgment on the main body of the graded nursing was rated.Using semi-structured depth interview method,17 experts were interviewed on the graded nursing quality assessment and training outline.The form of expert personal judgment and the "grading nursing qualification experts predict questionnaire" were used as a preliminary designing tool,32 experts were asked to predict the graded nursing quality.The relatively important factors that might promote implementation of right of Chinese nurse prescribing weights setting were obtained by analytic hierarchy process.Using Delphi method,2 rounds of consultation to 291 experts/times were performed,and determined its content on the fields of graded nursing decision,nurses’ job description,decision making nurse in graded nursing work process and related management system,decision-making main body of clinical nursing,nurse authority of prescription application qualification,clinical nurses,diabetes specialist nurses,tumor specialist nurses,nurses in emergency department,community nurses in certain circumstances writing prescription,and nursing undergraduate added with nurse authority of

  20. A Research Report on the Prescription Rights of Chinese Nurses☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Fan Han; Rui-Fang Zhu; Hui-Hui Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the nurse’ s prescription right in China, to develop the requirements for the qualification of the ap-plicant for the prescription right of nurse, and to determine the content of certain prescriptions in the specific circumstances. Methods: Literature review on the relevant articles/material with the contents of the nurse’ s right of prescription home and a-broad. Semi-structured depth interview method was used to interview 18 experts on whether the nurses can participate in the graded nursing decision and whether nurses with certain ability can make the decision. Using the self-made questionnaire“Nur-ses involved in graded nursing decision-recognition questionnaire”, 553 nurses completed questionnaires on willingness to nurse decision-making grading. Using the analytic hierarchy process, the 23 experts’ judgment on the main body of the graded nurs-ing was rated. Using semi-structured depth interview method, 17 experts were interviewed on the graded nursing quality assess-ment and training outline. The form of expert personal judgment and the“grading nursing qualification experts predict question-naire”were used as a preliminary designing tool, 32 experts were asked to predict the graded nursing quality. The relatively im-portant factors that might promote implementation of right of Chinese nurse prescribing weights setting were obtained by analytic hierarchy process. Using Delphi method, 2 rounds of consultation to 291 experts/times were performed, and determined its con-tent on the fields of graded nursing decision, nurses’ job description, decision making nurse in graded nursing work process and related management system, decision-making main body of clinical nursing, nurse authority of prescription application qualifi-cation, clinical nurses, diabetes specialist nurses, tumor specialist nurses, nurses in emergency department, community nurses in certain circumstances writing prescription, and nursing

  1. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not prepared in the form prescribed by DEA regulations. (b) An individual practitioner exempted from..., who fills a prescription not prepared in the form prescribed by DEA regulations. (g) An individual... not conform in all essential respects to the law and regulations. A corresponding liability rests upon...

  2. User-oriented Understanding of Descriptive, Proscriptive and Prescriptive Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    There is much uncertainty and confusion as to the real differences between prescrip-tive and descriptive dictionaries. In general, the majority of existing accounts can be summarised as follows: Descriptive relates to the empirical basis; accordance between the empirical data and the dictionary i...

  3. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  4. Scleral Lens Prescription and Management Practices: The SCOPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthan, Jennifer; Nau, Cherie B; Barr, Joseph; Nau, Amy; Shorter, Ellen; Chimato, Nicolette T; Hodge, David O; Schornack, Muriel M

    2017-04-06

    To assess current scleral lens prescription and management practices by conducting an international online survey of eye care providers. The SCOPE (Scleral Lenses in Current Ophthalmic Practice: an Evaluation) study group designed and administered an online survey regarding current scleral lens prescription and management practices. The survey was open from January 15 to March 31, 2015, and generated 723 responses from individuals who had fit at least 5 patients with scleral lenses. Respondents (n=663) prescribed scleral lenses that ranged from 15 to 17 mm in diameter (65%), smaller than 15 mm (18%), and larger than 18 mm (17%). More than 50 lens designs were identified. Average daily wearing time of 11.8 hr was consistent across 651 respondents, and 475/651 (73%) recommended midday removal on some, most, or all days. Most respondents recommended nonpreserved saline to fill the bowl of the lens before application (single-use vials, 392/653 [60%]; bottled products, 372/653 [57%]). A hydrogen peroxide-based disinfection system was the most commonly recommended care product (397/651 [61%]). A reasonable degree of consensus exists regarding some aspects of scleral lens prescription and management (average lens diameter, daily wearing time, and use of nonpreserved products for lens application). Further study is needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for scleral lens prescription and management.

