WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear transient shock

  1. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, R. L.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2015-09-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations.

  2. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  3. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  4. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Igarashi; Lamberto Rondon; Antonio Botrugno; Marco Pizzi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call "transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  5. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Barsi, Christopher; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-01-01

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  6. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-10-15

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  7. Transient quadriparesis after electric shock in a child: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S A; Chavan, V; Shanbag, P; Sundar, U

    2010-01-01

    Electric shock injuries are commonly encountered by emergency physicians. Various systemic complications owing to electric shock injury have been described. It is important to maintain raised awareness of these different complications to ensure that they are recognised and treated early. We describe a rare case of transient quadriparesis following electric shock in a 10-year-old boy.

  8. Nonlinear transient analysis of joint dominated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.; Russell, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A residual force technique is presented that can perform the transient analyses of large, flexible, and joint dominated structures. The technique permits substantial size reduction in the number of degrees of freedom describing the nonlinear structural models and can account for such nonlinear joint phenomena as free-play and hysteresis. In general, joints can have arbitrary force-state map representations but these are used in the form of residual force maps. One essential feature of the technique is to replace the arbitrary force-state maps describing the nonlinear joints with residual force maps describing the truss links. The main advantage of this replacement is that the incrementally small relative displacements and velocities across a joint are not monitored directly thereby avoiding numerical difficulties. Instead, very small and 'soft' residual forces are defined giving a numerically attractive form for the equations of motion and thereby permitting numerically stable integration algorithms. The technique was successfully applied to the transient analyses of a large 58 bay, 60 meter truss having nonlinear joints. A method to perform link testing is also presented.

  9. Optical studies of shock generated transient supersonic base flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, P.-Y.; Bershader, D.; Wray, A.

    1982-01-01

    A shock tube employing interferometric and schlieren techniques is used to study transient base flow phenomena following shock wave passage over two plane bluff bodies: a hemicircular cylinder and a cylinder with the Galileo Jovian probe profile. An attempt is made to understand the physics of transition from transient to steady state flow, and to provide code verification for a study employing the Illiac IV computer. Transient base flow interactions include a series of shock diffraction, regular, and Mach reflections, coupled with boundary layer development, separation, and recompression. Vorticity generation and transport underlie these features. The quantitative verification of the computer code includes comparisons of transient pressure and density fields, near wake geometries, and bow shock standoff distances.

  10. Shock-Induced Flows through Packed Beds: Transient Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shtemler, Yuri M; Britan, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The early stage of the transient regimes in the shock-induced flows within solid-packed beds are investigated in the linear longwave and high-frequency approximation. The transient resistance law is refined as the Duhameltime integral that follows from the general concept of dynamic tortuosity and compressibility of the packed beds. A closed-form solution is expected to describe accurately the early stage of the transient regime flow and is in qualitative agreement with available experimental data.

  11. Nonlinear damping identification from transient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clifford B.; Wereley, Norman M.

    1999-06-01

    To study new damping augmentation methods for helicopter rotor systems, accurate and reliable nonlinear damping identification techniques are needed. For example, current studies on applications of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for rotor stability augmentation suggest that a strong Coulomb damping characteristic will be manifested as the field applied to the MR fluid is maximized. Therefore, in this work, a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system having either nonlinear Coulomb or quadratic damping is considered. This paper evaluates three analyses for identifying damping from transient test data; an FFT-based moving block analysis, an analysis based on a periodic Fourier series decomposition, and a Hilbert transform based technique. Analytical studies are used to determine the effects of block length, noise, and error in identified modal frequency on the accuracy of the identified damping level. The FFT-based moving block has unacceptable performance for systems with nonlinear damping. These problems were remedied in the Fourier series based analysis and acceptable performance is obtained for nonlinear damping identification from both this technique and the Hilbert transform based method. To more closely simulate a helicopter rotor system test, these techniques were then applied to a signal composed of two closely spaced modes. This data was developed to simulate a response containing the first lag and 1/rev modes. The primary mode of interest (simulated lag mode) had either Coulomb or quadratic damping, and the close mode (1/rev) was either undamped or had a specified viscous damping level. A comprehensive evaluation of the effects of close mode amplitude, frequency, and damping level was performed. A classifier was also developed to identify the dominant damping mechanism in a signal of 'unknown' composition. This classifier is based on the LMS error of a fit of the analytical envelope expression to the experimentally identified envelope signal. In most

  12. Transient hot-film sensor response in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ortgies, K. R.; Gartenberg, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed to determine the response of a hot-film sensor, mounted flush on the side wall of a shock tube, to unsteady flow behind a normal shock wave. The present experiments attempt to isolate the response of the anemometer due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface. The experiments, performed at low supersonic shock speeds in air, are described along with the data acquisition procedure. The change in convective heat transfer is deduced from the data and the results are compared with those from transient boundary layer theory and another set of experimental results. Finally, a transient local heat transfer coefficient is formulated for use as the forcing function in a hot-film sensor instrument model simulation.

  13. Numerical study of transient nonlinear harbor resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that nonlinear wave-wave interactions play an important role in harbor resonance. Nevertheless it is not clear how waves take part in those interactions. The aim of this paper is to investigate those processes for a rectangular harbor at transient phases. Long-period oscillations excited by bichromatic waves are simulated by the Boussinesq model. The simulations start from calm conditions for the purpose of studying the response process. The internal wavemaker stops working after the oscillations have reached a quasi-steady state, and it is used to simulate the damp process. In order to analyze temporary features of wave-wave interactions in different states, the wavelet-based bispectrum is employed. The influence of the short wave frequencies on long-period oscillations is investigated, and reasons are tried to be given from nonlinear triad interactions between different wave components and the interaction of short waves and the bay entrance. Finally, the response time and the damp time are estimated by a simple method.

  14. Analysis of nonlinear transient responses of piezoelectric resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Takahashi, Seita; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The electric transient response method is an effective technique to evaluate material constants of piezoelectric ceramics under high-power driving. In this study, we tried to incorporate nonlinear piezoelectric behaviors in the analysis of transient responses. As a base for handling the nonlinear piezoelectric responses, we proposed an assumption that the electric displacement is proportional to the strain without phase lag, which could be described by a real and constant piezoelectric e-coefficient. Piezoelectric constitutive equations including nonlinear responses were proposed to calculate transient responses of a piezoelectric resonator. The envelopes and waveforms of current and vibration velocity in transient responses observed in some piezoelectric ceramics could be fitted with the calculation including nonlinear responses. The procedure for calculation of mechanical quality factor Q(m) for piezoelectric resonators with nonlinear behaviors was also proposed.

  15. Photonic Nonlinear Transient Computing with Multiple-Delay Wavelength Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinenghi, Romain; Rybalko, Sergei; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K.; Larger, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a hybrid optoelectronic neuromorphic computer based on a complex nonlinear wavelength dynamics including multiple delayed feedbacks with randomly defined weights. This neuromorphic approach is based on a new paradigm of a brain-inspired computational unit, intrinsically differing from Turing machines. This recent paradigm consists in expanding the input information to be processed into a higher dimensional phase space, through the nonlinear transient response of a complex dynamics excited by the input information. The computed output is then extracted via a linear separation of the transient trajectory in the complex phase space. The hyperplane separation is derived from a learning phase consisting of the resolution of a regression problem. The processing capability originates from the nonlinear transient, resulting in nonlinear transient computing. The computational performance is successfully evaluated on a standard benchmark test, namely, a spoken digit recognition task.

  16. Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David

    2017-01-01

    The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .

  17. A hybrid transfinite element approach for nonlinear transient thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational approach for transient nonlinear thermal analysis of structures is proposed. It is a hybrid approach which combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. The present study is limited to nonlinearities due to temperature-dependent thermophysical properties. Numerical test cases attest to the basic capabilities and therein validate the transfinite element approach by means of comparisons with conventional finite element schemes and/or available solutions.

  18. Spacecraft loads methodology - Transient vs. shock spectra method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Trubert, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology for the establishment of spacecraft loads is strongly influenced by project constraints which include the cost, schedule and allowable weight. The most rigorous approach is the transient loads analysis which requires a composite mathematical model of the spacecraft and launch vehicle. The structural member loads for the entire composite structure are computed by applying the forcing functions, which represent various dynamic environments during the mission, to the composite model. Although this method ideally leads to a lightweight design, it is costly and time consuming due to complex interfaces involving many organizations. To reduce complexity and cost a shock spectra method has been used to design spacecraft structures. This method utilizes envelopes of shock spectra of launch vehicle accelerations obtained from analysis and/or flight measurements. Since only limited information on the launch vehicle model is involved in this process the design loads iteration cycle can be rapidly performed within the payload organization. In the present paper, these two methods will be evaluated by comparing the loads for several spacecraft. Flight measured loads will also be used in the evaluation.

  19. Double shock dynamics induced by the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We show that the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities leads to qualitative changes in the onset of wave breaking, determining double shock formation whose regularization occurs in terms of antidark solitons. In a given material, the crossover between different regimes can be controlled by changing the input intensity. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  20. On Constructing the Minimal Seed of Turbulence: Nonlinear Transient Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, Chris C T

    2010-01-01

    Linear transient growth analysis is commonly used to suggest the structure of disturbances which are particularly efficient in triggering transition to turbulence in shear flows. We demonstrate that the addition of nonlinearity to the analysis can substantially change the prediction made in pipe flow from simple 2 dimensional streamwise rolls to a spanwise and cross-stream localised 3 dimensional state. This new nonlinear optimal is demonstrably more efficient in triggering turbulence than the linear optimal indicating that there are better ways to design perturbations to achieve transition.

  1. Numerical simulation of transient inviscid gas flows in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. Y.; Lombard, C. K.; Nagaraj, N.; Bershader, D.

    1985-01-01

    Time-dependent upwind high resolution schemes for solving the Euler equations were developed and applied to simulate 1-D and 2-D transient inviscid gas flows in a shock tube. Using obstacles of different geometries, a series of calculations were carried out to investigate the transient complex shock-wave diffraction phenomena. Shock-wave and objects interactions with shock Mach-number Ms ranging from 2 to 20 were considered. Comparison with analytical and available experimental results indicate good agreement. Display of detailed flow structures including multiple Mach shocks, slip surfaces, and vortex are also given.

  2. Rogue and shock waves in nonlinear dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Resitori, Stefania; Baronio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists ...

  3. Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheline, S.; Gennisson, J.-L.; Fink, M.

    2003-12-01

    Transient elastography is a powerful tool to measure the speed of low-frequency shear waves in soft tissues and thus to determine the second-order elastic modulus μ (or the Young's modulus E). In this paper, it is shown how transient elastography can also achieve the measurement of the nonlinear third-order elastic moduli of an Agar-gelatin-based phantom. This method requires speed measurements of polarized elastic waves measured in a statically stressed isotropic medium. A static uniaxial stress induces a hexagonal anisotropy (transverse isotropy) in solids. In the special case of uniaxially stressed isotropic media, the anisotropy is not caused by linear elastic coefficients but by the third-order nonlinear elastic constants, and the medium recovers its isotropic properties as soon as the uniaxial stress disappears. It has already been shown how transient elastography can measure the elastic (second-order) moduli in a media with transverse isotropy such as muscles. Consequently this method, based on the measurement of the speed variations of a low-frequency (50-Hz) polarized shear strain waves as a function of the applied stress, allows one to measure the Landau moduli A, B, C that completely describe the third-order nonlinearity. The several orders of magnitude found among these three constants can be justified from the theoretical expression of the internal energy.

  4. Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheline, S; Gennisson, J L; Fink, M

    2003-12-01

    Transient elastography is a powerful tool to measure the speed of low-frequency shear waves in soft tissues and thus to determine the second-order elastic modulus mu (or the Young's modulus E). In this paper, it is shown how transient elastography can also achieve the measurement of the nonlinear third-order elastic moduli of an Agar-gelatin-based phantom. This method requires speed measurements of polarized elastic waves measured in a statically stressed isotropic medium. A static uniaxial stress induces a hexagonal anisotropy (transverse isotropy) in solids. In the special case of uniaxially stressed isotropic media, the anisotropy is not caused by linear elastic coefficients but by the third-order nonlinear elastic constants, and the medium recovers its isotropic properties as soon as the uniaxial stress disappears. It has already been shown how transient elastography can measure the elastic (second-order) moduli in a media with transverse isotropy such as muscles. Consequently this method, based on the measurement of the speed variations of a low-frequency (50-Hz) polarized shear strain waves as a function of the applied stress, allows one to measure the Landau moduli A, B, C that completely describe the third-order nonlinearity. The several orders of magnitude found among these three constants can be justified from the theoretical expression of the internal energy.

  5. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  6. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-08-31

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general.

  7. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Discrete oscillator design linear, nonlinear, transient, and noise domains

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Oscillators are an essential part of all spread spectrum, RF, and wireless systems, and today's engineers in the field need to have a firm grasp on how they are designed. Presenting an easy-to-understand, unified view of the subject, this authoritative resource covers the practical design of high-frequency oscillators with lumped, distributed, dielectric and piezoelectric resonators. Including numerous examples, the book details important linear, nonlinear harmonic balance, transient and noise analysis techniques. Moreover, the book shows you how to apply these techniques to a wide range of os

  9. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  10. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  11. Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.

  12. Multi-shocks generation and collapsing instabilities induced by competing nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate dispersive shock dynamics in materials with competing cubic-quintic nonlinearities. Whitham theory of modulation, hydrodynamic analysis and numerics demonstrate a rich physical scenario, ranging from multi-shock generation to collapse.

  13. Chaos and transient chaos in an experimental nonlinear pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Aline Souza; Savi, Marcelo Amorim; Pereira-Pinto, Francisco Heitor Iunes

    2006-06-01

    Pendulum is a mechanical device that instigates either technological or scientific studies, being associated with the measure of time, stabilization devices as well as ballistic applications. Nonlinear characteristic of the pendulum attracts a lot of attention being used to describe different phenomena related to oscillations, bifurcation and chaos. The main purpose of this contribution is the analysis of chaos in an experimental nonlinear pendulum. The pendulum consists of a disc with a lumped mass that is connected to a rotary motion sensor. This assembly is driven by a string-spring device that is attached to an electric motor and also provides torsional stiffness to the system. A magnetic device provides an adjustable dissipation of energy. This experimental apparatus is modeled and numerical simulations are carried out. Free and forced vibrations are analyzed showing that numerical results are in close agreement with those obtained from experimental data. This analysis shows that the experimental pendulum has a rich response, presenting periodic response, chaos and transient chaos.

  14. Shock induced chemistry in liquids studied with ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and visible transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, N C; Bolme, C A; Moore, D S; McGrane, S D

    2012-10-25

    The response to ultrafast laser shock loading of nine liquids was monitored in an effort to reveal evidence of chemical changes occurring during the first 350 ps following the shock front. In an effort to compare molecular structures possessing a variety of common bonding patterns, data were acquired for the liquids: cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, benzene, water, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, tert-butylacetylene, and phenylacetylene. Transient absorption spectra were measured in the spectral region from 440 to 780 nm over shock stress states from 7 to 20 GPa. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry was used to measure the shock and particle velocity as well as the shocked refractive index. Significant transient absorption attributed to chemical reaction was observed for shocked phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile. Evidence of volume decreasing chemical reactions was also observed in the ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry data for phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile. The liquid 1,3-cyclohexadiene exhibited volume decreasing reaction in the ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry data but did not exhibit an increase in the transient absorption spectra. There was no evidence of chemical reaction in cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, water, acetonitrile, or tert-butylacetylene in the first 350 ps, despite the application of shock stress that was in many cases well above the reaction threshold observed at microsecond time scales.

  15. Unipolar magnetic field pulses as transient signals prior to the 2009 Aquila earthquake shock

    CERN Document Server

    Nenovski, Petko

    2016-01-01

    Unipolar pre-seismic magnetic field pulses have been observed first by Bleier et al. (2009) and Villante et al. (2010) and Nenovski et al. (2013). In the present study a detailed analysis of the pulses is conducted looking for signatures of transient signals similar to that recorded at the 2009 Aquila earthquake main shock (Nenovski, 2015). Various magnetic field data around the Aquila earthquake provide an instrumental basis for such an analysis. In addition to fluxgate magnetometer data (already examined in previous studies), overhauser magnetometer data are involved. The result is a detection and discrimination of transient signals of diffusive form that appear prior to the earthquake main shock.

  16. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  17. The Whitham approach to dispersive shocks in systems with cubic–quintic nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, M

    2012-09-12

    By employing a rigorous approach based on the Whitham modulation theory, we investigate dispersive shock waves arising in a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic and quintic nonlinear responses. This model finds important applications in both nonlinear optics and Bose–Einstein condensates. Our theory predicts the formation of dispersive shocks with totally controllable properties, encompassing both steering and compression effects. Numerical simulations confirm these results perfectly. Quite remarkably, shock tuning can be achieved in the regime of a very small high order, i.e. quintic, nonlinearity.

  18. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE) pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave ...

  19. Transient, nonlinear rheology of reversible colloidal gels by dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Benjamin; Russel, William; Zia, Roseanna

    2014-11-01

    We study the nonlinear rheology of reversible colloidal gels via dynamic simulation as they undergo age- and flow-induced structural evolution, with a view toward understanding and predicting transient behaviors such as multi-step and delayed yield. The gel is formed from 750,000 Brownian spheres interacting via hard-sphere repulsion and O(kT) short-range attraction, where thermal fluctuations are strong enough to allow continued structural rearrangement in the absence of flow. During startup of imposed strain rate, the transition to steady state is characterized by one or more ``overshoots'' in the stress which suggest initial yield, formation of a stronger gel, and subsequent yield of the new gel. When subjected to step-shear stress, the microstructure undergoes limited creep, followed by viscous flow. This macroscopic ``delayed flow'' is consistent with previously proposed models of competition between breakage and formation of particle bonds among static load-bearing structures. Our findings suggest, however, that the load-bearing structures evolve, and that the gel's resistance to delayed failure depends upon this structural evolution and reinforcement. We put forth a micro-mechanical model of stress gradient-driven particle transport that captures this macroscopic behavior.

  20. A nonlinear small-deformation theory for transient droplet electrohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The deformation of a viscous liquid droplet suspended in another liquid and subject to an applied electric field is a classic multiphase flow problem best described by the Melcher-Taylor leaky dielectric model. The main assumption of the model is that any net charge in the system is concentrated on the interface between the two liquids as a result of the jump in Ohmic currents from the bulk. Upon application of the field, the drop can either attain a steady prolate or oblate shape with toroidal circulating flows both inside and outside arising from tangential stresses on the interface due to action of the field on the surface charge distribution. Since the pioneering work of \\cite{taylor1966}, there have been numerous computational and theoretical studies to predict the deformations measured in experiments. Most existing theoretical models, however, have either neglected transient charge relaxation or nonlinear charge convection by the interfacial flow. In this work, we develop a novel small-deformation theor...

  1. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements of Transient Shock Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the global pressure field created by shock wave diffraction have been captured optically using a porous pressure-sensitive paint. The pressure field created by a diffracting shock wave shows large increases and decreases in pressure and can be reasonably accurately captured using CFD. The substrate, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC plate, has been dipped in a luminophore solution. TLC plates are readily available and easy to prepare. Illumination comes from two high-intensity broadband Xenon arc light sources with short-pass filters. The sample is imaged at 100 kHz using a Vision Research Phantom V710 in conjunction with a pair of long and short pass filters, creating a band. The PSP results are compared with numerical simulations of the flow using the commercial CFD package Fluent as part of ANSYS 13 for two Mach numbers.

  2. Ultrafast chemical reactions in shocked nitromethane probed with dynamic ellipsometry and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; McGrane, Shawn D; Bolme, Cynthia A; Moore, David S

    2014-04-10

    Initiation of the shock driven chemical reactions and detonation of nitromethane (NM) can be sensitized by the addition of a weak base; however, the chemical mechanism by which sensitization occurs remains unclear. We investigated the shock driven chemical reaction in NM and in NM sensitized with diethylenetriamine (DETA), using a sustained 300 ps shock driven by a chirped Ti:sapphire laser. We measured the solutions' visible transient absorption spectra and measured interface particle and shock velocities of the nitromethane solutions using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry. We found there to be a volume-increasing reaction that takes place around interface particle velocity up = 2.4 km/s and up = 2.2 km/s for neat NM and NM with 5% DETA, respectively. The rate at which transient absorption increases is similar in all mixtures, but with decreasing induction times for solutions with increasing DETA concentrations. This result supports the hypothesis that the chemical reaction mechanisms for shocked NM and NM with DETA are the same. Data from shocked NM are compared to literature experimental and theoretical data.

