Nonlocal Measurements via Quantum Erasure.
Brodutch, Aharon; Cohen, Eliahu
2016-02-19
Nonlocal observables play an important role in quantum theory, from Bell inequalities and various postselection paradoxes to quantum error correction codes. Instantaneous measurement of these observables is known to be a difficult problem, especially when the measurements are projective. The standard von Neumann Hamiltonian used to model projective measurements cannot be implemented directly in a nonlocal scenario and can, in some cases, violate causality. We present a scheme for effectively generating the von Neumann Hamiltonian for nonlocal observables without the need to communicate and adapt. The protocol can be used to perform weak and strong (projective) measurements, as well as measurements at any intermediate strength. It can also be used in practical situations beyond nonlocal measurements. We show how the protocol can be used to probe a version of Hardy's paradox with both weak and strong measurements. The outcomes of these measurements provide a nonintuitive picture of the pre- and postselected system. Our results shed new light on the interplay between quantum measurements, uncertainty, nonlocality, causality, and determinism.
Local, nonlocal quantumness and information theoretic measures
Agrawal, Pankaj; Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Pati, Arun K.
2016-08-01
It has been suggested that there may exist quantum correlations that go beyond entanglement. The existence of such correlations can be revealed by information theoretic quantities such as quantum discord, but not by the conventional measures of entanglement. We argue that a state displays quantumness, that can be of local and nonlocal origin. Information theoretic measures not only characterize the nonlocal quantumness, but also the local quantumness, such as the “local superposition”. This can be a reason, why such measures are nonzero, when there is no entanglement. We consider a generalized version of the Werner state to demonstrate the interplay of local quantumness, nonlocal quantumness and classical mixedness of a state.
Nonlocal Measurements in the Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics
Vaidman, L; Vaidman, Lev; Nevo, Izhar
2005-01-01
Although nondemolition, reliable, and instantaneous quantum measurements of some nonlocal variables are impossible, demolition reliable instantaneous measurements are possible for all variables. It is shown that this is correct also in the framework of the time-symmetric quantum formalism, i.e. nonlocal variables of composite quantum systems with quantum states evolving both forward and backward in time are measurable in a demolition way. The result follows from the possibility to reverse with certainty the time direction of a backward evolving quantum state. Demolition measurements of nonlocal backward evolving quantum states require remarkably small resources. This is so because the combined operation of time reversal and teleportation of a local backward evolving quantum state requires only a single quantum channel and no transmission of classical information.
Fully nonlocal quantum correlations
Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio; Chiuri, Andrea; Vallone, Giuseppe; Mataloni, Paolo; Cabello, Adán
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanics is a nonlocal theory, but not as nonlocal as the no-signalling principle allows. However, there exist quantum correlations that exhibit maximal nonlocality: they are as nonlocal as any non-signalling correlations and thus have a local content, quantified by the fraction $p_L$ of events admitting a local description, equal to zero. Previous examples of maximal quantum nonlocality between two parties require an infinite number of measurements, and the corresponding Bell violation is not robust against noise. We show how every proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem gives rise to maximally nonlocal quantum correlations that involve a finite number of measurements and are robust against noise. We perform the experimental demonstration of a Bell test originating from the Peres-Mermin Kochen-Specker proof, providing an upper bound on the local content $p_L\\lesssim 0.22$.
Quantum Nonlocality and Reality
Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan
2016-09-01
physics of Bell non-locality: palatial twistor theory Roger Penrose; 26. Measurement and macroscopicity: overcoming conceptual imprecision in quantum measurement theory Gregg Jaeger; Index.
Nonlocality of quantum correlations
Streltsov, A; Roga, W; Bruß, D; Illuminati, F
2012-01-01
We show that only those composite quantum systems possessing nonvanishing quantum correlations have the property that any nontrivial local unitary evolution changes their global state. This type of nonlocality occurs also for states that do not violate a Bell inequality, such as, for instance, Werner states with a low degree of entanglement. We derive the exact relation between the global state change induced by local unitary evolutions and the amount of quantum correlations. We prove that the minimal change coincides with the geometric measure of discord, thus providing the latter with an operational interpretation in terms of the capability of a local unitary dynamics to modify a global state. We establish rigorously that Werner states are the maximally quantum correlated two-qubit states, and thus are the ones that maximize this novel type of nonlocality.
Hobson, Art
2012-01-01
Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…
Hobson, Art
2012-01-01
Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…
Quantum nonlocality does not exist.
Tipler, Frank J
2014-08-05
Quantum nonlocality is shown to be an artifact of the Copenhagen interpretation, in which each observed quantity has exactly one value at any instant. In reality, all physical systems obey quantum mechanics, which obeys no such rule. Locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the many-worlds interpretation (MWI). Using the MWI, I show that the quantum side of Bell's inequality, generally believed nonlocal, is really due to a series of three measurements (not two as in the standard, oversimplified analysis), all three of which have only local effects. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI. The mistaken interpretation of nonlocality experiments depends crucially on a question-begging version of the Born interpretation, which makes sense only in "collapse" versions of quantum theory, about the meaning of the modulus of the wave function, so I use the interpretation based on the MWI, namely that the wave function is a world density amplitude, not a probability amplitude. This view allows the Born interpretation to be derived directly from the Schrödinger equation, by applying the Schrödinger equation to both the observed and the observer.
Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality
Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.
2014-03-01
Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.
Optimal measurements for nonlocal correlations
Schwarz, Sacha; Stefanov, André; Wolf, Stefan; Montina, Alberto
2016-08-01
A problem in quantum information theory is to find the experimental setup that maximizes the nonlocality of correlations with respect to some suitable measure such as the violation of Bell inequalities. There are however some complications with Bell inequalities. First and foremost it is unfeasible to determine the whole set of Bell inequalities already for a few measurements and thus unfeasible to find the experimental setup maximizing their violation. Second, the Bell violation suffers from an ambiguity stemming from the choice of the normalization of the Bell coefficients. An alternative measure of nonlocality with a direct information-theoretic interpretation is the minimal amount of classical communication required for simulating nonlocal correlations. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called nonlocal capacity, and its computation can be reduced to a convex-optimization problem. This quantity can be computed for a higher number of measurements and turns out to be useful for finding the optimal experimental setup. Focusing on the bipartite case, we present a simple method for maximizing the nonlocal capacity over a given configuration space and, in particular, over a set of possible measurements, yielding the corresponding optimal setup. Furthermore, we show that there is a functional relationship between Bell violation and nonlocal capacity. The method is illustrated with numerical tests and compared with the maximization of the violation of CGLMP-type Bell inequalities on the basis of entangled two-qubit as well as two-qutrit states. Remarkably, the anomaly of nonlocality displayed by qutrits turns out to be even stronger if the nonlocal capacity is employed as a measure of nonlocality.
Proposal for revealing quantum nonlocality via local contextuality.
Cabello, Adán
2010-06-04
Two distant systems can exhibit quantum nonlocality even though the correlations between them admit a local model. This nonlocality can be revealed by testing extra correlations between successive measurements on one of the systems which do not admit a noncontextual model whatever the reduced state of this system is. This shows that quantum contextuality plays a fundamental role in quantum nonlocality, and allows an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker with locality theorem.
Classical and Quantum Nonlocal Supergravity
Giaccari, Stefano
2016-01-01
We derive the N=1 supersymmetric extension for a class of weakly nonlocal four dimensional gravitational theories.The construction is explicitly done in the superspace and the tree-level perturbative unitarity is explicitly proved both in the superfield formalism and in field components. For the minimal nonlocal supergravity the spectrum is the same as in the local theory and in particular it is ghost-free. The supersymmetric extension of the super-renormalizable Starobinsky theory and of two alternative massive nonlocal supergravities are found as straightforward applications of the formalism. Power-counting arguments ensure super-renormalizability with milder requirement for the asymptotic behavior of form factors than in ordinary nonlocal gravity. The most noteworthy result, common to ordinary supergravity, is the absence of quantum corrections to the cosmological constant in any regularization procedure. We cannot exclude the usual one-loop quadratic divergences. However, local vertices in the superfields...
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Miranowicz, Adam
2017-03-01
We propose and experimentally implement an efficient procedure based on entanglement swapping to determine the Bell nonlocality measure of Horodecki et al. [Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995), 10.1016/0375-9601(95)00214-N] and the fully entangled fraction of Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevA.54.3824] of an arbitrary two-qubit polarization-encoded state. The nonlocality measure corresponds to the amount of the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) optimized over all measurement settings. By using simultaneously two copies of a given state, we measure directly only six parameters. This is an experimental determination of these quantities without quantum state tomography or continuous monitoring of all measurement bases in the usual CHSH inequality tests. We analyze how well the measured degrees of Bell nonlocality and other entanglement witnesses (including the fully entangled fraction and a nonlinear entropic witness) of an arbitrary two-qubit state can estimate its entanglement. In particular, we measure these witnesses and estimate the negativity of various two-qubit Werner states. Our approach could especially be useful for quantum communication protocols based on entanglement swapping.
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits
Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.
2016-01-01
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits
Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.
2016-01-01
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing. PMID:26732751
Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology
Dumin, Yurii V
2014-01-01
Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the Universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: Do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early Universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly-nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early Universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls) expected du...
Maximum quantum nonlocality between systems that never interacted
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabello, Adán, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)
2012-12-03
We show that there is a stronger form of bipartite quantum nonlocality in which systems that never interacted are as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling. For this purpose, we first show that nonlocal boxes, theoretical objects that violate a bipartite Bell inequality as much as the no-signaling principle allows and which are physically impossible for most scenarios, are feasible if the two parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. Then we show that, in this case, entanglement swapping allows us to prepare mixtures of nonlocal boxes using systems that never interacted. -- Highlights: ► We show quantum correlations as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling between systems that never interacted. ► We show that nonlocal boxes are feasible if 2 parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. ► Experimental implementations of 1 and 2 are proposed.
Combinatorics and quantum nonlocality.
Buhrman, Harry; Høyer, Peter; Massar, Serge; Röhrig, Hein
2003-07-25
We use techniques for lower bounds on communication to derive necessary conditions (in terms of detector efficiency or amount of superluminal communication) for being able to reproduce the quantum correlations occurring in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type experiments with classical local hidden-variable theories. As an application, we consider n parties sharing a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state and show that the amount of superluminal classical communication required to reproduce the correlations is at least n(log((2)n-3) bits and the maximum detector efficiency eta(*) for which the resulting correlations can still be reproduced by a local hidden-variable theory is upper bounded by eta(*)
A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality
Romero-Rochin, Victor
2015-01-01
We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...
Detrimental nonlocality in luminescence measurements
Pluska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej
2017-08-01
Luminescence studies are used to investigate the local properties of various light-emitting materials. A critical issue of these studies is presented that the signals often lack all advantages of luminescence-studies of high locality, and may originate from an extended spatial region of even a few millimeters in size or the whole sample, i.e., places other than intended for investigation. This is a key problem for research and development in photonics. Due to this nonlocality, information indicating defects, irregularities, nonuniformities and inhomogeneities is lost. The issue refers to typical structures with a strong built-in electric field. Such fields exist intentionally in most photonic structures and occur unintentionally in many other materials investigated by applied physics. We reveal [using test samples prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) on an AlGaAs/GaAs laser heterostructure with an InGaAs quantum well (QW)] that nonlocality increases at low temperatures. This is contrary to the widely expected outcome, as low-temperature luminescence measurements are usually assumed to be free from disturbances. We explain many effects observed due to nonlocality in luminescence studies and prove that separation of the investigated area by focused ion beam milling is a practical solution enabling truly local luminescence measurements. All conclusions drawn using the example of cathodoluminescence are useful for other luminescence techniques.
Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurii V. Dumin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls expected due to independent establishment of the new phases in the remote spatial regions. This gives us a hint on resolving a long-standing problem of the excessive concentration of topological defects, inconsistent with observational constraints. The same effect may be also relevant to the recent problem of the anomalous behavior of cosmic microwave background fluctuations at large angular scales.
Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems
Lin, Shih-Yuin
2013-01-01
In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann's projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of "R-nonlocal" variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement "Q-nonlocal". After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the "R-nonlocal" variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppres...
A histories perspective on characterising quantum non-locality
Dowker, Fay; Wallden, Petros
2013-01-01
We introduce a framework for studying non-locality and contextuality inspired by the path integral formulation of quantum theory. We prove that the existence of a strongly positive joint quantum measure -- the quantum analogue of a joint probability measure -- on a set of experimental probabilities implies the Navascues-Pironio-Acin (NPA) condition $Q^1$ and is implied by the stronger NPA condition $Q^{1+AB}$. A related condition is shown to be equivalent to $Q^{1+AB}$.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-22
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Let's call it Nonlocal Quantum Physics
Requardt, M
2000-01-01
In the following we undertake to derive quantum theory as a stochastic low-energy and coarse-grained theory from a more primordial discrete and basically geometric theory living on the Planck scale and which (as we argue) possibly underlies also \\tit{string theory}. We isolate the so-called \\tit{ideal elements} which represent at the same time the cornerstones of the framework of ordinary quantum theory and show how and why they encode the \\tit{non-local} aspects, being ubiquituous in the quantum realm, in a, on the surface, local way. We show that the quantum non-locality emerges in our approach as a natural consequence of the underlying \\tit{two-storey} nature of space-time or the physical vacuum, that is, quantum theory turns out to be a residual effect of the geometric depth structure of space-time on the Planck scale. We indicate how the \\tit{measurement problem} and the emergence of the \\tit{macroscopic sub-regime} can be understood in this framework.
The non-local content of quantum operations
Collins, D; Popescu, S; Collins, Daniel; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu
2000-01-01
We show that quantum operations on multi-particle systems have a non-local content; this mirrors the non-local content of quantum states. We introduce a general framework for discussing the non-local content of quantum operations, and give a number of examples. Quantitative relations between quantum actions and the entanglement and classical communication resources needed to implement these actions are also described. We also show how entanglement can catalyse classical communication from a quantum action.
Quantum theory is classical mechanics with non-local existence
Hegseth, John
2009-01-01
I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where I derive the quantum mechanical propagator from a variational principle. This variational principle is Hamilton's modified principle generalized to allow many paths due to the non-local existence of particles in phase space. This principle allows a physical system to evolve non-locally in phase space while still allowing a representation that uses many classical paths. Whereas a point in phase space represents a classical system's state, I represent the state of a non-local system by a mixed trajectory. This formulation naturally leads to the transactional interpretation for resolving the paradoxes of the measurement problem. This principle also suggests a more flexible framework for formulating theories based on invariant actions and provides a single conceptual framework for discussing many areas of science.
Quantum Loops in Non-Local Gravity
Talaganis, Spyridon
2015-01-01
In this proceedings, I will consider quantum aspects of a non-local, infinite-derivative scalar field theory - a ${\\it toy \\, model}$ depiction of a covariant infinite-derivative, non-local extension of Einstein's general relativity which has previously been shown to be free from ghosts around the Minkowski background. The graviton propagator in this theory gets an exponential suppression making it ${\\it asymptotically \\, free}$, thus providing strong prospects of resolving various classical and quantum divergences. In particular, I will find that at $1$-loop, the $2$-point function is still divergent, but once this amplitude is renormalized by adding appropriate counter terms, the ultraviolet (UV) behavior of all other $1$-loop diagrams as well as the $2$-loop, $2$-point function remains well under control. I will go on to discuss how one may be able to generalize our computations and arguments to arbitrary loops.
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits
Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K.S.; Abulizi, G.; Jong, de M.P.; Wiel, van der W.G.
2016-01-01
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is we
Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou
2012-01-01
A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.
Quantum nonlocality in weak-thermal-light interferometry.
Tsang, Mankei
2011-12-30
In astronomy, interferometry of light collected by separate telescopes is often performed by physically bringing the optical paths together in the form of Young's double-slit experiment. Optical loss severely limits the efficiency of this so-called direct detection method, motivating the fundamental question of whether one can achieve a comparable performance using separate optical measurements at the two telescopes before combining the measurement results. Using quantum mechanics and estimation theory, here I show that any such spatially local measurement scheme, such as heterodyne detection, is fundamentally inferior to coherently nonlocal measurements, such as direct detection, for estimating the mutual coherence of bipartite thermal light when the average photon flux is low. This surprising result reveals an overlooked signature of quantum nonlocality in a classic optics experiment.
The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions
Cramer, John G
2016-01-01
This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.
Construction of nonlocal multipartite quantum states
Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Oh, C. H.
2017-05-01
For general bipartite quantum systems, many sets of locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states have been constructed so far. Here, we first present a general method to construct multipartite orthogonal product states in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥4 ) by using some locally indistinguishable bipartite orthogonal product states. And we prove that these multipartite orthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication. Furthermore, in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥5 ) , we give a general method to construct a much smaller number of locally indistinguishable multipartite orthogonal product states for even and odd n separately. In addition, we also present a general method to construct complete orthogonal product bases for the multipartite quantum systems. Our results demonstrate the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement for the multipartite quantum systems.
Does Quantum Nonlocality Exist? Bell's Theorem and the Many-Worlds Interpretation
Tipler, F J
2000-01-01
Quantum nonlocality may be an artifact of the assumption that observers obey the laws of classical mechanics, while observed systems obey quantum mechanics. I show that, at least in the case of Bell's Theorem, locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Using the MWI, I shall show that the apparently "non-local" expectation value for the product of the spins of two widely separated particles --- the "quantum" part of Bell's Theorem --- is really due to a series of three purely local measurements. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI.
Implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two entangled pairs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 陈立冰; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for the implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two spatially separated entangled pairs and we show that the operation can swap two qubits of these entangled pairs. We discuss the resourcesof the entangled qubits and classical communication bits required for the optimal implementation of the nonlocal quantum swap operation. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistic implementation of nonlocal swap operation via a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel. The probability of a successful nonlocal swap operation is obtained by introducing a collective unitary transformation.
Quantum non-locality - It ain't necessarily so...
Zukowski, Marek
2015-01-01
Bell's theorem is 50 years old. Still there is a controversy about its implications. Much of it has its roots in confusion regarding the premises from which the theorem can be derived. Some claim that a derivation of Bell's inequalities requires just locality assumption, and nothing more. Violations of the inequalities are then interpreted as ``nonlocality'' or ``quantum nonlocality''. We show that such claims are unfounded and that every derivation of Bell's inequalities requires a premise -- in addition to locality and freedom of choice -- which is either assumed tacitly, or unconsciously, or is embedded in a single compound condition (like Bell's ``local causality''). The premise is equivalent to the assumption of existence of additional variables which do not appear in the quantum formalism (in form of determinism, or joint probability for outcomes of all conceivable measurements, or ``additional causes`'', or ``hidden variables'', ``complete description of the state'' or counterfactual definiteness, etc....
Simple Explanation of the Quantum Limits of Genuine n-Body Nonlocality.
Cabello, Adán
2015-06-05
Quantum n-body correlations cannot be explained with (n-1)-body nonlocality. However, this genuine n-body nonlocality cannot surpass certain bounds. Here we address the problem of identifying the principles responsible for these bounds. We show that, for any n≥2, the exclusivity principle, as derived from axioms about sharp measurements, and a technical assumption give the exact bounds predicted by quantum theory. This provides a unified explanation of the bounds of single-body contextuality and n-body nonlocality, and connects two programs towards understanding quantum theory.
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne
2015-01-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the pa...
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne
2016-08-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.
Understanding quantum non-locality through pseudo-telepathy game
Kunkri, Samir
2006-11-01
Usually by quantum non-locality we mean that quantum mechanics can not be replaced by local realistic theory. On the other hand this nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can not be used for instantaneous communication and hence it respect Einstein's special theory of relativity. But still it is not trivial as proved by various quantum information processing using entangled states. Recently there have been studies of hypothetical non-local system again respecting no-signalling which is beyond quantum mechanics. Here we study the power of such a hypothetical nonlocal box first suggested by Popescu et.al. in the context of recently suggested pseudo-telepathy game constructed from a Kochen-Specker set.
Understanding quantum interference in General Nonlocality
Wanng, Hai-Jhun
2010-01-01
In this paper we attempt to give an understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of General Nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-interaction of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-interaction is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schr\\"odinger current and Dirac current respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to a spin-current effect, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and non-perturbative self-interactions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all.
Fragility of Nonlocal Edge-Mode Transport in the Quantum Spin Hall State
Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin
2016-07-01
Nonlocal currents and voltages are better at withstanding the deleterious effects of dephasing than local currents and voltages in nanoscale systems. This hypothesis is known to be true in quantum Hall setups. We test this hypothesis in a four-terminal quantum spin Hall setup wherein we compare the local resistance measurement with the nonlocal one. In addition to inelastic-scattering-induced dephasing, we also test the resilience of the resistance measurements in the aforesaid setups to disorder and spin-flip scattering. We find the axiom that nonlocal resistance is less affected by the detrimental effects of disorder and dephasing to be untrue, in general, for the quantum spin Hall case. This has important consequences since it is widely communicated that nonlocal transport through edge channels in topological insulators have potential applications in low-power information processing.
Nonlocal scalar quantum field theory from causal sets
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano
2015-03-01
We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.
Nonlocal Scalar Quantum Field Theory from Causal Sets
Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano
2014-01-01
We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.
Tests of quantum-gravity-induced nonlocality via optomechanical experiments
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2017-01-01
The nonrelativistic limit of nonlocal modifications to the Klein-Gordon operator is studied, and the experimental possibilities of casting stringent constraints on the nonlocality scale via planned and/or current optomechanical experiments are discussed. Details of the perturbative analysis and semianalytical simulations leading to the dynamic evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator in the presence of nonlocality reported in [A. Belenchia, D. M. T. Benincasa, S. Liberati, F. Marin, F. Marino, and A. Ortolan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 161303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.161303] are given, together with a comprehensive account of the experimental methodology with particular regard to sensitivity limitations related to thermal decoherence time and active cooling of the oscillator. Finally, a strategy for detecting nonlocality scales of the order of 10-22÷10-26 m by means of the spontaneous time-periodic squeezing of quantum-coherent states is provided.
Fully nonlocal, monogamous and random genuinely multipartite quantum correlations
Aolita, Leandro; Cabello, Adán; Acín, Antonio
2011-01-01
Local measurements on bipartite maximally entangled states can yield correlations that are maximally nonlocal, monogamous, and associated to fully random outcomes. This makes these states ideal for bipartite cryptographic tasks. Genuine-multipartite nonlocality constitutes a stronger notion of nonlocality that appears in the multipartite case. Maximal genuine-multipartite nonlocality, monogamy and full random outcomes are thus highly desired properties for multipartite correlations in intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic scenarios. We prove that local measurements on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, for all local dimension and number of parts, can produce correlations that are fully genuine-multipartite nonlocal, monogamous and with fully random outcomes. A key ingredient in our proof is a multipartite chained Bell inequality detecting genuine-multipartite nonlocality, which we introduce. Finally, we discuss the applications of our results for intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic pr...
Hidden-variable models for the spin singlet: I. Non-local theories reproducing quantum mechanics
Di Lorenzo, Antonio
2011-01-01
A non-local hidden variable model reproducing the quantum mechanical probabilities for a spin singlet is presented. The non-locality is concentrated in the distribution of the hidden variables. The model otherwise satisfies both the hypothesis of outcome independence, made in the derivation of Bell inequality, and of compliance with Malus's law, made in the derivation of Leggett inequality. It is shown through the prescription of a protocol that the non-locality can be exploited to send information instantaneously provided that the hidden variables can be measured, even though they cannot be controlled.
Quantum nonlocality in weak-thermal-light interferometry
Tsang, Mankei
2011-01-01
In astronomy, interferometry of light collected by separate telescopes is often performed by physically interfering the optical paths in the form of the classic Young's double-slit experiment. Optical loss along the paths severely hampers the efficiency of this so-called direct detection method, limiting the maximum baseline between the telescopes and thus the achievable resolution. This problem motivates the fundamental question of whether one can achieve a comparable signal-to-noise performance by separate optical measurements at the two telescopes before combining the measurement results. Using quantum mechanics and estimation theory, here I show that any such spatially local measurement scheme, such as heterodyne or homodyne detection, is fundamentally inferior to coherently nonlocal measurements, such as direct detection, for estimating the mutual coherence of bipartite thermal light when the average photon flux is low. This surprising result can be regarded as a dual of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglem...
Quantum chance nonlocality, teleportation and other quantum marvels
Gisin, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Quantum physics, which offers an explanation of the world on the smallest scale, has fundamental implications that pose a serious challenge to ordinary logic. Particularly counterintuitive is the notion of entanglement, which has been explored for the past 30 years and posits an ubiquitous randomness capable of manifesting itself simultaneously in more than one place. This amazing 'non-locality' is more than just an abstract curiosity or paradox: it has entirely down-to-earth applications in cryptography, serving for example to protect financial information; it also has enabled the demonstration of 'quantum teleportation', whose infinite possibilities even science-fiction writers can scarcely imagine. This delightful and concise exposition does not avoid the deep logical difficulties of quantum physics, but gives the reader the insights needed to appreciate them . From 'Bell's Theorem' to experiments in quantum entanglement, the reader will gain a solid understanding of one of the most fascinating ar...
Quantum theory of nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation
Vyas, Vivek M
2015-01-01
Nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger model is quantised and exactly solved using the canonical framework. It is found that the usual canonical quantisation of the model leads to a theory with pathological inner product. This problem is resolved by constructing another inner product over the vector space of the theory. The resultant theory is found to be identical to that of nonrelativistic bosons with delta function interaction potential, devoid of any nonlocality. The exact eigenstates are found using the Bethe ansatz technique.
Aspects of nonlocality in quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology
Barvinsky, A. O.
2015-02-01
This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining the nonlocal effective equations of motion for the mean quantum field from the Euclidean effective action. This rule is applied to a new model of ghost free nonlocal cosmology which can generate the de Sitter (dS) cosmological evolution at an arbitrary value of Λ — a model of dark energy with the dynamical scale selected by a kind of a scaling symmetry breaking mechanism. This model is shown to interpolate between the superhorizon phase of a scalar mediated gravity and the short distance general relativistic limit in a special metric frame related by a nonlocal conformal transformation to the original metric.
Tests of Quantum Gravity induced non-locality via opto-mechanical quantum oscillators
Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2015-01-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterised by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such non-local effective field theories lead to a modified Schr\\"odinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of opto-mechanical quantum oscillators is characterised by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the non-locality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Aspects of Nonlocality in Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Gravity and Cosmology
Barvinsky, A. O.
2014-01-01
This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures and the nonperturbative method based on the late time asymptotics of the heat kernel. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining...
EPR Paradox, Quantum Nonlocality and Physical Reality
Kupczynski, Marian
2016-01-01
Eighty years ago Einstein demonstrated that a particular interpretation of the reduction of wave function led to a paradox and that this paradox disappeared if statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics was adopted. According to the statistical interpretation a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. Searching for an intuitive explanation of long range correlations between outcomes of distant measurements, performed on pairs of physical systems prepared in a spin singlet state, John Bell analysed local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of quantum mechanics. Several different local models were constructed, various inequalities proven and shown to be violated by experimental data. Some physicists concluded that Nature is definitely not local. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we critically analyze some influential finite sample proo...
Multipartite non-locality and entanglement signatures of a field-induced quantum phase transition
Batle, Josep; Alkhambashi, Majid; Farouk, Ahmed; Naseri, Mosayeb; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood
2017-02-01
Quantum correlation measures are limited in practice to a few number of parties, since no general theory is still capable of reaching the thermodynamic limit. In the present work we study entanglement and non-locality for a cluster of spins belonging to a compound that displays a magnetocaloric effect. A quantum phase transition (QPT) is induced by an external magnetic field B, in such a way that the corresponding quantum fluctuations are reproduced at a much smaller scale than the experimental outcomes, and then described by means of the aforementioned quantum measures.
Quantum Transfer Energy and Nonlocal Correlation in a Dimer with Time-Dependent Coupling Effect
El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Berrada, K.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.
2017-02-01
The presence of coherence phenomenon due to the interference of probability amplitude terms, is one of the most important features of quantum mechanics theory. Recent experiments show the presence of quantum processes whose coherence provided over suddenly large interval-time. In particular, photosynthetic mechanisms in light-harvesting complexes provide oscillatory behaviors in quantum mechanics due to quantum coherence. In this work, we investigate the coherent quantum transfer energy for a single-excitation and nonlocal correlation in a dimer system modelled by a two-level atom system with and without time-dependent coupling effect. We analyze and explore the required conditions that are feasible with real experimental realization for optimal transfer of quantum energy and generation of nonlocal quantum correlation. We show that the enhancement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy is greatly benefits from the combination of the energy detuning and time-dependent coupling effect. We investigate the presence of quantum correlations in the dimer using the entanglement of formation. We also find that the entanglement between the donor and acceptor is very sensitive to the physical parameters and it can be generated during the coherent energy transfer. On the other hand, we study the dynamical behavior of the quantum variance when performing a measurement on an observable of the density matrix operator. Finally, an interesting relationship between the transfer probability, entanglement and quantum variance is explored during the time evolution in terms of the physical parameters.
Quantum switches and nonlocal microwave fields
Davidovich, L.; Maali, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.
1993-10-01
A scheme to realize an optical switch with quantum coherence between its ``open'' and ``closed'' states is presented. It involves a single atom in a superposition of circular Rydberg states crossing a high Q cavity. A combination of switches could be used to prepare a quantum superposition of coherent microwave field states located simultaneously in two cavities. Such nonclassical states and their decoherence due to cavity dissipation could be studied by performing atom correlation experiments.
Filk, Thomas
2013-04-01
In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.
Quantum Overloading Cryptography Using Single-Photon Nonlocality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Yong-Gang; CAI Qing-Yu; SHI Ting-Yun
2007-01-01
@@ Using the single-photon nonlocality, we propose a quantum novel overloading cryptography scheme, in which a single photon carries two bits information in one-way quantum channel. Two commutative modes of the single photon, the polarization mode and the spatial mode, are used to encode secret information. Strict time windows are set to detect the impersonation attack. The spatial mode which denotes the existence of photons is noncommutative with the phase of the photon, so that our scheme is secure against photon-number-splitting attack. Our protocol may be secure against individual attack.
Rai, Ashutosh; Home, Dipankar; Majumdar, A. S.