  5. Prescriptions for Educational Reform: Dilemmas of the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Seth

    1988-01-01

    Explores prescriptions offered for reforming education and the dilemmas they raise. Programs for democratizing education are reviewed with respect to expanding facilities, reforming admission policies, joining teaching and learning, offering experimental courses, and making structural changes. Results of programs for education about democracy and…

  6. Assessment of prescription pattern in asthma therapy at Shamli hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishabh; Sharma, Sanjay; Keshri, Lav; Wal, Pranay

    2012-05-01

    This drug utilization or prescription-monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the drug-prescribing trend of anti-asthmatic drugs in various hospitals (health care centre) of Shamli, (Prabuddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India). The study was conducted in three famous hospitals of Shamli on three hundred thirty (330) patients, using a developed prescription auditing Performa. Data was recorded from the co-operating patients, attending the outpatient department using a chance random sample method for six months by interviewing and information was filled in the performa. The collected data was studied statistically for determining the most prominently prescribed medication for the treatment. The collected information suggested that β-agonist were the most frequently prescribed anti-asthmatic drugs followed by corticosteroids, Methylxanthine, anti-histaminics and leukotriene antagonist. Also the performed prescription analysis revealed that there is significant difference in the prescriptions for multiple drug therapy (90%) as compared to single drug therapy (10%). Also even after the commercial development of pulmonary targeted systems, oral dosage form like tablets (54.93%) were preferred over inhalation (31.69%). Thus, it can be concluded that the present prescribing pattern of antiasthmatics in Shamli does not completely meet standard guidelines for the asthma treatment. Hence there is a need of awareness amongst the physicians of Shamli so that they can follow the guidelines while treating asthma. Also the patients must be encouraged to use newly developed inhalational drug delivery systems for improving the treatment.

  7. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  8. Prescription of neuroleptics for children and adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, G; Spila-Alegiani, S; Arpino, C; Ferrara, M

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the use of neuroleptics among children and adolescents in the province of Rome. Subjects 5 to 19 years of age who received neuroleptic prescriptions within the National Health Service between 1986 and 1991 were identified. Prevalence and incidence of use were estimated. The yearly prevalence of use during the study period ranged from 1.3 to 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants. The incidence during 1989 was 1.1 per 1000, with a marked increase with age. Haloperidol was the drug most frequently prescribed; 59.2% of the subjects received only one prescription during the year. Among subjects with more than one prescription, 42.3% received neuroleptics in combination. The observed pattern of use suggests that in current practice neuroleptics are also used for the treatment of nonpsychotic conditions. The analysis of data derived from a prescription monitoring system may provide an important contribution to the description of neuroleptic use among children and adolescents.

  9. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., storage, or wholesale distribution of prescription drugs; or (ii) In the possession of a retail, hospital... without naming their components. (ii) Color additives may be designated as coloring without naming specific color components unless the naming of such components is required by a color additive...

  10. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  11. Prescribing style and variation in antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variation in prescription of antibiotics in primary care can indicate poor clinical practice that contributes to the increase of resistant strains. General Practitioners (GPs), as a professional group, are expected to have a fairly homogeneous prescribing style. In this paper, we...

  12. Prescription options for the below knee amputee. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, M A; Skinner, H B; Effeney, D J; Wilson, L A

    1985-02-01

    In 1973 a workshop sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences recommended that "efforts to develop prescription criteria for use of the numerous variants of the BK prosthesis should be intensified." This paper provides a review of the important considerations in the prescription of a below-knee prosthesis. It is intended that this information would assist the physician to make better informed decisions regarding the specific type of prosthesis for a particular patient. No attempt has been made to describe all prosthetic options since a majority of amputees are fit with only a few prescriptions. Thus, socket design, suspension, shank type, and foot specification may be optimized for individual patients through mutual agreement of the prosthetist and the knowledgeable physician. This paper will present some of the more difficult prescription solutions to the various fitting problems that are representative of our nation's amputee population. This is done with the knowledge that there may be other and equally successful solutions to these problems. Several illustrative examples are provided.

  13. ERs May Need to Rethink Opioid Prescription Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, the study showed. "Looking only at the cases analyzed in this study, if all prescriptions written for more than 20 ... be prescribed for ankle sprain at all." The study was scheduled to be ... meeting, in Orlando. Findings presented at meeting are generally viewed as ...

  14. Developing multilingual prescription instructions for patients with limited english proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Chen, Alice Hm; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schoua-Glusberg, Alisu; Lindquist, Lee A; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development of a set of patient-centered prescription medication instructions and their translation into Chinese, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. Challenges and lessons learned from this process are reported to inform future efforts to develop easy-to-understand, multilingual materials for use in health care settings.

  15. Prescriptions: Hyperrealism and the Chemical Regulation of Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-01-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as…

  16. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 1992 to 2001 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, MM; van Balen, FAM; Verheij, TJM

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Although Dutch outpatient antibiotic prescription rates are low compared with other European countries, continuing to scrutinize trends in outpatient antibiotic use is important in order to identify possible increases in antibiotic use or inappropriate increases in the use of particular

  17. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight (i.e...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a... photosensitized. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  18. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 1992 to 2001 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, MM; van Balen, FAM; Verheij, TJM

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Although Dutch outpatient antibiotic prescription rates are low compared with other European countries, continuing to scrutinize trends in outpatient antibiotic use is important in order to identify possible increases in antibiotic use or inappropriate increases in the use of particular

  19. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  20. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL... policies regarding the classification of debt for accounting purposes (for example, write off...

  1. Buying prescription drugs on the internet: promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alan M

    2006-03-01

    Patients can save time and money by purchasing drugs from Internet pharmacies, but they can also end up with counterfeit or substandard medications. Online pharmacies bypass the safeguards of a doctor-patient relationship, creating a dangerous opportunity for prescription drug abuse and unchecked medication interactions and side effects.