  3. SOLUTION WITH SHOCK-BOUNDARY LAYER AND SHOCK-INTERIOR LAYER TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the shock behaviors of solution to a class of nonlinear singularly perturbed problems are considered.Under some appropriate conditions,the outer and interior solutions to the original problem are constructed.Using the special limit and matching theory,the expressions of solutions with the shock behavior near the boundary and some interior points are given and the domain for boundary values is obtained.

  4. A Taylor-Galerkin finite element algorithm for transient nonlinear thermal-structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.

    1986-01-01

    A Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for solving large, nonlinear thermal-structural problems is presented. The algorithm is formulated for coupled transient and uncoupled quasistatic thermal-structural problems. Vectorizing strategies ensure computational efficiency. Two applications demonstrate the validity of the approach for analyzing transient and quasistatic thermal-structural problems.

  5. Theoretical study of nonlinear waves and shock-like phenomena in hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, B. D.; Banos, A., Jr.; Kennel, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    Summaries are presented of research in basic plasma physics. Nonlinear waves and shock-like phenomena were studied which are pertinent to space physics applications, and include specific problems of magnetospheric and solar wind plasma physics.

  6. Model for nonlinear transient burning of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Transient burning of solid propellants is a topic that still contains a large number of questions. The transient burning of neat hydrazinium nitroformate is calculated within the quasi-steady gas-phase, homogeneous one-dimensional condensed phase approach. We focus on the effect of the condensed pha

  7. Effect of Transient Nicotine Load Shock on the Performance of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 Bioaugmented Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioaugmentation with degrading bacteria can improve the treatment of nicotine-containing tobacco industrial wastewater effectively. However, the transient and extremely high feeding of pollutants may compromise the effectiveness of the bioaugmented reactors. The effect of transient nicotine shock loads on the performance of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented SBRs were studied. The results showed that, under 500–2500 mg/L of transient nicotine shocks, all the reactors still could realize 100% of nicotine degradation in 4 days of recovery, while the key nicotine degradation enzyme HSP hydroxylase increased in expression. Though the dramatic increase of activities of ROS, MDA, SOD, and CAT suggested that transient nicotine shock loads could induce oxidative stress on microorganisms in activated sludge, a decrease to control level demonstrated that most of the microorganisms could resist 500–1500 mg/L of transient nicotine shock under the protection from strain HF-1. After 8 cycles of recovery, high ROS level and low TOC removal in high transient shock reactors implied that 2000–2500 mg/L of transient nicotine shock was out of its recovery of strain HF-1 bioaugmented system. This study enriched our understanding on highly efficient nicotine-degrading strain bioaugmented system, which would be beneficial to tobacco waste or wastewater treatment in engineering.

  8. Particle spectra and efficiency in nonlinear relativistic shock acceleration: survey of scattering models

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Donald C; Bykov, Andrei M

    2015-01-01

    We include a general form for the scattering mean free path in a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of relativistic shock formation and Fermi acceleration. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, as well as analytic work, suggest that relativistic shocks tend to produce short-scale, self-generated magnetic turbulence that leads to a scattering mean free path (mfp) with a stronger momentum dependence than the mfp ~ p dependence for Bohm diffusion. In unmagnetized shocks, this turbulence is strong enough to dominate the background magnetic field so the shock can be treated as parallel regardless of the initial magnetic field orientation, making application to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), pulsar winds, Type Ibc supernovae, and extra-galactic radio sources more straightforward and realistic. In addition to changing the scale of the shock precursor, we show that, when nonlinear effects from efficient Fermi acceleration are taken into account, the momentum dependence of the mfp has an important influence on the efficiency of cosm...

  9. Global Solutions of Shock Reflection by Wedges for the Nonlinear Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei DENG; Wei XIANG

    2011-01-01

    When a plane shock hits a wedge head on,it experiences a reflection-diffraction process and then a self-similar reflected shock moves outward as the original shock moves forward in time.In this paper,shock reflection by large-angle wedges for compressible flow modeled by the nonlinear wave equation is studied and a global theory of existence,stability and regularity is established.Moreover,C0,1 is the optimal regularity for the solutions across the degenerate sonic boundary.

  10. Particle spectra and efficiency in nonlinear relativistic shock acceleration - survey of scattering models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Warren, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.

    2016-03-01

    We include a general form for the scattering mean free path, λmfp(p), in a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of relativistic shock formation and Fermi acceleration. Particle-in-cell simulations, as well as analytic work, suggest that relativistic shocks tend to produce short-scale, self-generated magnetic turbulence that leads to a scattering mean free path with a stronger momentum dependence than the λmfp ∝ p dependence for Bohm diffusion. In unmagnetized shocks, this turbulence is strong enough to dominate the background magnetic field so the shock can be treated as parallel regardless of the initial magnetic field orientation, making application to γ-ray bursts, pulsar winds, type Ibc supernovae, and extragalactic radio sources more straightforward and realistic. In addition to changing the scale of the shock precursor, we show that, when nonlinear effects from efficient Fermi acceleration are taken into account, the momentum dependence of λmfp(p) has an important influence on the efficiency of cosmic ray production as well as the accelerated particle spectral shape. These effects are absent in non-relativistic shocks and do not appear in relativistic shock models unless nonlinear effects are self-consistently described. We show, for limited examples, how the changes in Fermi acceleration translate to changes in the intensity and spectral shape of γ-ray emission from proton-proton interactions and pion-decay radiation.

  11. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF NONUNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINES WITH NONLINEAR TERMINAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A semi-analytical method in time domain is presented for analysis of the transient response of nonuniform transmission lines. In this method, the telegraph equations in time domain is differenced in space domain first, and is transformed into a set of first-order differential equations of voltage and current with respect to time. By integrating these differential equations with respect to time, and precise computation, the solution of these differential equations can be obtained. This method can solve the transient response of various kinds of transmission lines with arbitrary terminal networks. Particularly, it can analyze the nonuniform lines with initial conditions, for which there is no existing effective method to analyze the time response so far. The results obtained with this method are stable and accurate. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of this method.

  12. Introduction to the Explicit Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Transient Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shen R

    2012-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the theories and formulations of the explicit finite element method As numerical technology continues to grow and evolve with industrial applications, understanding the explicit finite element method has become increasingly important, particularly in the areas of crashworthiness, metal forming, and impact engineering. Introduction to the Explicit FiniteElement Method for Nonlinear Transient Dynamics is the first book to address specifically what is now accepted as the most successful numerical tool for nonlinear transient dynamics. The book aids readers in master

  13. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  14. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  15. Transient bond scission of polytetrafluoroethylene under laser-induced shock compression studied by nanosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Konodo, Ken-Ichi

    2001-06-01

    Nanosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy has been performed to study polymer films, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), under laser driven shock compression at laser power density of 4.0 GW/cm^2. The overtone-mode line of PTFE showed red shift (18 cm-1) at delay time of 9.3 ns due to the shock compression and corresponding pressure was estimated to be approximately 2.7 GPa by analyzing static and shock compression data. The estimated pressure was in good agreement with that estimated by ablation pressure in glass-confined geometry. A new vibrational line at 1900 cm-1 appeared only under shock compression and was assigned to the C=C streching in transient species such as a monomer (C_2F_4) produced by the shock-induced bond scission. Intensity of the new line increased with increasing delay time along propagation of the shock compression with a shock velocity of 2.5 km/s.

  16. Transient stability improvement by nonlinear controllers based on tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Guadalajara, Mexico. Av. Cientifica 1145. Col. El Bajio. Zapopan, Jal. 45015 (Mexico); Arroyave, Felipe Valencia; Correa Gutierrez, Rosa Elvira [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin. Facultad de Minas, Escuela de Mecatronica (Colombia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper deals with the control problem in multi-machine electric power systems, which represent complex great scale nonlinear systems. Thus, the controller design is a challenging problem. These systems are subjected to different perturbations, such as short circuits, connection and/or disconnection of loads, lines, or generators. Then, the utilization of controllers which guarantee good performance under those perturbations is required in order to provide electrical energy to the loads with admissible stability margins. The proposed controllers are based on a systematic strategy, which calculate nonlinear controllers for generating units in a power plant, both for voltage and velocity regulation. The formulation allows designing controllers in a multi-machine power system without intricate calculations. Results on a power system of the open research indicate the proposition's suitability. The problem is formulated as a tracking problem. The designed controllers may be implemented in any electric power system. (author)

  17. Transient response of an active nonlinear sandwich piezolaminated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic modelling and active vibration control of a piezolaminated plate with geometrical nonlinearities are investigated using a semi-analytical approach. For active vibration control purposes, the core orthotropic elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded with two piezo-layers on its top and bottom surfaces which act as sensor and actuator, respectively. In the modelling procedure, the piezo-layers are assumed to be connected via a proportional derivative (PD) feedback control law. Hamilton's principle is employed to acquire the strong form of the dynamic equation in terms of additional higher order strain expressions by means of von Karman strain-displacement correlation. The obtained nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) is converted to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NODEs) by engaging Galerkin method and using the orthogonality of shape functions for the simply supported boundary conditions. Then, the resulting system of NODEs is solved numerically by employing the built-in Mathematica function, "NDSolve". Next, the vibration attenuation performance is evaluated and sensitivity of the closed-loop system is investigated for several control parameters and the external disturbance parameters. The proposed solution in open loop configuration is validated by finite element (FE) package ABAQUS both in the spatial domain and for the time-/frequency-dependent response.

  18. Transient Effects of Salt Shock on the Photosynthetic Machinery in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海滨; 阮翔; 李国富; 公衍道; 张秀芳; 赵南明

    2002-01-01

    The transient effects of NaCl on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells were examined. In dark-adapted cells, salt shock induced a transition from state 2 to state 1, and the artificial quinones, phenyl-1,4-benzoquinone (PBQ) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBMIB), quenched the Chl fluorescence markedly after addition of 0.8 mol/L NaCl. In light-adapted cells, the addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the stationary fluorescence yield, which resulted in a decrease in the quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII). The results indicate that salt shock can induce a change in the affinity between the photosystems and the phycobilisomes (PBS) and can perturb the orientation of the Chl molecules in PSII.

  19. Nonlinear Shock and Kink Waves with Complete Coriolis Force in Earth's Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin; ZHAO Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear waves in a Boussinesq fluid model which includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force are studied by using the semi-geostrophic approximation and the method of travelling-wave solution.Taylor series expansion has been employed to isolate the characteristics of the linear Rossby waves and to identify the nonlinear shock and kink waves.The KdV-Burgers and the compound KdV-Burgers equations are derived,their shock wave and kink wave solution are also obtained.

  20. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  1. Shock reliability enhancement for MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as a soft stopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel application of utilising nonlinear air damping as a soft mechanical stopper to increase the shock reliability for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) vibration energy harvesters. The theoretical framework for nonlinear air damping is constructed for MEMS vibration energy harvesters operating in different air pressure levels, and characterisation experiments are conducted to establish the relationship between air pressure and nonlinear air damping coefficient for rectangular cantilever MEMS micro cantilevers with different proof masses. Design guidelines on choosing the optimal air pressure level for different MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on the trade-off between harvestable energy and the device robustness are presented, and random excitation experiments are performed to verify the robustness of MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as soft stoppers to limit the maximum deflection distance and increase the shock reliability of the device.

  2. Transient Interaction of a Spherical Shell with an Underwater Explosion Shock Wave and Subsequent Pulsating Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear interaction problem is analyzed by simultaneously solving the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations together .with appropriate material constitutive equations governing the fluid dynamics of the explosion gaseous product and the water and the structural dynamics of the compliant shell. A finite difference technique in a coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian scheme is used. The computer program PISCES 2DELK is employed to carry out the numerical computations. The results demonstrate that to rigorously analyze the response of a submerged structure to a nearby explosion, the interactions among the explosion shock wave, the structure, its surrounding media, and the explosion bubble need to be considered.

  3. Asymmetric and common absorption of shocks in nonlinear autoregressive models

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Dick van; Franses, Philip Hans; Boswijk, Peter

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA key feature of many nonlinear time series models is that they allow for the possibility that the model structure experiences changes, depending on for example the state of the economy or of the financial market. A common property of these models is that it generally is not possible to fully understand the structure of the model by considering the estimated values of the model parameters only. Put differently, it often is difficult to interpret a specific nonlinear model. To shed...

  4. High energy neutrino and gamma ray transients from relativistic supernova shock breakouts

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Gao, Shan; Mészáros, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic shocks that accompany supernovae (SNe) produce X-ray burst emissions as they break out in the dense circumstellar medium around the progenitors. This phenomenon is sometimes associated with peculiar low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (LL GRBs). Here, we investigate the high energy neutrino and gamma-ray counterparts of such a class of SNe. Just beyond the shock breakout radius, particle acceleration in the collisionless shock starts to operate in the presence of breakout photons. We show that protons may be accelerated to sufficiently high energies and produce high energy neutrinos and gamma rays via the photomeson interaction. These neutrinos and gamma rays may be detectable from 10 Mpc away by IceCube/KM3Net as multi-TeV transients almost simultaneously with the X-ray burst emission, and even from 100 Mpc away with follow-up observations by CTA using a wide-field sky monitor like Swift as a trigger. A statistical technique using a stacking approach could also be possible for the detection, with th...

  5. Is persistent hypotension after transient cardiogenic shock associated with an inflammatory response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Park

    Full Text Available We evaluated the recovery of cardiovascular function after transient cardiogenic shock. Cardiac tamponade was performed for 1 h and post-shock data were collected in 5 domestic large white female pigs (43 ± 5 kg for 6 h. The control group (N = 5 was observed for 6 h after 1 h of resting. During 1 h of cardiac tamponade, experimental animals evolved a low perfusion status with a higher lactate level (8.0 ± 2.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower standard base excess (-7.3 ± 3.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower urinary output (0.9 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.4 mL·kg-1·h-1, lower mixed venous saturation, higher ileum partial pressure of CO2-end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 gap and a lower cardiac index than the control group. Throughout the 6-h recovery phase after cardiac tamponade, tamponade animals developed significant tachycardia with preserved cardiac index, resulting in a lower left ventricular stroke work, suggesting possible myocardial dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction was present with persistent systemic hypotension as well as persistent pulmonary hypertension. In contrast, oliguria, hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were corrected by the 6th hour. The inflammatory characteristics were an elevated core temperature and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in the tamponade group compared to the control group. We conclude that cardiovascular recovery after a transient and severe low flow systemic state was incomplete. Vascular dysfunction persisted up to 6 h after release of tamponade. These inflammatory characteristics may also indicate that inflammatory activation is a possible pathway involved in the pathogenesis of cardiogenic shock.

  6. Is persistent hypotension after transient cardiogenic shock associated with an inflammatory response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Park

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the recovery of cardiovascular function after transient cardiogenic shock. Cardiac tamponade was performed for 1 h and post-shock data were collected in 5 domestic large white female pigs (43 ± 5 kg for 6 h. The control group (N = 5 was observed for 6 h after 1 h of resting. During 1 h of cardiac tamponade, experimental animals evolved a low perfusion status with a higher lactate level (8.0 ± 2.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower standard base excess (-7.3 ± 3.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower urinary output (0.9 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.4 mL·kg-1·h-1, lower mixed venous saturation, higher ileum partial pressure of CO2-end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 gap and a lower cardiac index than the control group. Throughout the 6-h recovery phase after cardiac tamponade, tamponade animals developed significant tachycardia with preserved cardiac index, resulting in a lower left ventricular stroke work, suggesting possible myocardial dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction was present with persistent systemic hypotension as well as persistent pulmonary hypertension. In contrast, oliguria, hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were corrected by the 6th hour. The inflammatory characteristics were an elevated core temperature and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in the tamponade group compared to the control group. We conclude that cardiovascular recovery after a transient and severe low flow systemic state was incomplete. Vascular dysfunction persisted up to 6 h after release of tamponade. These inflammatory characteristics may also indicate that inflammatory activation is a possible pathway involved in the pathogenesis of cardiogenic shock.

  7. Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaskacz, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-03-01

    Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.

  8. Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaskacz, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.

  9. Coronal Shock Waves, EUV Waves, and Their Relation to CMEs. III. Shock-Associated CME/EUV Wave in an Event with a Two-Component EUV Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Grechnev, V V; Uralov, A M; Chertok, I M; Eselevich, M V; Eselevich, V G; Rudenko, G V; Kubo, Y

    2011-01-01

    On 17 January 2010, STEREO-B observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white light a large-scale dome-shaped expanding coronal transient with perfectly connected off-limb and on-disk signatures. Veronig et al. (2010, ApJL 716, 57) concluded that the dome was formed by a weak shock wave. We have revealed two EUV components, one of which corresponded to this transient. All of its properties found from EUV, white light, and a metric type II burst match expectations for a freely expanding coronal shock wave including correspondence to the fast-mode speed distribution, while the transient sweeping over the solar surface had a speed typical of EUV waves. The shock wave was presumably excited by an abrupt filament eruption. Both a weak shock approximation and a power-law fit match kinematics of the transient near the Sun. Moreover, the power-law fit matches expansion of the CME leading edge up to 24 solar radii. The second, quasi-stationary EUV component near the dimming was presumably associated with a stretched CM...

  10. Relativistic regimes for dispersive shock-waves in non-paraxial nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Gentilini, Silvia; Conti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of non-paraxiality in the dynamics of dispersive shock waves in the defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We show that the problem can be described in terms of a relativistic particle moving in a potential. Lowest order corrections enhance the wave-breaking and impose a limit to the highest achievable spectrum in an amount experimentally testable.

  11. The High Cadence Transient Survey (HiTS) - I. Survey design and supernova shock breakout constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Francisco; Martín, Jaime San; Hamuy, Mario; Martínez, Jorge; Huijse, Pablo; Cabrera, Guillermo; Galbany, Lluís; de Jaeger, Thomas; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Anderson, Joseph P; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena; Littín, Jorge; Olivares, Felipe; Medina, Gustavo; Smith, R Chris; Vivas, A Katherina; Estévez, Pablo A; Muñoz, Ricardo; Vera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results of the High cadence Transient Survey (HiTS), a survey whose objective is to detect and follow up optical transients with characteristic timescales from hours to days, especially the earliest hours of supernova (SN) explosions. HiTS uses the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and a custom made pipeline for image subtraction, candidate filtering and candidate visualization, which runs in real-time to be able to react rapidly to the new transients. We discuss the survey design, the technical challenges associated with the real-time analysis of these large volumes of data and our first results. In our 2013, 2014 and 2015 campaigns we have detected more than 120 young SN candidates, but we did not find a clear signature from the short-lived SN shock breakouts (SBOs) originating after the core collapse of red supergiant stars, which was the initial science aim of this survey. Using the empirical distribution of limiting-magnitudes from our observational campaigns we measured the expected recove...

  12. Nonlinear Gamow vectors, shock waves and irreversibility in optically nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Gentilini, Silvia; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive shock waves dominate wave-breaking phenomena in Hamiltonian systems. In the absence of loss, these highly irregular and disordered waves are potentially reversible. However, no experimental evidence has been given about the possibility of inverting the dynamics of a dispersive shock wave and turn it into a regular wave-front. Nevertheless, the opposite scenario, i.e., a smooth wave generating turbulent dynamics is well studied and observed in experiments. Here we introduce a new theoretical formulation for the dynamics in a highly nonlocal and defocusing medium described by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Our theory unveils a mechanism that enhances the degree of irreversibility. This mechanism explains why a dispersive shock cannot be reversed in evolution even for an arbitrarirly small amount of loss. Our theory is based on the concept of nonlinear Gamow vectors, i.e., power dependent generalizations of the counter-intuitive and hereto elusive exponentially decaying states in Hamiltonian sys...

  13. Homogeneous shear turbulence - bypass concept via interplay of linear transient growth and nonlinear transverse cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Jiménez, Javier; Foysi, Holger

    2016-04-01

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models.

  14. Asymmetric and common absorption of shocks in nonlinear autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H.P. Boswijk (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA key feature of many nonlinear time series models is that they allow for the possibility that the model structure experiences changes, depending on for example the state of the economy or of the financial market. A common property of these models is that it generally is not possible to

  15. Asymmetric and common absorption of shocks in nonlinear autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H.P. Boswijk (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA key feature of many nonlinear time series models is that they allow for the possibility that the model structure experiences changes, depending on for example the state of the economy or of the financial market. A common property of these models is that it generally is not possible to

  16. Finite element analysis of steady and transiently moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joe

    1987-01-01

    In a three-part series of papers, a generalized finite element analysis scheme is developed to handle the steady and transient response of moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. This paper considers the development of the moving/rolling element strategy, including the effects of large deformation kinematics and viscoelasticity modeled by fractional integrodifferential operators. To improve the solution strategy, a special hierarchical constraint procedure is developed for the case of steady rolling/translating, as well as a transient scheme involving the use of a Grunwaldian representation of the fractional operator.