2011-11-01
Leggett-type nonlocal realistic inequalities that have been derived to date are all contingent upon suitable geometrical constraints to be strictly satisfied by the spatial arrangement of the relevant measurement settings. This undesirable restriction is removed in the present work by deriving appropriate forms of nonlocal realistic inequalities, one of which involves the fewest number of settings compared to all such inequalities derived earlier. The way such inequalities would provide a logically firmer basis for a clearer testing of a Leggett-type nonlocal realistic model vis-à-vis quantum mechanics is explained.
Non-locality beyond quantum mechanics
Popescu, Sandu
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics is, without any doubt, a tremendously successful theory: it started by explaining black-body radiation and the photoelectric effect, it explained the spectra of atoms, and then went on to explain chemical bonds, the structure of atoms and of the atomic nucleus, the properties of crystals and the elementary particles, and a myriad of other phenomena. Yet it is safe to say that we still lack a deep understanding of quantum mechanics – surprising and even puzzling new effects continue to be discovered with regularity. That we are surprised and puzzled is the best sign that we still don't understand; however, the veil over the mysteries of quantum mechanics is starting to lift a little.
Quantum objects. Non-local correlation, causality and objective indefiniteness in the quantum world
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeger, Gregg [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Natural Sciences and Mathematics
2014-07-01
Presents interpretation of quantum mechanics, advances in quantum foundations and philosophy of quantum mechanics. Explains non-locality and its relationship to causality and probability in quantum theory. Displays foundational characteristics of quantum physic to understand conceptual origins of the unusual nature of quantum phenomena. Describes relationship of subsystems and space-time. Gives a careful review of existing views. Confronts the old approaches with recent results and approaches from quantum information theory. Delivers a clear and thorough analysis of the quantum events in the context of relativistic space-time, which impacts the problem of creating a theory of quantum gravity. Supplies a detailed discussion of non-local correlation within and beyond the bounds set by standard quantum mechanics, which impacts the foundations of information theory. Gives a detailed discussion of probabilistic causation (central to contemporary accounts of causation) in quantum mechanics and relativity. Leads a thorough discussion of the nature of ''quantum potentiality,'' the novel form of existence arising for the first time in quantum mechanics. This monograph identifies the essential characteristics of the objects described by current quantum theory and considers their relationship to space-time. In the process, it explicates the senses in which quantum objects may be consistently considered to have parts of which they may be composed or into which they may be decomposed. The book also demonstrates the degree to which reduction is possible in quantum mechanics, showing it to be related to the objective indefiniteness of quantum properties and the strong non-local correlations that can occur between the physical quantities of quantum subsystems. Careful attention is paid to the relationships among such property correlations, physical causation, probability, and symmetry in quantum theory. In this way, the text identifies and clarifies the
On the no-signaling approach to quantum nonlocality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Méndez, J. M., E-mail: manolo@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Urías, Jesús, E-mail: jurias@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física, UASLP, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)
2015-03-15
The no-signaling approach to nonlocality deals with separable and inseparable multiparty correlations in the same set of probability states without conflicting causality. The set of half-spaces describing the polytope of no-signaling probability states that are admitted by the most general class of Bell scenarios is formulated in full detail. An algorithm for determining the skeleton that solves the no-signaling description is developed upon a new strategy that is partially pivoting and partially incremental. The algorithm is formulated rigorously and its implementation is shown to be effective to deal with the highly degenerate no-signaling descriptions. Several applications of the algorithm as a tool for the study of quantum nonlocality are mentioned. Applied to a large set of bipartite Bell scenarios, we found that the corresponding no-signaling polytopes have a striking high degeneracy that grows up exponentially with the size of the Bell scenario.
Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari
2016-01-01
This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....
Quantum Nonlocality and Generation of Multi-mode Schroedinger Cat States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENGShi-Biao
2004-01-01
We describe the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox in the multi-mode Schroedinger cat states.We also show that the multi-mode cat states violate the Bell's inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with number of modes. The test of quantum nonlocality is based on parity measurement and displacement operation, which are experimentally feasible. We also describe a scheme for the generation of the cat states in cavity QED.
Filter, Robert; Bösel, Christoph; Toscano, Giuseppe; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2014-11-01
The spontaneous emission rate of dipole emitters close to plasmonic dimers are theoretically studied within a nonlocal hydrodynamic model. A nonlocal model has to be used since quantum emitters in the immediate environment of a metallic nanoparticle probe its electronic structure. Compared to local calculations, the emission rate is significantly reduced. The influence is mostly pronounced if the emitter is located close to sharp edges. We suggest to use quantum emitters to test nonlocal effects in experimentally feasible configurations.
Nonlocal memory effects in the dynamics of open quantum systems
Laine, Elsi-Mari; Piilo, Jyrki; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2011-01-01
We study a model of two entangled photons interacting locally with two dephasing environments. It is shown that initial correlations between the local environments can generate a nonlocal quantum process from a local interaction Hamiltonian. While the global dynamics of the two-photon polarization state exhibits strong memory effects, the induced local dynamics of either of the two photons is found to be Markovian. A direct connection between the degree of memory effects and the amount of correlations in the initial environmental state is derived. The results demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, enlarging an open system can change the dynamics from Markovian to non-Markovian.
Bishop, S. A.; Ayoola, E. O.; Oghonyon, G. J.
2016-08-01
New results on existence and uniqueness of solution of impulsive quantum stochastic differential equation with nonlocal conditions are established. The nonlocal conditions are completely continuous. The methods applied here are simple extension of the methods applied in the classical case to this noncummutative quantum setting.
Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication
Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard
2016-09-01
It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time
Quantum objects non-local correlation, causality and objective indefiniteness in the quantum world
Jaeger, Gregg
2013-01-01
This monograph identifies the essential characteristics of the objects described by current quantum theory and considers their relationship to space-time. In the process, it explicates the senses in which quantum objects may be consistently considered to have parts of which they may be composed or into which they may be decomposed. The book also demonstrates the degree to which reduction is possible in quantum mechanics, showing it to be related to the objective indefiniteness of quantum properties and the strong non-local correlations that can occur between the physical quantities of quantum
Measurement As Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, Non-locality and Non-Boolean Holism
Ghose, Partha
2010-01-01
It is shown that having degenerate ground states over the domain of the wavefunction of a system is a sufficient condition for a quantum system to act as a measuring apparatus for the system. Measurements are then instances of spontaneous symmetry breaking to one of these ground states, induced by environmental perturbations. Together with non-Boolean holism this constitutes an optimal formulation of quantum mechanics that does not imply non-locality.
Gauge nonlocality in planar quantum-coherent systems
Moulopoulos, K
2014-01-01
It is shown that a system with quantum coherence can be nontrivially affected by adjacent magnetic or adjacent time-varying electric field regions, with this proximity (or remote) influence having a gauge origin. This is implicit (although overlooked) in numerous works on extended systems with inhomogeneous magnetic fields (with either conventional or Dirac materials) but is generally plagued with an apparent gauge ambiguity. The origin of this annoying feature is explained and it is shown how it can be theoretically removed, leading to macroscopic quantizations (quantized Dirac monopoles, integral quantum Hall effect, quantized magnetoelectric phenomena in topological insulators). Apart however from serving as a theoretical probe of macroscopic quantizations, there are cases (experimental conditions, clarified here) when this "gauge nonlocality" does not really suffer from any ambiguity: an apparently innocent gauge transformation corresponds to real change in physics of a companion system in higher dimensio...
Nonlocal quantum gravity and the size of the universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reuter, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Saueressig, F. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2004-06-01
Motivated by the conjecture that the cosmological constant problem is solved by strong quantum effects in the infrared we use the exact flow equation of Quantum Einstein Gravity to determine the renormalization group behavior of a class of nonlocal effective actions. They consist of the Einstein-Hilbert term and a general nonlinear function F{sub k}(V) of the Euclidean spacetime volume V. For the V+V ln V-invariant the renormalization group running enormously suppresses the value of the renormalized curvature which results from Planck-size parameters specified at the Planck scale. One obtains very large, i.e., almost flat universes without finetuning the cosmological constant. A critical infrared fixed point is found where gravity is scale invariant. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Srikanth, R.; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2015-10-01
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum-information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavor changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum-information theoretic quantities, capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavor types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur (India); Srikanth, R. [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Banglore (India); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
2015-10-15
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum-information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavor changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum-information theoretic quantities, capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavor types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force. (orig.)
Nonlocal Polarization Feedback in a Fractional Quantum Hall Ferromagnet.
Hennel, Szymon; Braem, Beat A; Baer, Stephan; Tiemann, Lars; Sohi, Pirouz; Wehrli, Dominik; Hofmann, Andrea; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Rössler, Clemens; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Rudner, Mark S; Rosenow, Bernd
2016-04-01
In a quantum Hall ferromagnet, the spin polarization of the two-dimensional electron system can be dynamically transferred to nuclear spins in its vicinity through the hyperfine interaction. The resulting nuclear field typically acts back locally, modifying the local electronic Zeeman energy. Here we report a nonlocal effect arising from the interplay between nuclear polarization and the spatial structure of electronic domains in a ν=2/3 fractional quantum Hall state. In our experiments, we use a quantum point contact to locally control and probe the domain structure of different spin configurations emerging at the spin phase transition. Feedback between nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom gives rise to memristive behavior, where electronic transport through the quantum point contact depends on the history of current flow. We propose a model for this effect which suggests a novel route to studying edge states in fractional quantum Hall systems and may account for so-far unexplained oscillatory electronic-transport features observed in previous studies.
Gisin, Nicolas
2010-01-01
Observing the violation of Bell's inequality tells us something about all possible future theories: they must all predict nonlocal correlations. Hence Nature is nonlocal. After an elementary introduction to nonlocality and a brief review of some recent experiments, I argue that Nature's nonlocality together with the existence of free will is incompatible with the many-worlds view of quantum physics.
Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-01-01
The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.
Ontological Determinism non-locality and the system problem in quantum mechanics
Passman, Maurice; Post, Jonathan Vos
2011-01-01
Wave functions live on configuration space. Schrodinger called this entanglement. The linearity of the Schrodinger equation prevents the wave function from representing reality. If the equation were non-linear (e.g., reduction models) the wave function living on configuration space still by itself could not represent reality in physical space. In this paper, we continue the line of reasoning discussed in our previous paper, "The Fundamental Importance of Discourse in Theoretical Physics", [arXiv:1001.4111], to explore the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics. In particular we present a new interpretation of quantum decoherence, and a novel critique of the double slit experiment. In addition, we review the use of "determinism" in the discourse of quantum mechanics, resolving the confusion created by theories which attempt to restore determinism to quantum mechanics while confusing determinism with ontological necessity. Finally, we review Bell's Theorem in order to demonstrate that nonlocality is an inhe...
Liu, Cheng-cheng; Shi, Jia-dong; Ding, Zhi-yong; Ye, Liu
2016-08-01
In this paper, the effect of external magnet field g on the relationship among the quantum discord, Bell non-locality and quantum phase transition by employing quantum renormalization-group (QRG) method in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model is investigated. In our model, external magnet field g can influence the phase diagrams. The results have shown that both the two quantum correlation measures can develop two saturated values, which are associated with two distinct phases: long-ranged ordered Ising phase and the paramagnetic phase with the number of QRG iterations increasing. Additionally, quantum non-locality always existent in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase no matter whatever the value of g is and what times QRG steps are carried out and we conclude that the quantum non-locality always exists not only suitable for the two sites of block, but for nearest-neighbor blocks in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase. However, the block-block correlation in the paramagnetic phase is not strong enough to violate the Bell-CHSH inequality as the size of system becomes large. Furthermore, when the system violates the CHSH inequality, i.e., satisfies quantum non-locality, it needs to be entangled. On the other way, if the system obeys the CHSH inequality, it may be entangled or not. To gain further insight, the non-analytic and scaling behavior of QD and Bell non-locality have also been analyzed in detail and this phenomenon indicates that the behavior of the correlation can perfectly help one to observe the quantum critical properties of the model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Physics Department, Dilla University, PO Box 419, Dilla (Ethiopia)], E-mail: sint_tesfa@yahoo.com
2008-12-28
Analysis of the effects of external pumping on the quantum features, including entanglement, quantum nonlocality and nonclassical photon number correlations, of the cavity radiation of a correlated emission laser is presented. It turns out that the contribution of externally induced coherent superposition in demonstrating quantum nonlocality is significant. Despite the available evidence that entangled states can exhibit nonlocality for certain values of the rate at which the atoms are injected into the cavity and amplitude of the driving radiation, a direct relation between the degree of entanglement and quantum nonlocality cannot be established. However, it seems likely to make a consistent connection between the Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. It is evident that comparison among various nonclassical correlations enhances the understanding of the otherwise intricate quantum theoretical predictions.
Non-Markovian Quantum Dynamics: Local versus Nonlocal
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2010-02-01
We analyze non-Markovian evolution of open quantum systems. It is shown that any dynamical map representing the evolution of such a system may be described either by a nonlocal master equation with a memory kernel or equivalently by an equation which is local in time. These two descriptions are complementary: if one is simple, the other is quite involved, or even singular, and vice versa. The price one pays for the local approach is that the corresponding generator keeps the memory about the starting point “t0.” This is the very essence of non-Markovianity. Interestingly, this generator might be highly singular; nevertheless, the corresponding dynamics is perfectly regular. Remarkably, the singularities of the generator may lead to interesting physical phenomena such as the revival of coherence or sudden death and revival of entanglement.
Non-Markovian quantum dynamics: local versus non-local
Chruscinski, Dariusz
2009-01-01
We analyze non-Markovian evolution of open quantum systems. It is shown that any dynamical map representing evolution of such a system may be described either by non-local master equation with memory kernel or equivalently by equation which is local in time. Theses two descriptions are complementary: if one is simple the other is quite involved, or even singular, and vice versa. The price one pays for the local approach is that the corresponding generator keeps the memory about the starting point `t_0'. This is the very essence of non-Markovianity. Interestingly, this generator might be highly singular, nevertheless, the corresponding dynamics is perfectly regular. Remarkably, singularities of generator may lead to interesting physical phenomena like revival of coherence or sudden death and revival of entanglement.
Entanglement-based quantum communication secured by nonlocal dispersion cancellation
Lee, Catherine; Zhang, Zheshen; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Zhou, Hongchao; Mower, Jacob; Zhong, Tian; Wang, Ligong; Hu, Xiaolong; Horansky, Robert D.; Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Mirin, Richard P.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Wornell, Gregory W.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Englund, Dirk
2014-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables participants to exchange secret information over long distances with unconditional security. However, the performance of today's QKD systems is subject to hardware limitations, such as those of available nonclassical-light sources and single-photon detectors. By encoding photons in high-dimensional states, the rate of generating secure information under these technical constraints can be maximized. Here, we demonstrate a complete time-energy entanglement-based QKD system with proven security against the broad class of arbitrary collective attacks. The security of the system is based on nonlocal dispersion cancellation between two time-energy entangled photons. This resource-efficient QKD system is implemented at telecommunications wavelength, is suitable for optical fiber and free-space links, and is compatible with wavelength-division multiplexing.
Large Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum
Altman, A; Corndorf, E; Kumar, P; Barbosa, G A; Altman, Adam R.; K\\"{o}pr\\"{u}l\\"{u}, Kahraman G.; Corndorf, Eric; Kumar, Prem; Barbosa, Geraldo A.
2004-01-01
Through scanned coincidence counting, we probe the quantum image produced by parametric down conversion with a pump beam carrying orbital angular momentum. Nonlocal spatial correlations are manifested through splitting of the coincidence spot into two.
Donoghue, John F
2014-01-01
We discuss cosmological effects of the quantum loops of massless particles, which lead to temporal non-localities in the equations of motion governing the scale factor a(t). For the effects discussed here, loops cause the evolution of a(t) to depend on the memory of the curvature in the past with a weight that scales initially as 1/(t-t'). As one of our primary examples we discuss the situation with a large number of light particles, such that these effects occur in a region where gravity may still be treated classically. However, we also describe the effect of quantum graviton loops and the full set of Standard Model particles. We show that these effects decrease with time in an expanding phase, leading to classical behavior at late time. In a contracting phase, within our approximations the quantum results can lead to a bounce-like behavior at scales below the Planck mass, avoiding the singularities required classically by the Hawking-Penrose theorems. For conformally invariant fields, such as the Standard ...
Gravitational self-localization in quantum measurement
Geszti, T
2004-01-01
Within Newton-Schr\\"odinger quantum mechanics which allows gravitational self-interaction, it is shown that a no-split no-collapse measurement scenario is possible. A macroscopic pointer moves at low acceleration, controlled by the Ehrenfest-averaged force acting on it. That makes classicality self-sustaining, resolves Everett's paradox, and outlines a way to spontaneous emergence of quantum randomness. Numerical estimates indicate that enhanced short-range gravitational forces are needed for the scenario to work. The scheme fails to explain quantum nonlocality, including two-detector anticorrelations, which points towards the need of a nonlocal modification of the Newton-Schr\\"odinger coupling scheme.
Heikkinen, M O J; Kim, D-H; Troyer, M; Törmä, P
2014-10-31
We study fermionic superfluidity in strongly anisotropic optical lattices with attractive interactions utilizing the cluster dynamical mean-field theory method, and focusing in particular on the role of nonlocal quantum fluctuations. We show that nonlocal quantum fluctuations impact the BCS superfluid transition dramatically. Moreover, we show that exotic superfluid states with a delicate order parameter structure, such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase driven by spin population imbalance, can emerge even in the presence of such strong fluctuations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Bing; Lu Hong; Jin Rui-Bo
2007-01-01
We present a systematic simple method to implement a generalized quantum control-NOT (CNOT) gate on two d-dimensional distributed systems. First, we show how the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate can be implemented with unity fidelity and unity probability by using a maximally entangled pair of qudits as a quantum channel. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistically implementing the nonlocal operation with unity fidelity by employing a partially entangled qudit pair as a quantum channel. Analysis of the scheme indicates that the use of partially entangled quantum channel for implementing the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate leads to the CNOT gate can be used in the entanglement swapping between particles belonging to distant users in a communication network and distributed quantum computer.
Non-Local Propagation of Correlations in Quantum Systems with Long-Range Interactions
2014-07-10
LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13450 Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions Philip Richerme1, Zhe -Xuan Gong1...2013). 29. James, D. F. V. Quantum dynamics of cold trapped ions with application to quantum computation. Appl. Phys. B 66, 181–190 (1998). 30. Wang
Contextuality without nonlocality in a superconducting quantum system
Jerger, Markus; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Oppliger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Goodenough, Kenneth; Wehner, Stephanie; Juliusson, Kristinn; Langford, Nathan K.; Fedorov, Arkady
2016-10-01
Classical realism demands that system properties exist independently of whether they are measured, while noncontextuality demands that the results of measurements do not depend on what other measurements are performed in conjunction with them. The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual realism cannot reproduce the measurement statistics of a single three-level quantum system (qutrit). Noncontextual realistic models may thus be tested using a single qutrit without relying on the notion of quantum entanglement in contrast to Bell inequality tests. It is challenging to refute such models experimentally, since imperfections may introduce loopholes that enable a realist interpretation. Here we use a superconducting qutrit with deterministic, binary-outcome readouts to violate a noncontextuality inequality while addressing the detection, individual-existence and compatibility loopholes. This evidence of state-dependent contextuality also demonstrates the fitness of superconducting quantum circuits for fault-tolerant quantum computation in surface-code architectures, currently the most promising route to scalable quantum computing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Juan [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601 (China); School of Physics & Electronics Science, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang, 236037 (China); Xu, Shuai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: yeliu@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601 (China)
2016-05-10
We investigate the quantum correlation via measurement-induced-nonlocality (MIN) for Dirac particles in Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS) dilation space–time. It is shown that the physical accessible quantum correlation decreases as the dilation parameter increases monotonically. Unlike the case of scalar fields, the physical accessible correlation is not zero when the Hawking temperature is infinite owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics. Meanwhile, the boundary of MIN related to Bell-violation is derived, which indicates that MIN is more general than quantum nonlocality captured by the violation of Bell-inequality. As a by-product, a tenable quantitative relation about MIN redistribution is obtained whatever the dilation parameter is. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that the underlying reason why the physical accessible correlation and mutual information decrease is that they are redistributed to the physical inaccessible regions.
Quantum-classical path integral. I. Classical memory and weak quantum nonlocality.
Lambert, Roberto; Makri, Nancy
2012-12-14
We consider rigorous path integral descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a polyatomic environment, assuming that the latter is well approximated by classical trajectories. Earlier work has derived semiclassical or purely classical expressions for the influence functional from the environment, which should be sufficiently accurate for many situations, but the evaluation of quantum-(semi)classical path integral (QCPI) expressions has not been practical for large-scale simulation because the interaction with the environment introduces couplings nonlocal in time. In this work, we analyze the nature of the effects on a system from its environment in light of the observation [N. Makri, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2994 (1998)] that true nonlocality in the path integral is a strictly quantum mechanical phenomenon. If the environment is classical, the path integral becomes local and can be evaluated in a stepwise fashion along classical trajectories of the free solvent. This simple "classical path" limit of QCPI captures fully the decoherence of the system via a classical mechanism. Small corrections to the classical path QCPI approximation may be obtained via an inexpensive random hop QCPI model, which accounts for some "back reaction" effects. Exploiting the finite length of nonlocality, we argue that further inclusion of quantum decoherence is possible via an iterative evaluation of the path integral. Finally, we show that the sum of the quantum amplitude factors with respect to the system paths leads to a smooth integrand as a function of trajectory initial conditions, allowing the use of Monte Carlo methods for the multidimensional phase space integral.
Enhancing the Trace Norm and Bures Norm Measurement-Induced Nonlocality in the Heisenberg XYZ Model
Xie, Yu-Xia; Liu, Jing; Ma, Hong
2016-11-01
Nonlocality is one unique characteristic of quantum mechanics and an essential resource for quantum communication and computation. We investigate two measures of the well-defined geometric measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) in the Heisenberg XYZ model, and found that considerable enhancement of the MINs can be achieved by tuning strength of the anisotropic parameter, the J z coupling, and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction of the model. Particularly, the maxima of the two MINs can be obtained when the strength of the J z coupling or the DM interaction approaches infinity. We have also demonstrated the singular behaviors of the two MINs such as the nonunique states ordering and the sudden change behaviors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn; Yan, Wei; Amooghorban, Ehsan
2013-01-01
A well-known challenge for fabricating metamaterials is to make unit cells significantly smaller than the operating wavelength of light, so one can be sure that effective-medium theories apply. But do they apply? Here we show that nonlocal response in the metal constituents of the metamaterial...... leads to modified effective parameters for strongly subwavelength unit cells. For infinite hyperbolic metamaterials, nonlocal response gives a very large finite upper bound to the optical density of states that otherwise would diverge. Moreover, for finite hyperbolic metamaterials we show that nonlocal...... response affects their operation as superlenses, and interestingly that sometimes nonlocal theory predicts the better imaging. Finally, we discuss how to describe metamaterials effectively in quantum optics. Media with loss or gain have associated quantum noise, and the question is whether the effective...
Non-locality in quantum field theory due to general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; Croon, Djuna; Fritz, Christopher [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We show that general relativity coupled to a quantum field theory generically leads to non-local effects in the matter sector. These non-local effects can be described by non-local higher dimensional operators which remarkably have an approximate shift symmetry. When applied to inflationary models, our results imply that small non-Gaussianities are a generic feature of models based on general relativity coupled to matter fields. However, these effects are too small to be observable in the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)
Non-locality in quantum field theory due to general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier, E-mail: x.calmet@sussex.ac.uk; Croon, Djuna, E-mail: d.croon@sussex.ac.uk; Fritz, Christopher, E-mail: c.fritz@sussex.ac.uk [Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2015-12-19
We show that general relativity coupled to a quantum field theory generically leads to non-local effects in the matter sector. These non-local effects can be described by non-local higher dimensional operators which remarkably have an approximate shift symmetry. When applied to inflationary models, our results imply that small non-Gaussianities are a generic feature of models based on general relativity coupled to matter fields. However, these effects are too small to be observable in the cosmic microwave background.
Giddings, Steven B
2012-01-01
If quantum mechanics governs nature, black holes must evolve unitarily, providing a powerful constraint on the dynamics of quantum gravity. Such evolution apparently must in particular be nonlocal, when described from the usual semiclassical geometric picture, in order to transfer quantum information into the outgoing state. While such transfer from a disintegrating black hole has the dangerous potential to be violent to generic infalling observers, this paper proposes the existence of a more innocuous form of information transfer, to relatively soft modes in the black hole atmosphere. Simplified models for such nonlocal transfer are described and parameterized, within a possibly more basic framework of a Hilbert tensor network. Sufficiently sensitive measurements by infalling observers may detect departures from Hawking's predictions, and in generic models black holes decay more rapidly. Constraints of consistency -- internally and with known and expected features of physics -- restrict the form of informati...
Contextuality without nonlocality in a superconducting quantum system
Jerger, Markus; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Oppliger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Goodenough, Kenneth; Wehner, Stephanie; Juliusson, Kristinn; Langford, Nathan K.; Fedorov, Arkady
2016-01-01
Classical realism demands that system properties exist independently of whether they are measured, while noncontextuality demands that the results of measurements do not depend on what other measurements are performed in conjunction with them. The Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem states that noncontextual realism cannot reproduce the measurement statistics of a single three-level quantum system (qutrit). Noncontextual realistic models may thus be tested using a single qutrit without relying on the notion of quantum entanglement in contrast to Bell inequality tests. It is challenging to refute such models experimentally, since imperfections may introduce loopholes that enable a realist interpretation. Here we use a superconducting qutrit with deterministic, binary-outcome readouts to violate a noncontextuality inequality while addressing the detection, individual-existence and compatibility loopholes. This evidence of state-dependent contextuality also demonstrates the fitness of superconducting quantum circuits for fault-tolerant quantum computation in surface-code architectures, currently the most promising route to scalable quantum computing. PMID:27698351
Nonlocal quantum field theory without acausality and nonunitarity at quantum level: SUSY is the key
Addazi, Andrea
2015-01-01
The realization of a nonlocal quantum field theory without losing unitarity, gauge invariance and causality is investigated. It is commonly retained that such a formulation is possible at tree level, but at quantum level acausality reappears at one loop. We suggest the the problem of acausality is, in a broad sense, similar to the one about anomalies in quantum field theory. By virtue of this analogy, we suggest that acausal diagrams resulting from the fermionic sector and the bosonic one might cancel each other, with a suitable content of fields and suitable symmetries. As a simple example, we show how supersymmetry can alleviate this problem in a simple and elegant way, i.e., by leading to exact cancellations of harmful diagrams, to all orders of perturbation theory, in the case of a nonlocal Wess-Zumino model. On the other hand, the same is true for a super Yang-Mills model, but in this case, other important acausal diagrams are also originating from supersymmetric D-terms. As a consequence, we conjecture ...
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C; De Pasquale, A; Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S
2012-01-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom -- the symplectic eigenvalues -- which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest or applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Implementation of non-local quantum controlled-NOT gate with multiple targets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Libing Chen(陈立冰); Hong Lu(路洪)
2004-01-01
We show how a non-local quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate with multiple targets can be implemented with unit fidelity and unit probability. The explicit quantum circuit for implementing the operation is presented. Two schemes for probabilistic implementing the operation via partially entangled quantum channels with unit fidelity are put forward. The overall physical resources required for accomplishing these schemes are different, and the successful implementation probabilities are also different.
Huang, Chun Yu; Ma, Wenchao; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-02-01
In this work, the quantum fisher information (QFI) and Bell non-locality of a multipartite fermionic system are investigated. Unlike the currently existing research of QFI, we focus our attention on the differences between quantum fisher information and Bell non-locality under the relativistic framework. The results show that although the relativistic motion affects the strength of the non-locality, it does not change the physical structure of non-locality. However, unlike the case of non-locality, the relativistic motion not only influence the precision of the QFI Fϕ but also broke the symmetry of the function Fϕ. The results also show that for a special multipartite system, , the number of particles of a initial state do not affect the Fθ. Furthermore, we also find that Fθ is completely unaffected in non-inertial frame if there are inertial observers. Finally, in view of the decay behavior of QFI and non-locality under the non-inertial frame, we proposed a effective scheme to battle against Unruh effect.
Senno, Gabriel; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago
2016-07-01
The concepts of randomness and non-locality are intimately intertwined outcomes of randomly chosen measurements over entangled systems exhibiting non-local correlations are, if we preclude instantaneous influence between distant measurement choices and outcomes, random. In this paper, we survey some recent advances in the knowledge of the interplay between these two important notions from a quantum information science perspective.
What quantum measurements measure
Griffiths, Robert B.
2017-09-01
A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.
Fuwa, Maria; Takeda, Shuntaro; Zwierz, Marcin; Wiseman, Howard M; Furusawa, Akira
2015-03-24
A single quantum particle can be described by a wavefunction that spreads over arbitrarily large distances; however, it is never detected in two (or more) places. This strange phenomenon is explained in the quantum theory by what Einstein repudiated as 'spooky action at a distance': the instantaneous nonlocal collapse of the wavefunction to wherever the particle is detected. Here we demonstrate this single-particle spooky action, with no efficiency loophole, by splitting a single photon between two laboratories and experimentally testing whether the choice of measurement in one laboratory really causes a change in the local quantum state in the other laboratory. To this end, we use homodyne measurements with six different measurement settings and quantitatively verify Einstein's spooky action by violating an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering inequality by 0.042±0.006. Our experiment also verifies the entanglement of the split single photon even when one side is untrusted.
Tests of Quantum Gravity-Induced Non-Locality via Opto-mechanical Experiments
Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-01-01
The nonrelativistic limit of nonlocal modifications to the Klein Gordon operator is studied, and the experimental possibilities of casting stringent constraints on the nonlocality scale via planned and/or current optomechanical experiments are discussed. Details of the perturbative analysis and semianalitical simulations leading to the dynamical evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator in the presence of non locality reported in [1], together with a comprehensive account of the experimental methodology with particular regard to sensitivity limitations related to thermal decoherence time and active cooling of the oscillator, are given. Finally, a strategy for detecting non-locality scales of the order of $10^{- 22} \\div 10^{- 26}$ m by means of the spontaneous time periodic squeezing of quantum coherent states is provided.