  2. A population analysis of prescriptions for asthma medications during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Priscilla A.; Vroegop, J. Sebastiaan; Bos, H. Jens; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is important to control asthma during pregnancy. However, some studies indicate that women stop or change their asthma medications when they become pregnant. Objective: We used a population database to analyze changes in prescriptions for asthma medications to patients before, during,

  3. Advertising of antihypertensive medicines and prescription sales in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitry, A; Lai, Y H

    2009-11-01

    Drug promotion is one of the main factors that influence prescribing practices, but there are limited data available to quantify the relationship between drug advertising and prescription sales. To investigate the relationship between advertising for antihypertensive medicines and prescription sales in Australia between 1993 and 2002. Retrospective observational study. Advertising trends were monitored by counting the number of advertisements published in three Australian medical journals. Monthly prescription dispensing data were obtained from Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and expressed as numbers of defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day. Linear regression and cross-correlations of time series were used in the analysis. The drug classes the most heavily advertised, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers, were also the most prescribed during the study period, while the drugs the least advertised, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, were the least used. In 5 of the 7 main antihypertensive classes, the product the most advertised was also the most prescribed. Other factors, such as the publication of large clinical trials, may have also influenced prescribing patterns. Prescription sales of antihypertensives in Australia are correlated with promotional advertising. The newest and most expensive medicines may be chosen over older effective drugs by prescribers. New policies on drug promotion control need to be developed.

  4. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  5. English Grammar Comparison:Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-wen; LI Yi-an

    2015-01-01

    English grammar is thought as one of the most important parts in both language learning and teaching. While few peo⁃ple know there is more than one kind of English grammar. This essay provides the features and comparison between two com⁃monly used English grammar, namely descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar, and assist English teachers to explore further in grammar teaching.

  6. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. OBJECTIVES: To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. METHODS: A r...

  7. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  8. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an interview with clinical experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K

    2004-01-01

    In the process of guideline development for prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands the authors made a study of the daily clinical practice of lower limb prosthetics. Besides the evidence-based knowledge from literature the more implicit knowledge from clinical experts is of importance for guidel

  9. Prescription, Description, Reflection: the shape of the software process improvement field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo; Rose, Jeremy; Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    in software organisations), or   prescriptive descriptive reflective (theoretically analytical). The field is found to be rather dominated by one approach (the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)) and heavily biased towards prescriptive contributions. Neither of these trends is necessarily beneficial...

  10. prescription pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs in a tertiary health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Objective: This study examined the pattern of physicians' prescription of ... combination therapy, and demonstrate an apparent higher efficacy of calcium channel blocker ... Key words: Antihypertensive, prescription, blood pressure control.

  11. 77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in... determining whether the major statement in direct-to- consumer (DTC) television and radio advertisements... and Benefit Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television...

  12. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael

    2016-03-15

    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  13. Frequency of outpatient antibiotic prescription on discharge to hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Jon P; Noble, Brie N; Horne, Kristi N; McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Walsh, Eric W; Fromme, Erik K

    2014-09-01

    The use of antibiotics is common in hospice care despite limited evidence that it improves symptoms or quality of life. Patients receiving antibiotics upon discharge from a hospital may be more likely to continue use following transition to hospice care despite a shift in the goals of care. We quantified the frequency and characteristics for receiving a prescription for antibiotics on discharge from acute care to hospice care. This was a cross-sectional study among adult inpatients (≥18 years old) discharged to hospice care from Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data were collected from an electronic data repository and from the Department of Care Management. Among 62,792 discharges, 845 (1.3%) patients were discharged directly to hospice care (60.0% home and 40.0% inpatient). Most patients discharged to hospice were >65 years old (50.9%) and male (54.6%) and had stayed in the hospital for ≤7 days (56.6%). The prevalence of antibiotic prescription upon discharge to hospice was 21.1%. Among patients discharged with an antibiotic prescription, 70.8% had a documented infection during their index admission. Among documented infections, 40.3% were bloodstream infections, septicemia, or endocarditis, and 38.9% were pneumonia. Independent risk factors for receiving an antibiotic prescription were documented infection during the index admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=7.00; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=4.68 to 10.46), discharge to home hospice care (AOR=2.86; 95% CI=1.92 to 4.28), and having a cancer diagnosis (AOR=2.19; 95% CI=1.48 to 3.23). These data suggest that a high proportion of patients discharged from acute care to hospice care receive an antibiotic prescription upon discharge.

  14. Substance Use and Attitudes on Professional Conduct among Medical Students: A Single-Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daisi; Tolova, Vera; Socha, Edward; Samenow, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine how specific substance-use behavior, including nonmedical prescription stimulant (NPS) use, among U.S. medical students correlates with their attitudes and beliefs toward professionalism. Method: An anonymous survey was distributed to all medical students at a private medical university (46% response rate).…

  15. A Theoretical Approach to Electronic Prescription System: Lesson Learned from Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Hosseini Asanjan, Seyed Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Context The tendency to use advanced technology in healthcare and the governmental policies have put forward electronic prescription. Electronic prescription is considered as the main solution to overcome the major drawbacks of the paper-based medication prescription, such as transcription errors. This study aims to provide practical information concerning electronic prescription system to a variety of stakeholders. Evidence Acquisition In this review study, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus...