  17. Nonlinear features of ion acoustic shock waves in dissipative magnetized dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswajit; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-10-01

    The nonlinear propagation of small as well as arbitrary amplitude shocks is investigated in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of inertia-less Boltzmann distributed electrons, inertial viscous cold ions, and stationary dust grains without dust-charge fluctuations. The effects of dissipation due to viscosity of ions and external magnetic field, on the properties of ion acoustic shock structure, are investigated. It is found that for small amplitude waves, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, derived using Reductive Perturbation Method, gives a qualitative behaviour of the transition from oscillatory wave to shock structure. The exact numerical solution for arbitrary amplitude wave differs somehow in the details from the results obtained from KdVB equation. However, the qualitative nature of the two solutions is similar in the sense that a gradual transition from KdV oscillation to shock structure is observed with the increase of the dissipative parameter.

  18. Nonlinear features of ion acoustic shock waves in dissipative magnetized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Biswajit, E-mail: biswajit-sahu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Sinha, Anjana, E-mail: sinha.anjana@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rroychoudhury123@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731204, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The nonlinear propagation of small as well as arbitrary amplitude shocks is investigated in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of inertia-less Boltzmann distributed electrons, inertial viscous cold ions, and stationary dust grains without dust-charge fluctuations. The effects of dissipation due to viscosity of ions and external magnetic field, on the properties of ion acoustic shock structure, are investigated. It is found that for small amplitude waves, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, derived using Reductive Perturbation Method, gives a qualitative behaviour of the transition from oscillatory wave to shock structure. The exact numerical solution for arbitrary amplitude wave differs somehow in the details from the results obtained from KdVB equation. However, the qualitative nature of the two solutions is similar in the sense that a gradual transition from KdV oscillation to shock structure is observed with the increase of the dissipative parameter.

  19. High-Accuracy Pneumatic Position Control by Applying Nonlinear Control and Arranging Transient Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-bo; BAO Gang

    2008-01-01

    By applying a nonlinear control and arranging a transient process, the initiative error of the pneumatic servo positioning system is reduced largely, and a larger gain of the controller is used to improve the responding speed of the system at the same damping ratio. Therefore, a compromise is made among the responding speed, overshoot, robustness, adaptability and stability. In addition, a dynamic output feedback controller, including position velocity and acceleration (PVA) feedback, is designed to improve the performance of the system. And a nonlinear controller is reconstructed based on the linear output feedback controller to decrease noises and disturbances. The dynamic responses of the system are simulated and tested. Results show that the error is kept within 0.02 mm under different mass loads and the positioning transient process is smooth, without overshoot and speedy.

  20. Optical nonlinearity of organic dyes as studied by Z-scan and transient grating techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umakanta Tripathy; R Justin Rajesh; Prem B Bisht; A Subrahamanyam

    2002-12-01

    The excited state absorption cross-section of 5,5′-dichloro-11-diphenylamino- 3,3′-diethyl-10,12-ethylinethiatricarbocyanine perchlorate (IR140) have been measured by using a single beam transmission technique. Z-scan experiments have been used to find out a few nonlinear parameters. The excited state relaxation times have also been measured by using laser induced transient grating (LITG) technique.

  1. Non-linear and transient absorption spectroscopy of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Volkmer, A.; Rückmann, I.; Zeug, A.; Ehrenberg, B.; Röder, B.

    1998-10-01

    The excited state properties of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin (Mg-TBP) were studied by using intensity dependent transmission (non-linear absorption), ps-transient absorption and time resolved luminescence spectroscopy. It was found that there is a strong excited absorption in the region around 500 nm. Because there is no or little ground state absorption in this region the dye is suitable as an optical limiter.

  2. Thermomechanics of transient oblique compaction shock reflection from a rigid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A.; Gonthier, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    Transient oblique reflection of resolved compaction shocks in porous material from a rigid planar boundary is computationally examined to characterize how spatial reflection structures vary with reflection angle. The material response is described by a hydrodynamic theory that accounts for both elastic and inelastic volumetric deformation. The mathematical model, expressed in terms of curvilinear coordinates, is numerically integrated using a high-resolution technique. Emphasis is placed on characterizing the relative importance of compression and compaction work as heating mechanisms. Spatially continuous structures are predicted that propagate at speeds below the ambient sound speed of the solid component which are analogous to discontinuous structures for oblique reflection of gas shocks. An analogous transition from a von Neumann reflection to a Mach reflection to a regular reflection is predicted with increasing reflection angle, with high dissipative heating induced by configurations possessing a stem-like structure. Compression and dissipation by rate-dependent compaction are shown to be primary heating mechanisms, whereas dissipation by inelastic compaction is of secondary importance.

  3. Finite element analysis of steady and transiently moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. Part 1: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joe

    1986-01-01

    In a three part series of papers, a generalized finite element analysis scheme is developed to handle the steady and transient response of moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. This paper considers the development of the moving/rolling element strategy, including the effects of large deformation kinematics and viscoelasticity modelled by fractional integro-differential operators. To improve the solution strategy, a special hierarchical constraint procedure is developed for the case of steady rolling/translating as well as a transient scheme involving the use of a Grunwaldian representation of the fractional operator. In the second and third parts of the paper, 3-D extensions are developed along with transient contact strategies enabling the handling of impacts with obstructions. Overall, the various developments are benchmarked via comprehensive 2- and 3-D simulations. These are correlated with experimental data to define modelling capabilities.

  4. Experimental study of frost heaving force based on transient shock response using piezoceramic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruolin; Peng, Tongxiao; Wang, Ming L.

    2016-04-01

    In seasonally frozen soil regions, the frost heaving problem made it difficult to monitor or evaluate the pile safety for long term. So far, no mature tool can be utilized to monitor the frost heaving force, which was unevenly distributed along the pile. In this paper, a piezoceramic sensing based transient excitation response approach was proposed to monitor the frost heaving force in real time. Freeze-thaw cycles can result in great changes of soil engineering properties, including the frost heaving force. So, the freeze-thaw cycle was repeated fourth to study its effect. In the experiment, transient horizontal shock on the top of the pile will be detected by the 6 PZT sensors glued on the pile. The signal data received by the 6 PZT sensors can be used to illustrate the frost heaving force distribution along the pile. Moisture content effect is also one of the important reasons that cause the variation of soil mechanical properties. So three different moisture content (6%, 12%, 18%) testing soil were used in this experiment to detect the variance of the frost heaving force. An energy indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the frost heaving force applied on the pile. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective in monitoring the uneven distribution of frost heaving force along the pile.

  5. Type II bursts, shock waves, and coronal transients - The event of 1980 June 29, 0233 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, D. E.; Dulk, G. A.; House, L.; Illing, R.; Sawyer, C.; Wagner, W. J.; Mclean, D. J.; Hildner, E.

    1984-01-01

    The metric Type-II solar burst event of June 29, 1980, is characterized on the basis of spatially resolved radioheliograph observations obtained at Culgoora, Australia, and visible-light observations obtained with the coronograph/polarimeter of the SMM satellite. The data are presented in images, diagrams, and graphs and discussed in detail. The Type-II emission is found to arise in the dense moving material behind the transient loops, which have sky-plane width 0.5 solar radius and line-of-sight depth 0.1-0.4 solar radius. A faint arc observed moving ahead of the transient loops at about 900 km/sec and not associated with the Type-II burst is attributed to a shock front, and the compression ratio and Alfven Mach number of the enhanced-density region are estimated as n2/n1 = 1.3-3 and M(A) = 1.2-3. The ambient material at 3 solar radii is determined to have Alfven speed 250-625 km/sec and magnetic-field strength 50-120 mG. The total mass of the event is calculated as 700 Tg; the total magnetic energy of the loops is (1.5-15) x 10 to the 29th ergs.

  6. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chen

    2009-12-07

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  7. On high-continuity transfinite element formulations for linear-nonlinear transient thermal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the applicability of a hybrid transfinite element methodology with emphasis on high-continuity formulations for linear/nonlinear transient thermal problems. The proposed concepts furnish accurate temperature distributions and temperature gradients making use of a relatively smaller number of degrees of freedom; and the methodology is applicable to linear/nonlinear thermal problems. Characteristic features of the formulations are described in technical detail as the proposed hybrid approach combines the major advantages and modeling features of high-continuity thermal finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and classical Galerkin schemes. Several numerical test problems are evaluated and the results obtained validate the proposed concepts for linear/nonlinear thermal problems.

  8. Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Venkatram; Ji Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Goh, Bee Min; Loh, Kian Ping; Xu Qinghua, E-mail: chmxqh@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: phyjiwei@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-10-15

    A water soluble conjugated thiophene polymer, sodium salt of poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (TPP), and graphene oxide (GO) composite film (GO-TPP) device was prepared. Transient photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the GO-TPP composite film using 150 ns laser pulses of 527 nm wavelength. Highly efficient photocurrent generation was observed from the GO-TPP film. The relationships of the film photoconductivity, photocurrent decay time and electron decay times with the incident light intensity were investigated. The photoconductive gain of the film was determined to be greater than 40% and to be independent of the light intensity. Furthermore, the femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of the GO-TPP film were measured using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and the composite film exhibited high nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients.

  9. On a shock problem involving a nonlinear viscoelastic bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Diem

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We treat an initial boundary value problem for a nonlinear wave equation utt−uxx+K|u|αu+λ|ut|βut=f(x,t in the domain 0

  10. Nonlinear Acoustics and Shock Formation in Lossless Barotropic Green--Naghdi Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    The equations of motion of lossless compressible nonclassical fluids under the so-called Green--Naghdi theory are considered for two classes of barotropic fluids: (\\textit{i}) perfect gases and (\\textit{ii}) liquids obeying a quadratic equation of state. An exact reduction in terms of a scalar acoustic potential and the (scalar) thermal displacement is achieved. Properties and simplifications of these model nonlinear acoustic equations for unidirectional flows are noted. Specifically, the requirement that the governing system of equations for such flows remain hyperbolic is shown to lead to restrictions on the physical parameters and/or applicability of the model. A weakly nonlinear model is proposed on the basis of neglecting only terms proportional to the square of the Mach number in the governing equations, without any further approximation or modification of the nonlinear terms. Shock formation via acceleration wave blowup is studied numerically in a one-dimensional context using a high-resolution Godunov...

  11. Transient Vibration Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Load-dependent Non-linear Bearing Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic transient analysis requires bearing forces to be determined at each step of the transient solution. Analyses have been carried out to show the effect of accurate bearing transient forces (accounting for non-linear speed and load dependent bearing stiffness) as compared to conventional use of average rolling-element bearing stiffness. Bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball and Roller Bearing Analysis - Advanced High Speed) and supplied to the rotordynamics code ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) for accurate simulation of rotor transient behavior. COBRA-AHS is a fast-running 5 degree-of-freedom computer code able to calculate high speed rolling-element bearing load-displacement data for radial and angular contact ball bearings and also for cylindrical and tapered roller beatings. Results show that use of nonlinear bearing characteristics is essential for accurate prediction of rotordynamic behavior.

  12. Modeling of Propagation and Transformation of Transient Nonlinear Waves on A Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech Sulisz; Maciej Paprota

    2013-01-01

    A novel theoretical approach is applied to predict the propagation and transformation of transient nonlinear waves on a current. The problem was solved by applying an eigenfunction expansion method and the derived semi-analytical solution was employed to study the transformation of wave profile and the evolution of wave spectrum arising from the nonlinear interactions of wave components in a wave train which may lead to the formation of very large waves. The results show that the propagation of wave trains is significantly affected by a current. A relatively small current may substantially affect wave train components and the wave train shape. This is observed for both opposing and following current. The results demonstrate that the application of the nonlinear model has a substantial effect on the shape of a wave spectrum. A train of originally linear and very narrow-banded waves changes its one-peak spectrum to a multi-peak one in a fairly short distance from an initial position. The discrepancies between the wave trains predicted by applying the linear and nonlinear models increase with the increasing wavelength and become significant in shallow water even for waves with low steepness. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume to verify theoretical results. The free-surface elevations recorded by a system of wave gauges are compared with the results provided by the nonlinear model. Additional verification was achieved by applying a Fourier analysis and comparing wave amplitude spectra obtained from theoretical results with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between theoretical results and experimental data is observed for both amplitudes and phases. The model predicts fairly well multi-peak spectra, including wave spectra with significant nonlinear wave components.

  13. NONLINEAR TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF STAY CABLE WITH VISCOELASTICITY DAMPER IN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈水生; 孙炳楠; 冯义卿

    2004-01-01

    Taking the bending stiffness,static sag,and geometric non-linearity into consideration,the space nonlinear vibration partial differential equations were derived.The partical differential equations were discretized in space by finite center difference approximation,then the nonlinear ordinal differential equations were obtained.A hybrid method involving the combination of the Newmark method and the pseudo-force strategy was proposed to analyze the nonlinear transient response of the inclined cable-dampers system subjected to arbitrary dynamic loading.As an example,two typical stay cables were calculated by the present method.The results reveal both the validity and the deficiency of the viscoelasticity damper for vibration control of stay cables.The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method is also verified by comparing the results with those obtained by using Runge-Kutta direct integration technique.A new time history analysis method is provided for the research on the stay cable vibration control.

  14. Shock Wave Solutions for Some Nonlinear Flow Models Arising in the Study of a Non-Newtonian Third Grade Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based upon constructing a new class of closed-form shock wave solutions for some nonlinear problems arising in the study of a third grade fluid model. The Lie symmetry reduction technique has been employed to reduce the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically, and the shock wave solutions are constructed. The conditions on the physical parameters of the flow problems also fall out naturally in the process of the derivation of the solutions.

  15. Characteristics and Vertical Profile of Shocked Quartz Grains in the YAX-1 Core: Constraints on Transient Crater Size and Ejecta Deposition Process of the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Goto, K.; Sekine, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2013-08-01

    Characteristics and vertical profiles of PDFs on shocked quartz grains contained in the YAX-1 core derived from the Chicxulub Crater suggest that the core was located outside the transient crater, and that water had invaded into the crater.

  16. Polaronic quasiparticle picture for generation dynamics of coherent phonons in semiconductors: Transient and nonlinear Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    We examine generation dynamics of coherent phonons in both polar and nonpolar semiconductors, such as GaAs and Si, based on a polaronic-quasiparticle (PQ) model. In this model, the PQ operator is composed of two kinds of operators: one is a quasiboson operator, defined as a linear combination of a set of pairs of electron operators, and the other is a longitudinal optical (LO) phonon operator. In particular, the problem of transient and nonlinear Fano resonance (FR) is tackled, where the vestige of this quantum interference effect was observed exclusively in lightly n -doped Si immediately after carriers were excited by an ultrashort pulse laser [M. Hase et al., Nature (London) 426, 51 (2003), 10.1038/nature02044], although not observed yet in GaAs. The PQ model enables us to show straightforwardly that the phonon energy state is embedded in continuum states formed by a set of adiabatic eigenstates of the quasiboson; this energy configuration is a necessary condition of the manifestation of the transient FR in the present optically nonlinear system. Numerical calculations are done for photoemission spectra relevant to the retarded longitudinal dielectric function of transient photoexcited states and for power spectra relevant to the LO-phonon displacement function of time. The photoemission spectra show that in undoped Si, an asymmetric spectral profile characteristic of FR comes into existence immediately after the instantaneous carrier excitation to fade out gradually, whereas in undoped GaAs, no asymmetry in spectra appears in the whole temporal region. The similar results are also obtained in the power spectra. These results are in harmony with the reported experimental results. It is found that the obtained difference in spectral profile between undoped Si and GaAs is attributed to a phase factor of an effective interaction between the LO phonon and the quasiboson. More detailed discussion of the FR dynamics is made in the text.

  17. COMPLEX NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR A KIND OF VEHICLE SHOCK ABSORBORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model for the shock absorber in TJ7100 is developed. The oil compressibility and the entrapped gas in the oil are considered in the model. As a result, the hysteresis in the force-velocity diagram is included. The results of computer simulation and the experiment are basically identical. The MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for the development of the simulation software. It is found that the pressure inside the cylinder is high if the inputs of velocity or displacement are big by simulation. This is certainly one of the main reasons for which the leak is appeared between the rod and the seal of the shock absorbers for a relatively short time in China.

  18. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Ellison, Donald C

    2008-01-01

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occuring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to devel...

  19. Transient evolution of C-type shocks in dusty regions of varying density

    CERN Document Server

    Ashmore, I; Caselli, P; Falle, S A E G; Hartquist, T W

    2009-01-01

    Outflows of young stars drive shocks into dusty, molecular regions. Most models of such shocks assume that they are steady and propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field. Real shocks often violate both of these assumptions and the media through which they propagate are inhomogeneous. We use the code employed previously to produce the first time-dependent simulations of fast-mode, oblique C-type shocks interacting with density perturbations. We include a self-consistent calculation of the thermal and ionisation balances and a fluid treatment of grains. We identify features that develop when a multifluid shock encounters a density inhomogeneity to investigate whether any part of the precursor region ever behaves in a quasi-steady fashion. If it does the shock may be modelled approximately without solving the time-dependent hydromagnetic equations. Simulations were made for initially steady oblique C-type shocks encountering density inhomogeneities. For a semi-finite inhomogeneity with a density larger than...

  20. The stress protein heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibits the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftinca, Mircea; Flynn, Robyn; Basso, Lilian; Melo, Helvira; Aboushousha, Reem; Taylor, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Specialized cellular defense mechanisms prevent damage from chemical, biological, and physical hazards. The heat shock proteins have been recognized as key chaperones that maintain cell survival against a variety of exogenous and endogenous stress signals including noxious temperature. However, the role of heat shock proteins in nociception remains poorly understood. We carried out an expression analysis of the constitutively expressed 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein, a member of the stress-induced HSP70 family in lumbar dorsal root ganglia from a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain. We used immunolabeling of dorsal root ganglion neurons, behavioral analysis and patch clamp electrophysiology in both dorsal root ganglion neurons and HEK cells transfected with Hsc70 and Transient Receptor Potential Channels to examine their functional interaction in heat shock stress condition. Results We report an increase in protein levels of Hsc70 in mouse dorsal root ganglia, 3 days post Complete Freund’s Adjuvant injection in the hind paw. Immunostaining of Hsc70 was observed in most of the dorsal root ganglion neurons, including the small size nociceptors immunoreactive to the TRPV1 channel. Standard whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 current after exposure to heat shock. We found that capsaicin-evoked currents are inhibited by heat shock in dorsal root ganglion neurons and transfected HEK cells expressing Hsc70 and TRPV1. Blocking Hsc70 with matrine or spergualin compounds prevented heat shock-induced inhibition of the channel. We also found that, in contrast to TRPV1, both the cold sensor channels TRPA1 and TRPM8 were unresponsive to heat shock stress. Finally, we show that inhibition of TRPV1 depends on the ATPase activity of Hsc70 and involves the rho-associated protein kinase. Conclusions Our work identified Hsc70 and its ATPase activity as a central

  1. Nonlinear modeling and dynamic analysis of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Diyi; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feifei; Ba, Duoduo

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient, we establish a novel nonlinear dynamic model of the hydro-turbine governing system which considers the elastic water-hammer model of the penstock and the second-order model of the generator. The six nonlinear dynamic transfer coefficients of the hydro-turbine are innovatively proposed by utilizing internal characteristics and analyzing the change laws of the characteristic parameters of the hydro-turbine governing system. Moreover, from the point of view of engineering, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the above system are exhaustively investigated based on bifurcation diagrams and time waveforms. More importantly, all of the above analyses supply theoretical basis for allowing a hydropower station to maintain a stable operation in the process of sudden load increase transient.

  2. On the formation of shocks of electromagnetic plane waves in non-linear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Demetrios

    2015-01-01

    An influential result of F. John states that no genuinely non-linear strictly hyperbolic quasi-linear first order system of partial differential equations in two variables has a global $C^2$-solution for small enough initial data. Inspired by recent work of D. Christodoulou, we revisit John's original proof and extract a more precise description of the behaviour of solutions at the time of shock. We show that John's singular first order quantity, when expressed in characteristic coordinates, remains bounded until the final time, which is then characterised by an inverse density of characteristics tending to zero in one point. Moreover, we study the derivatives of second order, showing again their boundedness when expressed in appropriate coordinates. We also recover John's upper bound for the time of shock formation and complement it with a lower bound. Finally, we apply these results to electromagnetic plane waves in a crystal with no magnetic properties and cubic electric non-linearity in the energy density...