Nonlocal spin-transport measurement of superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Huebler, Florian; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)
2015-07-01
We present measurements of the nonlocal conductance of nanostructures with several ferromagnetic electrodes lying perpendicular on a superconducting wire. In these structures nonlocal conductance is mostly given by diffusion of quasiparticles, which are injected by one of the electrodes and detected by an other one. Applying a magnetic field induces a Zeeman splitting in the quasiparticles density of states, which suppresses the relaxation of injected spin imbalance, thus spin transport over distances of several micrometers is found. While in the previous experiments the magnetic field was aligned parallel to the ferromagnetic electrodes, we also show measurements applying the magnetic field noncollinear with the magnetization of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We compare our results to the previous case.
Tunneling of the 3rd Kind: A Test of the Effective Non-locality of Quantum Field Theory
Gardiner, S. A.; Gies, H.; Jaeckel, J.; Wallace, C. J.
2012-01-01
Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this Letter we argue that tunneling of the 3rd kind - where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance - provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.
A quantum switching architecture on the basis of limited nonlocal operation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Min; ZHANG Zeng-ke; DONG Dao-yi
2006-01-01
Quantum information system is fragile to be disturbed by the external environment. Quantum switching architecture is one of the promising schemes for transferring input quantum data to its destination port substituted for fully connected quantum networks. Since at present, interactions between the qubits are limited to a small number of neighboring qubits, one novel approach was extended, and the improved architecture was further demonstrated under limited nonlocal operation. The performance evaluation shows that the whole architecture with improved control module can achieve a time complexity of O(n2) and will be more feasible for physical realization.
Retarded versus time-nonlocal quantum kinetic equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morawetz, K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Spicka, V.; Lipavsky, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Praha (Czech Republic)
2000-07-01
The finite duration of the collisions in Fermionic systems as expressed by the retardation time in the non-Markovian Levinson equation is discussed in the quasiclassical limit. The separate individual contributions included in the memory effect resulting in (i) off-shell tails of the Wigner distribution, (ii) renormalization of scattering rates and (iii) of the single-particle energy, (iv) collision delay and (v) related non-local corrections to the scattering integral. In this way we transform the Levison equation into the Landau-Silin equation extended by the non-local corrections known from the theory of dense gases. The derived kinetic equation unifies the Landau theory of quasiparticle transport with the classical kinetic theory of dense gases. The space-time symmetry is discussed versus particle-hole symmetry and a solution is proposed which transforms these two exclusive pictures into each other. (authors)
Nonlocal quantum field theory without acausality and nonunitarity at quantum level: Is SUSY the key?
Addazi, Andrea; Esposito, Giampiero
2015-05-01
The realization of a nonlocal quantum field theory without losing unitarity, gauge invariance and causality is investigated. It is commonly retained that such a formulation is possible at tree level, but at quantum level acausality is expected to reappear at one loop. We suggest that the problem of acausality is, in a broad sense, similar to the one about anomalies in quantum field theory. By virtue of this analogy, we suggest that acausal diagrams resulting from the fermionic sector and the bosonic one might cancel each other, with a suitable content of fields and suitable symmetries. As a simple example, we show how supersymmetry can alleviate this problem in a simple and elegant way, i.e. by leading to exact cancellations of harmful diagrams, to all orders of perturbation theory. An infinite number of divergent diagrams cancel each other by virtue of the nonrenormalization theorem of supersymmetry. However, supersymmetry is not enough to protect a theory from all acausal divergences. For instance, acausal contributions to supersymmetric corrections to D-terms are not protected by supersymmetry. On the other hand, we show in detail how supersymmetry also helps in dealing with D-terms: divergences are not canceled but they become softer than in the nonsupersymmetric case. The supergraphs' formalism turns out to be a powerful tool to reduce the complexity of perturbative calculations.
Multiscale Hybrid Nonlocal Means Filtering Using Modified Similarity Measure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahid Hussain Shamsi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new multiscale implementation of nonlocal means filtering (MHNLM for image denoising is proposed. The proposed algorithm also introduces a modification of the similarity measure for patch comparison. Assuming the patch as an oriented surface, the notion of a normal vectors patch is introduced. The inner product of these normal vectors patches is defined and then used in the weighted Euclidean distance of intensity patches as the weight factor. The algorithm involves two steps: the first step is a multiscale implementation of an accelerated nonlocal means filtering in the discrete stationary wavelet domain to obtain a refined version of the noisy patches for later comparison. The next step is to apply the proposed modification of standard nonlocal means filtering to the noisy image using the reference patches obtained in the first step. These refined patches contain less noise, and consequently the computation of normal vectors and partial derivatives is more precise. Experimental results show equivalent or better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to various state-of-the-art algorithms.
Is the World Local or Nonlocal? Towards an Emergent Quantum Mechanics in the 21st Century
Walleczek, Jan
2016-01-01
What defines an emergent quantum mechanics (EmQM)? Can new insight be advanced into the nature of quantum nonlocality by seeking new links between quantum and emergent phenomena as described by self-organization, complexity, or emergence theory? Could the development of a future EmQM lead to a unified, relational image of the cosmos? One key motivation for adopting the concept of emergence in relation to quantum theory concerns the persistent failure in standard physics to unify the two pillars in the foundations of physics: quantum theory and general relativity theory (GRT). The total contradiction in the foundational, metaphysical assumptions that define orthodox quantum theory versus GRT might render inter-theoretic unification impossible. On the one hand, indeterminism and non-causality define orthodox quantum mechanics, and, on the other hand, GRT is governed by causality and determinism. How could these two metaphysically-contradictory theories ever be reconciled? The present work argues that metaphysic...
Beyond the Dirac phase factor: Dynamical Quantum Phase-Nonlocalities in the Schroedinger Picture
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Generalized solutions of the standard gauge transformation equations are presented and discussed in physical terms. They go beyond the usual Dirac phase factors and they exhibit nonlocal quantal behavior, with the well-known Relativistic Causality of classical fields affecting directly the phases of wavefunctions in the Schroedinger Picture. These nonlocal phase behaviors, apparently overlooked in path-integral approaches, give a natural account of the dynamical nonlocality character of the various (even static) Aharonov-Bohm phenomena, while at the same time they seem to respect Causality. Indeed, for particles passing through nonvanishing magnetic or electric fields they lead to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point, generalizing earlier semiclassical experimental observations (of Werner & Brill) to delocalized (spread-out) quantum states. This leads to a correction of previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature, and to a natural explanation of the deeper reason why certa...
Experimental falsification of Leggett's nonlocal variable model.
Branciard, Cyril; Ling, Alexander; Gisin, Nicolas; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Scarani, Valerio
2007-11-23
Bell's theorem guarantees that no model based on local variables can reproduce quantum correlations. Also, some models based on nonlocal variables, if subject to apparently "reasonable" constraints, may fail to reproduce quantum physics. In this Letter, we introduce a family of inequalities, which use a finite number of measurement settings, and which therefore allow testing Leggett's nonlocal model versus quantum physics. Our experimental data falsify Leggett's model and are in agreement with quantum predictions.
Quantum Noether identities for non-local transformations in higher-order derivatives theories
Li, Z P
2003-01-01
Based on the phase-space generating functional of the Green function for a system with a regular/singular higher-order Lagrangian, the quantum canonical Noether identities (NIs) under a local and non-local transformation in phase space have been deduced, respectively. For a singular higher-order Lagrangian, one must use an effective canonical action I sub e sub f sub f sup P in quantum canonical NIs instead of the classical I sup P in classical canonical NIs. The quantum NIs under a local and non-local transformation in configuration space for a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian have also been derived. The above results hold true whether or not the Jacobian of the transformation is equal to unity or not. It has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantum NIs may be converted to conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantum conservation laws is significantly different from the quantum first Noether theorem. The applications of our formulation to the Yan...
Lin, D H
2003-01-01
Partial wave theory of a three dmensional scattering problem for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a ``hard shere'' like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic phyiscs.
Entanglement: A myth introducing non-locality in any quantum theory
Prikas, Athanasios
2007-01-01
The purposes of the present article are: a) To show that non-locality leads to the transfer of certain amounts of energy and angular momentum at very long distances, in an absolutely strange and unnatural manner, in any model reproducing the quantum mechanical results. b) To prove that non-locality is the result only of the zero spin state assumption for distant particles, which explains its presence in any quantum mechanical model. c) To reintroduce locality, simply by denying the existence of the zero spin state in nature (the so-called highly correlated, or EPR singlet state) for particles non-interacting with any known field. d) To propose a realizable experiment to clarify if two remote (and thus non-interacting with a known field) particles, supposed to be correlated as in Bell-type experiments, are actually in zero spin state.
Nonlocality in many-body quantum systems detected with two-body correlators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tura, J., E-mail: jordi.tura@icfo.es [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Augusiak, R.; Sainz, A.B. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Lücke, B.; Klempt, C. [Institut für Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Lewenstein, M.; Acín, A. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA—Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Lluis Campanys 3, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2015-11-15
Contemporary understanding of correlations in quantum many-body systems and in quantum phase transitions is based to a large extent on the recent intensive studies of entanglement in many-body systems. In contrast, much less is known about the role of quantum nonlocality in these systems, mostly because the available multipartite Bell inequalities involve high-order correlations among many particles, which are hard to access theoretically, and even harder experimentally. Standard, “theorist- and experimentalist-friendly” many-body observables involve correlations among only few (one, two, rarely three...) particles. Typically, there is no multipartite Bell inequality for this scenario based on such low-order correlations. Recently, however, we have succeeded in constructing multipartite Bell inequalities that involve two- and one-body correlations only, and showed how they revealed the nonlocality in many-body systems relevant for nuclear and atomic physics [Tura et al., Science 344 (2014) 1256]. With the present contribution we continue our work on this problem. On the one hand, we present a detailed derivation of the above Bell inequalities, pertaining to permutation symmetry among the involved parties. On the other hand, we present a couple of new results concerning such Bell inequalities. First, we characterize their tightness. We then discuss maximal quantum violations of these inequalities in the general case, and their scaling with the number of parties. Moreover, we provide new classes of two-body Bell inequalities which reveal nonlocality of the Dicke states—ground states of physically relevant and experimentally realizable Hamiltonians. Finally, we shortly discuss various scenarios for nonlocality detection in mesoscopic systems of trapped ions or atoms, and by atoms trapped in the vicinity of designed nanostructures.
Quantum non-locality and relativity metaphysical intimations of modern physics
Maudlin, Tim
2011-01-01
The third edition of Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity has been carefully updated to reflect significant developments, including a new chapter covering important recent work in the foundations of physics. A new edition of the premier philosophical study of Bell's Theorem and its implication for the relativistic account of space and timeDiscusses Roderich Tumiulka's explicit, relativistic theory that can reproduce the quantum mechanical violation of Bell's inequality. Discusses the "Free Will Theorem" of John Conway and Simon KochenIntroduces philosophers to the relevant physics and demonstra
Resonance measurement of nonlocal spin torque in a three-terminal magnetic device.
Xue, Lin; Wang, Chen; Cui, Yong-Tao; Liu, Luqiao; Swander, A; Sun, J Z; Buhrman, R A; Ralph, D C
2012-04-06
A pure spin current generated within a nonlocal spin valve can exert a spin-transfer torque on a nanomagnet. This nonlocal torque enables new design schemes for magnetic memory devices that do not require the application of large voltages across tunnel barriers that can suffer electrical breakdown. Here we report a quantitative measurement of this nonlocal spin torque using spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance. Our measurement agrees well with the prediction of an effective circuit model for spin transport. Based on this model, we suggest strategies for optimizing the strength of nonlocal torque.
Quantum nonlocality and reality 50 years of Bell's theorem
Gao, Shan
2016-01-01
Description Contents Resources Courses About the Authors Combining twenty-six original essays written by an impressive line-up of distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, this anthology reflects some of the latest thoughts by leading experts on the influence of Bell's theorem on quantum physics. Essays progress from John Bell's character and background, through studies of his main work, and on to more speculative ideas, addressing the controversies surrounding the theorem, and investigating the theorem's meaning and its deep implications for the nature of physical reality. Combined, they present a powerful comment on the undeniable significance of Bell's theorem for the development of ideas in quantum physics over the past 50 years. Questions surrounding the assumptions and significance of Bell's work still inspire discussion in the field of quantum physics. Adding to this with a theoretical and philosophical perspective, this balanced anthology is an indispensable volume for students and researc...
Quantum correlations and measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sperling, Jan
2015-07-16
The present thesis is a state of the art report on the characterization techniques and measurement strategies to verify quantum correlations. I mainly focus on research which has been performed in the theoretical quantum optics group at the University of Rostock during the last few years. The results include theoretical findings and analysis of experimental studies of radiation fields. We investigate the verification of quantum properties, the quantification of these quantum effects, and the characterization of quantum optical detector systems.
Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.
Non-Local Properties in Euclidean Quantum Gravity
Esposito, Giampiero
1995-01-01
In the one-loop approximation for Euclidean quantum gravity, the boundary conditions which are completely invariant under gauge transformations of metric perturbations involve both normal and tangential derivatives of the metric perturbations $h_{00}$ and $h_{0i}$, while the $h_{ij}$ perturbations and the whole ghost one-form are set to zero at the boundary. The corresponding one-loop divergency for pure gravity has been recently evaluated by means of analytic techniques. It now remains to co...
Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jun-Feng
2017-08-08
We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge. The difficulty that the edge magnetization is unstable in the presence of a ballistic current can be removed by this nonlocal manipulation.
Tunnelling of the 3rd kind: A test of the effective non-locality of quantum field theory
Gardiner, Simon A.; Gies, Holger; Jaeckel, Joerg; Wallace, Chris J.
2013-03-01
Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this letter we argue that tunnelling of the 3rd kind —where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance— provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.
Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media
Ghofraniha, N; Folli, V; Trillo, S; DelRe, E; Conti, C
2012-01-01
We are able to detect the details of spatial optical collisionless wave-breaking through the high aperture imaging of a beam suffering shock in a fluorescent nonlinear nonlocal thermal medium. This allows us to directly measure how nonlocality and nonlinearity affect the point of shock formation and compare results with numerical simulations.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system
Rispoli, Matthew; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, Eric; Lukin, Alex; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Ma, Ruichao; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2016-05-01
The presence of large-scale entanglement is a defining characteristic of exotic quantum phases of matter. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially true in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. We demonstrate a novel approach to the measurement of entanglement entropy of any bosonic system, using a quantum gas microscope with tailored potential landscapes. This protocol enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. In general, these experiments exemplify a method enabling the measurement and characterization of quantum phase transitions and in particular would be apt for studying systems such as magnetic ordering within the quantum Ising model.
La Cour, Brian R.
2017-07-01
An experiment has recently been performed to demonstrate quantum nonlocality by establishing contextuality in one of a pair of photons encoding four qubits; however, low detection efficiencies and use of the fair-sampling hypothesis leave these results open to possible criticism due to the detection loophole. In this Letter, a physically motivated local hidden-variable model is considered as a possible mechanism for explaining the experimentally observed results. The model, though not intrinsically contextual, acquires this quality upon post-selection of coincident detections.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Bing; Jin Rui-Bo; Lu Hong
2008-01-01
Remote quantum-state discrimination is a critical step for the implementation of quantum communication network and distributed quantum computation. We present a protocol for remotely implementing the unambiguous discrimination between nonorthogonal states using quantum entanglements, local operations, and classical communications. This protocol consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM).We explicitly construct the required remote POVM. The remote POVM can be realized by performing a noniocal controlled-rotation operation on two spatially separated qubits, one is an ancillary qubit and the other is the qubit which is encoded by two nonorthogonal states to be distinguished, and a conventional local Von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. The particular pair of states that can be remotely and unambiguously distinguished is specified by the state of the ancilla. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all admissible pairs.However, for some subset it can be very close to an optimal value in an ordinary local POVM.
Undoing a quantum measurement.
Schindler, Philipp; Monz, Thomas; Nigg, Daniel; Barreiro, Julio T; Martinez, Esteban A; Brandl, Matthias F; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer
2013-02-15
In general, a quantum measurement yields an undetermined answer and alters the system to be consistent with the measurement result. This process maps multiple initial states into a single state and thus cannot be reversed. This has important implications in quantum information processing, where errors can be interpreted as measurements. Therefore, it seems that it is impossible to correct errors in a quantum information processor, but protocols exist that are capable of eliminating them if they affect only part of the system. In this work we present the deterministic reversal of a fully projective measurement on a single particle, enabled by a quantum error-correction protocol in a trapped ion quantum information processor. We further introduce an in-sequence, single-species recooling procedure to counteract the motional heating of the ion string due to the measurement.
Time-Dependent and/or Nonlocal Representations of Hilbert Spaces in Quantum Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Znojil
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A few recent innovations of the applicability of standard textbook Quantum Theory are reviewed. The three-Hilbert-space formulation of the theory (known from the interacting boson models in nuclear physics is discussed in its slightly broadened four-Hilbert-space update. Among applications involving several new scattering and bound-state problems the central role is played by models using apparently non-Hermitian (often called “crypto-Hermitian” Hamiltonians with real spectra. The formalism (originally inspired by the topical need for a mathematically consistent description of tobogganic quantum models is shown to admit even certain unusual nonlocal and/or “moving-frame” representations H(S of the standard physical Hilbert space of wave functions.
Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-02-01
In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs.
Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-01-01
In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs. PMID:28145467
Borchsenius, K
1999-01-01
The quantized canonical space-time coordinates of a relativistic point particle are expressed in terms of the elements of a complex Clifford algebra which combines the complex properties of SL(2.C) and quantum mechanics. When the quantum measurement principle is adapted to the generating space of the Clifford algebra we find that the transition probabilities for twofold degenerate paths in space-time equals the transition amplitudes for the underlying paths in Clifford space. This property is used to show that the apparent non-locality of quantum mechanics in a double slit experiment and in an EPR type of measurement is resolved when analyzed in terms of the full paths in the underlying Clifford space. We comment on the relationship of this model to the time symmetric formulation of quantum mechanics and to the Wheeler-Feynman model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J. [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, Reymonta 4, 30059 Kraków (Poland); Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M. [University of Łódź, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Pomorska 149/153, 90236 Łódź (Poland); Ciborowski, J. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Hoza 69, 00681 Warsaw (Poland); Enders, J.; Köhler, A. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Kozela, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31342 Kraków (Poland)
2013-11-07
The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
Measurement in quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danos, M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Kieu, T.D. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics]|[Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell`s inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs.
Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements
Bednorz, Adam
2014-01-01
Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.
Berkovitz, Joseph
In this paper and its sequel, I consider the significance of Jarrett's and Shimony's analyses of the so-called factorisability (Bell-locality) condition for clarifying the nature of quantum non-locality. In this paper, I focus on four types of non-locality: superluminal signalling, action-at-a-distance, non-separability and holism. In the second paper, I consider a fifth type of non-locality: superluminal causation according to 'logically weak' concepts of causation, where causal dependence requires neither action nor signalling. In this connection, I pay special attention to the difficulties that superluminal causation raises in relativistic space-time. I conclude by evaluating the relevance of Jarrett's and Shimony's analyses for clarifying the question of the compatibility of quantum non-locality with relativity theory. My main conclusions are, first: these analyses are significant for clarifying the questions of superluminal signalling in quantum phenomena and for the compatibility of these phenomena with relativity. But, second, by contrast: these analyses are not very significant for the study of action-at-a distance, superluminal causation, non-separability and holism in quantum phenomena.
Esfeld, Michael
2014-01-01
The paper has two aims: (1) it sets out to show that it is well motivated to seek for an account of quantum non-locality in the framework of ontic structural realism (OSR), which integrates the notions of holism and non-separability that have been employed since the 1980s to achieve such an account. However, recent research shows that OSR on its own cannot provide such an account. Against this background, the paper argues that by applying OSR to the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics, one can accomplish that task. In particular, Bohmian mechanics offers the best prospect for doing so. (2) In general, the paper seeks to bring OSR and the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics together: on the one hand, in order to be applicable to quantum mechanics, OSR has to consider what the quantum ontology of matter distributed in space-time is. On the other hand, as regards the primitive ontology theories, OSR provides the conceptual tools for these theories to answer the question of what the ontologi...
Consequences and applications of the completeness of Hardy's nonlocality
Mansfield, Shane
2017-02-01
Logical nonlocality is completely characterized by Hardy's "paradox" in (2 ,2 ,l ) and (2 ,k ,2 ) scenarios. We consider a variety of consequences and applications of this fact. (i) Polynomial algorithms may be given for deciding logical nonlocality in these scenarios. (ii) Bell states are the only entangled two-qubit states which are not logically nonlocal under projective measurements. (iii) It is possible to witness Hardy nonlocality with certainty in a simple tripartite quantum system. (iv) Noncommutativity of observables is necessary and sufficient for enabling logical nonlocality.
Quantum nonlocality of generic family of four-qubit entangled pure states
Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2015-07-01
We directly introduce a Bell-type inequality for four-qubit systems. Using the inequality we investigate quantum nonlocality of a generic family of states |Gabcd> [Phys. Rev. A 65 052112 (2002)] and several canonical four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the inequality is maximally violated by the so called “four-qubit the maximally entangled state |Gm>” and it is also violated by four-qubit W state and a special family of states |Gab00>. Moreover, a useful entanglement-nonlocality relationship for the family of states |Gab00> is derived. Finally, we present a scheme of preparation of the state |Gm> with linear optics and cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475054 and 11371005), Hebei Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. A2012205013 and A2014205060), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 3142014068 and 3142014125), and Langfang Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014011002).
Fixed-phase vs fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo with local and nonlocal interactions
Mitas, Lubos; Melton, Cody
We study several systems that can be formulated in the fixed-phase and/or fixed-node framework in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. In particular, we try to understand the differences between the biases caused by these approximations that result from using complex vs real trial wave functions. One system is a model that enables us to construct systematically the same type of nodal errors in both real and complex formalism. The errors are comparably similar whenever trial functions are correspondingly accurate. Another aspect of the fixed-phase vs fixed-node approximations is studied for systems with nonlocal operators such as with pseudopotentials and/or spin-orbit effects. We specify how to obtain variational formulation for complex wave functions and nonlocal operators in a manner analogous to the fixed-node calculations with T-moves algorithm. In particular, we show that the fixed-phase/fixed-node is the primary condition for proving that the upper bound property holds.
Consistent quantum measurements
Griffiths, Robert B.
2015-11-01
In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.
Uncertainty under quantum measures and quantum memory
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing
2017-04-01
The uncertainty principle restricts potential information one gains about physical properties of the measured particle. However, if the particle is prepared in entanglement with a quantum memory, the corresponding entropic uncertainty relation will vary. Based on the knowledge of correlations between the measured particle and quantum memory, we have investigated the entropic uncertainty relations for two and multiple measurements and generalized the lower bounds on the sum of Shannon entropies without quantum side information to those that allow quantum memory. In particular, we have obtained generalization of Kaniewski-Tomamichel-Wehner's bound for effective measures and majorization bounds for noneffective measures to allow quantum side information. Furthermore, we have derived several strong bounds for the entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory for two and multiple measurements. Finally, potential applications of our results to entanglement witnesses are discussed via the entropic uncertainty relation in the absence of quantum memory.
Childs, A M; Farhi, E; Goldstone, J; Gutmann, S; Landahl, A J; Childs, Andrew M.; Deotto, Enrico; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam; Landahl, Andrew J.
2002-01-01
We propose a quantum algorithm for solving combinatorial search problems that uses only a sequence of measurements. The algorithm is similar in spirit to quantum computation by adiabatic evolution, in that the goal is to remain in the ground state of a time-varying Hamiltonian. Indeed, we show that the running times of the two algorithms are closely related. We also show how to achieve the quadratic speedup for Grover's unstructured search problem with only two measurements. Finally, we discuss some similarities and differences between the adiabatic and measurement algorithms.
Remarks on entanglement measures and non-local state distinguishability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisert, J [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Audenaert, K [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)
2003-05-23
We investigate the properties of three entanglement measures that quantify the statistical distinguishability of a given state with the closest disentangled state that has the same reductions as the primary state. In particular, we concentrate on the relative entropy of entanglement with reversed entries. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone which is strongly additive, thereby demonstrating that monotonicity under local quantum operations and strong additivity are compatible in principle. In accordance with the presented statistical interpretation which is provided, this entanglement monotone, however, has the property that it diverges on pure states, with the consequence that it cannot distinguish the degree of entanglement of different pure states. We also prove that the relative entropy of entanglement with respect to the set of disentangled states that have identical reductions to the primary state is an entanglement monotone. We finally investigate the trace-norm measure and demonstrate that it is also a proper entanglement monotone.
Emergent Quantum Mechanics and the Origin of Quantum Non-local Correlations
Torromé, Ricardo Gallego
2017-10-01
A geometric interpretation for quantum correlations and entanglement according to a particular framework of emergent quantum mechanics is developed. The mechanism described is based on two ingredients: 1. At an hypothetical sub-quantum level description of physical systems, the dynamics has a regime where it is partially ergodic and 2. A formal projection from a two-dimensional time mathematical formalism of the emergent quantum theory to the usual one-dimensional time formalism of quantum dynamics. Observable consequences of the theory are obtained. Among them we show that quantum correlations must be instantaneous from the point of view of the spacetime description, but the spatial distance up to which they can be observed must be bounded. It is argued how our mechanism avoids Bell theorem and Kochen-Specken theorem. Evidence for non-signaling faster than the speed of light in our proposal is discussed.
Properties and relative measure for quantifying quantum synchronization
Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Wenzhao; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2017-07-01
Although quantum synchronization phenomena and corresponding measures have been widely discussed recently, it is still an open question how to characterize directly the influence of nonlocal correlation, which is the key distinction for identifying classical and quantum synchronizations. In this paper, we present basic postulates for quantifying quantum synchronization based on the related theory in Mari's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605], and we give a general formula of a quantum synchronization measure with clear physical interpretations. By introducing Pearson's parameter, we show that the obvious characteristics of our measure are the relativity and monotonicity. As an example, the measure is applied to describe synchronization among quantum optomechanical systems under a Markovian bath. We also show the potential by quantifying generalized synchronization and discrete variable synchronization with this measure.
Singular dynamics and emergence of nonlocality in long-range quantum models
Lepori, L; Vodola, D
2016-01-01
We discuss how nonlocality originates in long-range quantum systems and how it affects their dynamics at and out of the equilibrium. We focus in particular on the Kitaev chains with long-range pairings and on the quantum Ising chain with long-range antiferromagnetic coupling (both having a power-law decay with exponent \\alpha). By studying the dynamic correlation functions, we find that for every finite \\alpha two different behaviours can be identified, one typical of short-range systems and the other connected with locality violation. The latter behaviour is shown related also with the known power-law decay tails previously observed in the static correlation functions, and originated by modes, having in general energies far from the minima of the spectrum, where particular singularities develop as a consequence of the long-rangedness of the system. We refer to these modes as to "singular" modes, and as to "singular dynamics" to their dynamics. For the Kitaev model they are manifest, at finite \\alpha, in deri...
Using domain walls to perform non-local measurements with high spin signal amplitudes
Savero Torres, W.; Pham, V.-T.; Zahnd, G.; Laczkowski, P.; Nguyen, V.-D.; Beigné, C.; Notin, L.; Jamet, M.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.
2016-07-01
Standard non-local measurements require lateral spin-valves with two different ferromagnetic electrodes, to create and to detect the spin accumulation. Here we show that non-local measurements can also be performed in a cross-shaped nanostructure, made of a single ferromagnetic wire connected to an orthogonal non-magnetic wire. A magnetic domain wall located underneath the ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interface is used to control the magnetizations of the injection and detection zones. As these zones can be very close, our results display spin signals possessing amplitudes larger than those obtained in conventional non-local measurements. We also show that this method can be used as a domain wall detection technique.
Thermodynamics of quantum measurements
Erez, Noam
2010-01-01
Quantum measurement of a system can change its mean energy, as well as entropy. A selective measurement (classical or quantum) can be used as a "Maxwell's demon" to power a single-temperature heat engine, by decreasing the entropy. Quantum mechanically, so can a non-selective measurement, despite increasing the entropy of a thermal state. The maximal amount of work extractable following the measurement is given by the change in free energy: $W_{max}^{(non-)sel.}=\\Delta E_{meas}-T_{Bath}\\Delta S_{meas}^{(non-)sel.}$. This follows from the "generalized 2nd law for nonequilibrium initial state" [Hasegawa et. al, PLA (2010)], of which an elementary reduction to the standard law is given here. It is shown that $W_{max}^{sel.}-W_{max}^{non-sel.}$ equals the work required to reset the memory of the measuring device, and that no such resetting is needed in the non-selective case. Consequently, a single-bath engine powered by either kind of measurement works at a net loss of $T_{Bath}\\Delta S_{meas}^{non-sel}$ per cyc...
Nonlocality from Local Contextuality
Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán
2016-11-01
We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.
Nonlocality from Local Contextuality.
Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán
2016-11-25
We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.
Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement
Zhu, Guangtian
2016-01-01
We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.c [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)
2010-09-03
We show that the standard Dirac phase factor is not the only solution of the usual gauge transformation equations. The full form of a general gauge function (that connects systems that move in different sets of scalar and vector potentials), apart from Dirac phases (spatial or temporal integrals over potentials), also contains terms of classical fields that act nonlocally (in spacetime) on the local solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. As a result, the phases of wavefunctions in the Schroedinger picture are affected nonlocally by spatially and temporally remote magnetic and electric fields, in specific ways that are fully explored. These contributions go beyond the usual Aharonov-Bohm effects (magnetic or electric). (i) Application to cases of particles passing through full static magnetic or electric fields leads to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point; these cancellations are linked to behaviors at the semiclassical level (i.e. the old Werner and Brill experimental observations, or their 'electric analogs'-or to more recent reports of Batelaan and Tonomura) but are shown to be far more general (true not only for narrow wavepackets but also for completely delocalized (spread-out) quantum states). By using these cancellations, certain previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature are corrected. (ii) Application to time-dependent situations provides a remedy for erroneous results in the literature (concerning an uncritical use of Dirac phase factors) and leads to phases that contain an Aharonov-Bohm part and a field-nonlocal part: their competition is shown to recover relativistic causality in earlier 'paradoxes' (such as the van Kampen thought-experiment), while a more general consideration indicates that the temporal nonlocalities found here demonstrate in part a causal propagation of phases of quantum mechanical wavefunctions in the Schroedinger picture. This may open a new and direct way to
Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement.
Roncaglia, Augusto J; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo
2014-12-19
We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.
Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers
Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.
2001-01-01
The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.