  16. A Survey of the Studies on Compatible Law of Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Prescriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guoli; Zheng Xuebao

    2008-01-01

    @@ To prescribe a Chinese herbal prescription for the patient is the main thing done by the doctor in TCM clinic,and also an important link in TCM difierential treatment.The key point in the study of TCM prescriptions is the compatibility of Jaerbal ingredients in a prescription.To reveal the compatible law of TCM prescriptions is an important component part for TCM modernization.The following is a brief account on this kind of studies.

  17. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  18. Adding a Prescription Drug Benefit to Medicare: An Analysis of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    unpredictable and potentially high costs ( Marmor , 2000). The missing benefit was outpatient prescription drug coverage. On July 30th, President Johnson...Proposed Medicare Benefit At-a-Glance Chart. Retrieved September 12, 2004, from: http://www.kff.org/medicare/ medicarebenefitataglance.cfm Marmor , T.R

  19. Changes in misuse and abuse of prescription opioids following implementation of Extended-Release and Long-Acting Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, M Claire; Green, Jody L; Cepeda, M Soledad; Coplan, Paul M; Maziere, Jean-Yves; Wedin, Gregory P; Dart, Richard C

    2017-07-31

    An unintended consequence of extended-release (ER) and long-acting (LA) prescription opioids is that these formulations can be more attractive to abusers than immediate-release (IR) formulations. The US Food and Drug Administration recognized these risks and approved the ER/LA Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (ER/LA REMS), which has a goal of reducing opioid misuse and abuse and their associated consequences. The primary objective of this analysis is to determine whether ER/LA REMS implementation was associated with decreased reports of misuse and abuse. Data from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(R)) System Poison Center Program were utilized. Poison center cases are assigned a reason for exposure, a medical outcome, and a level of health care received. Rates adjusted for population and drug utilization were analyzed over time. RADARS System Poison Center Program data indicate a notable decrease in ER/LA opioid rates of intentional abuse and misuse as well as major medical outcomes or hospitalizations following implementation of the ER/LA REMS. While similar decreases were observed for the IR prescription opioid group, the decreasing rate for the ER/LA opioids exceeded the decreasing rates for the IR prescription opioids and was distinctly different than that for the prescription stimulants, indicating that the ER/LA REMS program may have had an additional effect on decreases in opioid abuse and intentional misuse beyond secular trends. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Prescription pattern of drugs in pregnancy induced hypertension in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar T

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of single drugs therapy and two drugs was high. Irrational prescriptions were few. The present pattern of prescriptions can be improved by advocating rational drug prescription and awareness regarding safe use of drugs to the obstetricians. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 783-787

  1. 76 FR 41434 - Removal of Certain Requirements Related to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... prescription drug marketing and distribution. The primary purpose of the PDMA was to increase safeguards to... the Prescription Drug Marketing Act; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug... remove a section of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) regulations requiring that prior to...

  2. Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Uzelac, Zeljko; Zeiss, René; Connemann, Bernhard J; Lang, Dirk; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Person's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual "search share" values; coefficients of determination (R) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the 2 variables. Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volumes were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968, R = 0.932, P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962, R = 0.925, P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970, R = 0.941, P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824, R = 0.682, P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885, R = 0.783, P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801, R = 0.641, P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880, R = 0.689, P = 0.01). Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution (quarters, months), our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behavior. However, further studies analyzing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitate an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  3. Egg freezing for non-medical uses: the lack of a relational approach to autonomy in the new Israeli policy and in academic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael

    2012-03-01

    Recently, the Israel National Bioethics Council (INBC) issued recommendations permitting egg freezing to prevent both disease- and age-related fertility decline. The INBC report forms the basis of Israel's new policy, being one of the first countries to regulate and authorise egg freezing for what it considers to be non-medical (ie, social) uses. The ethical discussion in the INBC report is reviewed and compared with the scant ethical discourse in the academic literature on egg freezing as a means of preventing age-related loss of fertility. We argue that both the INBC recommendations and the bioethical academic discourse on egg freezing are grounded in liberal ideology, which views technology as primarily enabling. Accordingly, they promote 'individual autonomy' as exercised through informed consent. Our study suggests that a relational approach to autonomy may be a more suitable model for considering women's choices about egg freezing.

  4. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is preferred by many doctors, patients and families. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) works through a device implanted under ... skin that sends electrical pulses through the left vagus nerve, half of a prominent pair of nerves that ...

  5. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  6. An Overview of Stimulators

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Suhaib Kidwai; Mohd Maroof Siddiqui; Ahmad Nafees; Qazi saeed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to bring forth the significance of stimulators , recent advancements in the field of stimulators and how electrical signals can be utilized for pain relief and to cure other diseases of human body ,by using stimulators. This paper aims to create awareness about stimulators and also focuses on their advantages as compared to theconventional medicine .Moreover,it also bring forth that how an electrical signal can be utilized for treating various human disorders and diseases.