  3. On the formation of shocks of electromagnetic plane waves in non-linear crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Demetrios; Perez, Daniel Raoul

    2016-08-01

    An influential result of F. John states that no genuinely non-linear strictly hyperbolic quasi-linear first order system of partial differential equations in two variables has a global C2-solution for small enough initial data. Inspired by recent work of D. Christodoulou, we revisit John's original proof and extract a more precise description of the behaviour of solutions at the time of shock. We show that John's singular first order quantity, when expressed in characteristic coordinates, remains bounded until the final time, which is then characterised by an inverse density of characteristics tending to zero in one point. Moreover, we study the derivatives of second order, showing again their boundedness when expressed in appropriate coordinates. We also recover John's upper bound for the time of shock formation and complement it with a lower bound. Finally, we apply these results to electromagnetic plane waves in a crystal with no magnetic properties and cubic electric non-linearity in the energy density, assuming no dispersion.

  4. Minimal seeds for shear flow turbulence: using nonlinear transient growth to touch the edge of chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, Chris C T; Kerswell, Rich R

    2011-01-01

    We propose a general strategy for determining the minimal finite amplitude isturbance to trigger transition to turbulence in shear flows. This involves constructing a variational problem that searches over all disturbances of fixed initial amplitude, which respect the boundary conditions, incompressibility and the Navier--Stokes equations, to maximise a chosen functional over an asymptotically long time period. The functional must be selected such that it identifies turbulent velocity fields by taking significantly enhanced values compared to those for laminar fields. We illustrate this approach using the ratio of the final to initial perturbation kinetic energies (energy growth) as the functional and the energy norm to measure amplitudes in the context of pipe flow. Our results indicate that the variational problem yields a smooth converged solution providing the amplitude is below the threshold amplitude for transition. This optimal is the nonlinear analogue of the well-studied (linear) transient growth opt...

  5. Transient and Steady-State Analysis of Nonlinear RF and Microwave Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Lei(Lana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of simulation methods currently available for the transient and steady-state analysis of nonlinear RF and microwave circuits. The most general method continues to be the time-marching approach used in Spice, but more recent methods based on multiple time dimensions are particularly effective for RF and microwave circuits. We derive nodal formulations for the most widely used multiple time dimension methods. We put special emphasis on methods for the analysis of oscillators based in the warped multitime partial differential equations (WaMPDE approach. Case studies of a Colpitts oscillator and a voltage controlled Clapp-Gouriet oscillator are presented and discussed. The accuracy of the amplitude and phase of these methods is investigated. It is shown that the exploitation of frequency-domain latency reduces the computational effort.

  6. Transient evolution of a photon gas in the nonlinear QED vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S Q; Hartemann, F V

    2011-10-04

    Thermally induced vacuum polarization stemming from QED radiative corrections to the electromagnetic field equations is studied. The physical behavior of thermal radiation, in the nonlinear QED vacuum first described by Heisenberg and Euler, is a problem of some theoretical importance in view of its relation to the cosmic microwave background (CMB), early universe evolution, and Hawking-Unruh radiation. The questions of evolution toward equilibrium, stability, and invariance of thermal radiation under such conditions are of great interest. Our analysis presents novel aspects associated with photon-photon scattering in a photon gas in the framework of quantum kinetic theory. Within the context of the Euler-Heisenberg theory, we show that a homogeneous, isotropic photon gas with arbitrary spectral distribution function evolves toward an equilibrium state with a Bose-Einstein distribution. The transient evolution toward equilibrium of a gas of photons undergoing photon-photon scattering is studied in detail via the Boltzmann transport equation.

  7. Nonlinear Transient Dynamics of Photoexcited Silicon Nanoantenna for Ultrafast All-Optical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, Denis G; Milichko, Valentin A; Kudryashov, Sergey I; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    Optically generated electron-hole plasma in high-index dielectric nanostructures was demonstrated as a means of tuning of their optical properties. However, until now an ultrafast operation regime of such plasma driven nanostructures has not been attained. Here, we perform pump-probe experiments with resonant silicon nanoparticles and report on dense optical plasma generation near the magnetic dipole resonance with ultrafast (about 2.5 ps) relaxation rate. Basing on experimental results, we develop an analytical model describing transient response of a nanocrystalline silicon nanoparticle to an intense laser pulse and show theoretically that plasma induced optical nonlinearity leads to ultrafast reconfiguration of the scattering power pattern. We demonstrate 100 fs switching to unidirectional scattering regime upon irradiation of the nanoparticle by an intense femtosecond pulse. Our work lays the foundation for developing ultracompact and ultrafast all-optical signal processing devices.

  8. An implicit meshless scheme for the solution of transient non-linear Poisson-type equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bourantas, Georgios

    2013-07-01

    A meshfree point collocation method is used for the numerical simulation of both transient and steady state non-linear Poisson-type partial differential equations. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of the linearization method with special attention to the lagging of coefficients method and the Newton linearization method. The localized form of the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation is employed for the construction of the shape functions, in conjunction with the general framework of the point collocation method. Computations are performed for regular nodal distributions, stressing the positivity conditions that make the resulting system stable and convergent. The accuracy and the stability of the proposed scheme are demonstrated through representative and well-established benchmark problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Photons and Particle Production in Cassiopeia ; A, Predictions from Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, D C; Baring, M G; Grenier, I A; Lagage, P O; Ellison, Donald C.; Goret, Philippe; Baring, Matthew G.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier

    1999-01-01

    We calculate particle spectra and continuum photon emission from the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR). The particle spectra, ion and electron, result from diffusive shock acceleration at the forward SNR shock and are determined with a nonlinear Monte Carlo calculation. The calculation self-consistently determines the shock structure under the influence of ion pressure, and includes a simple parameterized treatment of electron injection and acceleration. Our results are compared to photon observations, concentrating on the connection between the Radio and GeV-TeV gamma-ray range, and to cosmic ray ion observations. We include new upper limits from the Cherenkov Array at Themis (CAT) imaging Cherenkov telescope and the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope at > 400 GeV. These new limits support the suggestion (e.g. Cowsik & Sarkar 1980; Allen et. al. 1997) that energetic electrons are emitting synchrotron radiation in an extremely high magnetic field (~ 1000 microGauss), far greater than values routinely assi...

  10. Dynamic acousto-elastic test using continuous probe wave and transient vibration to investigate material nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Vu, Q A; Lott, M; Payá, J; Garnier, V; Payan, C

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the dynamic acousto-elastic effect of a continuous high frequency wave for investigating the material nonlinearity upon transient vibration. The approach is demonstrated on a concrete sample measuring 15×15×60cm(3). Two ultrasonic transducers (emitter and receiver) are placed at its middle span. A continuous high frequency wave of 500kHz propagates through the material and is modulated with a hammer blow. The position of the hammer blow on the sample is configured to promote the first bending mode of vibration. The use of a continuous wave allows discrete time extraction of the nonlinear behavior by a short-time Fourier transform approach, through the simultaneous comparison of a reference non-modulated signal and an impact-modulated signal. The hammer blow results in phase shifts and variations of signal amplitude between reference and perturbed signals, which are driven by the resonant frequency of the sample. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the relaxation mechanisms (modulus and attenuation recovery) is conducted to untangle the coupled fast and slow hysteretic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrete homotopy analysis for optimal trading execution with nonlinear transient market impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curato, Gianbiagio; Gatheral, Jim; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Optimal execution in financial markets is the problem of how to trade a large quantity of shares incrementally in time in order to minimize the expected cost. In this paper, we study the problem of the optimal execution in the presence of nonlinear transient market impact. Mathematically such problem is equivalent to solve a strongly nonlinear integral equation, which in our model is a weakly singular Urysohn equation of the first kind. We propose an approach based on Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), whereby a well behaved initial trading strategy is continuously deformed to lower the expected execution cost. Specifically, we propose a discrete version of the HAM, i.e. the DHAM approach, in order to use the method when the integrals to compute have no closed form solution. We find that the optimal solution is front loaded for concave instantaneous impact even when the investor is risk neutral. More important we find that the expected cost of the DHAM strategy is significantly smaller than the cost of conventional strategies.

  12. Bio-augmentation for mitigating the impact of transient oxytetracycline shock on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Liu, Jia-Hong; Yang, Bi-E; Guo, Li-Xin; Wang, Hui-Zhong

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of applying bio-augmentation tactics to remit the influence of transient oxytetracycline (OTC) shock on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process was evaluated. The bio-augmentation was applied together with shock test, with OTC shock concentration of 518 mg L(-1) and 1-h duration. 0.655-2.62 g volatile suspended solid (VSS) sludges were varied to optimize bio-augmentation dosage (BAD), and appropriate bio-augmentation time (BAT) was determined. The validity of the bio-augmentation was indicated by recovery performance and sludge characteristics. The restoring time of 38 h for bio-augmented reactor was shorter than that of non-bio-augmented reactor (45 h), and heme c content was increased respectively from 0.195 ± 0.001, 0.267 ± 0.047, 0.301 ± 0.049, to 0.340 ± 0.053 μmol g(-1) VSS with the BAD of 0.655, 1.31, 1.97, 2.62 g-VSS. The results suggest that bio-augmentation enhances the recovery of ANAMMOX performance following OTC shock and BAT and BAD are key operational factors.

  13. Magnetic field amplification in nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration including resonant and non-resonant cosmic-ray driven instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei M; Osipov, Sergei M; Vladimirov, Andrey E

    2014-01-01

    We present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of efficient diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) where the magnetic turbulence responsible for particle diffusion is calculated self-consistently from the resonant cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instability, together with non-resonant short- and long-wavelength CR-current-driven instabilities. We include the backpressure from CRs interacting with the strongly amplified magnetic turbulence which decelerates and heats the super-alfvenic flow in the extended shock precursor. Uniquely, in our plane-parallel, steady-state, multi-scale model, the full range of particles, from thermal (~eV) injected at the viscous subshock, to the escape of the highest energy CRs (~PeV) from the shock precursor, are calculated consistently with the shock structure, precursor heating, magnetic field amplification (MFA), and scattering center drift relative to the background plasma. In addition, we show how the cascade of turbulence to shorter wavelengths influences the total shock compression, the d...

  14. Global series solutions of nonlinear differential equations with shocks using Walsh functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2014-02-01

    An orthonormal basis set composed of Walsh functions is used for deriving global solutions (valid over the entire domain) to nonlinear differential equations that include discontinuities. Function gn(x) of the set, a scaled Walsh function in sequency order, is comprised of n piecewise constant values (square waves) across the domain xa⩽x⩽xb. Only two square wave lengths are allowed in any function and a new derivation of the basis functions applies a fractal-like algorithm (infinitely self-similar) focused on the distribution of wave lengths. This distribution is determined by a recursive folding algorithm that propagates fundamental symmetries to successive values of n. Functions, including those with discontinuities, may be represented on the domain as a series in gn(x) with no occurrence of a Gibbs phenomenon (ringing) across the discontinuity. A much more powerful, self-mapping characteristic of the series is closure under multiplication - the product of any two Walsh functions is also a Walsh function. This self-mapping characteristic transforms the solution of nonlinear differential equations to the solution of systems of polynomial equations if the original nonlinearities can be represented as products of the dependent variables and the convergence of the series for n→∞ can be demonstrated. Fundamental operations (reciprocal, integral, derivative) on Walsh function series representations of functions with discontinuities are defined. Examples are presented for solution of the time dependent Burger's equation and for quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow including a shock.

  15. Nonlinear excitations for the positron acoustic shock waves in dissipative nonextensive electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asit

    2017-03-01

    Positron acoustic shock waves (PASHWs) in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas consisting of mobile cold positrons, immobile positive ions, q-nonextensive distributed electrons, and hot positrons are studied. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is considered and the reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the Burgers equation. Applying traveling wave transformation, the Burgers equation is transformed to a one dimensional dynamical system. All possible vector fields corresponding to the dynamical system are presented. We have analyzed the dynamical system with the help of potential energy, which helps to identify the stability and instability of the equilibrium points. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PASHWs. Furthermore, fully nonlinear arbitrary amplitude positron acoustic waves are also studied applying the theory of planar dynamical systems. It is also observed that the fundamental features of the small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude PASHWs are significantly affected by the effect of the physical parameters q e , q h , μ e , μ h , σ , η , and U. This work can be useful to understand the qualitative changes in the dynamics of nonlinear small amplitude and fully nonlinear arbitrary amplitude PASHWs in solar wind, ionosphere, lower part of magnetosphere, and auroral acceleration regions.

  16. Effects of transient thermal shock loadings on the structure of zirconia ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Derkach, E. A.; Buyakova, Svetlana Petrovna; Kulkov, Sergey Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the influence of thermal shock loadings on the phase composition and microstructure of ZrO[2](Y[2]O[3]) and ZrO[2](MgO) ceramics was studied. It was found that thermal shock strains were no effect on phase composition of ZrO[2](Y[2]O[3]) ceramics. Reducing the concentration of high-temperature tetragonal t-ZrO[2] and cubic c-ZrO[2] modifications and rising the content of low-temperature monoclinic m-ZrO[2] crystal system with increasing the number of thermal shock strains were o...

  17. Emergence of nonlinearity and plausible turbulence in accretion disks via hydromagnetic transient growth faster than magnetorotational instability

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Sujit K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of hydromagnetic perturbations in a small section of accretion disks. It is known that molecular viscosity is negligible in accretion disks. Hence, it has been argued that Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) is responsible for transporting matter in the presence of weak magnetic field. However, there are some shortcomings, which question effectiveness of MRI. Now the question arises, whether other hydromagnetic effects, e.g. transient growth (TG), can play an important role to bring nonlinearity in the system, even at weak magnetic fields. Otherwise, whether MRI or TG, which is primarily responsible to reveal nonlinearity to make the flow turbulent? Our results prove explicitly that the flows with high Reynolds number (Re), which is the case of realistic astrophysical accretion disks, exhibit nonlinearity by best TG of perturbation modes faster than that by best modes producing MRI. For a fixed wavevector, MRI dominates over transient effects, only at low Re, lower than its value ...

  18. Climate shocks and rural-urban migration in Mexico: Exploring nonlinearities and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; DeWaard, Jack; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Ha, Jasmine Trang

    2017-01-01

    Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321). We measure climate shocks as monthly deviation from a 30-year (1961-1990) long-term climate normal period, and uncover important nonlinearities using quadratic and cubic specifications. Satellite-based measures of urban extents allow us to classify migrant-sending and migrant-receiving municipalities as rural or urban to examine four internal migration patterns: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Among our key findings, results from multilevel models reveal that each additional drought month increases the odds of rural-urban migration by 3.6%. In contrast, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration is nonlinear. After a threshold of ~34 heat months is surpassed, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration becomes positive and progressively increases in strength. Policy and programmatic interventions may therefore reduce climate induced rural-urban migration in Mexico through rural climate change adaptation initiatives, while also assisting rural migrants in finding employment and housing in urban areas to offset population impacts.

  19. Radio to $\\gamma$-Ray Emission from Shell-type Supernova Remnants Predictions from Non-linear Shock Acceleration Models

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Reynolds, S P; Grenier, I; Goret, P; Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P; Grenier, Isabelle; Goret, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are widely believed to be the principal source of galactic cosmic rays. Such energetic particles can produce gamma-rays and lower energy photons via interactions with the ambient plasma. In this paper, we present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of non-linear shock structure and acceleration coupled with photon emission in shell-like SNRs. These non-linearities are a by-product of the dynamical influence of the accelerated cosmic rays on the shocked plasma and result in distributions of cosmic rays which deviate from pure power-laws. Such deviations are crucial to acceleration efficiency and spectral considerations, producing GeV/TeV intensity ratios that are quite different from test particle predictions. The Sedov scaling solution for SNR expansions is used to estimate important shock parameters for input into the Monte Carlo simulation. We calculate ion and electron distributions that spawn neutral pion decay, bremsstrahlung, inverse Compton, and synchrotron emission, yieldin...

  20. Shock wave dynamics in a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with internal losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno; Malomed; Konotop

    2000-12-01

    Propagation of a shock wave (SW), converting an energy-carrying domain into an empty one, is studied in a discrete version of the normal-dispersion nonlinear Schrodinger equation with viscosity, which may describe, e.g., an array of optical fibers in a weakly lossy medium. It is found that the SW in the discrete model is stable, as well as in its earlier studied continuum counterpart. In a strongly discrete case, the dependence of the SWs velocity upon the amplitude of the energy-carrying background is found to obey a simple linear law, which differs by a value of the proportionality coefficient from a similar law in the continuum model. For the underdamped case, the velocity of the shock wave is found to be vanishing along with the viscosity constant. We argue that the latter feature is universal for long but finite systems, both discrete and continuum. The dependence of the SW's width on the parameters of the system is also discussed.

  1. Nonlinear shock acceleration and gamma-ray emission from Tycho and Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G

    2012-01-01

    We apply the non-linear diffusive shock acceleration theory in order to describe the properties of two supernova remnants, SN 1572 (Tycho) and SN 1604 (Kepler). By analyzing the multi-wavelength spectra, we infer that both Tycho's and Kepler's forward shocks are accelerating protons up to ~500 TeV, channeling into cosmic rays more than 10 per cent of their kinetic energy. We find that the streaming instability induced by cosmic rays is consistent with the X-ray morphology of the remnants, indicating a very efficient magnetic field amplification (up to ~300 microG). In the case of Tycho we explain the gamma-ray spectrum from the GeV up to the TeV band as due to pion decay produced in nuclear collisions by accelerated nuclei scattering against the background gas. On the other hand, due to the larger distance, the gamma-ray emission from Kepler is not detected, being below the sensitivity of the present detectors, but it should be detectable by the Cerenkov Telescope Array.

  2. Response of a continuous biomethanation process to transient organic shock loads under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-04-15

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is a critical factor that controls the treatment efficiency and biogas production in anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, organic shock loads may cause significant process imbalances accompanied by a drop in pH and acid accumulation or even failure. This study investigated the response of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor to a series of transient organic shock loads of the substrate whey permeate, a high-strength organic wastewater from cheese making. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads of increasing magnitude (a one-day pulse of elevated feed organic concentration) under controlled (near 7) and uncontrolled pH conditions at a fixed HRT of 10 days. The reactor was resilient to up to a shock load of up to 8.0 g SCOD/L·d under controlled pH conditions but failed to recover from the serious imbalance caused by a 3.0-g SCOD/L·d shock load, thus indicating the critical effect of pH on system resilience. The acidified reactor was not restored by interrupted feeding under the acidic conditions that were formed (pH ≤ 4.5) but was successfully restored after pH adjustment to 7. The reactor subsequently reverted to continuous mode without pH control and showed a performance comparable to the stable performance at the design OLR of 1.0 g SCOD/L·d. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically in association with disturbances in the reactor conditions, whereas the archaeal community structure remained simple and less variable during the shock loading experiments. The structural shifts of the bacterial community were well correlated with the process performance changes, and performance recovery was generally accompanied by recovery of the bacterial community structure. The overall results suggest that the reactor pH, rather than simply acting as an accumulation of organic acids, had a crucial effect on the resilience and robustness of the microbial community and thus on the reactor performance under organic

  3. Malignant Multivessel Coronary Spasm Complicated by Myocardial Infarction, Transient Complete Heart Block, Ventricular Fibrillation, Cardiogenic Shock and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji S. Thomson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivessel coronary spasm resulting to cardiogenic shock and malignant ventricular arrhythmias though rare has been reported in the literature. The disease seems to be more prevalent in Asians. There have been isolated reports of coronary spasm in patients with reactive airway disease. We report the first case of spontaneous multivessel spasm in a male patient with bronchial asthma of Arab ethnicity resulting in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, and transient complete heart block. Literature review of similar cases suggests a strong association with bronchial asthma and a more malignant course in patients with reactive airway disease. The role of intracoronary nitroglycerin in proving the diagnosis even in patients in shock on maximal inotropic supports and intra-aortic balloon pump is highlighted and the importance of considering multivessel coronary spasm as a cause for acute coronary syndrome even in patients with conventional risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is reinforced in the discussion of this case.

  4. Dynamical behaviors of the shock compacton in the nonlinearly Schrödinger equation with a source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jiuli, E-mail: yjl@ujs.edu.cn; Zhao, Liuwei

    2014-11-07

    In this paper, the dynamics from the shock compacton to chaos in the nonlinearly Schrödinger equation with a source term is investigated in detail. The existence of unclosed homoclinic orbits which are not connected with the saddle point indicates that the system has a discontinuous fiber solution which is a shock compacton. We prove that the shock compacton is a weak solution. The Melnikov technique is used to detect the conditions for the occurrence from the shock compacton to chaos and further analysis of the conditions for chaos suppression. The results show that the system turns to chaos easily under external disturbances. The critical parameter values for chaos appearing are obtained analytically and numerically using the Lyapunov exponents and the bifurcation diagrams.