Millen, James
2016-04-01
George Musser's book Spooky Action at a Distance focuses on one of quantum physics' more challenging concepts, nonlocality, and its multitude of implications, particularly its assault on space itself.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
Measuring quantumness via anticommutators
Fazio, Rosario; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko; Yuasa, Kazuya
2012-01-01
We introduce a method to witness the quantumness of a system. The method relies on the fact that the anticommutator of two classical states is always positive. We show that there is always a nonpositive anticommutator due to any two quantum states. We notice that interference depends on the trace of the anticommutator of two states and it is therefore more natural to detect quantumness by looking at anticommutators of states rather than their commutators.
The quantum theory of measurement
Busch, Paul; Mittelstaedt, Peter
1996-01-01
The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Their approach includes the concepts of unsharp objectification and of nonunitary transformations needed for a unifying description of various detailed investigations. The book addresses advanced students and researchers in physics and philosophy of science. In this second edition Chaps. II-IV have been substantially rewritten. In particular, an insolubility theorem for the objectification problem has been formulated in full generality, which includes unsharp object observables and unsharp pointers.
BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control
Kiefer, Claus
2010-12-01
In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate
On the class of possible nonlocal anyon-like operators and quantum groups
Chaichian, Masud; Montonen, Claus
1993-01-01
We find a class of nonlocal operators constructed by attaching a disorder operator to fermionic degrees of freedom, which can be used to generate q-deformed algebras following the Schwinger approach. This class includes the recently proposed anyonic operators defined on a lattice.
Quantum mechanical irreversibility and measurement
Grigolini, P
1993-01-01
This book is intended as a tutorial approach to some of the techniques used to deal with quantum dissipation and irreversibility, with special focus on their applications to the theory of measurements. The main purpose is to provide readers without a deep expertise in quantum statistical mechanics with the basic tools to develop a critical judgement on whether the major achievements in this field have to be considered a satisfactory solution of quantum paradox, or rather this ambitious achievement has to be postponed to when a new physics, more general than quantum and classical physics, will
The quantum measurement of time
Shepard, Scott R.
1994-01-01
Traditionally, in non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, time is considered to be a parameter, rather than an observable quantity like space. In relativistic Quantum Field Theory, space and time are treated equally by reducing space to also be a parameter. Herein, after a brief review of other measurements, we describe a third possibility, which is to treat time as a directly observable quantity.
Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information
Wallden, Petros; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika
2014-01-01
Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for certain mixed states of those same ...
Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model
Tirthabir Biswas; Nobuchika Okada
2015-01-01
We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Stan...
Measurement-based quantum repeaters
Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J
2012-01-01
We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.
Quantum teleportation with continuous measurements
Greplova, Eliska; Mølmer, Klaus; Andersen, Christian Kraglund
2016-10-01
We propose a scheme for quantum teleportation between two qubits, coupled sequentially to a cavity field. An implementation of the scheme is analyzed with superconducting qubits and a transmission line resonator, where measurements are restricted to continuous probing of the field leaking from the resonator rather than instantaneous projective Bell state measurement. We show that the past quantum state formalism S. Gammelmark, B. Julsgaard, and K. Mølmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.160401 can be successfully applied to estimate what would have been the most likely Bell measurement outcome conditioned on our continuous signal record. This information determines which local operation on the target qubit yields the optimal teleportation fidelity. Our results emphasize the significance of applying a detailed analysis of quantum measurements in feedforward protocols in nonideal leaky quantum systems.
Quantum measurement occurrence is undecidable
Eisert, J; Gogolin, C
2011-01-01
A famous result by Alan Turing dating back to 1936 is that a general algorithm solving the halting problem on a Turing machine for all possible inputs and programs cannot exist - the halting problem is undecidable. Formally, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which one cannot construct a single algorithm that will always provide a correct answer in finite time. In this work, we show that surprisingly, very natural, apparently simple problems in quantum measurement theory can be undecidable even if their classical analogues are decidable. Undecidability appears as a genuine quantum property. The problem we consider is to determine whether sequentially used identical Stern-Gerlach-type measurement devices, giving rise to a tree of possible outcomes, have outcomes that never occur. Finally, we point out implications for measurement-based quantum computing and studies of quantum many-body models and suggest that a plethora of problems may indeed be undecidable.
Probing the Structure of Quantum Mechanics : Nonlinearity, Nonlocality, Computation and Axiomatics
Durt, Thomas; Czachor, Marek
2002-01-01
During the last decade, scientists working in quantum theory have been engaging in promising new fields such as quantum computation and quantum information processing, and have also been reflecting on the possibilities of nonlinear behavior on the quantum level. These are challenging undertakings because (1) they will result in new solutions to important technical and practical problems that were unsolvable by the classical approaches (for example, quantum computers can calculate problems that are intractable if one uses classical computers); and (2) they open up new 'hard' problems of a fundamental nature that touch the foundation of quantum theory itself (for example, the contradiction between locality and nonlinearity and the interpretation of quantum computing as a universal process). In this book, one can distinguish two main streams of research to approach the just-mentioned problem field: (1) a theoretical structural part, which concentrates on the elaboration of a nonlinear quantum mechanics and the ...
Quantum entanglement in non-local games, graph parameters and zero-error information theory
Scarpa, G.
2013-01-01
We study quantum entanglement and some of its applications in graph theory and zero-error information theory. In Chapter 1 we introduce entanglement and other fundamental concepts of quantum theory. In Chapter 2 we address the question of how much quantum correlations generated by entanglement can d
The Nonlocal Sparse Reconstruction Algorithm by Similarity Measurement with Shearlet Feature Vector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Qidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the limited accuracy of conventional methods with image restoration, the paper supplied a nonlocal sparsity reconstruction algorithm with similarity measurement. To improve the performance of restoration results, we proposed two schemes to dictionary learning and sparse coding, respectively. In the part of the dictionary learning, we measured the similarity between patches from degraded image by constructing the Shearlet feature vector. Besides, we classified the patches into different classes with similarity and trained the cluster dictionary for each class, by cascading which we could gain the universal dictionary. In the part of sparse coding, we proposed a novel optimal objective function with the coding residual item, which can suppress the residual between the estimate coding and true sparse coding. Additionally, we show the derivation of self-adaptive regularization parameter in optimization under the Bayesian framework, which can make the performance better. It can be indicated from the experimental results that by taking full advantage of similar local geometric structure feature existing in the nonlocal patches and the coding residual suppression, the proposed method shows advantage both on visual perception and PSNR compared to the conventional methods.
Quantum Incompatibility in Collective Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio Carmeli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study the compatibility (or joint measurability of quantum observables in a setting where the experimenter has access to multiple copies of a given quantum system, rather than performing the experiments on each individual copy separately. We introduce the index of incompatibility as a quantifier of incompatibility in this multi-copy setting, as well as the notion of the compatibility stack representing various compatibility relations present in a given set of observables. We then prove a general structure theorem for multi-copy joint observables and use it to prove that all abstract compatibility stacks with three vertices have realizations in terms of quantum observables.
Entanglement and nonlocality in multi-particle systems
Reid, M D; Drummond, P D
2011-01-01
Entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's failure of local-hidden-variable (LHV) theories are three historically famous forms of "quantum nonlocality". We give experimental criteria for these three forms of nonlocality in multi-particle systems, with the aim of better understanding the transition from microscopic to macroscopic nonlocality. We examine the nonlocality of N separated spin J systems. First, we obtain multipartite Bell inequalities that address the correlation between spin values measured at each site, and then we review spin squeezing inequalities that address the degree of reduction in the variance of collective spins. The latter have been particularly useful as a tool for investigating entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We present solutions for two topical quantum states: multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and the ground state of a two-well BEC.
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
Genuine multipartite nonlocality of permutationally invariant Gaussian states
Xu, Buqing; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-01-01
We investigate genuine multipartite nonlocality of pure permutationally invariant multimode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, as detected by the violation of Svetlichny inequality. We identify the phase space settings leading to the largest violation of the inequality when using displaced parity measurements, distinguishing between even and odd number of modes. We further consider pseudospin measurements and show that, for three-mode states with asymptotically large squeezing degree, particular settings of these measurements allow one to approach the maximum violation allowed by quantum mechanics. This indicates that the highest possible genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality is in principle verifiable on Gaussian states.
Quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlation
Modi, Kavan; Cable, Hugo; Paterek, Tomasz; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
One of the best signatures of nonclassicality in a quantum system is the existence of correlations that have no classical counterpart. Different methods for quantifying the quantum and classical parts of the correlations are amongst the most actively-studied topics of quantum information theory in the past decade. Entanglement is the most prominent of these correlations, but in many cases unentangled states exhibit nonclassical behavior. Thus distinguishing quantum correlation other than entanglement provides a better division between the quantum and classical worlds, especially when considering mixed states. Here we review different notions of classical and quantum correlations quantified by quantum discord and other related measures. In the first half we review the mathematical properties of the measures of quantum correlation, relate them to each other, and discuss the classical-quantum division that is common among them. In the second half, we show that the measures quantum correlation identify and quanti...
Disentangling Nonlocality and Teleportation
Hardy, L
1999-01-01
Quantum entanglement can be used to demonstrate nonlocality and to teleport a quantum state from one place to another. The fact that entanglement can be used to do both these things has led people to believe that teleportation is a nonlocal effect. In this paper it is shown that teleportation is conceptually independent of nonlocality. This is done by constructing a toy local theory in which cloning is not possible (without a no-cloning theory teleportation makes limited sense) but teleportation is. Teleportation in this local theory is achieved in an analogous way to the way it is done with quantum theory. This work provides some insight into what type of process teleportation is.
The Dynamical Nonlocality of Neutral Kaons and the Kaonic Quantum Eraser
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2010-01-01
Testing quantum foundations for systems in high energy physics gets currently more and more attention e.g. witnessed for entangled neutral K-mesons by the approved programme of the KLOE collaboration at the accelerator facility DAPHNE (Frascati, Italy). We focus on this quantum system in high energy physics and discuss two topics, Bell inequalities and the kaonic quantum eraser, and show how the neutral kaon system differs from systems of ordinary matter and light. In detail, we show a relation of the imbalance of matter and antimatter to the violation of a Bell inequality and discuss another Bell inequality which is maximally violated for a non-maximally entangled state though neutral kaons can be considered as two state systems. We compare in general this system in high energy physics with bipartite qudits. Last but not least we review the quantum marking and eraser procedure and explain why neutral kaons offer more eraser possibilities than usual quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryff, Luiz Carlos Bandeira
1992-01-01
A realistic approach to quantum nonlocality is proposed, and four experiments that can be used to test this approach, using pairs of correlated photons are discussed. The first experiment proposed would allow us to investigate the role of the interaction of a quantum system with a macroscopic apparatus (detector) in the so-called collapse of the state vector. The second would investigate the interaction with a polarizer. Following the line of the second, the third experiment raises questions concerning the partial collapse of the state vector. The fourth suggests ways of investigating some possible properties of the superluminal interaction needed to explain nonlocality according to realism. The extension of this approach to include pairs of photons produced via parametric down-conversion of light is discussed. (author). 57 refs, 19 figs.
Probst, B.; Domínguez, F.; Schroer, A.; Yeyati, A. Levy; Recher, P.
2016-10-01
We study the critical Josephson current flowing through a double quantum dot weakly coupled to two superconducting leads. We use analytical as well as numerical methods to investigate this setup in the limit of small and large bandwidth leads in all possible charging states, where we account for on-site interactions exactly. Our results provide clear signatures of nonlocal spin-entangled pairs, which support interpretations of recent experiments [R. S. Deacon, A. Oiwa, J. Sailer, S. Baba, Y. Kanai, K. Shibata, K. Hirakawa, and S. Tarucha, Nat. Commun. 6, 7446 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8446]. In addition, we find that the ground state with one electron on each quantum dot can undergo a tunable singlet-triplet phase transition in the regime where the superconducting gap in the leads is not too large, which gives rise to an additional new signature of nonlocal Cooper-pair transport.
Guo-Hui, Yang; Le, Song
2016-02-01
By taking into account the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction under uniform magnetic field, quantum correlation behaviors measured by the measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) and the geometric measure of discord (GMOD) in a two-qubit XY model are investigated in detail. Turning the different parameters can lead the two kinds of measurements to present different properties. For example, increasing the parameter B(uniform magnetic field), the existing region of MIN is larger than GMOD; MIN can appear the phenomenon of monotonous reduction when the parameter D(Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction) is smaller than one threshold value, while GMOD cannot; MIN monotonously reduces with enhancive value of T(temperature), while GMOD initial experiences a slightly increasing and then decreases. One interesting point is that the more obvious and complicated difference between them are shown from the initial values. This property is both true for the zero temperature and the finite temperature. Through analyzing the limit case of the temperature approaching zero, the analytic solutions give the detailed reasons why have different effect on the initial values. Moreover, from the analytic solutions, we know the initial value of MIN is always larger than or equal to GMOD.
Experimental test of nonlocal causality.
Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro
2016-08-01
Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.
Experimental test of nonlocal causality
Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro
2016-01-01
Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045
Entanglement and non-locality of independent photons from mixed quantum and semiquantum sources
Wiegner, R; Agarwal, G S
2010-01-01
Following the lead experiment by Pittman and Franson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 240401 (2003)] on the violations of CHSH inequalities by mixed quantum and classical sources, we quantitatively investigate violations of CHSH inequalities and Cauchy-Schwarz inequalities for a whole new class of mixed quantum and classical sources at the quantum-classical boundary. These include photon added thermal and coherent sources experimentally investigated recently by Zavatta et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140406 (2009)]. The key quantity in our investigation is the visibility of the corresponding photon-photon correlation function. We also resolve the question of the appropriate photon-photon correlation function to be used in the CHSH inequalities. This is crucial as in contrast to polarization degrees of freedom our signals do not involve dichotomic variables.
Optimal control of quantum measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)
2015-07-01
Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution towards a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of non-controllable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the GRAPE algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a non-unitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a measurement pulse for superconducting phase qubits. We show how this technique can lead to large measurement contrast close to 99%. We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 ns pulses with 98.2% contrast.
Quantum reverse-engineering and reference frame alignment without non-local correlations
Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R
2004-01-01
Estimation of unknown qubit elementary gates and alignment of reference frames are formally the same problem. Using quantum states made out of $N$ qubits, we show that the theoretical precision limit for both problems, which behaves as $1/N^{2}$, can be asymptotically attained with a covariant protocol that exploits the quantum correlation of internal degrees of freedom instead of the more fragile entanglement between distant parties. This cuts by half the number of qubits needed to achieve the precision of the dense covariant coding protocol.
An operational framework for nonlocality
Gallego, Rodrigo; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel
2011-01-01
Due to the importance of entanglement for quantum information purposes, a framework has been developed for its characterization and quantification as a resource based on the following operational principle: entanglement among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and classical communication, even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. More recently, nonlocality has been identified as another resource, alternative to entanglement and necessary for device-independent quantum information protocols. We introduce an operational framework for nonlocality based on a similar principle: nonlocality among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and allowed classical communication even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. We then show that the standard definition of multipartite nonlocality, due to Svetlichny, is inconsistent with this operational approach: according to it, genuine tripartite nonlocality could be created by two collaborating parties. We finally discuss alternative definitions for which consist...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aurelien Drezet
2007-03-01
In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.
On the power of non-local boxes
Broadbent, A J
2005-01-01
A non-local box is a virtual device that has the following property: given that Alice inputs a bit at her end of the device and that Bob does likewise, it produces two bits, one at Alice's end and one at Bob's end, such that the XOR of the outputs is equal to the AND of the inputs. This box, inspired from the CHSH inequality, was first proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich to examine the question: given that a maximally entangled pair of qubits is non-local, why is it not maximally non-local? We believe that understanding the power of this box will yield insight into the non-locality of quantum mechanics. It was shown recently by Cerf, Gisin, Massar and Popescu, that this imaginary device is able to simulate correlations from any measurement on a singlet state. Here, we show that the non-local box can in fact do much more: through the simulation of the magic square pseudo-telepathy game and the Mermin-GHZ pseudo-telepathy game, we show that the non-local box can simulate quantum correlations that no entangled pair...
Experimental quantum measurement with a few photons
Rozema, Lee Arthur
This thesis presents the results of a series of four photonic experiments on the topic of quantum measurement. The first two experiments relate to quantum metrology, and the use of quantum states to increase the precision of measurements beyond what is possible with classical systems; first to detect and characterize decoherence, and then in the context of quantum imaging. The third experiment studies a fundamental question in quantum mechanics: "How much must a quantum system be disturbed by a measurement?". We use weak measurement to confirm a recent theoretical result, showing that if a particle's state is already sufficiently uncertain we can perform a measurement with very little disturbance -- contrary to common explanations of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The fourth experiment falls in the category of quantum computation. In quantum mechanics having multiple copies of an identical system allows us to extract more information than we can extract from a single copy (since quantum mechanics allows each system to be measured only once before collapsing). We present and experimentally implement a quantum algorithm to compress all of the "extractable information" present in an ensemble of identical copies of quantum bits into exponentially fewer quantum bits. The research presented here samples from a variety of topics in quantum information, showing in several contexts how fascinating quantum effects can be exploited to gain a "quantum enhancement". To enable these experiments two sources of entangled photons were built, and "hybrid" quantum systems (encoding information in multiple degrees of freedom of a photon) were used to implement quantum circuits. This thesis will present the details of one of these sources (a novel and practical source of entangled N00N states), which was used in a four-photon quantum metrology experiment. The other, more standard, source of polarization-entangled photon pairs will only briefly be reviewed to leave room for the
Making nonlocal reality compatible with relativity
Nikolic, H.
2010-01-01
It is often argued that hypothetic nonlocal reality responsible for nonlocal quantum correlations between entangled particles cannot be consistent with relativity. I review the most frequent arguments of that sort, explain how they can all be circumvented, and present an explicit Bohmian model of nonlocal reality (compatible with quantum phenomena) that fully obeys the principle of relativistic covariance and does not involve a preferred Lorentz frame.
Barycentric measure of quantum entanglement
Ganczarek, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol
2011-01-01
Majorana representation of quantum states by a constellation of n 'stars' (points on the sphere) can be used to describe any pure state of a simple system of dimension n+1 or a permutation symmetric pure state of a composite system consisting of n qubits. We analyze the variance of the distribution of the stars, which can serve as a measure of the degree of non-coherence for simple systems, or an entanglement measure for composed systems. Dynamics of the Majorana points induced by a unitary dynamics of the pure state is investigated.
How much a quantum measurement is informative?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Arno, Michele [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, Massimiliano F. [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (INF-CNR), P.zza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)
2014-12-04
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.
Unification of quantum and classical correlations and quantumness measures
Modi, Kavan
2011-01-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to quantum discord. We the discuss the problem of separation of total correlations in a given quantum state into entanglement, dissonance, and classical correlations using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations. This allows us to put all correlations on an equal footing. Entanglement and dissonance, whose definition is introduced here, jointly belong to what is known as quantum discord. Our methods are completely applicable for multipartite systems of arbitrary dimensions. We finally show, using relative entropy, how different notions of quantum correlations are related to each other. This gives a single theory that incorporates all correlations, quantum, classical, etc.
STIC: Development of a System of Nonlocally Interconnected Spin Qubits for Quantum Computation
2012-09-23
Taylor, W. Dür, P. Zoller, A. Yacoby, C. Marcus, M. Lukin. Solid-State Circuit for Spin Entanglement Generation and Purification, Physical Review Letters , (06...Triplet Qubit, Physical Review Letters , (10 2009): 160503. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.160503 2012/09/04 08:13:52 16 D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J...Double Quantum Dot, Physical Review Letters , (07 2006): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.056801 2012/09/04 02:25:07 7 J. Taylor, J. Petta, A. Johnson, A
Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality
Gao, Shan
2015-01-01
1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie-Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.
Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology
Tipler, Frank J
2010-01-01
I show that observations of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.
Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement
Zhu, Guangtian
2016-01-01
We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.
Einstein was right Proof of absence of spooky state reduction in quantum mechanics
Unnikrishnan, C S
2002-01-01
The present standard interpretation of quantum mechanics invokes nonlocality and state reduction at space-like separated points during measurements on entangled systems. While there is no understanding of the physical mechanism of such nonlocal state reduction, the experimental verifications of quantum correlations different from that predicted by local realistic theories have polarized the physicists' opinion in favour of nonlocality. I show conclusively that there is no such spooky state reduction, vindicating the strong views against nonlocality held by Einstein and Popper. Experimental support to this proof is also discussed. The Bell's inequalities arise due to ignoring the phase information in the correlation function and not due to nonlocality. This result goes against the current belief of quantum nonlocality held by the majority of physicists; yet the proof is transparent and rigorous, and therefore demands a change in the interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum measurements. The hypothesis o...
Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED
Dada, Adetunmise C; Jones, Martin L; Kendon, Vivien M; Everitt, Mark S
2010-01-01
Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements, in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two non-standard quantum measurements using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The first measurement optimally and unabmiguously distinguishes between two non-orthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionisation detection of atoms, and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurement have only been realized on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical ...
Totality of Subquantum Nonlocal Correlations
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-01-01
In a series of previous papers we developed a purely field model of microphenomena, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of QM including correlations for entangled systems, but it also gives a possibility to go beyond quantum mechanics (QM), i.e., to make predictions of phenomena which could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper we discuss one of such predictions - existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to {\\it all} quantum systems. (And by PCSFT quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are "entangled", but in the sense of classical signal theory. On one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random back...
Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty
Yukalov, V I
2016-01-01
We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements. In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy with the theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond, in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluation of the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational, subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a ge...
How to Measure the Quantum Measure
Frauca, Álvaro Mozota
2016-01-01
The histories-based framework of Quantum Measure Theory assigns a generalized probability or measure $\\mu(E)$ to every (suitably regular) set $E$ of histories. Even though $\\mu(E)$ cannot in general be interpreted as the expectation value of a selfadjoint operator (or POVM), we describe an arrangement which makes it possible to determine $\\mu(E)$ experimentally for any desired $E$. Taking, for simplicity, the system in question to be a particle passing through a series of Stern-Gerlach devices or beam-splitters, we show how to couple a set of ancillas to it, and then to perform on them a suitable unitary transformation followed by a final measurement, such that the probability of a final outcome of "yes" is related to $\\mu(E)$ by a known factor of proportionality. Finally, we discuss in what sense a positive outcome of the final measurement should count as a minimally disturbing verification that the microscopic event $E$ actually happened.
Quantum Diffusion, Measurement and Filtering
Belavkin, V P
1993-01-01
A brief presentation of the basic concepts in quantum probability theory is given in comparison to the classical one. The notion of quantum white noise, its explicit representation in Fock space, and necessary results of noncommutative stochastic analysis and integration are outlined. Algebraic differential equations that unify the quantum non Markovian diffusion with continuous non demolition observation are derived. A stochastic equation of quantum diffusion filtering generalising the classical Markov filtering equation to the quantum flows over arbitrary *-algebra is obtained. A Gaussian quantum diffusion with one dimensional continuous observation is considered.The a posteriori quantum state difusion in this case is reduced to a linear quantum stochastic filter equation of Kalman-Bucy type and to the operator Riccati equation for quantum correlations. An example of continuous nondemolition observation of the coordinate of a free quantum particle is considered, describing a continuous collase to the statio...
Quantum Sensors: Improved Optical Measurement via Specialized Quantum States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David S. Simon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classical measurement strategies in many areas are approaching their maximum resolution and sensitivity levels, but these levels often still fall far short of the ultimate limits allowed by the laws of physics. To go further, strategies must be adopted that take into account the quantum nature of the probe particles and that optimize their quantum states for the desired application. Here, we review some of these approaches, in which quantum entanglement, the orbital angular momentum of single photons, and quantum interferometry are used to produce optical measurements beyond the classical limit.
Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions
Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel
2016-03-01
Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.
Quantum measurements with prescribed symmetry
Bruzda, Wojciech; Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol
2017-08-01
We introduce a method to determine whether a given generalized quantum measurement is isolated or if it belongs to a family of measurements having the same prescribed symmetry. The technique proposed reduces to solving a linear system of equations in some relevant cases. As a consequence, we provide a simple derivation of the maximal family of symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measure SIC-POVM in dimension 3. Furthermore, we show that the following remarkable geometrical structures are isolated, so that free parameters cannot be introduced: (a) maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimensions from 4 to 16, (b) SIC-POVM in dimensions from 4 to 16, and (c) contextual Kochen-Specker sets in dimension 3, 4, and 6, composed of 13, 18, and 21 vectors, respectively.
Quantum Measurement and the Real World
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinberg, Aephraim M. (University of Toronto)
2012-04-18
While quantum measurement remains the central philosophical conundrum of quantum mechanics, it has recently grown into a respectable (read: experimental!) discipline as well. New perspectives on measurement have grown out of new technological possibilities, but also out of attempts to design systems for quantum information processing. I will present several examples of how our current ideas on quantum measurement go far beyond the usual textbook treatments, using examples from our entangled-photon and ultracold-atoms laboratories in Toronto. Topics will be drawn from weak measurement, 'interaction-free' measurement, Hardy's Paradox, measurement-induced quantum logic, and techniques for controlling and characterizing the coherence of quantum systems. The moral of the story will be that there are many different kinds of measurement strategies, with their own advantages and disadvantages; and that some things we have been taught not to even think about can actually be measured in a certain sense.
Measures and applications of quantum correlations
Adesso, Gerardo; Cianciaruso, Marco
2016-01-01
Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an ove...
Nonlocal and quasilocal field theories
Tomboulis, E. T.
2015-12-01
We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasilocal (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasilocal kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regions. We briefly discuss the extension to other types of fields and prospects of such theories.
Quantum probability measures and tomographic probability densities
Amosov, GG; Man'ko, [No Value
2004-01-01
Using a simple relation of the Dirac delta-function to generalized the theta-function, the relationship between the tomographic probability approach and the quantum probability measure approach with the description of quantum states is discussed. The quantum state tomogram expressed in terms of the
Quantum Learning by Measurement and Feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren
We investigate an approach to quantum computing in which quantum gate strengths are parametrized by quantum degrees of freedom. The capability of the quantum computer to perform desired tasks is monitored by measurements of the output and gradually improved by successive feedback modifications of...... of the coupling strength parameters. Our proposal only uses information available in an experimental implementation, and is demonstrated with simulations on search and factoring algorithms....
Quantum learning by measurement and feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We investigate an approach to quantum computing in which quantum gate strengths are parametrized by quantum degrees of freedom. The capability of the quantum computer to perform desired tasks is monitored by measurements of the output and gradually improved by successive feedback modifications of...... of the coupling strength parameters. Our proposal only uses information available in an experimental implementation, and is demonstrated with simulations on search and factoring algorithms....
Single-particle nonlocality and entanglement with the vacuum
Björk, G; Sánchez-Soto, L L
2001-01-01
We propose a single-particle experiment that is equivalent to the conventional two-particle experiment used to demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequalities. Hence, we argue that quantum mechanical nonlocality can be demonstrated by single-particle states. The validity of such a claim has been discussed in the literature, but without reaching a clear consensus. We show that the disagreement can be traced to what part of the total state of the experiment one assigns to the (macroscopic) measurement apparatus. However, with a conventional and legitimate interpretation of the measurement process one is led to the conclusion that even a single particle can show nonlocal properties.
Quantum entanglement from random measurements
Tran, Minh Cong; Dakić, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz
2015-11-01
We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.
Measurement Analysis and Quantum Gravity
Albers, Mark; Reginatto, Marcel
2008-01-01
We consider the question of whether consistency arguments based on measurement theory show that the gravitational field must be quantized. Motivated by the argument of Eppley and Hannah, we apply a DeWitt-type measurement analysis to a coupled system that consists of a gravitational wave interacting with a mass cube. We also review the arguments of Eppley and Hannah and of DeWitt, and investigate a second model in which a gravitational wave interacts with a quantized scalar field. We argue that one cannot conclude from the existing gedanken experiments that gravity has to be quantized. Despite the many physical arguments which speak in favor of a quantum theory of gravity, it appears that the justification for such a theory must be based on empirical tests and does not follow from logical arguments alone.
Quantum evolution by discrete measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Guevara, M L Ladron de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Delgado, A [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Olivares-RenterIa, G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2007-10-15
In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases.
Measurements and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of mid-Z plasma emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacquet, L., E-mail: laurent.jacquet@cea.fr; Primout, M.; Kaiser, P.; Clouët, J. F.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Oudot, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2015-12-15
The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated thin foils of iron, copper, zinc, and germanium have been measured in the soft and multi-keV x-ray ranges at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the x-ray emission of a 1 ns flat-top main pulse. The experimental results have been compared with post-shot simulations performed with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code FCI2. A new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model, NOO-RAD, have been incorporated into FCI2. In this approach, the plasma ionization state is in-line calculated by the atomic physics NOHEL package. In the soft x-ray bands, both simulations using RADIOM [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] and NOO-RAD clearly over-predict the powers and energies measured by a broad-band spectrometer. In one case (the iron foil), the discrepancy between the measured and simulated x-ray output is nevertheless significantly reduced when NOO-RAD is used in the simulations. In the multi-keV x-ray bands, the simulations display a strong sensitivity to the coupling between the electron thermal conductivity and the NLTE models, and for some particular combinations of these, provide a close match to the measured emission. The comparison between the measured and simulated H-like to He-like line-intensity ratios deduced from high-resolution spectra indicates higher experimental electron temperatures were achieved, compared to the simulated ones. Measurements of the plasma conditions have been achieved using the Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The electron temperatures are found to range from 3 to 5 keV at the end of the laser pulse and are greater than predicted by the simulations. The measured flow velocities are in reasonable agreement with the calculated ones. This last finding gives us confidence in our numerical predictions for the plasma parameters, which are over that time mainly determined by hydrodynamics, such as the mass densities and
Spontaneous Emission in Nonlocal Materials
Ginzburg, Pavel; Nasir, Mazhar E; Olvera, Paulina Segovia; Krasavin, Alexey V; Levitt, James; Hirvonen, Liisa M; Wells, Brian; Suhling, Klaus; Richards, David; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Zayats, Anatoly V
2016-01-01
Light-matter interactions can be dramatically modified by the surrounding environment. Here we report on the first experimental observation of molecular spontaneous emission inside a highly nonlocal metamaterial based on a plasmonic nanorod assembly. We show that the emission process is dominated not only by the topology of its local effective medium dispersion, but also by the nonlocal response of the composite, so that metamaterials with different geometric parameters but the same local effective medium properties exhibit different Purcell factors. A record-high enhancement of a decay rate is observed, in agreement with the developed quantitative description of the Purcell effect in a nonlocal medium. An engineered material nonlocality introduces an additional degree of freedom into quantum electrodynamics, enabling new applications in quantum information processing, photo-chemistry, imaging, and sensing.