  7. Antipsychotic prescription and mortality in hospitalized older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Deborah; Marengoni, Alessandra; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Franchi, Carlotta; Djade, Codjo D; Corrao, Salvatore; Salerno, Francesco; Marcucci, Maura; Romanelli, Giuseppe; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2017-06-06

    Recent scientific reports have shown that older persons treated with antipsychotics for dementia-related behavioural symptoms have increased mortality. However, the impact of these drugs prescribed during hospitalization has rarely been assessed. We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of mortality during hospitalization and at 3-month follow-up in elderly inpatients. We analyzed data gathered during two waves (2010 and 2012) by the REPOSI (Registro Politerapie Società Italiana Medicina Interna). All new prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs during hospitalization, whether maintained or discontinued at discharge, were collected, and logistic regression models were used to analyze their association with in-hospital and 3-month mortality. Covariates were age, sex, the Short Blessed Test (SBT) score, and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Among 2703 patients included in the study, 135 (5%) received new prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs. The most frequently prescribed antipsychotic during hospitalization and eventually maintained at discharge was haloperidol (38% and 36% of cases, respectively). Patients newly prescribed with antipsychotics were older and had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale comorbidity index both at admission and at discharge compared to those who did not receive a prescription. Of those prescribed antipsychotics, 71% had an SBT score ≥10 (indicative of dementia), 12% had an SBT score of 5-9 (indicative of questionable dementia); and 17% had an SBT score <5 (indicative of normal cognition). In-hospital mortality was slightly higher in patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs (14.3% vs 9.4%; P = 0.109), but in multivariate analysis only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were significantly related to mortality during hospitalization. At 3-month follow-up, only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were associated with mortality. We found that the prescription of antipsychotic

  8. Prescription drug overdose: between patients and their doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 Li-Tzy Wu21Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAPrescription drug overdoses, mainly involving prescription opioids, have reached epidemic proportions in the United States over the past 20 years.1,2 Since 2003, prescription opioids have been involved in more drug-related overdose deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. Among patients who were prescribed opioids, an estimated 20% were prescribed high doses of opioids by either single or multiple physicians, and these patients appeared to account for the majority of prescription opioid-related overdoses.1,3,4 The increase in prescription overdose deaths has coincided with a major increase in prescription opioid sales.2 The prescribing practices of some physicians are often believed to have contributed in part to the increase in these overdose deaths. In a recently published perspective, Anna Lembke speculated on why doctors prescribe opioids to known prescription opioid abusers.5 Her article raises a timely and troubling issue for all of us interested in this area of medicine. Lembke identifies the root of the problem to lie in the changing societal attitude towards pain and suffering, the ever-growing availability of opioid medications, the regulatory requirements promulgated, and the perceived shift in the role of the medical professional in this context. Central to her argument is that physicians must now practice according to a set of externally imposed expectations of patients, payers, and regulators, putting the prescriber in the position of being "damned if you do and damned if you don’t". If Lembke is right, the physician now prescribes not according to what he or she wants to do, but according to what he or she must do. The result, at one extreme, is the patient acting as their

  9. A pharmacoepidemiological study of prescription pattern in outpatient clinics in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Al-Homrany, Mohammed A; Hamdi, Anwar A; Adjepon-Yamoah, Keneth K; Mahfouz, Ahmed A

    2004-12-01

    To study the pattern of prescriptions in outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 3796 prescriptions from outpatient clinics of Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened randomly and systemically over one-year period (April 2000 to April 2001). The prescriptions were analyzed for the essential elements of the prescription order, and for the number and classes of drugs prescribed, source of prescription and appropriateness of prescription to the diagnosis. The source of prescriptions was not provided in 61.5% of prescriptions. The diagnosis was missing in 15.1% and not readable in 18.9% of prescriptions. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the most frequent diagnosis and was included in 21.6% of prescriptions. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.1 +/- 1.05 (Mean +/- SD), with 90.8% of prescriptions containing 3 or fewer drugs. The most frequently prescribed drugs were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including paracetamol which were included in 51.2% of prescriptions, followed by antibacterial agents (33.2%). Only 46.4% of prescriptions were appropriate to the diagnosis, while 11.1% were partially appropriate and 5.3% were inappropriate. For the rest (37.2%), it was difficult to evaluate appropriateness due to deficient information. General practitioners and specialists were more likely to prescribe appropriately than emergency room physicians (64.6% and 60.4% versus 35.7%). None of the prescriptions for antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs and antihypertensive agents were inappropriate. These results emphasize the need for continuing medical education on rational prescribing, and for periodic monitoring of physicians habits on drug utilization.

  10. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  11. Pharmacists correcting schedule II prescriptions: DEA flip-flops continue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Richard R

    2010-12-01

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has in recent years engaged in flip-flopping over important policy decisions. The most recent example involved whether a pharmacist can correct a written schedule II prescription upon verification with the prescriber. For several years the DEA's policy permitted this practice. Then the DEA issued a conflicting policy statement in 2007 in the preamble to the multiple schedule II prescription regulation, causing a series of subsequent contradictory statements ending with the policy that pharmacists should follow state law or policy until the Agency issues a regulation. It is doubtful that the DEA's opinion in the preamble would in itself constitute legal authority, or that the Agency would try to enforce the opinion. Nonetheless, these flip-flop opinions have confused pharmacists, caused some pharmacies to have claims rejected by third party payors, and most likely have inconvenienced patients.