  5. [Transient high frequency nodal rhythm after a high voltage electric shock. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervía, August; Del Baño, Francisco; Aguirre, Alfons; Membrilla, Estela

    2013-09-01

    Electrical shock can cause a direct myocardial damage and different types of arrhythmias, which are uncommon and occur more often when there is a high voltage exposure. We report a 19-year-old male that received a high voltage shock, falling thereafter from an altitude of four meters. On admission to the emergency room, he had second and third degree burns in the right hand and the left thigh. The electrocardiogram showed a nodal rhythm of 72 beats per minute. After four hours of monitoring, sinus rhythm returned spontaneously.

  6. PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zadoks, R.I. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.

  7. Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves: extraordinary transients in the nonlinear reflectivity and parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabko, Vitaly V; Popov, Alexander K; Tkachenko, Viktor A; Myslivets, Sergey A

    2016-09-01

    Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves in a pulsed regime is investigated in the metamaterials that enable the coexistence and phase-matching of such waves. It is shown that the opposite direction of phase velocity and energy flux in backward waves gives rise to extraordinary transient processes due to greatly enhanced optical parametric amplification and frequency up- and down-shifting nonlinear reflectivity. The differences are illustrated through comparison with the counterparts in ordinary, co-propagating settings.

  8. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav M Živković; Aleksandar V Nikolić; Radovan B Slavković; Fatima T Živić

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE) analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary condi...

  9. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary conditions of the problem. General 3D problem for heat conduction is considered, from which solutions for two- and one-dimensional heat conduction can be obtained, as special cases. Forming of the finite element matrices using Galerkin method is briefly described. The procedure for solving equations of energy balance is discussed, by methods of resolving iterative processes of nonlinear transient heat conduction. Solution of this problem illustrates possibilities of PAK-T software package, such as materials properties, given as tabular data, or analytical functions. Software also offers the possibility to solve nonlinear and transient problems with incremental methods. Obtained results for different thicknesses of the tank wall insulation materials enable its comparison in regards to given conditions

  10. Bioaugmentation for treating transient 4-fluorocinnamic acid shock loads in a rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Catarina L; Duque, Anouk F; Afonso, Carlos M M; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-09-01

    A rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used to treat shock loadings of 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA). Intermittent 4-FCA shocks of 35 mg L(-1) were applied (ca. 3 months) with only limited mineralization occurring and accumulation of 4-fluorobenzoate (4-FBA) as an intermediate. After bioaugmentation with a degrading bacterium the RBC was able to deal with 4-FCA intermittent loading of 80 mg L(-1) however, a gradual decline in RBC performance occurred, leading to 4-FBA accumulation. The degrading strain was recovered from the biofilm during 2 months but intermittent feeding may have led to diminishing strain numbers. Distinct bacterial communities in the 1st and the 5th and 10th stages of the RBC were revealed by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Several isolates retrieved from the RBC transformed 4-FCA into 4-FBA but only two strains mineralized the compound. Bioaugmentation allowed removal of the fluorinated compound however intermittent feeding may have compromised the bioreactor efficiency.

  11. Dispersive shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear nano-oscillators in ferromagnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Mark A.

    This thesis examines nonlinear wave phenomena, in two physical systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thin film ferromagnets where the magnetization dynamics are excited by the spin momentum transfer (SMT) effect. In the first system, shock waves generated by steep gradients in the BEC wavefunction are shown to be of the disperse type. Asymptotic and averaging methods are used to determine shock speeds and structure in one spatial dimension. These results are compared with multidimensional numerical simulations and experiment showing good, qualitative agreement. In the second system, a model of magnetization dynamics due to SMT is presented. Using this model, nonlinear oscillating modes---nano-oscillators---are found numerically and analytically using perturbative methods. These results compare well with experiment. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g. traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical 1D dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock front speed. Numerical results associated with laboratory experiments show that three and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and one dimensional approximations are in qualitative agreement. The interaction of two DSWs is investigated analytically and numerically. Using one dimensional DSW theory it is argued

  12. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  13. Transient cardiogenic shock during a crisis of pheochromocytoma triggered by high-dose exogenous corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Majd; Banga, Sandeep; Venkatapuram, Suneetha; Mungee, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of pharyngitis and fever. Diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis, she received antibiotics and dexamethasone, and was discharged. Within 24 h she returned to the ED with signs and symptoms of an acute coronary syndrome; she was thus given β-blockers. Her coronary angiogram was normal. She developed cardiogenic shock with an ejection fraction (EF) of 10% and apical ballooning on echocardiogra...

  14. Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock can be caused by any condition that reduces blood flow, including: Heart problems (such as heart attack or heart failure ) Low blood volume (as with heavy bleeding or dehydration ) Changes in blood vessels (as with infection ...

  15. CFD Transient Simulation of an Isolator Shock Train in a Scramjet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the imbalance in the equations used are tracked in terms of residuals to see if the residuals increase or decrease and to check and see if the... residuals reach an acceptable tolerance level when they decrease. For a transient simulation, the numerical convergence normally used in steady- state...averaging and Favre-averaging as described earlier in Section II) governing inviscid and viscous flows appropriate for calorically or thermally perfect

  16. A comparison/validation of a fractional derivative model with an empirical model of non-linear shock waves in swelling shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore

    2013-04-01

    Control of drilling parameters, as fluid pressure, mud weight, salt concentration is essential to avoid instabilities when drilling through shale sections. To investigate shale deformation, fundamental for deep oil drilling and hydraulic fracturing for gas extraction ("fracking"), a non-linear model of mechanic and chemo-poroelastic interactions among fluid, solute and the solid matrix is here discussed. The two equations of this model describe the isothermal evolution of fluid pressure and solute density in a fluid saturated porous rock. Their solutions are quick non-linear Burger's solitary waves, potentially destructive for deep operations. In such analysis the effect of diffusion, that can play a particular role in fracking, is investigated. Then, following Civan (1998), both diffusive and shock waves are applied to fine particles filtration due to such quick transients , their effect on the adjacent rocks and the resulting time-delayed evolution. Notice how time delays in simple porous media dynamics have recently been analyzed using a fractional derivative approach. To make a tentative comparison of these two deeply different methods,in our model we insert fractional time derivatives, i.e. a kind of time-average of the fluid-rocks interactions. Then the delaying effects of fine particles filtration is compared with fractional model time delays. All this can be seen as an empirical check of these fractional models.

  17. [The nonlinear relationship between the resuscitation therapy and intensive insulin therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-ming; Zhu, Bin; Ding, Liang-cai; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Jin-song

    2010-06-01

    To study the relationship between the resuscitation therapy and intensive insulin therapy on stress-induced hyperglycemia in severe sepsis and septic shock patients, and to evaluate the value on nonlinear viewpoint in the treatment of patients with sepsis. The data of 129 hospitalized patients with severe sepsis and septic shock were analyzed and they were divided into eight groups every 6 hours in ascending order for full recovery. The resuscitation therapy time of each group was compared with insulin dosage in each unit time with nonlinear least square method. The relationship of the exponential function fit very well between the resuscitation therapy time of each group and the insulin dosage in each unit time. The exponential curve equation was y=e0.739 3-0.015 2x2 (a=0.739 3, b=0.015 2) and the curve fit very well (R2=0.976 943 6). It conforms to the nonlinear viewpoint that the resuscitation therapy time is closely correlated with recovery of dysfunction of endocrine system during the treatment for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Therefore, the essence of successful treatment is to concentrate on helping the body rebuild the disorganized network and the recovery of physiological harmony rather than to support and repair the damaged organs.

  18. Synthesis of heat shock proteins in rat brain cortex after transient ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, G A; Kiessling, M; Jacewicz, M; Pulsinelli, W A

    1986-08-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis and two-dimensional gel autoradiography were used to characterize early postischemic protein synthesis in rat neocortex. Severe forebrain ischemia was induced for 30 min (four-vessel occlusion model) and followed by 3 h of recirculation. Polysomes were isolated from the cerebral cortex, translated in vitro in a reticulocyte system, and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The translation products of postischemic polysomes included a major new protein family (70 kDa) with multiple isoelectric variants that was found to comigrate with the 68- to 70-kDa "heat shock" protein synthesized from polysomes of hyperthermic rats. Two other stress proteins (93 and 110 kDa) also appeared to be synthesized in increased amounts after ischemia. A complement of proteins that was indistinguishable from that of controls was also synthesized after ischemia, indicating that messenger ribonucleic acid coding for most brain proteins is preserved after ischemia and is bound to polysomes.

  19. Assessment of ship manoeuvrability by using a coupling between a nonlinear transient manoeuvring model and mathematical programming techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method based on a coupling between a mathematical model of nonlinear transient ship manoeu-vring motion in the horizontal plane and Mathematical Programming (MP) techniques is proposed. The aim of the proposed proce-dure is an efficient estimation of optimal ship hydrodynamic parameters in a dynamic model at the early design stage. The proposed procedure has been validated through turning circle and zigzag manoeuvres based on experimental data of sea trials of the 190 000-dwt oil tanker. Comparisons between experimental and computed data show a good agreement of overall tendency in manoeuvring trajectories.

  20. Application of multilevel scheme and two level discretization for POD based model order reduction of nonlinear transient heat transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, A. K.; Kulkarni, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, a method to reduce the computational cost associated with solving a nonlinear transient heat conduction problem is presented. The proposed method combines the ideas of two level discretization and the multilevel time integration schemes with the proper orthogonal decomposition model order reduction technique. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed methods is discussed. Several numerical examples are presented for validation of the approach. Compared to the full finite element model, the proposed method significantly reduces the computational time while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy.

  1. Transient and chaotic low-energy transfers in a system with bistable nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, F., E-mail: francesco.romeo@uniroma1.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Manevitch, L. I. [Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergman, L. A.; Vakakis, A. [College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61820 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The low-energy dynamics of a two-dof system composed of a grounded linear oscillator coupled to a lightweight mass by means of a spring with both cubic nonlinear and negative linear components is investigated. The mechanisms leading to intense energy exchanges between the linear oscillator, excited by a low-energy impulse, and the nonlinear attachment are addressed. For lightly damped systems, it is shown that two main mechanisms arise: Aperiodic alternating in-well and cross-well oscillations of the nonlinear attachment, and secondary nonlinear beats occurring once the dynamics evolves solely in-well. The description of the former dissipative phenomenon is provided in a two-dimensional projection of the phase space, where transitions between in-well and cross-well oscillations are associated with sequences of crossings across a pseudo-separatrix. Whereas the second mechanism is described in terms of secondary limiting phase trajectories of the nonlinear attachment under certain resonance conditions. The analytical treatment of the two aformentioned low-energy transfer mechanisms relies on the reduction of the nonlinear dynamics and consequent analysis of the reduced dynamics by asymptotic techniques. Direct numerical simulations fully validate our analytical predictions.

  2. On the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Tunable Shock Micro-switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Saber; Javaheri, Hamid; Ghanati, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    A tunable shock micro-switch based on piezoelectric excitation is proposed in this study. This model includes a clamped-clamped micro-beam sandwiched with two piezoelectric layers throughout the entire length. Actuation of the piezoelectric layers via a DC voltage leads to an initial axial force in the micro-beam and directly affects on its overall bending stiffness; accordingly enables two-side tuning of both the trigger time and threshold shock. The governing motion equation, in the presence of an electrostatic actuation and a shock wave, is derived using Hamilton's principle. We employ the finite element method based on the Galerkin technique to obtain the temporal and phase responses subjected to three different shock waves including half sine, triangular and rectangular forms. Subsequently, we investigate the effect of the piezoelectric excitations on the threshold shock amplitude and trigger time.

  3. Quantum Generation Dynamics of Coherent Phonon in Semiconductors: Transient and Nonlinear Fano Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-Ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    The coherent phonon (CP) generation is one of the representative phenomena induced by ultrashort pulsed laser. In particular, in the initial stage of the CP generation in lightly n-doped Si, the vestige of Fano resonance (FR) manifested in a flash was observed in time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, in which it was speculated that this phenomenon results from the birth of transient polaronic quasiparticles composed of electrons and phonons strongly interacting each other. This study is aimed at constructing a fully-quantum-mechanical model for the CP generation and tracking the origin of the transient FR. We calculate two physical quantities in both of polar and non-polar semiconductors such as GaAs and undoped Si. One is a retarded longitudinal susceptibility which allows one to calculate a transient induced photoemission spectrum. The other is the Fourier-transform of LO-phonon displacement into frequency domain. We have succeeded in showing that the transient FR is exclusively caused in Si in harmony with the experiments, though, not observed in GaAs.

  4. Nonlinear predictive control for the damping of multimachine power system transients using FACTS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, V. [ABB Transmission Technology Institute, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mohler, R.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for the development of discrete-time, nonlinear predictive controllers using thyristor-controlled-series-capacitors and phasor measurements of bus voltage magnitude and angle, for the stabilization and rapid damping of multimachine power systems which are subjected to large disturbances. When the faults of concern are large, the nonlinear predictive controllers are used to return the power system state to a small region about the post-fault equilibrium. In this region, linear controllers provide local asymptotic stability and rapid damping. Simulation results are provided on a sample four-machine power system.

  5. Solution of transient optimization problems by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for solution of dynamic optimization problems which are nonlinear in the state variables and linear in the control variables. It is shown that the optimal control is bang-bang. A nominal bang-bang solution is found which satisfies the system equations and constraints, and influence functions are generated which check the optimality of the solution. Nonlinear optimization (gradient search) techniques are used to find the optimal solution. The algorithm is used to find a minimum time acceleration for a turbofan engine.

  6. Solution of transient optimization problems by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for solution of dynamic optimization problems which are nonlinear in the state variables and linear in the control variables. It is shown that the optimal control is bang-bang. A nominal bang-bang solution is found which satisfies the system equations and constraints, and influence functions are generated which check the optimality of the solution. Nonlinear optimization (gradient search) techniques are used to find the optimal solution. The algorithm is used to find a minimum time acceleration for a turbofan engine.

  7. Consideration of Transient Stream/Aquifer Interaction with the Nonlinear Boussinesq Equation using HPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Sfahani, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    of time. The differential equations were solved using the method of Homotopy Perturbation. The simplicity and accuracy of the approximation are compared with “exact” solution and illustrated numerically and graphically. The results reveal that the HPM is very effective and simple and provides highly...... accurate solutions for nonlinear differential equations....

  8. Approximation for Transient of Nonlinear Circuits Using RHPM and BPES Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vazquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microelectronics area constantly demands better and improved circuit simulation tools. Therefore, in this paper, rational homotopy perturbation method and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme are applied to a differential equation from a nonlinear circuit. Comparing the results obtained by both techniques revealed that they are effective and convenient.

  9. Nonlinear optical response of C60 in solvents: picosecond transient grating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Lobach, Anatolii S.; Nadtochenko, Victor A.

    1996-05-01

    Time-resolved resonant nonlinear optical response of C60 in a chlorobenzene solution was measured for 528 nm excitation and 1055, 528, and 351 nm probing for zzzz and zzyy configurations. The slow part of the signal (8 +/- 2 ps) was attributed to the orientational motion of C60 excited molecules.

  10. Modelling the Propagation of a Weak Fast-Mode MHD Shock Wave near a 2D Magnetic Null Point Using Nonlinear Geometrical Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A. N.; Uralov, A. M.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of analytical modelling of fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation near a 2D magnetic null point. We consider both a linear wave and a weak shock and analyse their behaviour in cold and warm plasmas. We apply the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We calculate the wave amplitude, using the ray approximation and the laws of solitary shock wave damping. We find that a complex caustic is formed around the null point. Plasma heating is distributed in space and occurs at a caustic as well as near the null point due to substantial nonlinear damping of the shock wave. The shock wave passes through the null point even in a cold plasma. The complex shape of the wave front can be explained by the caustic pattern.

  11. Modelling the Propagation of a Weak Fast-Mode MHD Shock Wave near a 2D Magnetic Null Point Using Nonlinear Geometrical Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, Andrey N

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of analytical modelling of fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation near a 2D magnetic null point. We consider both a linear wave and a weak shock and analyse their behaviour in cold and warm plasmas. We apply the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We calculate the wave amplitude, using the ray approximation and the laws of solitary shock wave damping. We find that a complex caustic is formed around the null point. Plasma heating is distributed in space and occurs at a caustic as well as near the null point due to substantial nonlinear damping of the shock wave. The shock wave passes through the null point even in a cold plasma. The complex shape of the wave front can be explained by the caustic pattern.

  12. Nonlinear denoising of transient signals with application to event related potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Effern, A; Schreiber, T; Grunwald, T; David, P; Elger, C E

    2000-01-01

    We present a new wavelet based method for the denoising of {\\it event related potentials} ERPs), employing techniques recently developed for the paradigm of deterministic chaotic systems. The denoising scheme has been constructed to be appropriate for short and transient time sequences using circular state space embedding. Its effectiveness was successfully tested on simulated signals as well as on ERPs recorded from within a human brain. The method enables the study of individual ERPs against strong ongoing brain electrical activity.

  13. EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL INCLUDING A QUADRATIC GRADIENT TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹绪龙; 同登科; 王瑞和

    2004-01-01

    The models of the nonlinear radial flow for the infinite and finite reservoirs including a quadratic gradient term were presented. The exact solution was given in real space for flow equation including quadratic gradiet term for both constant-rate and constant pressure production cases in an infinite system by using generalized Weber transform. Analytical solutions for flow equation including quadratic gradient term were also obtained by using the Hankel transform for a finite circular reservoir case. Both closed and constant pressure outer boundary conditions are considered. Moreover, both constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions are considered. The difference between the nonlinear pressure solution and linear pressure solution is analyzed. The difference may be reached about 8% in the long time. The effect of the quadratic gradient term in the large time well test is considered.

  14. Nonlinear wave collapse, shock, and breather formation in an electron magnetohydrodynamic plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency nonlinear wave dynamics is investigated in a two-dimensional inhomogeneous electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) plasma in the presence of electron viscosity. In the long-wavelength limit, the dynamics of the wave is found to be governed by a novel nonlinear equation. The result of the moving-frame nonlinear analysis is noteworthy, which shows that this nonlinear equation does have a breather solution and electron viscosity is responsible for the breather. A breather is a nonlinear wave in which energy accumulates in a localized and oscillatory manner. Analytical solution and time-dependent numerical simulation of this novel equation reveal the collapse of a soliton (localized pulse) into a weak noise shelf and formation of shocklike structures.

  15. An exact explicit solution for one-dimensional, transient, nonlinear Richards' equation for modeling infiltration with special hydraulic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.

  16. The asymmetric effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks. A nonlinear VAR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Sajjadur [Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks and monetary policy on macroeconomic activity, using monthly data for the United States, over the period from 1983:1 to 2008:12. In doing so, we use a logistic smooth transition vector autoregression (VAR), as detailed in Terasvirta and Anderson (1992) and Weise (1999), and make a distinction between two oil price volatility regimes (high and low), using the realized oil price volatility as a switching variable. We isolate the effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks and their asymmetry on output growth and, following Koop et al. (1996) and Weise (1999), we employ simulation methods to calculate Generalized Impulse Response Functions (GIRFs) to trace the effects of independent shocks on the conditional means of the variables. Our results suggest that in addition to the price of oil, oil price volatility has an impact on macroeconomic activity and that monetary policy is not only reinforcing the effects of oil price shocks on output, it is also contributing to the asymmetric response of output to oil price shocks. (author)

  17. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving transient Maxwell equations with nonlinear material properties

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2014-07-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method (DGTD) has been used extensively in computational electromagnetics for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on structures described with linear constitutive relations. DGTD expands unknown fields independently on disconnected mesh elements and uses numerical flux to realize information exchange between fields on different elements (J. S. Hesthaven and T. Warburton, Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, 2008). The numerical flux of choice for \\'linear\\' Maxwell equations is the upwind flux, which mimics accurately the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves on discontinuous boundaries. It is obtained from the analytical solution of the Riemann problem defined on the boundary of two neighboring mesh elements.

  18. Unidirectionally Coupled Map Lattices with Nonlinear Coupling: Unbinding Transitions and Superlong Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Vollmer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    , the Reynolds number for pipe flow, and with transitions from bounded chaotic patches to an invasion of space of irregular motion. Dynamical systems models are unique tools in this respect because they can provide insight into the origin of the very long lifetime of puffs, and the dynamical mechanism leading......Recently, highly resolved experiments and simulations have provided detailed insight into the dynamics of turbulent pipe flow. This has revived the interest in identifying mechanisms that generate chaotic transients with superexponential growth of lifetime as a function of a control parameter...... to the transition from puffs to slugs in pipe flow. The present paper contributes to this enterprise by introducing a unidirectionally coupled map lattice. It mimics three of the salient features of pipe-flow turbulence: (i) the transition from laminar flow to puffs, (ii) a superexponential scaling of puff lifetime...