Direct measurement of non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states
Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G C; Ekert, A; Horodecki, P; Sergienko, A V; Alves, Carolina Moura; Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Ekert, Artur; Horodecki, Pawel; Sergienko, Alexander Vladimir
2005-01-01
Non-linear properties of quantum states, such as entropy or entanglement, quantify important physical resources and are frequently used in quantum information science. They are usually calculated from a full description of a quantum state, even though they depend only on a small number parameters that specify the state. Here we extract a non-local and a non-linear quantity, namely the Renyi entropy, from local measurements on two pairs of polarization entangled photons. We also introduce a "phase marking" technique which allows to select uncorrupted outcomes even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. We use our experimental data to demonstrate the violation of entropic inequalities. They are examples of a non-linear entanglement witnesses and their power exceeds all linear tests for quantum entanglement based on all possible Bell-CHSH inequalities.
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum correlations
Pei, Pei; Mei, Di; Li, Chong
2010-01-01
We reexamine entanglement and quantum correlation from the point of their consanguineous quantum property, the coherence, and consider the quantum correlation as a kind of nonlocal coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. Utilizing off-diagonal elements of density matrix, a measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states is proposed. The relations between the proposed measure and others of quantum correlation are investigated with explicit examples. The close relation between nonlocal coherence and quantum correlation provides theory evidence to experimentally measure the bipartite quantum correlation by means of coherence, and indicates a developing way to measure quantum correlation for states with the presence of local coherence.
Measures and applications of quantum correlations
Adesso, Gerardo; Bromley, Thomas R.; Cianciaruso, Marco
2016-11-01
Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an overview of the current quest for a proper understanding and characterisation of the frontier between classical and quantum correlations (QCs) in composite states. We focus on various approaches to define and quantify general QCs, based on different yet interlinked physical perspectives, and comment on the operational significance of the ensuing measures for quantum technology tasks such as information encoding, distribution, discrimination and metrology. We then provide a broader outlook of a few applications in which quantumness beyond entanglement looks fit to play a key role.
Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production
Srivastava, Y N; Widom, A
1999-01-01
In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.
Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production
Srivastava, Y. N.; Vitiello, G; Widom, A.
1998-01-01
In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Shao-Hua; SONG Ke-Hui; WEN Wei; SHI Zhen-Gang
2011-01-01
We study a system consisting of two identical non-interacting single-mode cavity fields coupled to a common vacuum environment and provide general, explicit, and exact solutions to its master equation by means of the characteristic function method. We analyze the entanglement dynamics of two-mode squeezed thermal state in this model and show that its entanglement dynamics is strongly determined by the two-mode squeezing parameter and the purity. In particular, we find that two-mode squeezed thermal state with the squeezing parameter r ≤ -(1/2) In (V)u is extremely fragile and almost does not survive in a common vacuum environment. We investigate the time evolution of nonlocality for two-mode squeezed thermal state in such an environment. It is found that the evolved state loses its nonlocality in the beginning of the evolution, but after a time, the revival of nonlocality can occur.
Criteria for measures of quantum correlations
Brodutch, Aharon
2011-01-01
Entanglement does not describe all quantum correlations and several authors have shown the need to go beyond entanglement when dealing with mixed states. Several different measures have sprung up in the literature, for a variety of reasons, To describe quantum correlations; some are known under the collective name quantum discord. Yet, in the same sprit as the criteria for entanglement measures, there is no general mechanism that determines whether a measure of quantum and classical correlations is a proper measure of correlations. This is partially due to the fact that the answer is a bit muddy. In this article we attempt tackle this muddy topic by writing down several criteria for a "good" measure of correlations. We breakup our list into necessary, reasonable, and debatable conditions. We then proceed to prove several of these conditions for generalized measures of quantum correlations. However, not all conditions are met by all measures; we show this via several examples. The reasonable conditions are rel...
Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this work,a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system.As two special cases,two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail.An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity.Therefore,the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.
Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Quan; LI JiuHui
2009-01-01
In this work, a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail. An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity. Therefore, the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.
From quantum measurement to biology via retrocausality.
Matsuno, Koichiro
2017-06-21
A reaction cycle in general or a metabolic cycle in particular owes its evolutionary emergence to the covering reaction environment acting as a measurement apparatus of a natural origin. The quantum measurement of the environmental origin underlying the molecular processes observed in the biological realm is operative cohesively between the measuring and the measured. The measuring part comes to pull in a quantum as an indivisible lump available from an arbitrary material body to be measured. The inevitable difference between the impinging quantum upon the receiving end on the part of the environment and the actual quantum pulled into the receiving end comes to effectively be nullified through the retrocausative propagation of the corresponding wave function proceeding backwards in time. The retrocausal regulation applied to the interface between the measuring and the measured is to function as the organizational agency supporting biology, and is sought in the act for the present in the immediate future within the realm of quantum phenomena. Molecular dynamics in biology owes both the evolutionary buildup and maintenance of its organization to the retrocausal operation of the unitary transformation applied to quantum phenomena proceeding backwards in time. Quantum measurement provides the cohesive agency that is pivotal for implementing the retrocausal regulation. In particular, the physical origin of Darwinian natural selection can be seen in the retrocausal regulation applied to the unitary transformation of a quantum origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Perarnau-llobet, M.; Balian, R.
2014-01-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interacti
Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Perarnau-llobet, M.; Balian, R.
2014-01-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of
Entropy and Energy in Quantum Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas E. Schlatter
2006-05-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the classical axioms of non relativistic quantum mechanics, we develop a model for the interplay between energy and entropy in the process of quantum measurement and shed light on the scope of some of the axioms with regard to the measurement problem.
Wallman, Joel J
2011-01-01
Quantum theory allows for correlations between the outcomes of distant measurements that are inconsistent with any locally causal theory, as demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. Typical demonstrations of these correlations require careful alignment between the measurements, which requires distant parties to share a reference frame. Here, we prove, following a numerical observation by Shadbolt et al., that if two parties share a Bell state and each party randomly chooses three orthogonal measurements, then the parties will always violate a Bell inequality. Furthermore, we prove that this probability is highly robust against local depolarizing noise, in that small levels of noise only decrease the probability of violating a Bell inequality by a small amount. We also show that generalizing to N parties increases the robustness against noise. These results improve on previous ones that only allowed a high probability of violating a Bell inequality for large numbers of parties.
Rohwer, CM
2012-01-01
In this thesis we shall demonstrate that a measurement of position alone in non-commutative space cannot yield complete information about the quantum state of a particle. Indeed, the formalism used entails a description that is non-local in that it requires all orders of positional derivatives through the star product that is used ubiquitously to map operator multiplication onto function multiplication in non-commutative systems. It will be shown that there exist several equivalent local descriptions, which are arrived at via the introduction of additional degrees of freedom. Consequently non-commutative quantum mechanical position measurements necessarily confront us with some additional structure which is necessary to specify quantum states completely. The remainder of the thesis, will involve investigations into the physical interpretation of these additional degrees of freedom. For one particular local formulation, the corresponding classical theory will be used to demonstrate that the concept of extended...
Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States.
Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried
2016-02-19
Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
The Locality Problem in Quantum Measurements
Slavnov, D A
2010-01-01
The locality problem of quantum measurements is considered in the framework of the algebraic approach. It is shown that contrary to the currently widespread opinion one can reconcile the mathematical formalism of the quantum theory with the assumption of the existence of a local physical reality determining the results of local measurements. The key quantum experiments: double-slit experiment on electron scattering, Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and quantum teleportation are discussed from the locality-problem point of view. A clear physical interpretation for these experiments, which does not contradict the classical ideas, is given.
Non-Boolean probabilities and quantum measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niestegge, Gerd
2001-08-03
A non-Boolean extension of the classical probability model is proposed. The non-Boolean probabilities reproduce typical quantum phenomena. The proposed model is more general and more abstract, but easier to interpret, than the quantum mechanical Hilbert space formalism and exhibits a particular phenomenon (state-independent conditional probabilities) which may provide new opportunities for an understanding of the quantum measurement process. Examples of the proposed model are provided, using Jordan operator algebras. (author)
Distributed measurement-based quantum computation
Danos, V; Kashefi, E; Panangaden, P; Danos, Vincent; Hondt, Ellie D'; Kashefi, Elham; Panangaden, Prakash
2005-01-01
We develop a formal model for distributed measurement-based quantum computations, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are described locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model it as a global structure, reminiscent of global memory in classical agent systems. Local quantum computations are described as measurement patterns. Since measurement-based quantum computation is inherently distributed, this allows us to extend naturally several concepts of the measurement calculus, a formal model for such computations. Our goal is to define an assembly language, i.e. we assume that computations are well-defined and we do not concern ourselves with verification techniques. The operational semantics for systems of agents is given by a probabilistic transition system, and we define operational equivalence in a way that it corresponds to the notion of bisimilarity. With this in place, we prove that teleportation is bisimilar to a direct quantum channe...
Observers in Spacetime and Nonlocality
Mashhoon, B
2012-01-01
Characteristics of observers in relativity theory are critically examined. For field measurements in Minkowski spacetime, the Bohr-Rosenfeld principle implies that the connection between actual (i.e., noninertial) and inertial observers must be nonlocal. Nonlocal electrodynamics of non-uniformly rotating observers is discussed and the consequences of this theory for the phenomenon of spin-rotation coupling are briefly explored.
Experimental many-pairs nonlocality
Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2017-08-01
Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.
Spectral Dimension from Causal Set Nonlocal Dynamics
Belenchia, Alessio; Marciano, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo
2015-01-01
We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from non-local continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to 2 dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.
Quantum metrology. Optically measuring force near the standard quantum limit.
Schreppler, Sydney; Spethmann, Nicolas; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2014-06-27
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the noise in a force measurement based on continuously detecting a mechanical oscillator's position. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can be reached when the oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment and when measurement imprecision from photon shot noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement back-action. We applied an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity and measured the resulting motion optically. When the driving force is resonant with the cloud's oscillation frequency, we achieve a sensitivity that is a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit and consistent with theoretical predictions given the atoms' residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun
Barnaby, Neil
2008-01-01
We consider the possibility of realizing inflation in nonlocal field theories containing infinitely many derivatives. Such constructions arise naturally in string field theory and also in a number of toy models, such as the p-adic string. After reviewing the complications (ghosts and instabilities) that arise when working with high derivative theories we discuss the initial value problem and perturbative stability of theories with infinitely many derivatives. Next, we examine the inflationary dynamics and phenomenology of such theories. Nonlocal inflation can proceed even when the potential is naively too steep and generically predicts large nongaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2010-01-01
We show that the standard Dirac phase factor is not the only solution of the gauge transformation equations. The full form of a general gauge function (that connects systems that move in different sets of scalar and vector potentials), apart from Dirac phases also contains terms of classical fields that act nonlocally (in spacetime) on the local solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation: the phases of wavefunctions in the Schr\\"odinger picture are affected nonlocally by spatially and temporally remote magnetic and electric fields, in ways that are fully explored. These contributions go beyond the usual Aharonov-Bohm effects (magnetic or electric). (i) Application to cases of particles passing through static magnetic or electric fields leads to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point; these are linked to behaviors at the semiclassical level (to the old Werner & Brill experimental observations, or their "electric analogs" - or to recent reports of Batelaan & Tonomura)...
Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav I. Yukalov
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements.In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy withthe theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond,in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluationof the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational,subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a general way of evaluation, based on the use of non-informative priors. As an example,we suggest the explanation of the decoy effect. Our quantitative predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data.
Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty
Yukalov, Vyacheslav; Sornette, Didier
2016-04-01
We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements. In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy with the theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond, in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluation of the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational, subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a general way of evaluation, based on the use of non-informative priors. As an example, we suggest the explanation of the decoy effect. Our quantitative predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data.
Measuring the scrambling of quantum information
Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick
2016-01-01
We provide a protocol to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions. These correlation functions are of theoretical interest for diagnosing the scrambling of quantum information in black holes and strongly interacting quantum systems generally. Measuring them requires an echo-type sequence in which the sign of a many-body Hamiltonian is reversed. We detail an implementation employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to realize the chaotic kicked top model, and we analyze effects of dissipation to verify its feasibility with current technology. Finally, we propose in broad strokes a number of other experimental platforms where similar out-of-time-order correlation functions can be measured.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ``watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2013-01-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the "watcher"). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
Perturbative loop corrections and nonlocal gravity
Maggiore, Michele
2016-01-01
Nonlocal gravity has been shown to provide a phenomenologically viable infrared modification of GR. A natural question is whether the required nonlocality can emerge from perturbative quantum loop corrections due to light particles. We show that this is not the case. For the value of the mass scale of the non-local models required by cosmology, the perturbative form factors obtained from the loop corrections, in the present cosmological epoch, are in the regime where they are local. The mechanism behind the generation of the required nonlocality must be more complex, possibly related to strong infrared effects and non-perturbative mass generation for the conformal mode.
Entropy of phase measurement quantum phase via quadrature measurement
My, R; My, Robert; Uni, Palacky
1995-01-01
The content of phase information of an arbitrary phase--sensitive measurement is evaluated using the maximum likelihood estimation. The phase distribution is characterized by the relative entropy--a nonlinear functional of input quantum state. As an explicit example the multiple measurement of quadrature operator is interpreted as quantum phase detection achieving the ultimate resolution predicted by the Fisher information.
Interpreting Quantum Theory : A Therapeutic Approach
Friederich, Simon
2014-01-01
Debates about the foundations of quantum theory usually circle around two main challenges: the so-called 'measurement problem' and a claimed tension between quantum theory and relativity theory that arises from the phenomena labelled 'quantum non-locality'. This work explores the possibility of a 't
Interpreting Quantum Theory : A Therapeutic Approach
Friederich, Simon
2014-01-01
Debates about the foundations of quantum theory usually circle around two main challenges: the so-called 'measurement problem' and a claimed tension between quantum theory and relativity theory that arises from the phenomena labelled 'quantum non-locality'. This work explores the possibility of a 't
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-15
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tirthabir Biswas
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.
Simuluating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren
is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....
Simulating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren
is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....
Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos
Eastman, Jessica K.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.
2017-01-01
Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes. PMID:28317933
Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
文伟; 白彦魁
2012-01-01
Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the ＂potential noise＂ of the apparatus or environment and ＂inner correlation＂ of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.
The quantum measurement approach to particle oscillations
Anastopoulos, C
2010-01-01
The LSND and MiniBoone seeming anomalies in neutrino oscillations are usually attributed to physics beyond the Standard model. It is, however, possible that they may be an artefact of the theoretical treatment of particle oscillations that ignores fine points of quantum measurement theory relevant to the experiments. In this paper, we construct a rigorous measurement-theoretic framework for the description of particle oscillations, employing no assumptions extrinsic to quantum theory. The formalism leads to a non-standard oscillation formula; at low energy it predicts an `anomalous' oscillation wavelength, while at high energy it differs from the standard expression by a factor of 2. The key novelties in the formalism are the treatment of a particle's time of arrival at the detector as a genuine quantum observable, the theoretical precision in the definition of quantum probabilities, and the detailed modeling of the measurement process. The article also contains an extensive critical review of existing theore...
Emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics and recent progress in quantum measurement
Clarke, M. L.
2014-01-01
The focus of this paper is to provide a brief discussion on the quantum measurement process, by reviewing select examples highlighting recent progress towards its understanding. The areas explored include an outline of the measurement problem, the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum to classical transition, types of measurement (including weak and projective measurements) and newly emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics (decoherence theory, objective reality, quantum Darwinism and quantum Bayesianism).
On the theory of quantum measurement
Haus, Hermann A.; Kaertner, Franz X.
1994-01-01
Many so called paradoxes of quantum mechanics are clarified when the measurement equipment is treated as a quantized system. Every measurement involves nonlinear processes. Self consistent formulations of nonlinear quantum optics are relatively simple. Hence optical measurements, such as the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of photon number, are particularly well suited for such a treatment. It shows that the so called 'collapse of the wave function' is not needed for the interpretation of the measurement process. Coherence of the density matrix of the signal is progressively reduced with increasing accuracy of the photon number determination. If the QND measurement is incorporated into the double slit experiment, the contrast ratio of the fringes is found to decrease with increasing information on the photon number in one of the two paths.
Backward Evolving Quantum States
Vaidman, L
2006-01-01
The basic concept of the two-state vector formalism, which is the time symmetric approach to quantum mechanics, is the backward evolving quantum state. However, due to the time asymmetry of the memory's arrow of time, the possible ways to manipulate a backward evolving quantum state differ from those for a standard, forward evolving quantum state. The similarities and the differences between forward and backward evolving quantum states regarding the no-cloning theorem, nonlocal measurements, and teleportation are discussed. The results are relevant not only in the framework of the two-state vector formalism, but also in the framework of retrodictive quantum theory.
Quantum steering without inequalities
Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adan; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H
2012-01-01
We show that, for any two-qubit state, quantum steering can be proven without testing the violation of steering inequalities. We show that steerability is proven if Bob's normalized conditional states after Alice's measurements are pure. This method, which may be seen as the quantum steering analog of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like tests of Bell nonlocality without Bell inequalities, offers advantages with respect to the existing methods for experimentally testing quantum steering.
Uniqueness of measures in loop quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanusch, Maximilian, E-mail: hanuschm@fau.edu [Mathematics Department, University of Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)
2015-09-15
In Ashtekar and Campiglia [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 242001 (2012)], residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations with respect to the extended ℝ-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space ℝ{sub Bohr} as well as on the Fleischhack one (ℝ⊔ℝ{sub Bohr}). Thus, in both situations, the same condition singles out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC.
Unified entropic measures of quantum correlations induced by local measurements
Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.
2016-11-01
We introduce quantum correlation measures based on the minimal change in unified entropies induced by local rank-one projective measurements, divided by a factor that depends on the generalized purity of the system in the case of nonadditive entropies. In this way, we overcome the issue of the artificial increasing of the value of quantum correlation measures based on nonadditive entropies when an uncorrelated ancilla is appended to the system, without changing the computability of our entropic correlation measures with respect to the previous ones. Moreover, we recover as limiting cases the quantum correlation measures based on von Neumann and Rényi entropies (i.e., additive entropies), for which the adjustment factor becomes trivial. In addition, we distinguish between total and semiquantum correlations and obtain some inequalities between them. Finally, we obtain analytical expressions of the entropic correlation measures for typical quantum bipartite systems.
Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics
Slavnov, D. A.
2007-03-01
A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.
Irreversibility, Information and Randomness in Quantum Measurements
Mayburov, S N
2012-01-01
Irreversibility in quantum measurements is considered from the point of quantum information theory. For that purpose the information transfer between the measured object S and measuring system O is analyzed. It's found that due to the principal constraints of quantum-mechanical origin, the information about the purity of S state isn't transferred to O during the measurement of arbitraryS observable V. Consequently O can't discriminate the pure and mixed S ensembles with the same . As the result, the random outcomes should be detected by O in V measurement for S pure ensemble of V eigenstate superposition. It's shown that the outcome probabilties obey to Born rule. The influence of O decoherence by its environment is studied, however the account of its effects doesn't change these results principally.
Operational meaning of quantum measures of recovery
Cooney, Tom; Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Olson, Jonathan P.; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Watrous, John; Wilde, Mark M.
2016-08-01
Several information measures have recently been defined that capture the notion of recoverability. In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system A of a tripartite quantum state, defined on systems A B C , by acting on system C alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. In this paper we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. The quantum interactive proof system giving this operational meaning requires four messages exchanged between the prover and verifier, but by forcing the prover to perform actions in superposition, we construct a different proof system that requires only two messages. The result is that the associated decision problem is in QIP(2) and another argument establishes it as hard for QSZK (both classes contain problems believed to be difficult to solve for a quantum computer). We finally prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the type I error is constrained to be no larger than a constant.
Relativistic three-partite non-locality
Montakhab, A
2015-01-01
Bell-like inequalities have been used in order to distinguish non-local quantum pure states by various authors. The behavior of such inequalities under Lorentz transformation has been a source of debate and controversies in the past. In this paper, we consider the two most commonly studied three-particle pure states, that of W and GHZ states which exhibit distinctly different type of entanglement. We discuss the various types of three-particle inequalities used in previous studies and point to their corresponding shortcomings and strengths. Our main result is that if one uses Svetlichny's inequality as the main measure of non-locality and uses the same angles in the rest frame ($S$) as well as the moving frame ($S^{\\prime}$), then maximally violated inequality in $S$ will decrease in the moving frame, and will eventually lead to lack of non-locality ( i.e. satisfaction of inequality) in the $v \\rightarrow c$ limit. This is shown for both GHZ and W states and in two different configurations which are commonly ...
Geometric measure of quantum discord under decoherence
Xiao-Ming, Lu; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang
2010-01-01
The dynamics of a geometric measure of the quantum discord (GMQD) under decoherence is investigated. We show that the GMQD of a two-qubit state can be alternatively obtained through the singular values of a 3\\times4 matrix whose elements are the expectation values of Pauli matrices of the two qubits. By using Heisenberg picture, the analytic results of the GMQD is obtained for three typical kinds of the quantum decoherence channels. We compare the dynamics of the GMQD with that of the quantum discord and of entanglement and show that a sudden change in the decay rate of the GMQD does not always imply the sudden change in the decay rate of the quantum discord.
A New Similarity Measure for Non-Local Means Filtering of MRI Images
Dolui, Sudipto; Patarroyo, Iván C Salgado; Michailovich, Oleg V
2011-01-01
The acquisition of MRI images offers a trade-off in terms of acquisition time, spatial/temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, for instance, increasing the time efficiency of MRI often comes at the expense of reduced SNR. This, in turn, necessitates the use of post-processing tools for noise rejection, which makes image de-noising an indispensable component of computer assistance diagnosis. In the field of MRI, a multitude of image de-noising methods have been proposed hitherto. In this paper, the application of a particular class of de-noising algorithms - known as non-local mean (NLM) filters - is investigated. Such filters have been recently applied for MRI data enhancement and they have been shown to provide more accurate results as compared to many alternative de-noising algorithms. Unfortunately, virtually all existing methods for NLM filtering have been derived under the assumption of additive white Gaussian (AWG) noise contamination. Since this assumption is known to fail at low val...
Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"
Schneider, J
2005-01-01
I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.
Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Elliott, Thomas J; Mekhov, Igor B
2015-01-01
Trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices enabled numerous breakthroughs uniting several disciplines. Although the light is a key ingredient in such systems, its quantum properties are typically neglected, reducing the role of light to a classical tool for atom manipulation. Here we show how elevating light to the quantum level leads to novel phenomena, inaccessible in setups based on classical optics. Interfacing a many-body atomic system with quantum light opens it to the environment in an essentially nonlocal way, where spatial coupling can be carefully designed. The competition between typical processes in strongly correlated systems (local tunnelling and interaction) with global measurement backaction leads to novel multimode dynamics and the appearance of long-range correlated tunnelling capable of entangling distant lattices sites, even when tunnelling between neighbouring sites is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. We demonstrate both the break-up and protection of strongly interacting fermion ...
Relating quantum coherence and correlations with entropy-based measures.
Wang, Xiao-Li; Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan
2017-09-21
Quantum coherence and quantum correlations are important quantum resources for quantum computation and quantum information. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relationships between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems, and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for all the maximally correlated states.
Measuring entanglement entropy of a generic many-body system with a quantum switch.
Abanin, Dmitry A; Demler, Eugene
2012-07-13
Entanglement entropy has become an important theoretical concept in condensed matter physics because it provides a unique tool for characterizing quantum mechanical many-body phases and new kinds of quantum order. However, the experimental measurement of entanglement entropy in a many-body system is widely believed to be unfeasible, owing to the nonlocal character of this quantity. Here, we propose a general method to measure the entanglement entropy. The method is based on a quantum switch (a two-level system) coupled to a composite system consisting of several copies of the original many-body system. The state of the switch controls how different parts of the composite system connect to each other. We show that, by studying the dynamics of the quantum switch only, the Rényi entanglement entropy of the many-body system can be extracted. We propose a possible design of the quantum switch, which can be realized in cold atomic systems. Our work provides a route towards testing the scaling of entanglement in critical systems as well as a method for a direct experimental detection of topological order.
Extreme nonlocality with one photon
Heaney, Libby; Santos, Marcelo F; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-01-01
The bizarre concept of nonlocality appears in quantum mechanics because the properties of two or more particles may be assigned globally and are not always pinned to each particle individually. Experiments using two, three, or more of these entangled particles have strongly rejected a local realist interpretation of nature. Nonlocality is also argued to be an intrinsic property of a quantum field, implying that just one excitation, a photon for instance, could also by itself violate local realism. Here we show that one photon superposed symmetrically over many distant sites (which in quantum information terms is a W-state) can give a stunning all-versus-nothing demolition of local realism in an identical manner to the GHZ class of states. The elegance of this result is that it is due solely to the wave-particle duality of light and matter. We present experimental implementations capable of testing our predictions.
de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Canabarro, Askery; Azevedo, Sérgio
2017-01-01
The concept of wave-particle duality, which is a key element of quantum theory, has been remarkably found to manifest itself in several experimental realizations as in the famous double-slit experiment. In this specific case, a single particle seems to travel through two separated slits simultaneously. Nevertheless, it is never possible to measure it in both slits, which naturally appears as a manifestation of the collapse postulate. In this respect, one could as well ask if it is possible to “perceive” the presence of the particle at the two slits simultaneously, once its collapse could be avoided. In this article, we use the recently proposed entanglement mediation protocol to provide a positive answer to this question. It is shown that a photon which behaves like a wave, i.e., which seems to be present in two distant locations at the same time, can modify two existing physical realities in these locations. Calculations of the “weak trace” left by such photon also enforce the validity of the present argumentation.
Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wavefunction
Lundeen, Jeff S; Patel, Aabid; Stewart, Corey; Bamber, Charles; 10.1038/nature10120
2011-01-01
Central to quantum theory, the wavefunction is the complex distribution used to completely describe a quantum system. Despite its fundamental role, it is typically introduced as an abstract element of the theory with no explicit definition. Rather, physicists come to a working understanding of the wavefunction through its use to calculate measurement outcome probabilities via the Born Rule. Presently, scientists determine the wavefunction through tomographic methods, which estimate the wavefunction that is most consistent with a diverse collection of measurements. The indirectness of these methods compounds the problem of defining the wavefunction. Here we show that the wavefunction can be measured directly by the sequential measurement of two complementary variables of the system. The crux of our method is that the first measurement is performed in a gentle way (i.e. weak measurement) so as not to invalidate the second. The result is that the real and imaginary components of the wavefunction appear directly ...
Nonlocal and quasi-local field theories
Tomboulis, E T
2015-01-01
We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasi-local (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasi-local kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regi...
Reversible Projective Measurement in Quantum Ensembles
Khitrin, Anatoly; Lee, Jae-Seung
2010-01-01
We present experimental NMR demonstration of a scheme of reversible projective measurement, which allows extracting information on outcomes and probabilities of a projective measurement in a non-destructive way, with a minimal net effect on the quantum state of an ensemble. The scheme uses reversible dynamics and weak measurement of the intermediate state. The experimental system is an ensemble of 133Cs (S = 7/2) nuclei in a liquid-crystalline matrix.
Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures
Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika
2016-08-01
Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.
Grishanin, B A; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2005-01-01
A concept of the generalized quantum measurement is introduced as the transformation, which establishes a correspondence between the initial states of the object system and final states of the object--measuring device (meter) system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to the classically compatible set of states of the object--meter system. It is shown that the generalized measurement covers all the key known quantum measurement concepts--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy and the generalized measurement with the partial or complete destruction of the initial information contained in the object. A special class of partially-destructive measurements that map the continual set of the states in finite-dimensional quantum systems to that one of the infinite-dimensional quantum systems is considered. Their informational essence and some information characteristics are discussed in detail.
Squeezing more from a quantum nondemolition measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchler, B.C.; Lam, P.K.; Bachor, H.A.
2002-01-01
We use a stable, 5 dB, amplitude squeezed source for a quantum nondomolition (QND) experiment. The performance of our QND system is enhanced by an electro-optic feedforward loop which improve,, the signal transfer efficiency. At best, we measure a total signal transfer of 1.81 and conditional var...
Quantum Hamiltonian Identification from Measurement Time Traces
Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan
2014-08-01
Precise identification of parameters governing quantum processes is a critical task for quantum information and communication technologies. In this Letter, we consider a setting where system evolution is determined by a parametrized Hamiltonian, and the task is to estimate these parameters from temporal records of a restricted set of system observables (time traces). Based on the notion of system realization from linear systems theory, we develop a constructive algorithm that provides estimates of the unknown parameters directly from these time traces. We illustrate the algorithm and its robustness to measurement noise by applying it to a one-dimensional spin chain model with variable couplings.
Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics; Botero, A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)
1995-10-01
The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3.
Tuluzov, I G
2011-01-01
A new constructivist approach to modeling in economics and theory of consciousness is proposed. The state of elementary object is defined as a set of its measurable consumer properties. A proprietor's refusal or consent for the offered transaction is considered as a result of elementary economic measurement. We were also able to obtain the classical interpretation of the quantum-mechanical law of addition of probabilities by introducing a number of new notions. The principle of "local equity" assumes the transaction completed (regardless of the result) of the states of transaction partners are not changed in connection with the reception of new information on proposed offers or adopted decisions (consent or refusal of the transaction). However it has no relation to the paradoxes of quantum theory connected with non-local interaction of entangled states. In the economic systems the mechanism of entangling has a classical interpretation, while the quantum-mechanical formalism of the description of states appear...
Extreme nonlocality with one photon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Marcelo Franca, E-mail: l.heaney1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, MG (Brazil)
2011-05-15
Quantum nonlocality is typically assigned to systems of two or more well-separated particles, but nonlocality can also exist in systems consisting of just a single particle when one considers the subsystems to be distant spatial field modes. Single particle nonlocality has been confirmed experimentally via a bipartite Bell inequality. In this paper, we introduce an N-party Hardy-like proof of the impossibility of local elements of reality and a Bell inequality for local realistic theories in the case of a single particle superposed symmetrically over N spatial field modes (i.e. N qubit W state). We show that, in the limit of large N, the Hardy-like proof effectively becomes an all-versus-nothing (or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like) proof, and the quantum-classical gap of the Bell inequality tends to be the same as that in a three-particle GHZ experiment. We describe how to test the nonlocality in realistic systems.
Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond
Pfaff, W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for
Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond
Pfaff, W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for appli
A Classical Framework for Nonlocality and Entanglement
Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert
2012-01-01
Based on our model of quantum systems as emerging from the coupled dynamics between oscillating "bouncers" and the space-filling zero-point field, a sub-quantum account of nonlocal correlations is given. This is explicitly done for the example of the "double two-slit" variant of two-particle interferometry. However, it is also shown that the entanglement in two-particle interferometry is only a natural consequence of the fact that already a "single" two-slit experiment can be described on a sub-quantum level with the aid of "entangling currents" of a generally nonlocal nature.
Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements
Goebel, Ernst O
2015-01-01
The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...
Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds
Flammia, Steven Thomas
2007-12-01
We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi
Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology
Tipler, Frank J.
We show that observations of quantum nonlocaltiy can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.
Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Quantum Information and Computation Group, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Mishra, Utkarsh, E-mail: utkarsh@hri.res.in [Quantum Information and Computation Group, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Dhar, Himadri Shekhar, E-mail: dhar.himadri@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)
2014-11-15
Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.
Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum random number generation
Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng
2015-12-01
Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) output genuine random numbers based upon the uncertainty principle. A QRNG contains two parts in general—a randomness source and a readout detector. How to remove detector imperfections has been one of the most important questions in practical randomness generation. We propose a simple solution, measurement-device-independent QRNG, which not only removes all detector side channels but is robust against losses. In contrast to previous fully device-independent QRNGs, our scheme does not require high detector efficiency or nonlocality tests. Simulations show that our protocol can be implemented efficiently with a practical coherent state laser and other standard optical components. The security analysis of our QRNG consists mainly of two parts: measurement tomography and randomness quantification, where several new techniques are developed to characterize the randomness associated with a positive-operator valued measure.
Grounding the randomness of quantum measurement.
Jaeger, Gregg
2016-05-28
Julian Schwinger provided to physics a mathematical reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of the characteristics of sequences of measurements occurring at the atomic level of physical structure. The central component of this reconstruction is an algebra of symbols corresponding to quantum measurements, conceived of as discrete processes, which serve to relate experience to theory; collections of outcomes of identically circumscribed such measurements are attributed expectation values, which constitute the predictive content of the theory. The outcomes correspond to certain phase parameters appearing in the corresponding symbols, which are complex numbers, the algebra of which he finds by a process he refers to as 'induction'. Schwinger assumed these (individually unpredictable) phase parameters to take random, uniformly distributed definite values within a natural range. I have previously suggested that the 'principle of plenitude' may serve as a basis in principle for the occurrence of the definite measured values that are those members of the collections of measurement outcomes from which the corresponding observed statistics derive (Jaeger 2015Found. Phys.45, 806-819. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9893-6)). Here, I evaluate Schwinger's assumption in the context of recent critiques of the notion of randomness and explicitly relate the randomness of these phases with the principle of plenitude and, in this way, provide a fundamental grounding for the objective, physically irreducible probabilities, conceived of as graded possibilities, that are attributed to measurement outcomes by quantum mechanics.
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)
2014-12-04
The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.
Mujica-Parodi, L R
1998-01-01
I argue in the dissertation that there exists a fundamental contradiction between quantum theory and the special theory of relativity and that most of the well-known arguments to the contrary suffer from internal inconsistencies that render them ineffective in resolving the conflict...
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Friis, Nicolai; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2013-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory (QFT). QFT properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in QFT including proper times and acce...
Quantum measure theory and its interpretation
Sorkin, R D
1997-01-01
The paper proposes a realistic, spacetime interpretation of quantum theory in which reality constitutes a *single* history obeying a "law of motion" which makes definite, but incomplete, predictions about its behavior. We associate a "quantum measure" |S| to the set S of histories, and point out that |S| ful- fills a sum rule generalizing that of classical probability theory. We inter- pret |S| as a "propensity", making this precise by stating a criterion for |S|=0 to imply "preclusion" (meaning that the true history will not lie in S). The criterion involves triads of correlated events, and in application to electron-electron scattering, for example, it yields definite predictions about the electron trajectories themselves, independently of any measuring devices which might or might not be present. (So we can give an objective account of measurements.) Two unfinished aspects of the interpretation involve conditonal preclusion (which apparently requires coarse-graining for its formulation) and the need to "lo...
Conditional Probabilities and Collapse in Quantum Measurements
Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo
2008-09-01
We show that including both the system and the apparatus in the quantum description of the measurement process, and using the concept of conditional probabilities, it is possible to deduce the statistical operator of the system after a measurement with a given result, which gives the probability distribution for all possible consecutive measurements on the system. This statistical operator, representing the state of the system after the first measurement, is in general not the same that would be obtained using the postulate of collapse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohamed, A.-B.A., E-mail: abdelbastm@yahoo.com [College of Sciences and Humanities, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: mcbamji@gmail.com [Physics Department, Adelphi University Garden City, NY 11530 (United States); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, RHIT, Terra Haute IN 47803 (United States); Hassan, S.S., E-mail: shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)
2016-03-15
Several quantum-mechanical correlations, notably, quantum entanglement, measurement-induced nonlocality and Bell nonlocality are studied for a two qubit-system having no mutual interaction. Analytical expressions for the measures of these quantum-mechanical correlations of different bipartite partitions of the system are obtained, for initially two entangled qubits and the two photons are in their vacuum states. It is found that the qubits-fields interaction leads to the loss and gain of the initial quantum correlations. The lost initial quantum correlations transfer from the qubits to the cavity fields. It is found that the maximal violation of Bell’s inequality is occurring when the quantum correlations of both the logarithmic negativity and measurement-induced nonlocality reach particular values. The maximal violation of Bell’s inequality occurs only for certain bipartite partitions of the system. The frequency detuning leads to quick oscillations of the quantum correlations and inhibits their transfer from the qubits to the cavity modes. It is also found that the dynamical behavior of the quantum correlation clearly depends on the qubit distribution angle.
Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-05-22
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.
Geometric measure of quantum discord for an arbitrary state of a bipartite quantum system
Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S
2010-01-01
Quantum discord, as introduced by Olliver and Zurek [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 017901 (2001)], is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information. Dakic, Vedral, and Brukner [arXiv:1004.0190 (2010)] introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Luo and Fu [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{82}, 034302 (2010)] introduced another form for geometric measure of quantum discord. We find an exact formula for the geometric measure of quantum discord for an arbitrary state of a $m\\times n$ bipartite quantum system.
Boolean approach to dichotomic quantum measurement theories
Nagata, K.; Nakamura, T.; Batle, J.; Abdalla, S.; Farouk, A.
2017-02-01
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or -1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.
Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements
Cabello, A
2000-01-01
Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).
Quantum Zeno effects with "pulsed" and "continuous" measurements
Facchi, P.; Pascazio, S.
2001-01-01
The dynamics of a quantum system undergoing measurements is investigated. Depending on the features of the interaction Hamiltonian, the decay can be slowed (quantum Zeno effect) or accelerated (inverse quantum Zeno effect), by changing the time interval between successive (pulsed) measurements or, alternatively, by varying the "strength" of the (continuous) measurement.
Quantum Zeno effect by general measurements
Koshino, K
2004-01-01
It was predicted that frequently repeated measurements on an unstable state may alter the decay rate of the state. This is called the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) or the anti-Zeno effect (AZE), depending on whether the decay is suppressed or enhanced. In conventional theories of the QZE and AZE, effects of measurements are simply described by the projection postulate, assuming that each measurement is an instantaneous and ideal one. However, real measurements are not instantaneous and ideal. For the QZE and AZE by such general measurements, interesting and surprising features have recently been revealed, which we review in this article. The results are based on the quantum measurement theory, which is also reviewed briefly. As a typical model, we consider a continuous measurement of the decay of an excited atom by a photodetector that detects a photon emitted from the atom upon decay. This measurement is an indirect negative-result one, for which the curiosity of the QZE and AZE is emphasized. It is shown that t...
Assaraf, Roland; Domin, Dominik
2014-03-01
We study the efficiency of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods in computing space localized ground state properties (properties which do not depend on distant degrees of freedom) as a function of the system size N. We prove that for the commonly used correlated sampling with reweighting method, the statistical fluctuations σ2(N) do not obey the locality property. σ2(N) grow at least linearly with N and with a slope that is related to the fluctuations of the reweighting factors. We provide numerical illustrations of these tendencies in the form of QMC calculations on linear chains of hydrogen atoms.
The computer-based model of quantum measurements
Sevastianov, L. A.; Zorin, A. V.
2017-07-01
Quantum theory of measurements is an extremely important part of quantum mechanics. Currently perturbations by quantum measurements of observable quantities of atomic systems are rarely taken into account in computing algorithms and calculations. In the previous studies of the authors, constructive model of quantum measurements has been developed and implemented in the form of symbolic and numerical calculations for the hydrogen-like atoms. This work describes a generalization of these results to the alkali metal atoms.
Measurement theory in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamura, Kazuya, E-mail: okamura@math.cm.is.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ozawa, Masanao, E-mail: ozawa@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2016-01-15
In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.
Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation
Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.
Improving students’ understanding of quantum measurement. I. Investigation of difficulties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangtian Zhu1,2
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop research-based learning tutorials to improve students’ understanding of quantum measurement.
Nonlocality and entanglement as opposite properties
Vallone, G; Gómez, E S; Cañas, G; Larsson, J -A; Mataloni, P; Cabello, A
2011-01-01
We show that, for any chained Bell inequality with any number of settings, nonlocality and entanglement are not only essentially different properties but opposite ones. We first show that, in the absence of noise, the threshold detection efficiency for a loophole-free Bell test increases with the degree of entanglement, so that the closer the quantum states are to product states, the harder it is to reproduce the quantum predictions with local models. In the presence of white noise, we show that nonlocality and entanglement are simultaneously maximized only in the presence of extreme noise; in any other case, the lowest threshold detection efficiency is obtained by reducing the entanglement.
Spectral dimension from nonlocal dynamics on causal sets
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Marcianò, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo
2016-02-01
We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from nonlocal continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to two dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John
2004-01-01
We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....
Constraining the Correlation Distance in Quantum Measurements
Schneider, Jean
2010-01-01
Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem. It has been experimentally verified over distances up to 18 km with a time resolution of a few picosecond, which can be translated into an apparent effective correlation speed larger than 10^7 c. The purpose of the present White Paper is to discuss the scientific interest and the feasibility to extend the correlation distance up to the Earth-Moon distance, i.e. 2 10^4 times larger than in present experiments. We are thus led to propose to install on the Moon a polarimter and a high performance photon detector with a high temporal resolution. Such an exploratory experiment would provide new tests of Quantum Physics and could perhaps discriminate between standard Quantum Physics and for instance the ...
Family of nonlocal bound entangled states
Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.
2017-03-01
Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.
NONLOCAL SYMMETRIES AND NONLOCAL RECURSION OPERATORS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
An expose about covering method on differential equations was given. The general formulae to determine nonlocal symmetries were derived which are analogous to the prolongation formulae of generalized symmetries. In addition, a new definition of nonlocal recursion operators was proposed, which gave a satisfactory explalnation in covering theory for the integro-differcntial recursion operators.
Dastidar, K R; Dastidar, Krishna Rai
2002-01-01
In a recent work [Mod. Phys. Lett A13, p-1265 (1998)] we expounded a non-local Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) which predicted a linear two-photon absorption by an atom placed in a laser field of appropriate intensity and frequency. In this paper we extend our earlier work to show that the theory allows for linear 2n-photon absorption by gaseous matter where, under suitable conditions, n may literally run upto thousands. The consequences of this extension of the theory are outlined and predictions are made which may be verified in laboratories.
The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics
Cramer, John G.
2001-06-01
The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."
Inflation and the quantum measurement problem
Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Magueijo, João
2016-08-01
We propose a solution to the quantum measurement problem in inflation. Our model treats Fourier modes of cosmological perturbations as analogous to particles in a weakly interacting Bose gas. We generalize the idea of a macroscopic wave function to cosmological fields, and construct a self-interaction Hamiltonian that focuses that wave function. By appropriately setting the coupling between modes, we obtain the standard adiabatic, scale-invariant power spectrum. Because of central limit theorem, we recover a Gaussian random field, consistent with observations.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Realistic limits on the nonlocality of an N-partite single-photon superposition
Laghaout, Amine; Björk, Gunnar; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2011-12-01
A recent paper [L. Heaney, A. Cabello, M. F. Santos, and V. Vedral, New J. Phys.NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/13/5/053054 13, 053054 (2011)] revealed that a single quantum symmetrically delocalized over N modes, namely a W state, effectively allows for all-versus-nothing proofs of nonlocality in the limit of large N. Ideally, this finding opens up the possibility of using the robustness of the W states while realizing the nonlocal behavior previously thought to be exclusive to the more complex class of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. We show that in practice, however, the slightest decoherence or inefficiency of the Bell measurements on W states will degrade any violation margin gained by scaling to higher N. The nonstatistical demonstration of nonlocality is thus proved to be impossible in any realistic experiment.
Realistic limits on the nonlocality of an N-partite single-photon superposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laghaout, Amine [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Bjoerk, Gunnar [Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-12-15
A recent paper [L. Heaney, A. Cabello, M. F. Santos, and V. Vedral, New J. Phys. 13, 053054 (2011)] revealed that a single quantum symmetrically delocalized over N modes, namely a W state, effectively allows for all-versus-nothing proofs of nonlocality in the limit of large N. Ideally, this finding opens up the possibility of using the robustness of the W states while realizing the nonlocal behavior previously thought to be exclusive to the more complex class of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. We show that in practice, however, the slightest decoherence or inefficiency of the Bell measurements on W states will degrade any violation margin gained by scaling to higher N. The nonstatistical demonstration of nonlocality is thus proved to be impossible in any realistic experiment.
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO
Quantum metrology in coarsened measurement reference
Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min
2017-01-01
We investigate the role of coarsened measurement reference, which originates from the coarsened reference time and basis, in quantum metrology. When the measurement is based on one common reference basis, the disadvantage of coarsened measurement can be removed by symmetry. Owing to the coarsened reference basis, the entangled state cannot perform better than the product state for a large number of probe particles in estimating the phase. Given a finite uncertainty of the coarsened reference basis, the optimal number of probe particles is obtained. Finally, we prove that the maximally entangled state always achieves better frequency precision in the case of non-Markovian dephasing than that in the case of Markovian dephasing. The product state is more resistant to the interference of the coarsened reference time than the entangled state.
Second Quantization of Cini Model for High Order Quantum Decoherence in Quantum Measurement
Zhou, D L; Sun, C P
2001-01-01
By making the second quantization for the Cini Model of quantum measurement without wave function collapse [M. Cini, Nuovo Cimento, B73 27(1983)], the second order quantum decoherence (SOQD) is studied with a two mode boson system interacting with an idealized apparatus composed by two quantum oscillators. In the classical limit that the apparatus is prepared in a Fock state with a very large quantum number, or in a coherent state with average quantum numbers large enough, the SOQD phenomenon appears similar to the first order case of quantum decoherence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com
2012-09-15
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Entanglement Measure and Quantum Violation of Bell-Type Inequality
Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2016-10-01
By calculating entanglement measures and quantum violation of Bell-type inequality, we reveal the relationship between entanglement measure and the amount of quantum violation for a family of four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the Bell-type inequality is completely violated by these four-qubit entangled states. The plot of entanglement measure as a function of the expectation value of Bell operator shows that entanglement measure first decreases and then increases smoothly with increasing quantum violation.
The origin of non-locality in Aspect-type experiments
Hofer, Werner A
2011-01-01
So far no mechanism is known, which could connect the two measurements in an Aspect-type experiment. Here, we suggest such a mechanism, based on the phase of a photon's field during propagation. We show that two polarization measurements are correlated, even if no signal passes from one point of measurement to the other. The non-local connection of a photon pair is the result of its origin at a common source, where the two fields acquire a well defined phase difference. Therefore, it is not actually a non-local effect in any conventional sense. We expect that the model and the detailed analysis it allows will have a major impact on quantum cryptography and quantum computation.
Radio-frequency measurement in semiconductor quantum computation
Han, TianYi; Chen, MingBo; Cao, Gang; Li, HaiOu; Xiao, Ming; Guo, GuoPing
2017-05-01
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted wide interest for the potential realization of quantum computation. To realize efficient quantum computation, fast manipulation and the corresponding readout are necessary. In the past few decades, considerable progress of quantum manipulation has been achieved experimentally. To meet the requirements of high-speed readout, radio-frequency (RF) measurement has been developed in recent years, such as RF-QPC (radio-frequency quantum point contact) and RF-DGS (radio-frequency dispersive gate sensor). Here we specifically demonstrate the principle of the radio-frequency reflectometry, then review the development and applications of RF measurement, which provides a feasible way to achieve high-bandwidth readout in quantum coherent control and also enriches the methods to study these artificial mesoscopic quantum systems. Finally, we prospect the future usage of radio-frequency reflectometry in scaling-up of the quantum computing models.
Measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing with quantum input verification
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2016-10-01
Verifiable blind quantum computing is a secure delegated quantum computing where a client with a limited quantum technology delegates her quantum computing to a server who has a universal quantum computer. The client's privacy is protected (blindness), and the correctness of the computation is verifiable by the client despite her limited quantum technology (verifiability). There are mainly two types of protocols for verifiable blind quantum computing: the protocol where the client has only to generate single-qubit states and the protocol where the client needs only the ability of single-qubit measurements. The latter is called the measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing. If the input of the client's quantum computing is a quantum state, whose classical efficient description is not known to the client, there was no way for the measurement-only client to verify the correctness of the input. Here we introduce a protocol of measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing where the correctness of the quantum input is also verifiable.
Local orthogonality provides a tight upper bound for Hardy's nonlocality
Das, Subhadipa; Banik, Manik; Gazi, Md. Rajjak; Rai, Ashutosh; Kunkri, Samir
2013-12-01
The amount of nonlocality in quantum theory is limited compared to that allowed in generalized no-signaling theory [S. Popescu and D. Rohrlich, Found. Phys.FNDPA40015-901810.1007/BF02058098 24, 379 (1994)]. This feature, for example, gets manifested in the amount of Bell inequality violation as well as in the degree of success probability of Hardy's (Cabello's) nonlocality argument. Physical principles like information causality and macroscopic locality have been proposed for analyzing restricted nonlocality in quantum mechanics, viz. explaining the Cirel'son bound. However, these principles are not very successful in explaining the maximum success probability of Hardy's as well as Cabello's argument in quantum theory. Here we show that a recently proposed physical principle, namely local orthogonality, does better by providing a tighter upper bound on the success probability for Hardy's nonlocality. This bound is relatively closer to the corresponding quantum value compared to the bounds achieved from other principles.
Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.
Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn
2013-06-17
We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.
Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics
Leckey, Martin
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of the theory for a realist view of the quantum realm.
Effect of Quantum Point Contact Measurement on Electron Spin State in Quantum Dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Fei-Yun; TU Tao; HAO Xiao-Jie; GUO Guang-Can; GUO Guo-Ping
2009-01-01
We study the time evolution of two electron spin states in a double quantum-dot system, which includes a nearby quantum point contact (QPC) as a measurement device. We find that the QPC measurement induced decoherence is in the microsecond timescale. We also find that the enhanced QPC measurement will trap the system in its initial spin states, which is consistent with the quantum Zeno effect.
Robustness of the far-field response of nonlocal plasmonic ensembles.
Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan R; Liu, Zhaowei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N Asger
2016-06-22
Contrary to classical predictions, the optical response of few-nm plasmonic particles depends on particle size due to effects such as nonlocality and electron spill-out. Ensembles of such nanoparticles are therefore expected to exhibit a nonclassical inhomogeneous spectral broadening due to size distribution. For a normal distribution of free-electron nanoparticles, and within the simple nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model, both the nonlocal blueshift and the plasmon linewidth are shown to be considerably affected by ensemble averaging. Size-variance effects tend however to conceal nonlocality to a lesser extent when the homogeneous size-dependent broadening of individual nanoparticles is taken into account, either through a local size-dependent damping model or through the Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory. The role of ensemble averaging is further explored in realistic distributions of isolated or weakly-interacting noble-metal nanoparticles, as encountered in experiments, while an analytical expression to evaluate the importance of inhomogeneous broadening through measurable quantities is developed. Our findings are independent of the specific nonclassical theory used, thus providing important insight into a large range of experiments on nanoscale and quantum plasmonics.
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions.
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, H.; Czekaj, L.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Speelman, F.; Strelchuk, S.
2015-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequ
Nonlocal Infrared Modifications of Gravity. A Review
Maggiore, Michele
2016-01-01
We review an approach developed in the last few years by our group in which GR is modified in the infrared, at an effective level, by nonlocal terms associated to a mass scale. We begin by recalling the notion of quantum effective action and its associated nonlocalities, illustrating some of their features with the anomaly-induced effective actions in $D=2$ and $D=4$. We examine conceptual issues of nonlocal theories such as causality, degrees of freedoms and ghosts, stressing the importance of the fact that these nonlocalities only emerge at the effective level. We discuss a particular class of nonlocal theories where the nonlocal operator is associated to a mass scale, and we show that they perform very well in the comparison with cosmological observations, to the extent that they fit CMB, supernovae, BAO and structure formation data at a level fully competitive with $\\Lambda$CDM, with the same number of free parameters. We explore some extensions of these `minimal' models, and we finally discuss some direc...
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Zgid, Dominika
2016-01-01
We present a detailed discussion of self-energy embedding theory (SEET) which is a quantum embedding scheme allowing us to describe a chosen subsystem very accurately while keeping the description of the environment at a lower cost. We apply SEET to molecular examples where commonly our chosen subsystem is made out of a set of strongly correlated orbitals while the weakly correlated orbitals constitute an environment. Such a self-energy separation is very general and to make this procedure applicable to multiple systems a detailed and practical procedure for the evaluation of the system and environment self-energy is necessary. We list all the intricacies for one of the possible procedures while focusing our discussion on many practical implementation aspects such as the choice of best orbital basis, impurity solver, and many steps necessary to reach chemical accuracy. Finally, on a set of carefully chosen molecular examples, we demonstrate that SEET which is a controlled, systematically improvable Green's fu...
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality
Qureshi, T
2003-01-01
A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.
Measurement Uncertainty for Finite Quantum Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Schwonnek
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Measurement uncertainty relations are lower bounds on the errors of any approximate joint measurement of two or more quantum observables. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to compute optimal bounds of this type. The basic method is semidefinite programming, which we apply to arbitrary finite collections of projective observables on a finite dimensional Hilbert space. The quantification of errors is based on an arbitrary cost function, which assigns a penalty to getting result x rather than y, for any pair ( x , y . This induces a notion of optimal transport cost for a pair of probability distributions, and we include an Appendix with a short summary of optimal transport theory as needed in our context. There are then different ways to form an overall figure of merit from the comparison of distributions. We consider three, which are related to different physical testing scenarios. The most thorough test compares the transport distances between the marginals of a joint measurement and the reference observables for every input state. Less demanding is a test just on the states for which a “true value” is known in the sense that the reference observable yields a definite outcome. Finally, we can measure a deviation as a single expectation value by comparing the two observables on the two parts of a maximally-entangled state. All three error quantities have the property that they vanish if and only if the tested observable is equal to the reference. The theory is illustrated with some characteristic examples.
Uncertainty, non-locality and Bell's inequality
Pati, A K
1998-01-01
We derive a Bell-like inequality involving all correlations in local observables with uncertainty free states and show that the inequality is violated in quantum mechanics for EPR and GHZ states. If the uncertainties are allowed in local observables then the statistical predictions of hidden variable theory is well respected in quantum world. We argue that the uncertainties play a key role in understanding the non-locality issues in quantum world. Thus we can not rule out the possibility that a local, realistic hidden variable theory with statistical uncertainties in the observables might reproduce all the results of quantum theory.
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics
Kammerlander, P.; Anders, J.
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.
Multipartite entanglement accumulation in quantum states: Localizable generalized geometric measure
Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Pal, Amit Kumar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2017-02-01
Multiparty quantum states are useful for a variety of quantum information and computation protocols. We define a multiparty entanglement measure based on local measurements on a multiparty quantum state and an entanglement measure averaged on the postmeasurement ensemble. Using the generalized geometric measure as the measure of multipartite entanglement for the ensemble, we demonstrate, in the case of several well-known classes of multipartite pure states, that the localized multipartite entanglement can exceed the entanglement present in the original state. We also show that measurement over multiple parties may be beneficial in enhancing localizable multipartite entanglement. We point out that localizable generalized geometric measure faithfully signals quantum critical phenomena in well-known quantum spin models even when considerable finite-size effect is present in the system.
Extracting Work from Quantum Measurement in Maxwell's Demon Engines
Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Martí, David; Huard, Benjamin; Auffèves, Alexia
2017-06-01
The essence of both classical and quantum engines is to extract useful energy (work) from stochastic energy sources, e.g., thermal baths. In Maxwell's demon engines, work extraction is assisted by a feedback control based on measurements performed by a demon, whose memory is erased at some nonzero energy cost. Here we propose a new type of quantum Maxwell's demon engine where work is directly extracted from the measurement channel, such that no heat bath is required. We show that in the Zeno regime of frequent measurements, memory erasure costs eventually vanish. Our findings provide a new paradigm to analyze quantum heat engines and work extraction in the quantum world.
Extracting Work from Quantum Measurement in Maxwell's Demon Engines.
Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Martí, David; Huard, Benjamin; Auffèves, Alexia
2017-06-30
The essence of both classical and quantum engines is to extract useful energy (work) from stochastic energy sources, e.g., thermal baths. In Maxwell's demon engines, work extraction is assisted by a feedback control based on measurements performed by a demon, whose memory is erased at some nonzero energy cost. Here we propose a new type of quantum Maxwell's demon engine where work is directly extracted from the measurement channel, such that no heat bath is required. We show that in the Zeno regime of frequent measurements, memory erasure costs eventually vanish. Our findings provide a new paradigm to analyze quantum heat engines and work extraction in the quantum world.
Lawrence, I.
1996-01-01
Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)
Mashhoon, B
2014-01-01
A brief account of the present status of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is presented. The main physical assumptions that underlie this theory are described. We clarify the physical meaning and significance of Weitzenb\\"ock's torsion, and emphasize its intimate relationship with the gravitational field, characterized by the Riemannian curvature of spacetime. In this theory, nonlocality can simulate dark matter; in fact, in the Newtonian regime, we recover the phenomenological Tohline-Kuhn approach to modified gravity. To account for the observational data regarding dark matter, nonlocality is associated with a characteristic length scale of order 1 kpc. The confrontation of nonlocal gravity with observation is briefly discussed.
Measurement-only topological quantum computation without forced measurements
Zheng, Huaixiu; Dua, Arpit; Jiang, Liang
2016-12-01
We investigate the measurement-only topological quantum computation (MOTQC) approach proposed by Bonderson et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 010501) where the braiding operation is shown to be equivalent to a series of topological charge ‘forced measurements’ of anyons. In a forced measurement, the charge measurement is forced to yield the desired outcome (e.g. charge 0) via repeatedly measuring charges in different bases. This is a probabilistic process with a certain success probability for each trial. In practice, the number of measurements needed will vary from run to run. We show that such an uncertainty associated with forced measurements can be removed by simulating the braiding operation using a fixed number of three measurements supplemented by a correction operator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in practice we can avoid applying the correction operator in hardware by implementing it in software. Our findings greatly simplify the MOTQC proposal and only require the capability of performing charge measurements to implement topologically protected transformations generated by braiding exchanges without physically moving anyons.
Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.
Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R
1987-11-01
We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.
Some methods for solution of quantum detection and measurement problems
Grishanin, Boris A.
2003-01-01
Representation of the quantum measurement with the help of non-orthogonal decomposition of unit is presented in the paper for the first time. Methods for solution of the quantum detection and measurement problems based on the suggested representation are proposed, as well.
Nonlocality and purity in atom-field coupling system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Xin; Huang Guang-Ming; Li Gao-Xiang
2005-01-01
The effects of initial field state and thermal environment on quantum nonlocality and linear entropy in an atomfield coupling system are investigated. We found that if the cavity is lossless and the reservoir is in vacuum, the atom-field state can exhibit quantum nonlocality periodically and the linear entropies of the atom and the field also oscillate periodically with a period the same as that of quantum nonlocality. And if the cavity dissipation is very weak and the average photon number of the reservoir is very small, the quantum nonlocality will be lost and the linear entropies of the atom and the field oscillate with a decreasing amplitude. The rapidity of the loss of the quantum nonlocality depends on the amplitude of the initial squeezed coherent state, the cavity damping constant κ and the average photon number N of the thermal reservoir. The stronger the field and the larger the constant κ and the average photon number N could be, the more rapidly the nonlocality decreases.
Low energy signatures of nonlocal field theories
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi
2016-09-01
The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by nonanalytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator □ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy nonlocality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment (˜MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.
Bohmian mechanics, open quantum systems and continuous measurements
Nassar, Antonio B
2017-01-01
This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse. The measuring process plays a very important role in quantum mechanics. It has been widely analyzed within the Copenhagen approach through the Born and von Neumann postulates, with later extension due to Lüders. In contrast, much less effort has been invested in the measurement theory within the Bohmian mechanics framework. The continuous measurement (sharp and fuzzy, or strong and weak) problem is considered here in this framework. The authors begin by generalizing the so-called Mensky approach, which is based on restricted path integral through quantum corridors. The measuring system is then considered to be an open quantum system following a stochastic Schrödinger equation. Quantum stochastic trajectories (in the Bohmian sense) and their role in basic quantum processes are discussed in detail. The decoherence process is thereby described in terms of classical trajectories issuing from th...