  12. Is the DEA's new "prescription series" regulation balanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Aaron M; Joranson, David E

    2008-01-01

    To address the dual public health imperatives of enhanced pain management and decreased abuse and diversion of prescription medications, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently adopted regulations to allow practitioners to issue multiple prescriptions for a Schedule II controlled substance on the same day, to be dispensed sequentially. Public feedback suggested there was concern that practitioners could interpret the initially proposed language as limiting the quantity of prescribed medication and establishing an ambiguous practice standard. The DEA later explicitly confirmed that they did not intend to impose undue limits on practice. Rather, if implemented appropriately, the new regulation can be considered an important mechanism to control medication diversion while maintaining access for legitimate medical purposes and patient care.

  13. Equivalence of Two Contour Prescriptions in Superstring Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-01-01

    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  14. Meaning of prescriptions I and II in Higgs inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Nakanishi, Yukari; Oda, Kin-ya

    2016-01-01

    We consider the prescription dependence of the Higgs effective potential under the presence of general non-minimal couplings. We evaluate the fermion loop correction to the effective action in a simplified Higgs-Yukawa model whose path integral measure takes simple form either in the Jordan or Einstein frame. The resultant effective action becomes identical in both cases when we properly take into account the quartically divergent term coming from the change of measure. Working in the counter-term formalism, we clarify that the difference between the prescriptions I and II comes from the counter term to cancel the logarithmic divergence. This difference can be absorbed into the choice of tree-level potential from the infinitely many possibilities, including all the higher-dimensional terms. We also present another mechanism to obtain a flat potential by freezing the running of the effective quartic coupling for large field values, using the non-minimal coupling in the gauge kinetic function.

  15. Chronic pain, opioid prescriptions, and mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Kurita, Geana Paula; Højsted, Jette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk of death, development of cancer, and hospital inpatient admissions resulting from injuries and toxicity/poisoning among opioid users with chronic noncancer pain. A population-based cohort of 13,127 adults, who have participated in the Danish Health Interview...... Surveys in 2000 or 2005 and have been followed up prospectively by registers until the end of 2011, were classified according to the absence or presence of chronic pain (ie, pain lasting ⩾ 6 months) and long-term or short-term opioid use (individuals using at least 1 prescription per month for 6 months...... in the previous year and at least 1 prescription in the previous year, respectively). The risk of all-cause mortality was 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-2.41) times higher among long-term opioid users than among individuals without chronic pain. The risk of death was lower, but still significantly higher...

  16. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies.

  17. Proton pump inhibitor prescription abuse and sepsis in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Picardi; Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors(PPIs) represent one of the most extensively prescribed classes of drugs in general and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Many prescriptions are made without a clear adherence to standard indications. As a class of ordinarily well tolerated drug, PPIs are not free of side-effects and concerns have been raised about a possible role for PPIs in predisposing patients to an increased risk of bacterial infections and sepsis. As evidences of different power are accumulating on this topic, prospective studies are needed to reach a more universal agreement, but definitely more attention is needed by prescribers in being more adherent to the few recognized indications for the use of PPIs, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Otherwise, doctors could run the risk of being accused of "abused" prescription.

  18. Changes in prescription habits with the introduction of generic fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert; Klinski, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    When the patent on fluoxetine expired in 2001, prices for it fell sharply and marketing decreased. We investigated how market share for fluoxetine changed with the introduction of the generic. Prescribing information was tracked at a military hospital where providers knew the cost of medication, but were not compelled to use the cheaper form. Market share for fluoxetine among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was observed for the 64 months surrounding the introduction, and changes were examined by linear regression analysis. Results showed that in the 32 months before the introduction of the generic, fluoxetine maintained a relatively steady share of prescriptions. After the introduction of the generic, fluoxetine steadily lost market share over time. No significant relationship could be seen between drug company visits and gains for their individual products. Examination of all Department of Defense prescriptions for the 16 months surrounding the introduction of generic fluoxetine showed a similar drop in its market share.

  19. Determining prescription durations based on the parametric waiting time distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Henrik; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    ). When the IAD consisted of a mixture of two Log-Normal distributions, but was analyzed with a single Log-Normal distribution, relative bias did not exceed 9%. Using a Log-Normal FRD, we estimated prescription durations of 117, 91, 137, and 118 days for NSAIDs, warfarin, bendroflumethiazide...... two-component mixture model for the waiting time distribution (WTD). The distribution component for prevalent users estimates the forward recurrence density (FRD), which is related to the distribution of time between subsequent prescription redemptions, the inter-arrival density (IAD), for users......, and the method was applied to empirical data for four model drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), warfarin, bendroflumethiazide, and levothyroxine. RESULTS: Simulation studies found negligible bias when the data-generating model for the IAD coincided with the FRD used in the WTD estimation (Log-Normal...

  20. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Mathiasen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute...... respiratory disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). METHODS: A national cohort of all infants born in Denmark in the period 1980-2009 was included in this register study. Data on purchase of asthma medication (combination of inhaled β-2 agonists and other drugs for obstructive airway disease) in 2010......-2011 were obtained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Associations between gestational age (GA), neonatal respiratory morbidity and a cross-sectional evaluation of asthma medication purchase were explored by multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: A full dataset was obtained on 1...