  19. Unidirectionally Coupled Map Lattices with Non-Linear Coupling: Unbinding Transitions and Super-Long Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Marschler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, highly resolved experiments and simulations have provided detailed insight into the dynamics of turbulent pipe flow. This has revived the interest to identify mechanisms that generate chaotic transients with super-exponential growth of lifetime as a function of a control parameter, the Reynolds number for pipe flow, and with transitions from bounded chaotic patches to an invasion of space of irregular motion. Dynamical systems models are unique tools in this respect because they can provide insight into the origin of the very long life time of puffs, and the dynamical mechanism leading to the transition from puffs to slugs in pipe flow. The present paper contributes to this enterprise by introducing a unidirectionally coupled map lattice. It mimics three of the salient features of pipe-flow turbulence: (i) the transition from laminar flow to puffs, (ii) a super-exponential scaling of puff lifetime, and (iii) the transition from puffs to slugs by an unbinding transition in an intermittency scenario. ...

  20. Spatially Nonuniform Heating and the Nonlinear Transient Response of Elastomeric Photomechanical Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Cohn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently various nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, have been added to rubbery elastomers, such as poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS, to enable generation of stress and displacement in response to remote illumination. While the response is primarily due to heat-induced generation of stress; i.e., the thermoelastic effect in rubbers, illuminated samples have shown unexpected deviations between the transient waveforms of sample temperature and induced stress. In this report we have created a new and simple lumped element model to explain the stress behavior of these photomechanical nanocomposites. The model consists of two parameters that describe the spatially averaged steady state temperature rise due to optical absorption of the structure (typically a long strip of pre-strained elastomer and the spatially averaged convective cooling rate of the strip, together with a time-varying function that effectively represents the temperature distribution and thermal convection along the length of the strip. The model is used to compare two actuators that each have a thin embedded layer of carbon nanotubes, in which the one film consists of randomly aligned nanotubes and the other has a much more ordered alignment. The model not only fits both transient responses, but the differences between the parameters suggests that the ordered film conducts heat across the strip more rapidly than the disordered film, leading to it more rapidly reaching the steady state level of maximum stress. This model should be helpful in future experimental studies that work to observe, delineate and identify possible nanoscale and molecular contributions to photomechanical stress.

  1. On the effect of a two-rocks boundary on the propagation of nonlinear transients of temperature and pressure in deformable porous rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Salusti, E; Garra, R

    2016-01-01

    We here analyze the propagation of transients of fluid-rock temperature and pressure through a thin boundary layer, where a steady trend is present, between two adjacent homogeneous rocks. We focus on the effect of convection on transients crossing such thin layer. In comparison with early models where this boundary was assumed a sharp mathematical plane separating the two rocks, here we show a realistic analysis of such boundary layer that implies a novel nonlinear model. Its solutions describe large amplitude, quick and sharp transients characterized by a novel drift and variations of the signal amplitude, leading to a nonlinear wave propagation. Possible applications are in volcanic, hydrologic, hydrothermal systems as well as for deep oil drilling. In addition, this formalism could easily be generalized for the case of a signal arriving in a rock characterized by a steady trend of pressure and/or temperature. These effects, being proportional to the initial conditions, can also give velocity variations no...

  2. On the Role of Osmosis for Non-Linear Shock Waves f Pressure and Solute in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanivesky, Roman; Salusti, Ettore; Caserta, Arrigo

    2013-04-01

    A novel non-Osanger model focusing on non-linear mechanic and chemo-poroelastic coupling of fluids and solute in porous rocks is developed based on the modern wave theory. Analyzing in 1-D a system of two adjacent rocks with different conditions we obtain two coupled non-linear equations for fluid pressure and solute (salt or pollutants) concentration, evolving under the action of strong stress from one "source" rock towards the other rock. Their solutions allow to identify quick non-linear solitary (Burgers) waves of coupled fluid pressure and solute density, that are different from diffusive or perturbative solutions found in other analyses. The strong transient waves for low permeability porous media, such as clay and shale, are analyzed in detail. For medium and high-permeability porous media (sandstones) this model is also tentatively applied. Indeed in recent works of Alexander (1990) and Hart(2009) is supported the presence of small osmotic phenomena in other rocks where osmosis was previously ignored. An attempt to apply our model to soils in Calabria (Italy), such as clastic marine and fluvial deposits as well as discontinuous remnants of Miocene and Pliocene carbonate and terrigeneous deposits, is also discussed.

  3. Transfinite element methodology for nonlinear/linear transient thermal modelling/analysis - Progress and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    The 'transfinite element method' (TFEM) proposed by Tamma and Railkar (1987 and 1988) for the analysis of linear and nonlinear heat-transfer problems is described and demonstrated. The TFEM combines classical Galerkin and transform approaches with state-of-the-art FEMs to obtain a flexible hybrid modeling scheme. The fundamental principles of the TFEM and the derivation of the governing equations are reviewed, and numerical results for sample problems are presented in extensive graphs and briefly characterized. Problems analyzed include a square plate with a hole, a rectangular plate with natural and essential boundary conditions and varying thermal conductivity, the Space Shuttle thermal protection system, a bimaterial plate subjected to step temperature variations, and solidification in a semiinfinite liquid slab.

  4. Research on Simulation and Test of the Nonlinear Responses for the Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建武; 刘延庆

    2003-01-01

    Basically on the multi-body system dynamics,the virtual prototype of the hydraulic shock absorber for the bench test is developed in the ADAMS environment.Dynamic behaviors of the absorber are studied by both computer simulation and real test.Numerical predictions of dynamic responses are produced by the established virtual prototype of the absorber and compared with experimental results.It has been shown from the comparison that the vibration behaviors of the prototype with hysteretic damping characteristics are considered to be more identical with the bench test results than those of the same prototype with piecewise linear damping properties are.The current virtual prototype of the shock absorber is correct and can be a developing terrace for the optimizing design of the absorber and matching capability of the whole car.

  5. Transient and stability analysis of large scale rotor-bearing system with strong nonlinear elements by the mode summation-transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhiping

    This paper extends Riccati transfer matrix method to the transient and stability analysis of large scale rotor-bearing systems with strong nonlinear elements, and proposes a mode summation-transfer matrix method, in which the field transfer matrix of a distributed mass uniform shaft segment is obtained with the aid of the idea of mode summation and Newmark beta formulation, and the Riccati transfer matrix method is adopted to stablize the boundary value problem of the nonlinear systems. In this investigation, the real nonlinearity of the strong nonlinear elements is considered, not linearized, and the advantages of the Riccati transfer matrix are retained. So, this method is especially applicable to analyze the transient response and stability of large-scale rotor-bear systems with strong nonlinear elements. One example, a single-spool rotating system with strong nonlinear elements, is given. The obtained results show that this method is superior to that of Gu and Chen (1990) in accuracy, stability, and economy.

  6. A non-linear induced polarization effect on transient electromagnetic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya Yu.; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser; Bignardi, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    In a TEM survey conducted for characterizing the subsurface for geothermal purposes, a strong induced polarization effect was recorded in all collected data. Surprisingly, anomalous decay curves were obtained in part of the sites, whose shape depended on the repetition frequency of the exciting square waveform, i.e. on current pulse length. The Cole-Cole model, besides being not directly related to physical parameters of rocks, was found inappropriate to model the observed distortion, due to induced polarization, because this model is linear, i.e. it cannot fit any dependence on current pulse. This phenomenon was investigated and explained as due to the presence of membrane polarization linked to constrictivity of (fresh) water-saturated pores. An algorithm for mathematical modeling of TEM data was then developed to fit this behavior. The case history is then discussed: 1D inversion, which accommodates non-linear effects, produced models that agree quite satisfactorily with resistivity and chargeability models obtained by an electrical resistivity tomography carried out for comparison.

  7. Comparative efficiencies of three parallel algorithms for nonlinear implicit transient dynamic analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Rama Mohan Rao; T V S R Appa Rao; B Dattaguru

    2004-02-01

    The work reported in this paper is motivated by the need to develop portable parallel processing algorithms and codes which can run on a variety of hardware platforms without any modifications. The prime aim of the research work reported here is to test the portability of the parallel algorithms and also to study and understand the comparative efficiencies of three parallel algorithms developed for implicit time integration technique. The standard message passing interface (MPI) is used to develop parallel algorithms for computing nonlinear dynamic response of large structures employing implicit time-marching scheme. The parallel algorithms presented in this paper are developed under the broad framework of non-overlapped domain decomposition technique. Numerical studies indicate that the parallel algorithm devised employing the conventional form of Newmark time integration algorithm is faster than the predictor–corrector form. It is also accurate and highly adaptive to fine grain computations. The group implicit algorithm is found to be extremely superior in performance when compared to the other two parallel algorithms. This algorithm is better suited for large size problems on coarse grain environment as the resulting submeshes will obviously be large and thus permit larger time steps without losing accuracy.

  8. Analytical and numerical modelling of thermoviscous shocks in their interactions in nonlinear fluids including dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2010-01-01

    A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...

  9. A Nonlinear System Model of Wall Turbulence Generation Under Active Suppression and Enhancement of Streak Transient Growth Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Samaresh; Duong, Alan; Thomas, Flint; Corke, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Schoppa and Hussain (1998, 2002) demonstrated streak transient growth (STG) as the dominant streamwise coherent structure generation mechanism required for wall turbulence production. A novel, flush surface-mounted pulsed-DC plasma actuator was recently developed at the University of Notre Dame to actively intervene in STG. In recent high Reynolds number, zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer experiments, drag reduction of up to 68% was achieved. This is due to a plasma-induced near-wall, spanwise mean flow sufficient in magnitude to prevent the lift-up of low-speed streaks. This limits their flanking wall-normal component vorticity-a critical parameter in STG. Experiments also show that sufficiently large plasma-induced spanwise flow can exacerbate STG and increase drag by 80%. The ability to significantly increase or decrease drag by near-wall actuation provides an unprecedented new tool for clarifying the open questions regarding the interaction between near-wall coherent structures and those in the logarithmic region. In the reported experiments this interaction is experimentally characterized by a second-order Volterra nonlinear system model under both active suppression and enhancement of STG. Supported by NASA Langley under NNX16CL27C.

  10. A Generalized Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration Coupled to an Evolving Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2012-01-01

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...

  11. Multiwavelength Spectral Models for SNR G347.3-0.5 from Non-Linear Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Slane, P O; Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2005-01-01

    The remnant G347.3-0.5 exhibits strong shell emission in the radio and X-ray bands, and has a purported detection in the TeV gamma-ray band by the CANGAROO-II telescope. The CANGAROO results were touted as evidence for the production of cosmic ray ions, a claim that has proven controversial due to constraining fluxes associated with a proximate unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1714-3857. HESS has now seen this source in the TeV band. The complex environment of the remnant renders modeling of its broadband spectrum sensitive to assumptions concerning the nature and parameters of the circumremnant medium. This paper explores a sampling of reasonable possibilities for multiwavelength spectral predictions from this source, using a non-linear model of diffusive particle acceleration at the shocked shell. The magnetic field strength, shell size and degree of particle cross-field diffusion act as variables to which the radio to X-ray to gamma-ray signal is sensitive. The modeling of the extant data constrains these va...

  12. [High resolution laser transient spectroscopic technology under two-stage light gas-gun loading condition and stability study of shocked benzene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bei-Jing; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Ning-Chao; Feng, Li-Peng; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Xue, Xue-Dong

    2013-10-01

    The present paper reports the high resolution transient Raman laser testing technology under two-stage light gas-gun loading experiment, and its application to studying the Raman spectroscopy of shocked benzene. In the experiments, the frequency shift of C-C stretching vibration (992 cm(-1)) and C-H stretching vibration peak (3 061 cm(-1)) in the low pressure section (less than 8 GPa) varies linearly with the pressure, and the results agree well with reported data in the literature. The structural changes in liquid benzene about 13 GPa were clarified firstly by the Raman spectral technique; the experimental results show that at a pressure of 9.7 GPa, the structural change of liquid benzene has taken place, not reported in the literature about 13 GPa. But the composition in the production is not clear. The measurement system provides an effective means to study the microstructure changes of transparent and translucent material under dynamic loading experiment.

  13. From Shock Breakout to Peak and Beyond: Extensive Panchromatic Observations of the Aspherical Type Ib Supernova 2008D associated with Swift X-ray Transient 080109

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Butler, N; Chornock, R; Perley, D; Blondin, S; Bloom, J S; Filippenko, A V; Kirshner, R P; Kocevski, D; Poznanski, D; Hicken, M; Foley, R J; Stringfellow, G S; Berlind, P; Navascues, D Barrado y; Blake, C H; Bouy, H; Brown, W; Challis, P; Chen, H; De Vries, W H; Dufour, P; Falco, E; Friedman, A; Ganeshalingam, M; Garnavich, P; Holden, B; Illingworth, G; Liebert, J; Marion, G H; Lee, N; Olivier, S S; Olszewski, E; Prochaska, J X; Silverman, J M; Smith, N; Starr, D; Steele, T N; Stockton, A; Williams, G G; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We present extensive early photometric (UBVRr'Ii'JHKs) and spectroscopic (optical and near-infrared) data on supernova (SN) 2008D as well as X-ray data on the associated X-ray transient (XRT) 080109. Our data span a time range of 2 hours to 109 days after the detection of the XRT and detailed analysis allowed us to derive constraints on the nature of the supernova and its progenitor; throughout we draw comparisons with results presented in the literature and find several key aspects that differ. Our data clearly establish that SN2008D is a spectroscopically normal SN Ib (i.e., showing conspicuous He lines). The SN light curves show the characteristic shape of shock breakout followed by Ni-56 decay. Careful comparison with other stripped-envelope SN caught shortly after shock breakout reveals real differences among them. Our unique upper limits obtained 2.8 and 4.5 hours before the onset of XRT 080109 and our early-time optical and near-infrared detections, which at 0.84 and 0.71 d after onset, are ...

  14. Constitutive Theories for Woven Composite Structures Subjected to Shock Loading; Experimental Validation Using a Conical Shock Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hufner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Woven polymer-based composites are currently used in a wide range of marine applications. These materials often exhibit highly nonlinear, rate dependent, anisotropic behavior under shock loadings. Correlation to transient response data, beyond an initial peak, is often difficult. The state of damage evolves throughout the time history and the unloading response varies based on the amount, and nature of, the accumulated damage. Constitutive theories that address the loading and unloading responses have been developed and integrated with each other. A complete theory, applicable to transient dynamic analysis, is presented. The model is implemented within the commercial finite element code, Abaqus, in the form of a user material subroutine. In this study, the conical shock tube is used to experimentally reproduce the high strain rates and fluid structure interactions typical of underwater shock loadings. The conical shock tube data is used to validate analytical model predictions. Simulation results are in good agreement with test data.

  15. Nonlinear transient heat transfer and thermoelastic analysis of thick-walled FGM cylinder with temperature-dependent material properties using Hermitian transfinite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Mohammad [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadi, Mahboobeh [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Nonlinear transient heat transfer and thermoelastic stress analyses of a thick-walled FGM cylinder with temperature dependent materials are performed by using the Hermitian transfinite element method. Temperature-dependency of the material properties has not been taken into account in transient thermoelastic analysis, so far. Due to the mentioned dependency, the resulting governing FEM equations of transient heat transfer are highly nonlinear. Furthermore, in all finite element analysis performed so far in the field, Lagrangian elements have been used. To avoid an artificial local heat source at the mutual boundaries of the elements, Hermitian elements are used instead in the present research. Another novelty of the present paper is simultaneous use of the transfinite element method and updating technique. Time variations of the temperature, displacements, and stresses are obtained through a numerical Laplace inversion. Finally, results obtained considering the temperature-dependency of the material properties are compared with those derived based on temperature independency assumption. Furthermore, the temperature distribution and the radial and circumferential stresses are investigated versus time, geometrical parameters and index of power law. Results reveal that the temperature-dependency effect is significant

  16. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  17. On the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with arbitrary nonlinearity and dimensionality: exact solutions, longtime asymptotics of the Cauchy problem, wave breaking and shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, F.; Santini, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We study the generalization of the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation in n+1 dimensions and with nonlinearity of degree m+1, a model equation describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear, quasi one-dimensional waves in the absence of dispersion and dissipation, and arising in several physical contexts, like acoustics, plasma physics, hydrodynamics and nonlinear optics. In 2 + 1 dimensions and with quadratic nonlinearity, this equation is integrable through a novel inverse scattering transform, and it has been recently shown to be a prototype model equation in the description of the two-dimensional wave breaking of localized initial data. In higher dimensions and with higher nonlinearity, the generalized dKP equations are not integrable, but their invariance under motions on the paraboloid allows one to construct in this paper a family of exact solutions describing waves constant on their paraboloidal wave front and breaking simultaneously in all points of it, developing after breaking either multivaluedness or single-valued discontinuous profiles (shocks). Then such exact solutions are used to build the longtime behavior of the solutions of the Cauchy problem, for small and localized initial data, showing that wave breaking of small initial data takes place in the longtime regime if and only if m(n-1)≤slant 2. Lastly, the analytic aspects of such wave breaking are investigated in detail in terms of the small initial data, in both cases in which the solution becomes multivalued after breaking or it develops a shock. These results, contained in the 2012 master’s thesis of one of the authors (FS) [1], generalize those obtained in [2] for the dKP equation in n+1 dimensions with quadratic nonlinearity, and are obtained following the same strategy.

  18. Nonlinear rheology of glass-forming colloidal dispersions: transient stress-strain relations from anisotropic mode coupling theory and thermosensitive microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, C. P.; Siebenbürger, M.; Ballauff, M.; Fuchs, M.

    2015-05-01

    Transient stress-strain relations close to the colloidal glass transition are obtained within the integration through transients framework generalizing mode coupling theory to flow driven systems. Results from large-scale numerical calculations are quantitatively compared to experiments on thermosensitive microgels, which reveals that theory captures the magnitudes of stresses semi-quantitatively even in the nonlinear regime, but overestimates the characteristic strain where plastic events set in. The former conclusion can also be drawn from flow curves, while the latter conclusion is supported by a comparison to single particle motion measured by confocal microscopy. The qualitative picture, as previously obtained from simplifications of the theory in schematic models, is recovered by the quantitative solutions of the theory for Brownian hard spheres.

  19. Nonlinear rheology of glass-forming colloidal dispersions: transient stress-strain relations from anisotropic mode coupling theory and thermosensitive microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, C M; Siebenbürger, M; Ballauff, M; Fuchs, M

    2015-05-20

    Transient stress-strain relations close to the colloidal glass transition are obtained within the integration through transients framework generalizing mode coupling theory to flow driven systems. Results from large-scale numerical calculations are quantitatively compared to experiments on thermosensitive microgels, which reveals that theory captures the magnitudes of stresses semi-quantitatively even in the nonlinear regime, but overestimates the characteristic strain where plastic events set in. The former conclusion can also be drawn from flow curves, while the latter conclusion is supported by a comparison to single particle motion measured by confocal microscopy. The qualitative picture, as previously obtained from simplifications of the theory in schematic models, is recovered by the quantitative solutions of the theory for Brownian hard spheres.

  20. Suppression of Nonlinear Patterning Effect in Wavelength Conversion Based on Transient Cross-Phase Modulation in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Assisted with a Detuning Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU En-Bo; ZHANG Xin-Liang; YU Yu; HUANG De-Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear patterning (NLP) effect in wavelength conversion based on transient cross-phase modulation (XPM) in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) assisted with a detuning filter is theoretically investigated.A nonadiabatic model is used to estimate the ultrafast dynamics o[ gain,phase and electron temperature in the SOA.Simulation results show that the NLP can be greatly suppressed by introducing an assist light,especially for the probe wavelength distant from gain peak.Furthermore,the results also indicate that the improvement is more evident for long wavelength probe light and assist light in counter-propagating configuration.

  1. Wavelength-Dependent Transient Characteristics Caused by Gain Saturation in Highly Nonlinear Fiber-Based Raman Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinobu; Tamaoki; Tetsufumi; Tsuzaki; Motoki; Kakui; Masayuki; Shigematsu

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the transient characteristics of discrete Raman Amplifiers and found that the response time caused by gain saturation is dependent upon the wavelength, which corresponds to the effective length of the pump light.

  2. Non-Linear Effects of Self Generated Alfven Waves in Oblique Shocks and Cosmic Ray Acceleration Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Tanco, G. A.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presentan resultados numericos para un modelo hidrodinamico de cuatro componentes (plasma de fondo, particulas energeticas, ondas de Alfven autogeneradas y campo magnetico) para choques oblicuos. ABSTRACT. Numerical results of a four component hydrodynamic model (background plasma, energetic particles, self-generated Alfven waves and magnetic field) for oblique shocks are presented. Keq wo't : COSMIC RAY-GENERAL - PLASMAS - SHOCK WAVES

  3. Investigation of scaling characteristics for defining design environments due to transient ground winds and near-field, nonlinear acoustic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to establish a foundation of scaling laws for the highly nonlinear waves associated with the launch vehicle, the basic knowledge of the relationships among the paramaters pertinent to the energy dissipation process associated with the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves in thermoviscous media is required. The problem of interest is to experimentally investigate the temporal and spacial velocity profiles of fluid flow in a 3-inch open-end pipe of various lengths, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves for various diaphragm burst pressures of a pressure wave generator. As a result, temporal and spacial characteristics of wave propagation for a parametric set of nonlinear pressure waves in the pipe containing air under atmospheric conditions were determined. Velocity measurements at five sections along the pipes of up to 210 ft. in length were made with hot-film anemometers for five pressure waves produced by a piston. The piston was derived with diaphragm burst pressures at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 psi in the driver chamber of the pressure wave generator.