Wavefunction Collapse via a Nonlocal Relativistic Variational Principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrison, Alan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-18
Since the origin of quantum theory in the 1920's, some of its practitioners (and founders) have been troubled by some of its features, including indeterminacy, nonlocality and entanglement. The 'collapse' process described in the Copenhagen Interpretation is suspect for several reasons, and the act of 'measurement,' which is supposed to delimit its regime of validity, has never been unambiguously defined. In recent decades, nonlocality and entanglement have been studied energetically, both theoretically and experimentally, and the theory has been reinterpreted in imaginative ways, but many mysteries remain. We propose that it is necessary to replace the theory by one that is explicitly nonlinear and nonlocal, and does not distinguish between measurement and non-measurement regimes. We have constructed such a theory, for which the phase of the wavefunction plays the role of a hidden variable via the process of zitterbewegung. To capture this effect, the theory must be relativistic, even when describing nonrelativistic phenomena. It is formulated as a variational principle, in which Nature attempts to minimize the sum of two spacetime integrals. The first integral tends to drive the solution toward a solution of the standard quantum mechanical wave equation, and also enforces the Born rule of outcome probabilities. The second integral drives the collapse process. We demonstrate that the new theory correctly predicts the possible outcomes of the electron two-slit experiment, including the infamous 'delayed-choice' variant. We observe that it appears to resolve some long-standing mysteries, but introduces new ones, including possible retrocausality (a cause later than its effect). It is not clear whether the new theory is deterministic.
Physics of quantum measurement and its interdisciplinary applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morikawa Masahiro
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum dynamics of the collective mode and individual particles on a ring is studied as the simplest model of projective quantum measurement. In this model, the collective mode measures an individual single quantum system. The heart of the model is the wide separation of time scales which yields the distinction of classical and quantum degrees of freedom beyond the standard Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In some restricted cases we derive the Born probability rule. This model is the quantum mechanics version of the effective action method in quantum field theory, which describes the origin of the primordial density fluctuation as classical variables. It turns out that the classical version of this same model successfully describes the dynamics of geomagnetic variation including the polarity flips over 160 million years. The essence of this description is again the coexistence of the wide separated time scales.
Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus
Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-03-01
We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.
Measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord
Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Caves, Carlton M.; Ralph, Timothy C.
2013-01-01
We introduce a measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord of any bipartite quantum system. We show that by performing an informationally complete positive operator valued measurement (IC-POVM) on one subsystem and checking the commutativity of the conditional states of the other subsystem, quantum discord from the second subsystem to the first can be verified. This is an improvement upon previous methods, which enables us to efficiently apply our method to continuous-variable systems, as IC-POVM's are readily available from homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We show that quantum discord for Gaussian states can be verified by checking whether the peaks of the conditional Wigner functions corresponding to two different outcomes of heterodyne measurement coincide at the same point in the phase space. Using this method, we also prove that the only Gaussian states with zero discord are product states; hence, Gaussian states with Gaussian discord have nonzero quantum discord.
Measurement Based Quantum Computation on Fractal Lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Hajdušek
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.
Exact quantum Bayesian rule for qubit measurements in circuit QED
Feng, Wei; Liang, Pengfei; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi
2016-02-01
Developing efficient framework for quantum measurements is of essential importance to quantum science and technology. In this work, for the important superconducting circuit-QED setup, we present a rigorous and analytic solution for the effective quantum trajectory equation (QTE) after polaron transformation and converted to the form of Stratonovich calculus. We find that the solution is a generalization of the elegant quantum Bayesian approach developed in arXiv:1111.4016 by Korotokov and currently applied to circuit-QED measurements. The new result improves both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the qubit density matrix, via amending the distribution probabilities of the output currents and several important phase factors. Compared to numerical integration of the QTE, the resultant quantum Bayesian rule promises higher efficiency to update the measured state, and allows more efficient and analytical studies for some interesting problems such as quantum weak values, past quantum state, and quantum state smoothing. The method of this work opens also a new way to obtain quantum Bayesian formulas for other systems and in more complicated cases.
Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements
Imamoglu, Atac
2014-01-01
We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.
"Evaluations" of Observables Versus Measurements in Quantum Theory
Nisticò, Giuseppe; Sestito, Angela
2016-03-01
In Quantum Physics there are circumstances where the direct measurement of a given observable encounters difficulties; in some of these cases, however, its value can be "evaluated", i.e. it can be inferred by measuring another observable characterized by perfect correlation with the observable of interest. Though an evaluation is often interpreted as a measurement of the evaluated observable, we prove that the two concepts cannot be identified in Quantum Physics, because the identification yields contradictions. Then, we establish the conceptual status of evaluations in Quantum Theory and how they are related to measurements.
Coupled Ito equations of continuous quantum state measurement, and estimation
Diósi, L; Konrad, T; Scherer, A; Audretsch, Juergen; Diosi, Lajos; Konrad, Thomas; Scherer, Artur
2006-01-01
We discuss a non-linear stochastic master equation that governs the time-evolution of the estimated quantum state. Its differential evolution corresponds to the infinitesimal updates that depend on the time-continuous measurement of the true quantum state. The new stochastic master equation couples to the two standard stochastic differential equations of time-continuous quantum measurement. For the first time, we can prove that the calculated estimate almost always converges to the true state, also at low-efficiency measurements. We show that our single-state theory can be adapted to weak continuous ensemble measurements as well.
Measurement of Quantum Geometry Using Laser Interferometry
Hogan, Craig
2013-01-01
New quantum degrees of freedom of space-time, originating at the Planck scale, could create a coherent indeterminacy and noise in the transverse position of massive bodies on macroscopic scales. An experiment is under development at Fermilab designed to detect or rule out a transverse position noise with Planck spectral density, using correlated signals from an adjacent pair of Michelson interferometers. A detection would open an experimental window on quantum space-time.
Quantum Dense Coding in Multiparticle Entangled States via Local Measurements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈建兰; 匡乐满
2004-01-01
We study quantum dense coding between two arbitrarily fixed particles in a (N + 2)-particle maximally-entangled states through introducing an auxiliary qubit and carrying out local measurements. It is shown that the transmitted classical information amount through such an entangled quantum channel is usually less than two classical bits. However, the information amount may reach two classical bits of information, and the classical information capacity is independent of the number of the entangled particles under certain conditions. The results offer deeper insight into quantum dense coding via quantum channels of multi-particle entangled states.
On the Dynamical Solution of Quantum Measurement Problem
Belavkin, V P
2005-01-01
The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, only indicated a possibility for resolution of the interpretational crisis of quantum mechanics. We do this by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the past beables with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements insuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of the dynamical commutation relations leads in particular to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate. This gives a quantum stochastic solution, in the form of the dynamical filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroe...
A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations
von Stillfried, Nikolaus
Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.
DLTS measurements on GaSb/GaAs quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoegner, Annika; Nowozin, Tobias; Marent, Andreas; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin (Germany); Tseng, Chi-Che [Institute of Photonics Technologies, NTHU (China); Lin, Shih-Yen [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, NTOU (China)
2010-07-01
Memory devices based on hole storage in self-organized quantum dots offer significant advantages with respect to storage time and scalability. Recently, we demonstrated a first prototype based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots at low temperatures. To enable feasible storage times at room temperature the localisation energy of the quantum dots has to be increased by using other material systems. A first step in this direction is the use of GaSb quantum dots within a GaAs matrix. We have characterized self-organized GaSb/GaAs quantum dots embedded into a n{sup +}p-diode structure. DLTS measurements on hole emission were conducted and yield a strong peak from which a mean emission energy of about 400 meV can be extracted. The reference sample without the quantum dots (containing only the wetting layer) shows no such peak.
Quantum mechanics and elements of reality inferred from joint measurements
Cabello, Adan; Garcia-Alcaine, Guillermo
1997-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument on quantum mechanics incompleteness is formulated in terms of elements of reality inferred from joint (as opposed to alternative) measurements, in two examples involving entangled states of three spin-1/2 particles. The same states allow us to obtain proofs of the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and elements of reality.
Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.
2016-08-01
We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.
Kalman filtering and Standard Quantum Limits for broadband measurement
Mabuchi, H
1998-01-01
I utilize the Caves-Milburn model for continuous position measurements to formulate a broadband version of the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) for monitoring the position of a free mass, and illustrate the use of Kalman filtering to recover the SQL for estimating a weak classical force that acts on a quantum-mechanical test particle under continuous observation.
Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.
Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P
2016-08-25
We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.
Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.
2016-01-01
We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009
Could quantum decoherence and measurement be deterministic phenomena?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sparenberg Jean-Marc
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The apparent random outcome of a quantum measurement is conjectured to be fundamentally determined by the microscopic state of the macroscopic measurement apparatus. The apparatus state thus plays the role of a hidden variable which, in contrast with variables characterizing the measured microscopic system, is shown to lead to a violation of Bell’s inequalities and to agree with standard quantum mechanics. An explicit realization of this interpretation is explored (for details, see [1] for a primitive model of cloud chamber inspired by Mott [2]. Being highly non local, this interpretation of quantum mechanics is argued to open the way to faster-than-light information transfer.
On the Capability of Measurement-Based Quantum Feedback
Qi, Bo; Guo, Lei
2010-01-01
As a key method in dealing with uncertainties, feedback has been understood fairly well in classical control theory. But for quantum control systems, the capability of measurement-based feedback control (MFC) has not been investigated systematically. In contrast to the control of classical systems where the measurement effect is negligible, the quantum measurement will cause a quantum state to collapse, which will inevitably introduce additional uncertainties besides the system initial uncertainty. Therefore, there is a complicated tradeoff between the uncertainty introduced and the information gained by the measurement, and thus a theoretical investigation of the capability of MFC is of fundamental importance. In this paper, inspired by both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for quantum systems and the investigation of the feedback capability for classical systems, we try to answer the following three basic questions: (i) How to choose the measurement channel appropriately? (ii) Is the MFC still superior ...
Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations under weak measurements
Li, Lei; Wang, Qing-Wen; Shen, Shu-Qian; Li, Ming
2017-08-01
We investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) based on weak measurements. It is shown that the lower bound of EUR revealed by weak measurements is always larger than that revealed by the corresponding projective measurements. A series of lower bounds of EUR under both weak measurements and projective measurements are presented. Interestingly, the quantum-memory-assisted EUR based on weak measurements is a monotonically decreasing function of the strength parameter. Furthermore, some information-theoretic inequalities associated with weak measurements are also derived.
Quantum entanglement and quantum operation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
It is a simple introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum operations. The authors focus on some applications of quantum entanglement and relations between two-qubit entangled states and unitary operations. It includes remote state preparation by using any pure entangled states, nonlocal operation implementation using entangled states, entanglement capacity of two-qubit gates and two-qubit gates construction.
Quantum dynamics of simultaneously measured non-commuting observables
Hacohen-Gourgy, Shay; Martin, Leigh S.; Flurin, Emmanuel; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Siddiqi, Irfan
2016-10-01
In quantum mechanics, measurements cause wavefunction collapse that yields precise outcomes, whereas for non-commuting observables such as position and momentum Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle limits the intrinsic precision of a state. Although theoretical work has demonstrated that it should be possible to perform simultaneous non-commuting measurements and has revealed the limits on measurement outcomes, only recently has the dynamics of the quantum state been discussed. To realize this unexplored regime, we simultaneously apply two continuous quantum non-demolition probes of non-commuting observables to a superconducting qubit. We implement multiple readout channels by coupling the qubit to multiple modes of a cavity. To control the measurement observables, we implement a ‘single quadrature’ measurement by driving the qubit and applying cavity sidebands with a relative phase that sets the observable. Here, we use this approach to show that the uncertainty principle governs the dynamics of the wavefunction by enforcing a lower bound on the measurement-induced disturbance. Consequently, as we transition from measuring identical to measuring non-commuting observables, the dynamics make a smooth transition from standard wavefunction collapse to localized persistent diffusion and then to isotropic persistent diffusion. Although the evolution of the state differs markedly from that of a conventional measurement, information about both non-commuting observables is extracted by keeping track of the time ordering of the measurement record, enabling quantum state tomography without alternating measurements. Our work creates novel capabilities for quantum control, including rapid state purification, adaptive measurement, measurement-based state steering and continuous quantum error correction. As physical systems often interact continuously with their environment via non-commuting degrees of freedom, our work offers a way to study how notions of contemporary
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王光辉
2013-01-01
Analytic expression for optical transmission spectrum is obtained by utilizing the Green function method in the case of nonlocal optical responses of electrons in the conduction band of quantum wells.Optical transmission spectra for typical GaAs/A1GaAs quantum wells of a P(o)schl-Teller potential are investigated in detail.The numerical results show that optical transmission spectrum has an evident blueshift due to the nonlocal optical responses of electrons to applied laser fields,which is dependent closely on the width of the quantum wells.In the effective nano-size region,the wider the width of the quantum well is,the more the blueshift will be.In addition,the influence from the laser intensity and the structure parameter on the transmission spectrum is also analyzed.%在考虑半导体量子阱中导带电子对外加激光场非局域光学响应的情况下,利用格林函数方法推导出了光透射率的解析表达式,并以典型的GaAs/AlGaAs为材料的P(o)schl-Teller量子势阱为例进行数值计算.计算结果表明,由于电子对激光场的非局域光学响应,半导体量子阱的透射光谱的谱线在共振峰附近出现明显地蓝移,蓝移的大小与量子阱宽度有紧密的联系.在有效的纳米尺度范围内,半导体量子阱越宽,透射谱线的蓝移也就越大.另外,光场强度和量子阱结构参数等因素对透射光谱的影响也被澄清.
Optically Measuring Force near the Standard Quantum Limit
Schreppler, Sydney; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2013-01-01
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the sensitivity of continuous optical measurements of force. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can only be reached when a mechanical oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment, and when measurement imprecision from photon shot-noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement backaction. We apply an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity. The optomechanically transduced response clearly demonstrates the trade-off between measurement imprecision and back-action noise. We achieve a sensitivity that is consistent with theoretical predictions for the quantum limit given the atoms' slight residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency, and is a factor of 4 above the absolute standard quantum limit.
Measure of the Quantum Speedup in Closed and Open systems
Xu, Zhen-Yu
We construct a general measure for detecting the quantum speedup in both closed and open systems. This speed measure is based on the changing rate of the position of quantum states on a manifold with appropriate monotone Riemannian metrics. Any increase in speed is a clear signature of real dynamical speedup. To clarify the mechanisms of quantum speedup, we first introduce the concept of longitudinal and transverse types of speedup, and then apply the proposed measure to several typical closed and open quantum systems, illustrating that entanglement and the memory effect of the environment together can become resources for longitudinally or transversely accelerating dynamical evolution under certain conditions. Remarkably, a direct measurement of such speedup is feasible without the need for a tomographic reconstruction of the density matrix, which greatly enhances the feasibility of practical experimental tests. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11204196).
Nonlocal correlations: Fair and Unfair Strategies in Bayesian Game
Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik
2016-01-01
Interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting interest games. However, classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are same, in unfair case they ...
The problem of time and the problem of quantum measurement
Singh, Tejinder P
2012-01-01
Quantum theory depends on an external classical time, and there ought to exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not depend on such a time. The demand for the existence of such a reformulation suggests that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic non-linear theory. The stochastic non-linearity provides a dynamical explanation for the collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. Hence the problem of time and the measurement problem are related to each other: the search for a solution for the former problem naturally implies a solution for the latter problem.
Stability of continuous-time quantum filters with measurement imperfections
Amini, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Rouchon, P.
2014-07-01
The fidelity between the state of a continuously observed quantum system and the state of its associated quantum filter, is shown to be always a submartingale. The observed system is assumed to be governed by a continuous-time Stochastic Master Equation (SME), driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes and that takes into account incompleteness and errors in measurements. This stability result is the continuous-time counterpart of a similar stability result already established for discrete-time quantum systems and where the measurement imperfections are modelled by a left stochastic matrix.
Workshop on Quantum Measurement : Beyond Paradox
Hellman, G; Quantum Measurement : Beyond Paradox
1998-01-01
With relativity theory, quantum mechanics stands as the conceptual foundation of modern physics. Editors Richard A. Healey and Geoffrey Hellman marshal the resources of leading physicists and philosophers of science, skillfully joining their insights and ingenuity to yield some of the most innovative and altogether promising thought to date on this enigmatic issue.
Direct scheme for measuring the geometric quantum discord
Jin, Jia-sen; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme to directly measure the exact value of geometric quantum discord of an arbitrary two-qubit state. We only need to perform the projective measurement in the all anti-symmetric subspace and our scheme is parametrically efficient in contrast to the widely adopted quantum state tomography scheme in the sense of less parameter estimations and projectors. Moreover, the present scheme can be easily realized with the current experimental techniques.
Optical Telecom Networks as Weak Quantum Measurements with Postselection
Brunner, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio; Collins, Daniel Geoffrey; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio
2003-01-01
We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formali...
Nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements of the organic zero-gap conductor α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3
Kamiya, Takeshi; Kawasugi, Yoshitaka; Ara, Masato; Tada, Hirokazu
2017-02-01
We prepared nonlocal spin valves based on single crystals of an organic multilayered zero-gap conductor α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 and succeeded in evaluating the spin-diffusion length (1.1 μm) and relaxation time (3 ns) at 2.5 K under a static pressure of 1.6 GPa using a polyethylene naphthalate as a substrate. Although α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 includes heavy atoms, such as iodine, it exhibited a rather long spin-relaxation time comparable to that of graphene. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) estimated on the basis of the experimental values of the spin-relaxation time and carrier lifetime (1.2 ps) was 90 mK. The long spin-relaxation time and small SOI evaluated for α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 are considered to originate from its layered structure in which spin scattering induced by surface defects is suppressed. In addition, the inversion asymmetry, which generates an extra term in the equation for the SOI, might be reduced in layered structures. These findings provide guiding principles for materials design in organic spintronics.
Robust non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2017-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.
Simulating local measurements on a quantum many-body system with stochastic matrix product states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....
Nonlocal continuum field theories
2002-01-01
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...
Nonlocal neurology: beyond localization to holonomy.
Globus, G G; O'Carroll, C P
2010-11-01
The concept of local pathology has long served neurology admirably. Relevant models include self-organizing nonlinear brain dynamics, global workspace and dynamic core theories. However such models are inconsistent with certain clinical phenomena found in Charles Bonnet syndrome, disjunctive agnosia and schizophrenia, where there is disunity of content within the unity of consciousness. This is contrasted with the split-brain case where there is disunity of content and disunity of consciousnesses. The development of quantum brain theory with it nonlocal mechanisms under the law of the whole ("holonomy") offers new possibilities for explaining disintegration within unity. Dissipative quantum brain dynamics and its approach to the binding problem, memory and consciousness are presented. A nonlocal neurology armed with a holonomic understanding might see more deeply into what clinical neurology has always aspired to: the patient as a whole.
A Fast Measurement based fixed-point Quantum Search Algorithm
Mani, Ashish
2011-01-01
Generic quantum search algorithm searches for target entity in an unsorted database by repeatedly applying canonical Grover's quantum rotation transform to reach near the vicinity of the target entity represented by a basis state in the Hilbert space associated with the qubits. Thus, when qubits are measured, there is a high probability of finding the target entity. However, the number of times quantum rotation transform is to be applied for reaching near the vicinity of the target is a function of the number of target entities present in the unsorted database, which is generally unknown. A wrong estimate of the number of target entities can lead to overshooting or undershooting the targets, thus reducing the success probability. Some proposals have been made to overcome this limitation. These proposals either employ quantum counting to estimate the number of solutions or fixed point schemes. This paper proposes a new scheme for stopping the application of quantum rotation transformation on reaching near the ...
Proliferation of observables and measurement in quantum-classical hybrids
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2012-01-01
Following a review of quantum-classical hybrid dynamics, we discuss the ensuing proliferation of observables and relate it to measurements of (would-be) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom performed by (would-be) classical ones (if they were separable). -- Hybrids consist in coupled classical ("CL") and quantum mechanical ("QM") objects. Numerous consistency requirements for their description have been discussed and are fulfilled here. We summarize a representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical analytical mechanics which is naturally extended to QM-CL hybrids. This framework allows for superposition, separable, and entangled states originating in the QM sector, admits experimenter's "Free Will", and is local and non-signalling. -- Presently, we study the set of hybrid observables, which is larger than the Cartesian product of QM and CL observables of its components; yet it is smaller than a corresponding product of all-classical observables. Thus, quantumness and classicality infect each other.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan L. Danilishin
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya
2012-01-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Five Measurement Bases Determine Pure Quantum States on Any Dimension.
Goyeneche, D; Cañas, G; Etcheverry, S; Gómez, E S; Xavier, G B; Lima, G; Delgado, A
2015-08-28
A long-standing problem in quantum mechanics is the minimum number of observables required for the characterization of unknown pure quantum states. The solution to this problem is especially important for the developing field of high-dimensional quantum information processing. In this work we demonstrate that any pure d-dimensional state is unambiguously reconstructed by measuring five observables, that is, via projective measurements onto the states of five orthonormal bases. Thus, in our method the total number of different measurement outcomes (5d) scales linearly with d. The state reconstruction is robust against experimental errors and requires simple postprocessing, regardless of d. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme through the reconstruction of eight-dimensional quantum states, encoded in the momentum of single photons.
Quantum homomorphic signature based on Bell-state measurement
Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiao-yu; Fang, Jun-bin
2016-09-01
In this paper, a novel quantum homomorphic signature scheme based solely on Bell-state measurement is proposed. It allows an aggregator to merge two signature nodes' signatures of their classical messages into one signature, which is an effective approach to identity authentication for multiple streams to enhance the security of quantum networks. And it is easy to generalize this scheme to multiple nodes. Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in many experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution schemes, which makes us believe that our scheme can be realized in the near future. It is shown that our scheme is a quantum group homomorphic signature scheme and is secure by the scheme analysis.
Quantum homomorphic signature based on Bell-state measurement
Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiao-yu; Fang, Jun-bin
2016-12-01
In this paper, a novel quantum homomorphic signature scheme based solely on Bell-state measurement is proposed. It allows an aggregator to merge two signature nodes' signatures of their classical messages into one signature, which is an effective approach to identity authentication for multiple streams to enhance the security of quantum networks. And it is easy to generalize this scheme to multiple nodes. Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in many experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution schemes, which makes us believe that our scheme can be realized in the near future. It is shown that our scheme is a quantum group homomorphic signature scheme and is secure by the scheme analysis.
Role of geometry in the superfluid flow of nonlocal photon fluids
Vocke, David; Wilson, Kali; Marino, Francesco; Carusotto, Iacopo; Wright, Ewan M.; Roger, Thomas; Anderson, Brian P.; Öhberg, Patrik; Faccio, Daniele
2016-07-01
Recent work has unveiled a new class of optical systems that can exhibit the characteristic features of superfluidity. One such system relies on the repulsive photon-photon interaction that is mediated by a thermal optical nonlinearity and is therefore inherently nonlocal due to thermal diffusion. Here we investigate how such a nonlocal interaction, which at a first inspection would not be expected to lead to superfluid behavior, may be tailored by acting upon the geometry of the photon fluid itself. Our models and measurements show that restricting the laser profile and hence the photon fluid to a strongly elliptical geometry modifies thermal diffusion along the major beam axis and reduces the effective nonlocal interaction length by two orders of magnitude. This in turn enables the system to display a characteristic trait of superfluid flow: the nucleation of quantized vortices in the flow past an extended physical obstacle. These results are general and apply to other nonlocal fluids, such as dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, and show that "thermal" photon superfluids provide an exciting and novel experimental environment for probing the nature of superfluidity, with applications to the study of quantum turbulence and analog gravity.
Time-symmetric electrodynamics and quantum measurement
Pegg, D. T.
The application of the Wheeler-Feynman theory of time-symmetric electrodynamics to obtain definite answers to questions concerning the objective existence of quantum states in an optical EPR type of experiment is discussed. This theory allows the influence of the detector on the system being studied to be taken into account. The result is an entirely fresh understanding of experiments of the Kocher-Commins type.
Nonlocality Sudden Birth and Transfer in System and Environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Liang
2011-01-01
Dynamics of the nonlocality measured by the violation of Svetlichny's Bell-type inequality is investigated in the non-Markovian model. The phenomenon of nonlocality sudden birth for the atoms and the reservoirs is obtained.The evolution of the nonlocality among the atoms or the reservoirs depends on the choice of the atom detuning from the cavity pseudomode, the cavity pseudomode decay and the rotation angles. For the small pseudomode decay in the near-resonance regime, the initial atomic nonlocality is completely transferred to the reservoirs ultimately.
Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo
Kolodrubetz, Michael
2014-01-01
The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...
Photonic multipartite entanglement conversion using nonlocal operations
Tashima, T.; Tame, M. S.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Nori, F.; Koashi, M.; Weinfurter, H.
2016-11-01
We propose a simple setup for the conversion of multipartite entangled states in a quantum network with restricted access. The scheme uses nonlocal operations to enable the preparation of states that are inequivalent under local operations and classical communication, but most importantly does not require full access to the states. It is based on a flexible linear optical conversion gate that uses photons, which are ideally suited for distributed quantum computation and quantum communication in extended networks. In order to show the basic working principles of the gate, we focus on converting a four-qubit entangled cluster state to other locally inequivalent four-qubit states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and symmetric Dicke states. We also show how the gate can be incorporated into extended graph state networks and can be used to generate variable entanglement and quantum correlations without entanglement but nonvanishing quantum discord.
Dolev, S; Kolenda, N
2005-01-01
For more than a century, quantum mechanics has served as a very powerful theory that has expanded physics and technology far beyond their classical limits, yet it has also produced some of the most difficult paradoxes known to the human mind. This book represents the combined efforts of sixteen of today's most eminent theoretical physicists to lay out future directions for quantum physics. The authors include Yakir Aharonov, Anton Zeilinger; the Nobel laureates Anthony Leggett and Geradus 't Hooft; Basil Hiley, Lee Smolin and Henry Stapp. Following a foreword by Roger Penrose, the individual chapters address questions such as quantum non-locality, the measurement problem, quantum insights into relativity, cosmology and thermodynamics, and the possible bearing of quantum phenomena on biology and consciousness.
General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements
Miao, Haixing
2017-01-01
In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.
Quantum and concept combination, entangled measurements, and prototype theory.
Aerts, Diederik
2014-01-01
We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of "extension" and "intension" in theories of meaning, and in existing concept theories.
Josephson directional amplifier for quantum measurement of superconducting circuits.
Abdo, Baleegh; Sliwa, Katrina; Shankar, S; Hatridge, Michael; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert; Devoret, Michel
2014-04-25
We realize a microwave quantum-limited amplifier that is directional and can therefore function without the front circulator needed in many quantum measurements. The amplification takes place in only one direction between the input and output ports. Directionality is achieved by multipump parametric amplification combined with wave interference. We have verified the device noise performances by using it to read out a superconducting qubit and observed quantum jumps. With an improved version of this device, the qubit and preamplifer could be integrated on the same chip.
Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger
2013-01-01
We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...
Cosmological Constant, Quantum Measurement, and the Problem of Time
Banerjee, Shreya; Singh, Tejinder P
2015-01-01
Three of the big puzzles of theoretical physics are the following: (i) There is apparently no time evolution in the dynamics of quantum general relativity, because the allowed quantum states must obey the Hamiltonian constraint. (ii) During a quantum measurement, the state of the quantum system randomly collapses from being in a linear superposition of the eigenstates of the measured observable, to just one of the eigenstates, in apparent violation of the predictions of the deterministic, linear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. (iii) The observed value of the cosmological constant is exceedingly small, compared to its natural value, creating a serious fine-tuning problem. In this essay we propose a novel idea to show how the three problems help solve each other.
Quantum Standard Teleportation Based on the Generic Measurement Bases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO San-Ru; HOU Bo-Yu; XI Xiao-Qiang; YUE Rui-Hong
2003-01-01
We study the quantum standard teleportation based on the generic measurement bases. It is shown that the quantum standard teleportation does not depend on the explicit expression of the measurement bases. We have giventhe correspondence relation between the measurement performed by Alice and the unitary transformation performed byBob. We also prove that the single particle unknown states and the two-particle unknown cat-like states can be exactlytransmitted by means of the generic measurement bases and the correspondence unitary transformations.
Quantum Standard Teleportation Based on the Generic Measurement Bases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAOSan-Ru; HOUBo-Yu; XIXiao-Qiang; YUERui-Hong
2003-01-01
We study the quantum standard teleportation based on the generic measurement bases. It is shown that the quantum standard teleportation does not depend on the explicit expression of the measurement bases. We have given the correspondence relation between the measurement performed by Alice and the unitary transformation performed by Bob. We also prove that the single particle unknown states and the two-particle unknown cat-like states can be exactly transmitted by means of the generic measurement bases and the correspondence unitary transformations.
Quantum mechanics as a measurement theory on biconformal space
Anderson, L B; Anderson, Lara B.; Wheeler, James T.
2004-01-01
Biconformal spaces contain the essential elements of quantum mechanics, making the independent imposition of quantization unnecessary. Based on three postulates characterizing motion and measurement in biconformal geometry, we derive standard quantum mechanics, and show how the need for probability amplitudes arises from the use of a standard of measurement. Additionally, we show that a postulate for unique, classical motion yields Hamiltonian dynamics with no measurable size changes, while a postulate for probabilistic evolution leads to physical dilatations manifested as measurable phase changes. Our results lead to the Feynman path integral formulation, from which follows the Schroedinger equation. We discuss the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and fundamental canonical commutation relations.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Randomized benchmarking in measurement-based quantum computing
Alexander, Rafael N.; Turner, Peter S.; Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-09-01
Randomized benchmarking is routinely used as an efficient method for characterizing the performance of sets of elementary logic gates in small quantum devices. In the measurement-based model of quantum computation, logic gates are implemented via single-site measurements on a fixed universal resource state. Here we adapt the randomized benchmarking protocol for a single qubit to a linear cluster state computation, which provides partial, yet efficient characterization of the noise associated with the target gate set. Applying randomized benchmarking to measurement-based quantum computation exhibits an interesting interplay between the inherent randomness associated with logic gates in the measurement-based model and the random gate sequences used in benchmarking. We consider two different approaches: the first makes use of the standard single-qubit Clifford group, while the second uses recently introduced (non-Clifford) measurement-based 2-designs, which harness inherent randomness to implement gate sequences.
Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality
Brown, Harvey R
2015-01-01
Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Peiyue [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cao, Yunshan [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Gong, Ming [Department of Physics and Centre for Quantum Coherence, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xin-Qi, E-mail: lixinqi@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2014-02-01
It was predicted by Tewari et al. (2008) [15] that a teleportation-like electron transfer phenomenon is one of the novel consequences of the existence of Majorana fermion, because of the inherently nonlocal nature. In this work we consider a concrete realization and measurement scheme for this interesting behavior, based on a setup consisting of a pair of quantum dots which are tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor nanowire and are jointly measured by two point-contact detectors. We analyze the teleportation dynamics in the presence of measurement back-action and discuss how the teleportation events can be identified from the current trajectories of strong response detectors.