  1. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...... for this population during the decade from 2000 to 2011, inclusive. RESULTS: A total of 3,205 patients were included in the study. Lithium was prescribed less, and antiepileptic and atypical antipsychotic agents were prescribed substantially more during the study period. Lithium went from being the first drug...

  2. Prescription drug monitoring program utilization in Kentucky community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Wixson SE; Blumenschein K; Goodin AJ; Talbert J; Freeman PR

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identify characteristics of Kentucky community pharmacists and community pharmacists? practice environment associated with utilization of the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Methods: Surveys were mailed to all 1,018 Kentucky pharmacists with a KASPER account and an additional 1,000 licensed pharmacists without an account. Bivariate analyses examined the association between KASPER utilization and practice type (independent or chain) and prac...

  3. Assessment of prescription writing skills among undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Sudha

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: There are widespread lacunae in prescription writing by medical undergraduates. There is perceived need for reinforcement sessions at third and final phase of undergraduate education to address this gap. Most participants opine that clinicians do not discuss this issue during case discussion. There is knowledge and practice gap in using generic names while prescribing. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1586-1593

  4. Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    This podcast is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.  Created: 7/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/2/2013.

  5. Medication wrong-route administrations in relation to medical prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    GIMENES, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; Teixeira,Thalyta Cardoso Alux; MOTA, Maria Lurdemiler Sabóia; Silva,Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of medical prescriptions' writing on the occurrence of medication errors in the medical wards of five Brazilian hospitals. This descriptive study used data obtained from a multicenter study conducted in 2005. The population was composed of 1,425 medication errors and the sample included 92 routes through which medication was wrongly administered. The pharmacological classes most frequently involved in errors were cardiovascular agents (31.5%), medication that...

  6. Drug prescription behavior in a Teaching Hospital of Western Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh; Anuj Bhatnagar; Sandip Mukherji; Dhruv Goel

    2016-01-01

    Context: To identify drug prescription behavior and thus, guide further actions to recommend evidence-based module for learning in postgraduate curriculum. Aims: To determine drug prescribing behavior of postgraduate residents. Settings and Design: Retrospective historical data-based cross-sectional study in a tertiary care, multispecialty teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Calculation of sample size and sampling procedure was based on standard recommendations of the World Health Organ...

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised.

  8. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  9. Prescription audit of outpatient attendees of secondary level government hospitals in Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potharaju, Hanumantha Rao; Kabra, S G

    2011-04-01

    The main objective of the prescription audit of the secondary level government hospitals under the Maharashtra Health Systems Development Project (MHSDP) was to develop a list of essential drugs. Other objectives were to articulate measures for improving the prescription practices and to generate information on the core prescribing indicators proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The study was conducted among a representative sample of 31 secondary level hospitals under MHSDP. A copy of the prescription was obtained with the help of a pre-inserted carbon, in a special format. Data for only 'first encounter prescriptions' was collected for all patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD). About 77 percent of the prescriptions contained only one diagnosis. The average number of drugs per prescription was 3.1. About 60 percent of the drugs were prescribed by generic names and about 23 percent of the prescribed drugs were in combination. About 25 percent of the prescriptions contained at least one injection, while 35 percent contained at least one antibiotic. In 16 percent of the prescriptions a vitamin or tonic was prescribed. About 46 percent of the single ingredient formulations were as per the WHO 2003, Essential Medicines List (EML). Based on the findings of the Prescription Audit an EML was prepared for each category of the secondary level hospitals, for use in the OPD. Prescription audits are useful in generating data on morbidity, which forms the basis for preparing the list of essential medicines. Mechanisms necessary for improving prescription practices are suggested.

  10. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  11. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems.

  12. Delayed prescriptions: attitudes and experiences of general practitioners in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M; Faherty, A; Hannon, D

    2013-06-01

    141 questionnaires were posted to GPs randomly selected in the Mid-West. 103 responses were received. 32 GPs (31%) strongly agreed and 65 GPs (63%) agreed that antibiotics are over used in general practice. 35 GPs (34%) felt under pressure to prescribe an antibiotic at least once a day. 41 GPs (40%) agreed that delayed prescriptions are a safe prescribing strategy. 53 GPs (51%) agreed that delayed prescriptions have the potential to reduce antibiotic use. 33 GPs (32%) disagreed that giving delayed prescriptions increases the duration of the consultation. 49 GPs (47%) agreed that delayed prescriptions decrease the likelihood of return visit in the same illness. 55 GPs (53%) agreed that delayed prescriptions help to involve patients in managing their own illness. 46 GPs (45%) disagreed that patients find delayed prescriptions confusing. The majority of GPs (41/39.8%) use delayed prescriptions once a week or at least once a day (34/33%).