  4. Adaptive actuator failure compensation control based on MMST grouping for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed transient performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Qiu, Xiang-Wei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive compensation control approach for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with actuator failures. In order to enlarge the set of compensable actuator failures, an actuators grouping scheme based on multiple model switching and tuning (MMST) is proposed for the nonlinear MIMO minimum-phase systems with multiple actuator failures. Then, an adaptive compensation scheme based on prescribed performance bound (PPB) which characterises the convergence rate and maximum overshoot of the tracking error is designed for the systems to ensure closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking despite unknown actuator failures. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the control design.

  5. Inverse analysis of thermal conductivities in transient non-homogeneous and non-linear heat conductions using BEM based on complex variable differentiation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiaoChun; Bai, YuGuang; Cui, Miao; Gao, XiaoWei

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new inverse analysis approach to sensitivity analysis and material property identification in transient non-homogeneous and non-linear heat conduction Boundary Element Method (BEM) analysis based on Complex Variable Differentiation Method (CVDM). In this approach, the material properties are taken as the optimization variables, and the sensitivity coefficients are computed by CVDM. The advantages of using CVDM are that the computation of partial derivatives of an implicit function is reduced to function calculation in a complex domain, and the parameter sensitivity coefficients can be determined in a more accurate way than the traditional Finite Difference Method (FDM). Based on BEM and CVDM in evaluation of the sensitivity matrix of heat flux, the parameter such as thermal conductivity can be accurately identified. Six numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the presented method is efficient for identifying the thermal conductivity with single or multiple parameters.

  6. A Nonlinear Model for Designing Herschel-Quincke Waveguide Arrays to Attenuate Shock Waves from Transonic Turbofan Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techsburg is teaming with the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratory of Virginia Tech to propose a non-linear analytical tool for designing Herschel-Quincke (HQ)...

  7. A nonlinear Hermitian transfinite element method for transient behavior analysis of hollow functionally graded cylinders with temperature-dependent materials under thermo-mechanical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariyat, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_shariyat@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    In the present paper, an algorithm for nonlinear transient behavior analysis of thick functionally graded cylindrical vessels or pipes with temperature-dependent material properties under thermo-mechanical loads is presented. In contrast to researches presented so far, a Hermitian transfinite element method is proposed to improve the accuracy and to prevent artificial interference or cohesion formation at the mutual boundaries of the elements. Time variations of the temperatures, displacements, and stresses are obtained through a numerical Laplace inversion. Another novelty of the present research is using the transfinite element method to solve nonlinear problems. A sensitivity analysis includes investigating effects of the volume fraction index, dimensions, and temperature-dependency of the material properties is performed. Results confirm the efficiency of the present algorithm and reveal the significant effects of the temperature-dependency of the material properties and the elastic wave reflections and interferences on the responses. In comparison to other techniques, the present technique may be used to obtain relatively accurate and stable results in a less computational time.

  8. A shocked-Bz event caused by fast steady flow-slow transient flow interaction. [with coronal mass ejection in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.

    1992-01-01

    We show that the 25 November 1978 shock pair was caused by the interaction of a fast steady flow with a slow coronal mass ejection in interplanetary space (ICME). It is suggested that the slow ICME may be disconnected from the sun. In addition, a new method to infer the shock angle and Mach number from the observed upstream plasma beta and the jump ratios of proton density and magnetic flux density across a shock is described.

  9. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population. PMID:28195135

  10. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  11. Non-thermal emission from supernova shock breakout and the origin of the X-ray transient associated with SN2008D

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Waxman, Eli; Meszaros, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that non-thermal emission can be produced by multiple scatterings of the photons between the supernova ejecta and pre-shock material in supernova shock breakout. Such bulk-Comptonization process may significantly change the original thermal photon spectrum, forming a power-law non-thermal component at higher energies. We then show that the luminous X-ray outburst XRO081009 associated with SN2008D is likely to be such shock breakout emission from an ordinary type Ib/c supernova.

  12. Vapor Flow Patterns During a Start-Up Transient in Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Ghoniem, N, M.; Catton, I.

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow patterns in heat pipes are examined during the start-up transient phase. The vapor core is modelled as a channel flow using a two dimensional compressible flow model. A nonlinear filtering technique is used as a post process to eliminate the non-physical oscillations of the flow variables. For high-input heat flux, multiple shock reflections are observed in the evaporation region. The reflections cause a reverse flow in the evaporation and circulations in the adiabatic region. Furthermore, each shock reflection causes a significant increase in the local pressure and a large pressure drop along the heat pipe.

  13. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  14. Collisionless parallel shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel shock based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the shock. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the shock. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the shock thermalization.

  15. Assessment of numerical methods for the solution of fluid dynamics equations for nonlinear resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Yang, H. Q.

    1989-01-01

    The capability of accurate nonlinear flow analysis of resonance systems is essential in many problems, including combustion instability. Classical numerical schemes are either too diffusive or too dispersive especially for transient problems. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in the numerical methods for flows with shocks. The objective was to assess advanced shock capturing schemes on transient flows. Several numerical schemes were tested including TVD, MUSCL, ENO, FCT, and Riemann Solver Godunov type schemes. A systematic assessment was performed on scalar transport, Burgers' and gas dynamic problems. Several shock capturing schemes are compared on fast transient resonant pipe flow problems. A system of 1-D nonlinear hyperbolic gas dynamics equations is solved to predict propagation of finite amplitude waves, the wave steepening, formation, propagation, and reflection of shocks for several hundred wave cycles. It is shown that high accuracy schemes can be used for direct, exact nonlinear analysis of combustion instability problems, preserving high harmonic energy content for long periods of time.

  16. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A., E-mail: shevtsov-max@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); A.L. Polenov Russian Research Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, Mayakovsky str. 12, St. Petersburg 191014 (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, Boris P. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Yakovleva, Ludmila Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Dobrodumov, Anatolii V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Bolshoi pr. 31, St. Petersburg 199004 (Russian Federation); Marchenko, Yaroslav Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Margulis, Boris A. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Pitkin, Emil [The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 3730 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guzhova, Irina V. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M{sub 2}). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T{sub 2}-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M{sub 2} measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: • Second-harmonic nonlinear magnetic response is used for biodistribution analysis. • NLR-M{sub 2} ensures high sensibility in detection of SPIONs in tissue. • SPION–Hsp70 conjugates

  17. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Margulis, Boris A.; Pitkin, Emil; Guzhova, Irina V.

    2015-08-01

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION-Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION-Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors.

  18. DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT COSMOLOGICAL SHOCK WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-10

    We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvenic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number M{sub s} , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvenic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at {approx}20% of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks with M{sub s} {approx}> 10. In the test-particle regime (M{sub s} {approx}< 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvenic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number shocks remain largely uncertain.

  19. Influence of shock wave pressure amplitude and pulse repetition frequency on the lifespan, size and number of transient cavities in the field of an electromagnetic lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Peter; Jöchle, Knut; Debus, Jürgen

    1998-10-01

    Monitoring the generation of cavitation is of great interest for diagnostic and therapeutic use of ultrasound in medicine, since cavitation is considered to play a major role in nonthermal ultrasound interactions with tissue. Important parameters are the number of cavitation events and the energy released during the bubble collapse. This energy is correlated to the maximum bubble radius which is related to the cavitation lifespan. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of the acoustic pressure amplitude and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in the field of a lithotripter (Lithostar, Siemens) on the number, size and lifespan of transient cavitation bubbles in water. We used scattered laser light recorded by a photodiode and stroboscopic photographs to monitor the cavitation activity. We found that PRF (range 0.5-5 Hz) had no influence on the cavitation bubble lifespan and size, whereas lifespan and size increased with the acoustic pressure amplitude. In contrast, the number of cavitation events strongly increased with PRF, whereas the pressure amplitude had no significant influence on the number of cavitation events. Thus, by varying the pressure amplitude and PRF, it might be possible to deliver a defined relative number of cavitations at a defined relative energy level in a defined volume. This seems to be relevant to further studies that address the biological effects of transient cavitation occurring in the fields of lithotripters.

  20. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  1. Shock waves in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Folli, V; DelRe, E; Conti, C

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the interplay between spatial shock waves and the degree of disorder during nonlinear optical propagation in a thermal defocusing medium. We characterize the way the shock point is affected by the amount of disorder and scales with wave amplitude. Evidence for the existence of a phase diagram in terms of nonlinearity and amount of randomness is reported. The results are in quantitative agreement with a theoretical approach based on the hydrodynamic approximation.

  2. Transient expression of heat shock protein (Hsp)25 in the dental pulp and enamel organ during odontogenesis in the rat incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, H; Ajima, H; Kawano, Y; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Wakisaka, S; Maeda, T

    2000-10-01

    The expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 during odontogenesis in the dental pulp and enamel organ of rat incisors was investigated by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. In the process of dentin formation, immature odontoblasts first exhibited Hsp 25-immunoreactivity, and increased in immunointensity with the advance of their differentiation. In the dental pulp, in contrast, intense immunoreaction in the mesenchymal cells became weak or negative in parallel with the progress of cell differentiation. The immunoreaction for Hsp 25 in the enamel organ revealed a characteristic stage-related alteration during amelogenesis. In secretory ameloblasts, the immunoreaction for Hsp 25 was found throughout their cell bodies, intense reactivity being located near the proximal and distal terminal webs. At the maturation stage, ruffle-ended ameloblasts (RA) consistently showed Hsp 25-immunoreactivity throughout the cell bodies, whereas smooth-ended ameloblasts (SA) lacking a ruffled border were weak in immunoreaction at the distal cytoplasm. Other cellular elements of the enamel organ were negative. The subcellular localization of Hsp 25-immunoreactivity in this study appeared essentially identical to that of actin filaments as demonstrated by confocal microscopy using rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. These immunocytochemical data suggest that the Hsp 25 molecule is involved in reinforcement of the cell layer following cell movement during odontogenesis and in the formation and maintenance of the ruffled border of RA.

  3. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Marcowith, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O C; Lembege, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebul\\ae, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in-situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasize is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in a...

  4. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2017-05-01

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  5. Cardiogenic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock - cardiogenic ... electrical system of the heart (heart block) Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...

  6. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and spectroscopies of laser shocked materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrane, Shawn David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast ellipsometry and transient absorption spectroscopies are used to measure material dynamics under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, and volumetric compression induced by shock wave loading with a chirped, spectrally clipped shock drive pulse.

  7. Determination of the transient parameters of synchronous machines by the finite element method considering the characteristic effect in the shock absorber buses; Determinacao dos parametros transitorios de maquinas sincronas pelo metodo dos elementos finitos considerando o efeito pelicular nas barras amortecedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeta, Silvio Ikuyo; Cardoso, Jose Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Foggia, Albert; Coulomb, Jean Louis; Reyne, Gilbert [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the determination of the parameters of a hydro generator through the simulation of the frequency response test. The special characteristic of this work is that it takes into consideration shock absorbers buses, which are sites of induced currents when the peculiar effect is present and require that sub-transients parameters are analysed. Simulation results are analysed and compared to the obtained values when the traditional three-phase short circuit test is used 8 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  8. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei;

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active...... galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space....... It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments...

  9. Nonlinear hyperbolic waves in multidimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Phoolan

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of curved, nonlinear wavefronts and shock fronts are very complex phenomena. Since the 1993 publication of his work Propagation of a Curved Shock and Nonlinear Ray Theory, author Phoolan Prasad and his research group have made significant advances in the underlying theory of these phenomena. This volume presents their results and provides a self-contained account and gradual development of mathematical methods for studying successive positions of these fronts.Nonlinear Hyperbolic Waves in Multidimensions includes all introductory material on nonlinear hyperbolic waves and the theory of shock waves. The author derives the ray theory for a nonlinear wavefront, discusses kink phenomena, and develops a new theory for plane and curved shock propagation. He also derives a full set of conservation laws for a front propagating in two space dimensions, and uses these laws to obtain successive positions of a front with kinks. The treatment includes examples of the theory applied to converging wavefronts...

  10. Detonation onset following shock wave focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Nikitin, V. F.; Stamov, L. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study detonation initiation due to focusing of a shock wave reflected inside a cone. Both numerical and experimental investigations were conducted. Comparison of results made it possible to validate the developed 3-d transient mathematical model of chemically reacting gas mixture flows incorporating hydrogen - air mixtures. The results of theoretical and numerical experiments made it possible improving kinetic schemes and turbulence models. Several different flow scenarios were detected in reflection of shock waves all being dependent on incident shock wave intensity: reflecting of shock wave with lagging behind combustion zone, formation of detonation wave in reflection and focusing, and intermediate transient regimes.

  11. Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Cosmological Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2012-01-01

    We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large scale structure of the Universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfv'enic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfv'enic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number Ms, while the MFA factor depends on the Alfv'enic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfv'en speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock C...

  12. Simulations of Relativistic Collisionless Shocks: Shock Structure and Particle Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    We discuss 3D simulations of relativistic collisionless shocks in electron-positron pair plasmas using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The shock structure is mainly controlled by the shock's magnetization (''sigma'' parameter). We demonstrate how the structure of the shock varies as a function of sigma for perpendicular shocks. At low magnetizations the shock is mediated mainly by the Weibel instability which generates transient magnetic fields that can exceed the initial field. At larger magnetizations the shock is dominated by magnetic reflections. We demonstrate where the transition occurs and argue that it is impossible to have very low magnetization collisionless shocks in nature (in more than one spatial dimension). We further discuss the acceleration properties of these shocks, and show that higher magnetization perpendicular shocks do not efficiently accelerate nonthermal particles in 3D. Among other astrophysical applications, this may pose a restriction on the structure and composition of gamma-ray bursts and pulsar wind outflows.

  13. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space...... the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights...... in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics....

  14. Extensions of Goal-Oriented Error Estimation Methods to Simulations of Highly-Nonlinear Response of Shock-Loaded Elastomer-Reinforced Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-27

    suited for this problem. Thus, the steel is modeled as a hypoelastic - plastic material using a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state to model the pressure. p...extended the theory further to cover estimation of both modeling and approximation error in 2002. Further extension of this work to multi-scale modeling ...solid mechanics: the dynamical behavior of a heterogeneous, layered shells subjected to shock loading. The models considered here involve

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ion Concentration Polarization in Porous Media: The Leaky Membrane Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dydek, E Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The conductivity of highly charged membranes is nearly constant, due to counter-ions screening pore surfaces. Weakly charged porous media, or "leaky membranes", also contain a significant concentration of co-ions, whose depletion at high current leads to ion concentration polarization and conductivity shock waves. To describe these nonlinear phenomena the absence of electro-osmotic flow, a simple Leaky Membrane Model is formulated, based on macroscopic electroneutrality and Nernst-Planck ionic fluxes. The model is solved in cases of unsupported binary electrolytes: steady conduction from a reservoir to a cation-selective surface, transient response to a current step, steady conduction to a flow-through porous electrode, and steady conduction between cation-selective surfaces in cross flow. The last problem is motivated by separations in leaky membranes, such as shock electrodialysis. The article begins with a tribute to Neal Amundson, whose pioneering work on shock waves in chromatography involved similar mat...

  16. Particle acceleration around SNR shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlino, G., E-mail: morlino@arcetri.astro.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    We review the basic features of particle acceleration theory around collisionless shocks in supernova remnants (SNRs). We show how non-linear effects induced by the back reaction of accelerated particles onto the shock dynamics are of paramount importance to support the hipotesys that SNRs are the factories of Galactic cosmic rays. Recent developments in the modeling of the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration are discussed, with emphasis on the role of magnetic field amplification and the presence of neutrals in the circumstellar environment. Special attention will be devoted to observational consequences of non-linear effects on the multi-wavelength spectrum of SNRs, with emphasis on X-ray and gamma-ray emission. Finally we also discuss how Balmer lines, detected from several young SNRs, can be used to estimate the shock dynamical properties and the efficiency of CR acceleration.

  17. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thready Tests that may be done include: Blood chemistry, including kidney function tests and those tests looking ... severe shock. Severe hypovolemic shock may lead to death, even with immediate medical attention. Older adults are ...

  18. Simulations of transonic shock-tube flow with a model micro-cylinder in the driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kendall, Mark A F

    2007-02-01

    A unique hand-held needle-free powder injection system, using a transient shock-tube flow to deliver powder genes and drugs into human skin for a wide range of treatments, has been proposed. In the development of such devices, a strong non-linear phenomenon, possibly shock process instead of unsteady expansion waves, was observed in the driver portion of the shock-tube flow in the presence of a gas micro-cylinder. In this paper, we further investigate effects of a model micro-cylinder in the driver on the gas dynamics of a prototype clinical device numerically. To accurately simulate such complex shock-tube flows, an efficient numerical solver, MIFVS, is extended to incorporate with a transition-modified turbulence model. Comparison with experimental measurements shows that the extended MIFVS accurately predicts pressure traces in both laminar and turbulent regimes. The separation zone due to a strong non-linear process is properly captured via such transition-modified turbulence model. Numerical investigations and discoveries are presented and discussed.

  19. An Approach for Electromagnetic Transient Simulation of Power Transformers With Nonlinear Exciting Branch%考虑变压器励磁非线性的电磁暂态仿真算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翊; 房大中; 王庆平

    2012-01-01

    A model for electromagnetic transient simulation of power transformer containing nonlinear exciting branch is built and the inrush current of power transformer under no-load switching is simulated by a simple simulation circuit. Applying piece-wise linearization the nonlinear phenomenon appeared in exciting branch of power transformer is processed and by means of simulation results under various simulation step lengths the overshoot appeared due to long step length adopted in piece-wise linearization is explained. The overshoot can be effectively limited by decreasing the step length, however the time for the simulation is evidently increased. On the basis of piece-wise linearization a predictor-corrector method is proposed to ameliorate the overshoot. A predictor-corrector module is added into the electromagnetic transient simulation program for power transformer, thus without changing step length the overshoot is overcome and the simulation process is accelerated. Simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed transformer model and the predictor-corrector method.%建立了一种含有非线性励磁支路的变压器电磁暂态仿真模型。通过简单的仿真线路,仿真了变压器空载合闸时发生励磁涌流的现象。应用分段线性化的方法处理变压器励磁支路的非线性问题,并通过不同仿真步长下励磁电流的仿真结果,说明了分段线性化在大步长下出现的过冲现象。减小仿真步长可有效抑制过冲,但是仿真时间明显增加。在分段线性化方法的基础上提出了预测校正法改善过冲问题。在变压器电磁暂态仿真的程序设计中加入了预测校正模块,在不改变步长的情况下,解决了过冲问题,加快了仿真的计算速度。最后通过仿真结果验证了变压器模型及预测校正方法的正确性和有效性。

  20. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  1. Gamow Vectors Explain the Shock "Batman" Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: as the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vector are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.

  2. Gamow vectors explain the shock profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Conti, Claudio

    2016-09-19

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics and optics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vectors are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.

  3. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  4. Topics on shock waves and coronal seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A, E-mail: acosta@mail.oac.uncor.edu [Instituto de AstronomIa Teorica y Experimental, CONICET-Cordoba, Laprida 922, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisica y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    The usual strong and sudden energy release sources that necessarily lead to mode excitation suggest the importance of shocks and nonlinear waves in the corona. We discuss the importance of nonlinear waves as an alternative capable of accurately matching the observational cases of coronal seismology usually interpreted as linear waves. We present two case studies where we explore the goodness of the shock wave interpretation in magnetic structures of the low corona.