Measuring orbital interaction using quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rissler, Joerg [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: rissler@staff.uni-marburg.de; Noack, Reinhard M. [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); White, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)
2006-04-21
Quantum information theory gives rise to a straightforward definition of the interaction of electrons I {sub p,q} in two orbitals p,q for a given many-body wave function. A convenient way to calculate the von Neumann entropies needed is presented in this work, and the orbital interaction I {sub p,q} is successfully tested for different types of chemical bonds. As an example of an application of I {sub p,q} beyond the interpretation of wave functions, I {sub p,q} is then used to investigate the ordering problem in the density-matrix renormalization group.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Danilishin, Stefan L
2012-01-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point, when quantum behaviour of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time, when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is round the corner, and finding the ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned int...
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Yamamoto, Naoki
2014-10-01
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Yamamoto
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization
Gamel, Omar
2013-01-01
There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.
Measurements, disturbances and the quantum three box paradox
Maroney, O. J. E.
2017-05-01
A quantum pre- and post-selection paradox involves making measurements at two separate times on a quantum system, and making inferences about the state of the system at an intermediate time, conditional upon the observed outcomes. The inferences lead to predictions about the results of measurements performed at the intermediate time, which have been well confirmed experimentally, but which nevertheless seem paradoxical when inferences about different intermediate measurements are combined. The three box paradox is the paradigm example of such an effect, where a ball is placed in one of three boxes and is shuffled between the boxes in between two measurements of its location. By conditionalising on the outcomes of those measurements, it is inferred that between the two measurements the ball would have been found with certainty in Box 1 and with certainty in Box 2, if either box been opened on their own. Despite experimental confirmation of the predictions, and much discussion, it has remained unclear what exactly is supposed to be paradoxical or what specifically is supposed to be quantum, about these effects. In this paper I identify precisely the conditions under which the quantum three box paradox occurs, and show that these conditions are the same as arise in the derivation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality, which is supposed to demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum theory with macroscopic realism. I will argue that, as in Leggett-Garg Inequality violations, the source of the effect actually lies in the disturbance introduced by the intermediate measurement, and that the quantum nature of the effect is that no classical model of measurement disturbance can reproduce the paradox.
Testing nonlocality of a single photon without a shared reference frame
Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Chaves, Rafael; Brunner, Nicolas
2013-07-01
The question of testing the nonlocality of a single photon has raised much debate over the last years. The controversy is intimately related to the issue of providing a common reference frame for the observers to perform their local measurements. Here we address this point by presenting a simple scheme for demonstrating the nonlocality of a single photon which does not require a shared reference frame. Specifically, Bell inequality violation can be obtained with certainty with unaligned devices, even if the relative frame fluctuates between each experimental run of the Bell test. Our scheme appears feasible with current technology and may simplify the realization of quantum communication protocols based on single-photon entanglement.
Solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations using a noncompact semigroup
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaochun Ji
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations in Banach spaces. By using a type of newly-defined measure of noncompactness, we discuss this problem in general Banach spaces without any compactness assumptions to the operator semigroup. Some existence results are obtained when the nonlocal term is compact and when is Lipschitz continuous.
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-04-01
A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.
Nonlinear quantum mechanics, the superposition principle, and the quantum measurement problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kinjalk Lochan; T P Singh
2011-01-01
There are four reasons why our present knowledge and understanding of quantum mechanics can be regarded as incomplete. (1) The principle of linear superposition has not been experimentally tested for position eigenstates of objects having more than about a thousand atoms. (2) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the process of quantum measurement. (3) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the observed fact that macroscopic objects are not found in superposition of position eigenstates. (4) Most importantly, the concept of time is classical and hence external to quantum mechanics: there should exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not refer to an external classical time. In this paper we argue that such a reformulation is the limiting case of a nonlinear quantum theory, with the nonlinearity becoming important at the Planck mass scale. Such a nonlinearity can provide insights into the aforesaid problems. We use a physically motivated model for a nonlinear Schr ¨odinger equation to show that nonlinearity can help in understanding quantum measurement. We also show that while the principle of linear superposition holds to a very high accuracy for atomic systems, the lifetime of a quantum superposition becomes progressively smaller, as one goes from microscopic to macroscopic objects. This can explain the observed absence of position superpositions in macroscopic objects (lifetime is too small). It also suggests that ongoing laboratory experiments may be able to detect the ﬁnite superposition lifetime for mesoscopic objects in the near future.
Electrical derivative measurement of quantum cascade lasers
Guo, Dingkai; Cheng, Liwei; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Fan, Jenyu; Worchesky, Terry
2011-02-01
The electrical derivative characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated to test the QCL threshold, leakage current, and possibly explore carrier transport. QCL thresholds can be identified by searching for the slope peak of the first derivative of the I-V curves and can be further confirmed with its alignment to the peak of the second derivative of the I-V curves. Leakage current in QCLs with oxide-blocked ridge waveguides and buried heterostructure (BH) waveguides are studied and compared. The oxide-blocking structures provide the lowest leakage current although the capped-mesa-BH (CMBH) QCLs provide the toughest durability under highly stressful operations. The leakage current of CMBH QCLs are also compared at different temperatures.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum and the ...... in the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit....
Quantum measurement and real-time feedback with a spin-register in diamond
Blok, M.S.
2015-01-01
Gaining precise control over quantum systems is crucial for applications in quantum information processing and quantum sensing and to perform experimental tests of quantum mechanics. The experiments presented in this thesis implement quantum measurements and real-time feedback protocols that can
Quantum measurement and real-time feedback with a spin-register in diamond
Blok, M.S.
2015-01-01
Gaining precise control over quantum systems is crucial for applications in quantum information processing and quantum sensing and to perform experimental tests of quantum mechanics. The experiments presented in this thesis implement quantum measurements and real-time feedback protocols that can hel
Algebraic and algorithmic frameworks for optimized quantum measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
von Neumann projections are the main operations by which information can be extracted from the quantum to the classical realm. They are, however, static processes that do not adapt to the states they measure. Advances in the field of adaptive measurement have shown that this limitation can...... for designing optimized measurements. Our approach is twofold: The first is algebraic and formulates the problem of measurement as a simple matrix diagonalization problem. The second is algorithmic and models the optimal interaction between measurement outcomes and measurement settings as a cascaded network...... of conditional probabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that several figures of merit, such as Bell factors, can be improved by optimized measurements. This leads us to the promising observation that measurement detectors which - taken individually - have a low quantum efficiency can be arranged into circuits...
Direct Measurement of the Density Matrix of a Quantum System
Thekkadath, G. S.; Giner, L.; Chalich, Y.; Horton, M. J.; Banker, J.; Lundeen, J. S.
2016-09-01
One drawback of conventional quantum state tomography is that it does not readily provide access to single density matrix elements since it requires a global reconstruction. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a scheme that can be used to directly measure individual density matrix elements of general quantum states. The scheme relies on measuring a sequence of three observables, each complementary to the last. The first two measurements are made weak to minimize the disturbance they cause to the state, while the final measurement is strong. We perform this joint measurement on polarized photons in pure and mixed states to directly measure their density matrix. The weak measurements are achieved using two walk-off crystals, each inducing a polarization-dependent spatial shift that couples the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of the photons. This direct measurement method provides an operational meaning to the density matrix and promises to be especially useful for large dimensional states.
Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
2016-05-01
We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.
Nonlocal diffusion and applications
Bucur, Claudia
2016-01-01
Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.
Kimura, Tetsuji; Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2016-01-01
We construct $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of K\\"ahler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.
Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with post- selection
Brunner, N; Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio
2003-01-01
We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.
Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with postselection.
Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio
2003-10-31
We show that weak measurements with postselection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the postselection is done in the most natural way: one postselects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.
Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus
Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back action...... strategies, we address the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound. We investigate monitoring by photon counting, homodyne detection and frequent projective measurements respectively, and exemplify by Rabi frequency estimation in a driven two-level system....
Quantum Control nd Measurement of Spins in Cold Atomic Gases
Deutsch, Ivan
2014-03-01
Spins are natural carriers of quantum information given their long coherence time and our ability to precisely control and measure them with magneto-optical fields. Spins in cold atomic gases provide a pristine environment for such quantum control and measurement, and thus this system can act as a test-bed for the development of quantum simulators. I will discuss the progress my group has made in collaboration with Prof. Jessen, University of Arizona, to develop the toolbox for this test-bed. Through its interactions with rf and microwave magnetic fields, whose waveforms are designed through optimal control techniques, we can implement arbitrary unitary control on the internal hyperfine spins of cesium atoms, a 16 dimensional Hilbert space (isomorphic to 4 qubits). Control of the collective spin of the ensemble of many atoms is performed via the mutual coupling of the atomic ensemble to a mode of the electromagnetic field that acts as a quantum data bus for entangling atoms with one another. Internal spin control can be used to enhance the entangling power of the atom-photon interface. Finally, both projective and weak-continuous measurements can be performed to tomograhically reconstruct quantum states and processes.
Measurable signatures of quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime
Helou, Bassam; Luo, Jun; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Shao, Cheng-gang; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; McClelland, David E.; Chen, Yanbei
2017-08-01
We propose an optomechanics experiment that can search for signatures of a fundamentally classical theory of gravity and in particular of the many-body Schrödinger-Newton (SN) equation, which governs the evolution of a crystal under a self-gravitational field. The SN equation predicts that the dynamics of a macroscopic mechanical oscillator's center-of-mass wave function differ from the predictions of standard quantum mechanics [H. Yang, H. Miao, D.-S. Lee, B. Helou, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170401]. This difference is largest for low-frequency oscillators, and for materials, such as tungsten or osmium, with small quantum fluctuations of the constituent atoms around their lattice equilibrium sites. Light probes the motion of these oscillators and is eventually measured in order to extract valuable information on the pendulum's dynamics. Due to the nonlinearity contained in the SN equation, we analyze the fluctuations of measurement results differently than standard quantum mechanics. We revisit how to model a thermal bath, and the wave-function collapse postulate, resulting in two prescriptions for analyzing the quantum measurement of the light. We demonstrate that both predict features, in the outgoing light's phase fluctuations' spectrum, which are separate from classical thermal fluctuations and quantum shot noise, and which can be clearly resolved with state of the art technology.
Compressive direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction
Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
The direct measurement of a complex wavefunction has been recently realized by using weak-values. In this paper, we introduce a method that exploits sparsity for compressive measurement of the transverse spatial wavefunction of single photons. The procedure involves a weak measurement in random projection operators in the spatial domain followed by a post-selection in the momentum basis.
Deterministic error correction for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentanglement.
Li, Tao; Wang, Guan-Yu; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-02-10
Hyperentanglement is an effective quantum source for quantum communication network due to its high capacity, low loss rate, and its unusual character in teleportation of quantum particle fully. Here we present a deterministic error-correction scheme for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentangled photon pairs over collective-noise channels. In our scheme, the spatial-polarization hyperentanglement is first encoded into a spatial-defined time-bin entanglement with identical polarization before it is transmitted over collective-noise channels, which leads to the error rejection of the spatial entanglement during the transmission. The polarization noise affecting the polarization entanglement can be corrected with a proper one-step decoding procedure. The two parties in quantum communication can, in principle, obtain a nonlocal maximally entangled spatial-polarization hyperentanglement in a deterministic way, which makes our protocol more convenient than others in long-distance quantum communication.
Measuring DQC1 Quantum Discord using DQC1
Passante, G; Laflamme, R
2012-01-01
We describe an efficient DQC1-algorithm to quantify the amount of Geometric Quantum Discord present in the output state of a DQC1 computation. DQC1 is a model of computation that utilizes separable states to solve a problem with no known efficient classical algorithm and is known to contain quantum correlations as measured by the discord. For the general case of a (1+n)-qubit DQC1-state we provide an analytical expression for the Geometric Quantum Discord and find that its typical (and maximum) value decreases exponentially with n. This is in contrast to the standard Quantum Discord whose value for typical DQC1-states is known to be independent of n. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed algorithm on a four-qubit liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. In the special case of a two-qubit DQC1 model, we also provide an expression for the Quantum Discord that only requires the outcome of the DQC1 algorithm.
The role of quantum measurements in physical processes and protocols
Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt
2017-09-01
In this mainly pedagogical article, we discuss under what circumstances measurements play a special role in quantum processes. In particular, we discuss the following facts that appear to be a common area of confusion. (i) From a fundamental point of view, measurements play no special role whatsoever: all dynamics that can be generated by measurements can be generated by unitary processes (for which post-selection is no exception). (ii) From a purely physical point of view, measurements are not ‘outside’ of quantum mechanics. (iii) The only difference between the abilities of measurement-based protocols and unitary circuits for quantum computing comes from practical (technology dependent) constraints. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between differences that are (i) fundamental but without physical import; (ii) fundamental and possess physical import; and (iii) are not fundamental but have practical import. We also emphasise the importance of separating theoretical and experimental elements of measurement, primarily projection and amplification, which are physically very different. Note that since we are concerned with facts regarding physical processes, this article has little if anything to do with interpretations of quantum mechanics.
Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu H.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.
Kim, Joon-Il; Kountouriotis, K.; Liu, T.; von Molnar, S.; Xiong, P.; Lu, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Zhao, J. H.
3-terminal (3T) and nonlocal 4-terminal (4T) Hanle measurements have been performed on a spin injection/detection device with patterned Fe electrodes and Al0.3Ga0.7As:Si, a persistent photoconductor, as the channel. The persistent photoconductivity facilitates in situ incremental photo-doping of the AlGaAs channel, which enables direct comparisons of the 3T and 4T Hanle results on the same device over a broad range of carrier densities across the insulator-metal transition. Although their magnitudes differ by about an order of magnitude, the 3T and 4T Hanle signals exhibit broad similarities in their dependencies on the injection current and carrier density, as well as the resulting spin lifetimes. Specifically, at each bias current, the magnitudes of both the 3T and 4T Hanle signals are observed to decrease exponentially with increasing carrier density of the AlGaAs deep into the metallic state. The spin lifetimes extracted from the 3T and 4T Hanle curves, both via the FWHM of the Lorentzian fit and the 1D spin drift-diffusion model analysis, show similar values and evolution with the carrier density. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1308613.
Are there novel resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn; Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behaviour with resulting important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. Here we report on nonlocal resonances in the hydrodynamical Drude model for plasmonic...... nanostructures that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Even though there are no additional resonances in the visible due to nonlocal response, plasmonic field enhancements are affected by nonlocal response. We present both analytical results for simple geometries and our numerical...
Dynamical nonlocality of the entangled coherent state in the phase damping model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Huai-Xin; Li Ying-De
2009-01-01
This paper studies the dynamics of nonlocality for a bosonic entangled coherent state in a phase damping model. The density operator of the system is solved by using a superoperator method. The dynamics of nonlocality for the bosonic entangled coherent state is uncovered by the Bell operator based on the pseudospin operator of a light field. The dynamics of the nonlocality for this state has also been studied by other Bell operators. The result of the numerical calculations of the Bell function shows that the quantum nonlocality heavily depends on the chosen Bell operator.
Probabilistic Implementation of Non-Local CNOT Operation and Entanglement Purification
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑亦庄; 叶鹏; 郭光灿
2004-01-01
We propose a protocol for implementation of nonlocal CNOT operation using a partially entangled channel and show that when partially entangled pairs are taken as quantum channels, the nonlocal CNOT operation can be implemented probabilistically by introducing a collective unitary transformation. The required resources for implementation of the nonlocal CNOT operation in this case are discussed. We also point out that the nonlocal CNOT operation can be used as a purification protocol to concentrate entanglement from an ensemble of partially entangled particles into a subensemble of maximally entanglement ones.
Zimmermann, Tomas
2011-01-01
We propose to measure nonadiabaticity of molecular quantum dynamics rigorously with the quantum fidelity between the Born-Oppenheimer and fully nonadiabatic dynamics. It is shown that this measure of nonadiabaticity applies in situations where other criteria, such as the energy gap criterion or the extent of population transfer, fail. We further propose to estimate this quantum fidelity efficiently with a generalization of the dephasing representation to multiple surfaces. Two variants of the multiple-surface dephasing representation (MSDR) are introduced, in which the nuclei are propagated either with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) or with the locally mean field dynamics (LMFD). The LMFD can be interpreted as the Ehrenfest dynamics of an ensemble of nuclear trajectories, and has been used previously in the nonadiabatic semiclassical initial value representation. In addition to propagating an ensemble of classical trajectories, the MSDR requires evaluating nonadiabatic couplings and solving the Sc...
Entanglement and Nonlocality in Infinite 1D Systems
Wang, Zizhu; Singh, Sukhwinder; Navascués, Miguel
2017-06-01
We consider the problem of detecting entanglement and nonlocality in one-dimensional (1D) infinite, translation-invariant (TI) systems when just near-neighbor information is available. This issue is deeper than one might think a priori, since, as we show, there exist instances of local separable states (classical boxes) which admit only entangled (nonclassical) TI extensions. We provide a simple characterization of the set of local states of multiseparable TI spin chains and construct a family of linear witnesses which can detect entanglement in infinite TI states from the nearest-neighbor reduced density matrix. Similarly, we prove that the set of classical TI boxes forms a polytope and devise a general procedure to generate all Bell inequalities which characterize it. Using an algorithm based on matrix product states, we show how some of them can be violated by distant parties conducting identical measurements on an infinite TI quantum state. All our results can be easily adapted to detect entanglement and nonlocality in large (finite, not TI) 1D condensed matter systems.
Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements
Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Khan, Imran; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Wallden, Petros; Andersson, Erika; Korolkova, Natalia
2016-09-01
Digital signatures guarantee the authorship of electronic communications. Currently used "classical" signature schemes rely on unproven computational assumptions for security, while quantum signatures rely only on the laws of quantum mechanics to sign a classical message. Previous quantum signature schemes have used unambiguous quantum measurements. Such measurements, however, sometimes give no result, reducing the efficiency of the protocol. Here, we instead use heterodyne detection, which always gives a result, although there is always some uncertainty. We experimentally demonstrate feasibility in a real environment by distributing signature states through a noisy 1.6 km free-space channel. Our results show that continuous-variable heterodyne detection improves the signature rate for this type of scheme and therefore represents an interesting direction in the search for practical quantum signature schemes. For transmission values ranging from 100% to 10%, but otherwise assuming an ideal implementation with no other imperfections, the signature length is shorter by a factor of 2 to 10. As compared with previous relevant experimental realizations, the signature length in this implementation is several orders of magnitude shorter.
Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements.
Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Khan, Imran; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Wallden, Petros; Andersson, Erika; Korolkova, Natalia
2016-09-02
Digital signatures guarantee the authorship of electronic communications. Currently used "classical" signature schemes rely on unproven computational assumptions for security, while quantum signatures rely only on the laws of quantum mechanics to sign a classical message. Previous quantum signature schemes have used unambiguous quantum measurements. Such measurements, however, sometimes give no result, reducing the efficiency of the protocol. Here, we instead use heterodyne detection, which always gives a result, although there is always some uncertainty. We experimentally demonstrate feasibility in a real environment by distributing signature states through a noisy 1.6 km free-space channel. Our results show that continuous-variable heterodyne detection improves the signature rate for this type of scheme and therefore represents an interesting direction in the search for practical quantum signature schemes. For transmission values ranging from 100% to 10%, but otherwise assuming an ideal implementation with no other imperfections, the signature length is shorter by a factor of 2 to 10. As compared with previous relevant experimental realizations, the signature length in this implementation is several orders of magnitude shorter.
Single-shot adaptive measurement for quantum-enhanced metrology
Palittpongarnpim, Pantita; Wittek, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.
2016-09-01
Quantum-enhanced metrology aims to estimate an unknown parameter such that the precision scales better than the shot-noise bound. Single-shot adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology (AQEM) is a promising approach that uses feedback to tweak the quantum process according to previous measurement outcomes. Techniques and formalism for the adaptive case are quite different from the usual non-adaptive quantum metrology approach due to the causal relationship between measurements and outcomes. We construct a formal framework for AQEM by modeling the procedure as a decision-making process, and we derive the imprecision and the Craḿer- Rao lower bound with explicit dependence on the feedback policy. We also explain the reinforcement learning approach for generating quantum control policies, which is adopted due to the optimal policy being non-trivial to devise. Applying a learning algorithm based on differential evolution enables us to attain imprecision for adaptive interferometric phase estimation, which turns out to be SQL when non-entangled particles are used in the scheme.
Non-local geometry inside Lifshitz horizon
Hu, Qi; Lee, Sung-Sik
2017-07-01
Based on the quantum renormalization group, we derive the bulk geometry that emerges in the holographic dual of the fermionic U( N ) vector model at a nonzero charge density. The obstruction that prohibits the metallic state from being smoothly deformable to the direct product state under the renormalization group flow gives rise to a horizon at a finite radial coordinate in the bulk. The region outside the horizon is described by the Lifshitz geometry with a higher-spin hair determined by microscopic details of the boundary theory. On the other hand, the interior of the horizon is not described by any Riemannian manifold, as it exhibits an algebraic non-locality. The non-local structure inside the horizon carries the information on the shape of the filled Fermi sea.
Bieberich, E
1999-01-01
Current quantum theories of consciousness suggest a configuration space of an entangled ensemble state as global work space for conscious experience. This study will describe a procedure for adjustment of the singlet evolution of a quantum computation to a classical signal input by action potentials. The computational output of an entangled state in a single neuron will be selected in a network environment by "survival of the fittest" coupling with other neurons. Darwinian evolution of this coupling will result in a binding of action potentials to a convoluted orbit of phase-locked oscillations with harmonic, m-adic, or fractal periodicity. Progressive integration of signal inputs will evolve a present memory space independent from the history of construction. Implications for mental processes, e.g., associative memory, creativity, and consciousness will be discussed. A model for the generation of quantum coherence in a single neuron will be suggested.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aharonov, Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Botero, A. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Centro Internacional de Fisica, Ciudad Univ., Bogota (Colombia); Scully, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany)
2001-02-01
The folklore notion of the ''Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics'' is examined from the point of view of hidden-variables theories according to Belinfante's classification in his Survey of Hidden Variables Theories. It is here shown that in the case of EPR, there exist hidden variables theories that successfully reproduce quantum-mechanical predictions, but which are explicitly local. Since such theories do not fall into Belinfante's classification, we propose an expanded classification which includes similar theories, which we term as theories of the ''third'' kind. Causal implications of such theories are explored. (orig.)
Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.
Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le
2016-01-01
Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.
Quantum correlation control for two semiconductor microcavities connected by an optical fiber
Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Eleuch, H.
2017-06-01
We explore the quantum correlations for two coupled quantum wells. Each quantum well is inside a semiconductor microcavity. The two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. The study of quantum correlations, namely the geometric quantum discord, measurement-induced non-locality and negativity, reveals sudden death and sudden birth phenomena. These effects depend not only on the initial states, coupling strengths of the cavity-fiber and cavity-exciton constants, but also on the dissipation rates of the semiconductor microcavities. We show that the coupling constants control the quantum correlations.
Information capacities of quantum measurement channels
Holevo, A. S.
2013-03-01
We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1.
The non-local implementation of a CNOT gate and single-qubit rotation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈立冰
2002-01-01
We show how a CNOT gate and single-qubit rotation can be implemented non-locally. We also report on thequantitative relations between these quantum actions, entanglement and classical communication resources required inthe implementation.
On the Interpretation of Measurement Within the Quantum Theory
Cooper, Leon N.; Van Vechten, Deborah
1969-01-01
In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. (RR)
Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes
Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-01-01
Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.
Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement
Xiao, Yun-Feng; Han, Zheng-Fu; Yang, Yong; Guo, Guang-Can
2004-09-01
We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.
Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao Yunfeng [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: yfxiao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Han Zhengfu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zfhan@ustc.edu.cn; Yang Yong [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China); Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: gcguo@ustc.edu.cn
2004-09-20
We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.
The one-way quantum computer - a non-network model of quantum computation
Raussendorf, R; Briegel, H J; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Daniel E.; Briegel, Hans J.
2001-01-01
A one-way quantum computer works by only performing a sequence of one-qubit measurements on a particular entangled multi-qubit state, the cluster state. No non-local operations are required in the process of computation. Any quantum logic network can be simulated on the one-way quantum computer. On the other hand, the network model of quantum computation cannot explain all ways of processing quantum information possible with the one-way quantum computer. In this paper, two examples of the non-network character of the one-way quantum computer are given. First, circuits in the Clifford group can be performed in a single time step. Second, the realisation of a particular circuit --the bit-reversal gate-- on the one-way quantum computer has no network interpretation. (Submitted to J. Mod. Opt, Gdansk ESF QIT conference issue.)
Causality for nonlocal phenomena
Eckstein, Michał
2015-01-01
Drawing from the theory of optimal transport we propose a rigorous notion of a causal relation for Borel probability measures on a given spacetime. To prepare the ground, we explore the borderland between causality, topology and measure theory. We provide various characterisations of the proposed causal relation, which turn out to be equivalent if the underlying spacetime has a sufficiently robust causal structure. We also present the notion of the 'Lorentz-Wasserstein distance' and study its basic properties. Finally, we discuss how various results on causality in quantum theory, aggregated around Hegerfeldt's theorem, fit into our framework.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭红
2015-01-01
Quantum correlation is an important resource in quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum metrology. Quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) quantum steering and Bell nonlocality are the major quantum correlations. For quantum entanglement and Bell nonlocality, two subsystems play the same significant roles. EPR quantum steering is stronger than entanglement and weaker than Bell nonlocality. It represents the ability of one subsystem to nonlocally affect another subsystem’s states through local measurements. In this paper, the dynamic quan-tum correlation between the modes in the two-site Bose-Hubbard model is investigated. According to Hillery-Zubairy entanglement criterion and based on maximum mean quantum Fisher information, the influences of initial states on the quantum entanglement evolutions are explored. If the coupling between the modes is much greater than that of the particles at the same site, and the initial states are symmetric or anti-symmetric SU(2) coherent states, the quantum correlations show simple periodic evolutions. The oscillation amplitudes of the evolutions increase with the interaction between the particles at the same site. The oscillation period decreases with the coupling strength between the modes. The dependence of the period on the interaction of the particles at the same site is related to the initial states. In other words, the time evolutions of quantum correlation are closely related to the symmetry of the initial states. In the case of symmetric (anti-symmetric) SU(2) coherent state and repulsive (attractive) interaction of the particles at the same site, the system presents two-way quantum steering. When the subsystem exchange symmetry of the initial states is broken, the collapse and revival of quantum correlation appear, moreover one-way quantum steering emerges in the infancy. One-way quantum steering is asymmetric for two subsystems. So exchange asymmetry of the initial state is necessary
Estimation of quantum states by weak and projective measurements
Das, Debmalya; Arvind
2014-06-01
We explore the possibility of using "weak" measurements to carry out quantum state tomography via numerical simulations. Given a fixed number of copies of identically prepared states of a qubit, we perform state tomography using weak as well as projective measurements. Due to the collapse of the state after measurement, we cannot reuse the state after a projective measurement. If the coupling strength between the quantum system and the measurement device is made weaker, the disturbance caused to the state can be lowered. This then allows us to reuse the same member of the ensemble for further measurements and thus extract more information from the system. However, this happens at the cost of getting imprecise information from the first measurement. We implement this scheme for a single qubit and show that under certain circumstances, it can outperform the projective measurement-based tomography scheme. This opens up the possibility of new ways of extracting information from quantum ensembles. We study the efficacy of this scheme for different coupling strengths and different ensemble sizes.
Diamond NV centers for quantum computing and quantum networks
Childress, L.; Hanson, R.
2013-01-01
The exotic features of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information technologies. Using superposition and entanglement, a quantum processor could efficiently tackle problems inaccessible to current-day computers. Nonlocal correlations may be exploited for intrinsically secure co
A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Order-Unit Spaces
Niestegge, Gerd
2010-01-01
A certain generalization of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics beyond operator algebras is considered. The approach is based on the concept of conditional probability and the interpretation of the Lueders - von Neumann quantum measurement as a probability conditionalization rule. A major result shows that the operator algebras must be replaced by order-unit spaces with some specific properties in the generalized approach, and it is analyzed under which conditions these order-unit spaces become Jordan algebras. An application of this result provides a characterization of the projection lattices in operator algebras.
Invariant measure of the one-loop quantum gravitational backreaction on inflation
Miao, S. P.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2017-06-01
We use dimensional regularization in pure quantum gravity on a de Sitter background to evaluate the one-loop expectation value of an invariant operator which gives the local expansion rate. We show that the renormalization of this nonlocal composite operator can be accomplished using the counterterms of a simple local theory of gravity plus matter, at least at one-loop order. This renormalization completely absorbs the one-loop correction, which accords with the prediction that the lowest secular backreaction should be a two-loop effect.
Observing quantum chaos with noisy measurements and highly mixed states
Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Everitt, Mark J.
2017-01-01
A fundamental requirement for the emergence of classical behavior from an underlying quantum description is that certain observed quantum systems make a transition to chaotic dynamics as their action is increased relative to ℏ . While experiments have demonstrated some aspects of this transition, the emergence of quantum trajectories with a positive Lyapunov exponent has never been observed directly. Here, we remove a major obstacle to achieving this goal by showing that, for the Duffing oscillator, the transition to a positive Lyapunov exponent can be resolved clearly from observed trajectories even with measurement efficiencies as low as 20%. We also find that the positive Lyapunov exponent is robust to highly mixed, low-purity states and to variations in the parameters of the system.
Quantum entangle photon and applications in communication and measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surasak Chiangga
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a single photon entangled state to secure the transmission data via a wireless communication link and a biological tissue study where the encrypted data/qubit is prepared and formed by using a simple optical system. The encrypted data can transmit securely i.e. without cloning to theintended recipient via a public wireless link. We have shown that the result of the entangled states has good visibility for the use of data quantum encryption. The generated entangled photon for up-link via wireless communication is proposed and the problem of quantum cloning described. The biological tissue characterizations using such a short pulse can be realize by using a simple optical arrangement and components. Such an implemented system has the advantage of that the ultra-short pulse of a single photon with its quantum state identification can be used to provide the required measured data.
Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-10-01
We developed a purely field model of microphenomena—prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction—the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology—for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation
Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-12-01
The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.
Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serban, Ioana
2008-05-15
The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on