  13. Psychosocial factors associated with the prescription of generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calvillo, Javier A; Lana, Alberto; Cueto, Antonio; Markham, Wolfgang A; López, Maria Luisa

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate factors associated with "Generic drug prescription" (GDP) behaviour in Spain using the ASE (Attitude, Social Influence, Self-Efficacy) Model. General Practitioners were sent a validated and anonymous questionnaire measuring the ASE and Motivation variables for GDP and their generic drug prescription percentage. Most (n=486; 61.98%) responded to this cross-sectional survey. The mean scores and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A binary logistic regression was used to identify the variables that best predict GDP behaviour. The main advantages and motivations for GDP were "saving money" and "protecting professional ethics". The greatest social influences were "doctors' personal preferences" and "authorities' pressure". GDP accounted for a scarce 15% of the total prescription. ASE and Motivation items were the best predictors: they explain 25% of being a 'high prescriber'. The highest prescribers were paediatricians (OR=5.07), workers in rural settings (OR=3.68) and professionals with high Motivation (OR=1.17) and Attitude (OR=1.11) scores. GDP percentage is very low compared with other countries. Interventions to modify the Attitudes of Primary Care doctors towards generic drugs should be implemented. Better informed patients, longer doctor appointment times and more varied dosage forms of generic drugs would also facilitate improvements in GDP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p chain and independent pharmacies, having POs as a greater percent of total prescriptions filled, and having the perception of PO abuse as a problem in the practice setting were significant positive correlates of moderate (vs high) PO legitimacy estimation (p < 0.05). Both modifiable and non-modifiable correlates were statistically significantly associated with PO legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  15. Prescription pattern in asthma therapy at Gorakhpur hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Awanish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This prescription-monitoring study was conducted to establish the drug-prescribing trend of anti-asthmatic drugs in various hospitals of Gorakhpur. Setting: The study covered three famous hospitals of Gorakhpur. Patients and Methods: Hundred patients were studied using a prescription auditing performa. Data was recorded from the patient′s attending the out patient department using a chance random sample method for two months. Patients who co- operated were interviewed and information was filled in the performa. Results: The results suggested that b-agonist (40% were the most frequently prescribed anti-asthmatic drugs followed by Methylxanthine (27%, corticosteroids (25%, leukotriene antagonist (4.4% and anti-histaminics (3.6% was the least prescribed. Analysis of prescription revealed that multiple drug therapy (81% was opted for a significant number of patients as compared to single drug therapy (19%. Contrary to popular belief, oral dosage form tablets (56.3% were preferred over inhalation (33.8%. Conclusion: It is concluded that the present prescribing pattern of anti-asthmatics in Gorakhpur does not completely meet standard guidelines of asthma treatment. Hence there is a need to encourage physicians of Gorakhpur to follow the guidelines while treating asthma.

  16. Prescription pattern in asthma therapy at Gorakhpur hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Awanish; Tripathi, Poonam; Pandey, Rishabh Dev

    2010-01-01

    This prescription-monitoring study was conducted to establish the drug-prescribing trend of anti-asthmatic drugs in various hospitals of Gorakhpur. The study covered three famous hospitals of Gorakhpur. Hundred patients were studied using a prescription auditing performa. Data was recorded from the patient's attending the out patient department using a chance random sample method for two months. Patients who co- operated were interviewed and information was filled in the performa. The results suggested that b-agonist (40%) were the most frequently prescribed anti-asthmatic drugs followed by Methylxanthine (27%), corticosteroids (25%), leukotriene antagonist (4.4%) and anti-histaminics (3.6%) was the least prescribed. Analysis of prescription revealed that multiple drug therapy (81%) was opted for a significant number of patients as compared to single drug therapy (19%). Contrary to popular belief, oral dosage form tablets (56.3%) were preferred over inhalation (33.8%). It is concluded that the present prescribing pattern of anti-asthmatics in Gorakhpur does not completely meet standard guidelines of asthma treatment. Hence there is a need to encourage physicians of Gorakhpur to follow the guidelines while treating asthma.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Atul Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia. Materials and Methods: Patients (n=9 with acute onset of renal dysfunction or chronic patients with superimposed acute factor (component or patients with known chronic nature of the disease were dialyzed with Fresenius 4008S hemodialysis machine after jugular catheterization. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group (n=3 was dialyzed every day and second (n=4 was dialyzed on alternate days. The patients were evaluated for following parameters to compare the efficacy of the dialysis prescription: Urea reduction ratio (URR, creatinine reduction ratio (CRR, Kt/V, time averaged concentration of urea (TAC urea. Result and Discussion: Increasing both dialysis frequency and duration is the superior dialysis schedule. Patient dialyzed every day with total processed blood volume 1.79 L/Kg for 4 h 26 min/session had the lowest TAC of 36.82 mg/dl, thereby was considered it as a better prescription.

  18. Writing out prescriptions: hyperrealism and the chemical regulation of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-12-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as symptomatic of prescription culture. Though we argue that these writers brilliantly understand the dangers of mood medication, they do not escape its logic, rather, 'writing it out' as they write against it. Indeed, we propose that their novels bear ironic similarities to medical texts such as the British National Formulary, usually seen as a neutral handbook for physicians' guidance in prescribing. We explicate their method as that of deconstruction, which, in contrast to more obvious critiques of chemical treatment, such as therapy, neither analyses nor cures. Though this method underplays the possibility of pragmatic and political resistance exemplified by alternative formularies such as the long-established feminist health manual Our Bodies, Ourselves, we argue that its very ambiguity uniquely exposes the complex determinisms associated with prescribed medication. We thus propose the value of drawing on deconstructive literature to better understand 'health' interventions such as prescription drugs for the regulation of mood.

  19. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  20. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.