  5. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration, and magnetic holes/decreases in interplanetary space and the magnetosphere: intermediate shocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration and magnetic decreases (MDs in interplanetary space are shown to be interrelated. Discontinuities are the phase-steepened edges of Alfvén waves. Magnetic decreases are caused by a diamagnetic effect from perpendicularly accelerated (to the magnetic field protons. The ion acceleration is associated with the dissipation of phase-steepened Alfvén waves, presumably through the Ponderomotive Force. Proton perpendicular heating, through instabilities, lead to the generation of both proton cyclotron waves and mirror mode structures. Electromagnetic and electrostatic electron waves are detected as well. The Alfvén waves are thus found to be both dispersive and dissipative, conditions indicting that they may be intermediate shocks. The resultant 'turbulence' created by the Alfvén wave dissipation is quite complex. There are both propagating (waves and nonpropagating (mirror mode structures and MDs byproducts. Arguments are presented to indicate that similar processes associated with Alfvén waves are occurring in the magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the 'turbulence' is even further complicated by the damping of obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves and the formation of electron holes, a form of solitary waves. Interplanetary Alfvén waves are shown to rapidly phase-steepen at a distance of 1AU from the Sun. A steepening rate of ~35 times per wavelength is indicated by Cluster-ACE measurements. Interplanetary (reverse shock compression of Alfvén waves is noted to cause the rapid formation of MDs on the sunward side of corotating interaction regions (CIRs. Although much has been learned about the Alfvén wave phase-steepening processfrom space plasma observations, many facets are still not understood. Several of these topics are discussed for the interested researcher. Computer simulations and theoretical developments will be particularly useful in making further progress in

  6. A Review of Density Holes Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock%A Review of Density Holes Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G K Parks; E Lee; N Lin; J B Cao; S Y Fu; J K Shi

    2011-01-01

    Larmor size transient structures with density depletions as large as 99% of ambient solar wind density levels occur commonly upstream of Earth's collisionless bow shock. These "density holes" have a mean duration of 17.9±10.4s but holes as short as 4 s have been observed. The average fractional density depletion (Sn/n) inside the holes is 0.68±0.14. The density of the upstream edge moving in the sunward direction can be enhanced by five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave like a shock, and measured local field geometries and Mach number support this view. Similarly shaped magnetic holes accompany the density holes indicating strong coupling between fields and particles. Current densities as large as 150 nA·m^-2 are observed at the leading compressed edge. The waves are elliptically polarized and rotating in the sense of ions (left hand) in the plasma frame. The waves appear to grow and steepen as the density holes convect with the solar wind toward the Earth. The transient nature of density holes suggests that the temporal features could represent the different stages of nonlinear evolutionary processes that produce a shock-like structure. The density holes are only observed with upstream particles, suggesting that back-streaming particles interacting with the solar wind are important. The significance of these observations is still being investigated.

  7. Nonlinear characteristics of the rotating exciter system of power plant generators in case of electricity accidents; Transientes Verhalten des rotierenden Erregersystems von Kraftwerksgeneratoren bei elektrischen Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataei, Nader

    2006-05-09

    Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und

  8. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2017-08-01

    Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP), selected by NASA for a funded Concept Study, is a wide-field high-energy transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. TAP’s main science goals, called out as Frontier Discovery areas in the 2010 Decadal Survey, are time-domain astrophysics and counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) detections. The mission instruments include unique imaging soft X-ray optics that allow ~500 deg2 FoV in each of four separate modules; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope based on single crystal silicon optics; a passively cooled, 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of ~8 small NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP will observe many events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, and high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts. Perhaps most exciting is TAP’s capability to observe X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes detected by LIGO/Virgo, and possibly X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  9. [Cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houegnifioh, Komlanvi Kafui; Gfeller, Etienne; Garcia, Wenceslao; Ribordy, Vincent

    2014-08-13

    Cardiogenic shock, especially when it complicates a myocardial infarction, is still associated with high mortality rate. Emergency department or first care physicians are often the first providers to assess the cardiogenic shock patient, and plays thereby a key role in achieving a timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will detail the actual physiopathology understanding of the cardiogenic shock, its diagnosis and management focusing on the care within the emergency department.

  10. Transient osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Lykissas, Marios G; Beris, Alexandros E

    2008-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis is characterized primarily by bone marrow edema. The disease most commonly affects the hip, knee, and ankle in middle-aged men. Its cause remains unknown. The hallmark that separates transient osteoporosis from other conditions presenting with a bone marrow edema pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is used primarily for early diagnosis and monitoring disease progression. Early differentiation from more aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities such as transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are spontaneously resolving conditions. However, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment are crucial for the patient with osteonecrosis of the hip or knee.

  11. Shock Formation in Lovelock Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Reall, Harvey S; Way, Benson

    2014-01-01

    We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike General Relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In GR the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

  12. Diffusive Acceleration of Ions at Interplanetary Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2005-01-01

    Heliospheric shocks are excellent systems for testing theories of particle acceleration in their environs. These generally fall into two classes: (1) interplanetary shocks that are linear in their ion acceleration characteristics, with the non-thermal ions serving as test particles, and (2) non-linear systems such as the Earth's bow shock and the solar wind termination shock, where the accelerated ions strongly influence the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the shock. This paper explores the modelling of diffusive acceleration at a particular interplanetary shock, with an emphasis on explaining in situ measurements of ion distribution functions. The observational data for this event was acquired on day 292 of 1991 by the Ulysses mission. The modeling is performed using a well-known kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, which has yielded good agreement with observations at several heliospheric shocks, as have other theoretical techniques, namely hybrid plasma simulations, and numerical solution of the diffusion-conv...

  13. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  14. Reentry Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan, You remember the pain of culture and reentry shock; humor me please; let mereview the facts for the sake of the students you are sending here in greater numbers.Culture shock is the emotional pain that people experience when they visit a newcountry and find customs, experiences, smells, and non-verbal communication stylesto be different from their own country.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics Research of Hyperbolic Tangent Packaging System under the Action of Final Peak Saw Tooth Shock Pulse%后峰锯齿脉冲激励下双曲正切包装系统的非线性动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪翔; 卢立新

    2012-01-01

    建立了二自由度的双曲正切包装系统模型,并应用四阶龙格一库塔法对得到的冲击动力学方程进行数值求解,研究了其冲击响应特性。采用后峰锯齿脉冲作为激励,得到了关键部件的三维;中击谱,进一步讨论了频率比、脉冲激励幅值、包装材料阻尼和脉冲周期对关键部件冲击谱的影响规律。结果表明,频率比、脉冲激励幅值、包装材料阻尼和脉冲周期均对关键部件冲击响应峰值有显著影响。%Two degree-of-freedom nonlinear packaging system model was established. The shock dynamic equations were obtained and their numerical solutions were solved by the forth order Runge-Kutta integration method. The shock response characteristics of hyperbolic tangent packaging system with critical component were in- vestigated. Final peak saw tooth shock pulse was chosen as excitation in the computer simulation and three-di- mensional shock spectra of critical components were obtained. The influences of frequency ratio, amplitude of pulse excitation, package material damp, and shock period on shock response of critical components were discussed. The results showed that frequency ratio, amplitude of pulse excitation, package material damp, and shock period all have significant influence on the peak value of shock response of critical components.

  16. Leak detection in pipelines based on inverse transient analysis and mixed integer nonlinear programming[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamloo, H.; Haghighi, A. [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The flow properties of pipes are affected by leaks. Leak detection methods based on hydraulic modelling and real data records aim to find a pipe's leak parameters including their number, location and size. Inverse Transient Analysis (ITA), generally in time domain, is a powerful approach to develop leak detection methods with considerable benefits. This paper introduced an ITA based leak detection method along with a numerical model developed for direct transient analysis of leaks in pipes using method of characteristics (MOC). Transient state flow was generated in pipe and the pressure fluctuations were sampled only at the end valve location. To minimize the effects of unsteadiness and uncertainties due to the numerical modeling and also practical problems caused by water hammer, the downstream end valve was considered to be closed gradually within a long enough time. Then, using the sampled data and a direct transient analysis model, a mixed integer nonlinear program was developed. A mixed genetic algorithm was used in which the binary chromosomes were decoded as mixed integer leak locations and real leak areas. In order to find unknown leak parameters in a pipe, an objective function was defined using the least squares criterion of differences between observed and calculated pressure heads at the valve location. The genetic algorithm was found to be a powerful and easy to use optimization tool to solve complicated mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) problems in leak detection. 24 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. Desalination shocks in microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Mani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Salt transport in bulk electrolytes is limited by diffusion and convection, but in microstructures with charged surfaces (e.g. microfluidic devices, porous media, soils, or biological tissues) surface conduction and electro-osmotic flow also contribute to ionic fluxes. For small applied voltages, these effects lead to well known linear electrokinetic phenomena. In this paper, we predict some surprising nonlinear dynamics that can result from the competition between bulk and interfacial transport at higher voltages. When counter-ions are selectively removed by a membrane or electrode, a "desalination shock" can propagate through the microstructure, leaving in its wake an ultrapure solution, nearly devoid of co-ions and colloidal impurities. We elucidate the basic physics of desalination shocks and develop a mathematical theory of their existence, structure, and stability, allowing for slow variations in surface charge or channel geometry. Via asymptotic approximations and similarity solutions, we show that des...

  18. Entropy Production and Admissibility of Shocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Ping Liu; Tommaso Ruggeri

    2003-01-01

    In shock wave theory there are two considerations in selecting the physically relevant shock waves.There is the admissibility criterion for the well-posedness of hyperbolic conservation laws. Another consideration concerns the entropy production across the shocks. The latter is natural from the physical point of view, but is not sufficient in its straightforward formulation, if the system is not genuinely nonlinear. In this paper we propose the principles of increasing entropy production and that of the superposition of shocks. These principles are shown to be equivalent to the admissibility criterion.

  19. Transient heliosheath modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenby, J. J.; Webber, W. R.

    2015-10-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause, following the intensity distribution of Galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the expected galactic flux level at 121.7 au from the Sun, four episodes of rapid intensity change occurred with a behaviour similar to that found in Forbush Decreases in the inner Solar system, rather than that expected from a mechanism related to models for the long-term modulation found closer to the Sun. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, an explanation is suggested in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that the radial flows are of the order either of the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the terminal shock or of the fluctuations found near the boundary by the Voyager 1 Low Energy Charged Particle detector and that the relevant cosmic ray diffusion perpendicular to the mean field is controlled by `slab' fluctuations accounting for about 20 per cent of the total power in the field variance. However, additional radial drift motion related to possible north to south gradients in the magnetic field may allow the inclusion of some diffusion according to the predictions of a theory based upon the presence of 2D turbulence. The required field gradients may arise due to field variation in the field carried by solar plasma flow deflected away from the solar equatorial plane. Modulation amounting to a total 30 per cent drop in galactic intensity requires explanation by a combination of transient effects.

  20. Average Transient Lifetime and Lyapunov Dimension for Transient Chaos in a High-Dimensional System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪; 汤建新; 唐少炎; 向红; 陈新

    2001-01-01

    The average transient lifetime of a chaotic transient versus the Lyapunov dimension of a chaotic saddle is studied for high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. Typically the average lifetime depends upon not only the system parameter but also the Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic saddle. The numerical example uses the delayed feedback differential equation.

  1. Shock tubes and waves; Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium, Niagara Falls, NY, July 6-9, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, C. E.; Hall, J. G.

    1982-10-01

    The present conference on shock tubes and waves considers shock tube drivers, luminous shock tubes, shock tube temperature and pressure measurement, shock front distortion in real gases, nonlinear standing waves, transonic flow shock wave turbulent boundary interactions, wall roughness effects on reflected shock bifurcation, argon thermal conductivity, pattern generation in gaseous detonations, cylindrical resonators, shock tunnel-produced high gain lasers, fluid dynamic aspects of laser-metal interaction, and the ionization of argon gas behind reflected shock waves. Also discussed are the ionization relaxation of shock-heated plasmas and gases, discharge flow/shock tube studies of singlet oxygen, rotational and vibrational relaxation, chemiluminescence thermal and shock wave decomposition of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen azide, shock wave structure in gas-particle mixtures at low Mach numbers, binary nucleation in a Ludwieg tube, shock liquefaction experiments, pipeline explosions, the shock wave ignition of pulverized coal, and shock-initiated methane combustion.

  2. Ultra-low frequency shock dynamics in degenerate relativistic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A degenerate relativistic three-component plasma model is proposed for ultra-low frequency shock dynamics. A reductive perturbation technique is adopted, leading to Burgers' nonlinear partial differential equation. The properties of the shock waves are analyzed via the stationary shock wave solution for different plasma configuration parameters. The role of different intrinsic plasma parameters, especially the relativistic effects on the linear wave properties and also on the shock dynamics, is briefly discussed.

  3. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  4. Second sound shock waves and critical velocities in liquid helium 2. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    Large amplitude second-sound shock waves were generated and the experimental results compared to the theory of nonlinear second-sound. The structure and thickness of second-sound shock fronts are calculated and compared to experimental data. Theoretically it is shown that at T = 1.88 K, where the nonlinear wave steepening vanishes, the thickness of a very weak shock must diverge. In a region near this temperature, a finite-amplitude shock pulse evolves into an unusual double-shock configuration consisting of a front steepened, temperature raising shock followed by a temperature lowering shock. Double-shocks are experimentally verified. It is experimentally shown that very large second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium 2, which is dramatically displayed as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. The value of the maximum shock-induced relative velocity represents a significant lower bound to the intrinsic critical velocity of helium 2.

  5. Are gauge shocks really shocks?

    CERN Document Server

    Alcubierre, M

    2005-01-01

    The existence of gauge pathologies associated with the Bona-Masso family of generalized harmonic slicing conditions is proven for the case of simple 1+1 relativity. It is shown that these gauge pathologies are true shocks in the sense that the characteristic lines associated with the propagation of the gauge cross, which implies that the name ``gauge shock'' usually given to such pathologies is indeed correct. These gauge shocks are associated with places where the spatial hypersurfaces that determine the foliation of spacetime become non-smooth.

  6. Security Studies for ITER: The effect of two simultaneous shocks for a Transient Loss of Control of Plasma; Estudios de Seguridad para ITER: El efecto de dos perturbaciones simultaneas durante un Transitorio de Perdida de Control del Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J. C.; Dies, J.

    2013-07-01

    Presents the latest advances in the study of the transient of loss of control of the plasma in ITER, whose results are used in studies of safety of ITER. Among them, the AINA 3.0 code, used in simulation of transient plasma-pared, a method to minimize the computational power required, and the use of the window of plasma operation to render the results. In addition, develop new case studies based on the simultaneous occurrence two perturbations, and shown that its effect on the integrity of the wall is potentially greater than in cases studied previously.

  7. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcowith, A.; Bret, A.; Bykov, A.; Dieckman, M. E.; O'C Drury, L.; Lembège, B.; Lemoine, M.; Morlino, G.; Murphy, G.; Pelletier, G.; Plotnikov, I.; Reville, B.; Riquelme, M.; Sironi, L.; Stockem Novo, A.

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.

  8. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.

  9. The dynamic quasiperpendicular shock: Cluster discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoselskikh, V; Walker, S N; Schwartz, S; Sundkvist, D; Lobzin, V; Gedalin, M; Bale, S D; Mozer, F; Soucek, J; Hobara, Y; Comisel, H

    2013-01-01

    The physics of collisionless shocks is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular shocks is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the shock layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical shocks and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. All of these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the shock is stationary. The earliest studies of collisionless shocks identified nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispe...

  10. Shock breakout theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The earliest supernova (SN) emission is produced when the optical depth of the plasma lying ahead of the shock, which ejects the envelope, drops below c/v, where v is the shock velocity. This "breakout" may occur when the shock reaches the edge of the star, producing a bright X-ray/UV flash on time scales of seconds to a fraction of an hour, followed by UV/optical "cooling" emission from the expanding cooling envelope on a day time-scale. If the optical depth of circumstellar material (CSM) ejected from the progenitor star prior to the explosion is larger than c/v, the breakout will take place at larger radii, within the CSM, extending its duration to days time scale. The properties of the early, breakout and cooling, emission carry unique signatures of the structure of the progenitor star (e.g. its radius and surface composition) and of its mass-loss history. The recent progress of wide-field transient surveys enable SN detections on a day time scale, and are being used to set unique constraints on the proge...

  11. Dispersive nature of high mach number collisionless plasma shocks: Poynting flux of oblique whistler waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V; Bale, S D; Schwartz, S J; Soucek, J; Mozer, F

    2012-01-13

    Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.

  12. [Neurogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Rafael; Pasquier, Mathieu; Clerc, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2014-08-13

    The neurogenic shock is a common complication of spinal cord injury, especially when localized at the cervical level. Characterized by a vasoplegia (hypotension) and bradycardia, the neurogenic shock is secondary to the damage of the sympathetic nervous system. The clinical presentation often includes tetraplegia, with or without respiratory failure. Early treatment aims to minimize the occurrence of secondary spinal cord lesions resulting from systemic ischemic injuries. Medical management consists in a standardized ABCDE approach, in order to stabilize vital functions and immobilize the spine. The hospital care includes performing imaging, further measures of neuro-resuscitation, and coordinated surgical assessment and treatment of any other injury.

  13. Shocks in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li

    2015-01-01

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$nonlinear effects turn acoustic waves into shocks after $\\sim 10^4$ oscillations. The resulting scale-invariant network of shocks provides a natural mechanism for creating significant departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as primordial vorticity and gravitational waves.

  14. Shock finding on a moving-mesh - II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Kevin; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star-forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below mathcal {M}≈ 10 contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in sharp contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a large part of the difference arises due to strong black hole radio-mode feedback in Illustris. We also provide an overview of the large diversity of shock morphologies, which includes complex networks of halo-internal shocks, shocks on to cosmic sheets, feedback shocks due to black holes and galactic winds, as well as ubiquitous accretion shocks. In high-redshift systems more massive than 1012 M⊙, we discover the existence of a double accretion shock pattern in haloes. They are created when gas streams along filaments without being shocked at the outer accretion shock, but then forms a second, roughly spherical accretion shock further inside.

  15. Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  16. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  17. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SHOCK WAVES AND SOLID SPHERES ARRAYS IN A SHOCK TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghui; Kazuki YAMAMURA

    2004-01-01

    When a shock wave interacts with a group of solid spheres, non-linear aerodynamic behaviors come into effect. The complicated wave reflections such as the Mach reflection occur in the wave propagation process. The wave interactions with vortices behind each sphere's wake cause fluctuation in the pressure profiles of shock waves. This paper reports an experimental study for the aerodynamic processes involved in the interaction between shock waves and solid spheres. A schlieren photography was applied to visualize the various shock waves passing through solid spheres. Pressure measurements were performed along different downstream positions. The experiments were conducted in both rectangular and circular shock tubes. The data with respect to the effect of the sphere array,size, interval distance, incident Mach number, etc., on the shock wave attenuation were obtained.

  18. Recent oil price shock and Tunisian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jbir, Rafik; Zouari-Ghorbel, Sonia [MO.DEV.I 99/UR/0624, Department of Economics, University of Management and Economic Sciences of Sfax, Street of Airport km 4.5, LP 1088, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of this paper is to study the oil prices-macroeconomy relationship by the analysis of the role of subsidy policy. The vector autoregression (VAR) method was employed to analyze the data over the period 1993 Q1 - 2007 Q3. The results of the model using both linear and non-linear specifications indicate that there is no direct impact of oil price shock on the economic activity. The shock of oil prices affects economic activity indirectly. The most significant channel by which the effects of the shock are transmitted is the government's spending. (author)

  19. Cosmic ray acceleration at modified shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Meli, A; Dimitrakoudis, S

    2007-01-01

    The non-linear back reaction of accelerated cosmic rays at the shock fronts, leads to the formation of a smooth precursor with a length scale corresponding to the diffusive scale of the energetic particles. Past works claimed that shocklets could be created in the precursor region of a specific shock width, which might energize few thermal particles to sufficient acceleration and furthermore this precursor region may act as confining large angle scatterer for very high energy cosmic rays. On the other hand, it has been shown that the smoothing of the shock front could lower the acceleration efficiency. These controversies motivated us to investigate numerically by Monte Carlo simulations the particle acceleration efficiency in oblique modified shocks. The results show flatter spectra compared to the spectra of the pressumed sharp discontinuity shock fronts. The findings are in accordance with theoretical predictions, since the scattering inside the precursor confines high energy particles to further scatterin...

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood ... The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). ...

  1. Culture Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲

    2004-01-01

    Specialists say that it is not easy to get used to life in a new culture.“Culture shock”is the term these specialists use when talking about the feelings that people have in a new environment.There are three stages of culture shock,say the specialists.In the first stage,the newcomers like their new environment,Then when the fresh experience

  2. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  3. Vacuum high harmonic generation in the shock regime

    CERN Document Server

    Böhl, P; Ruhl, H

    2015-01-01

    Electrodynamics becomes nonlinear and permits the self-interaction of fields when the quantised nature of vacuum states is taken into account. The effect on a plane probe pulse propagating through a stronger constant crossed background is calculated using numerical simulation and by analytically solving the corresponding wave equation. The electromagnetic shock resulting from vacuum high harmonic generation is investigated and a nonlinear shock parameter identified.

  4. Transient global amnesia mimics: Transient epileptic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nicastro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 79-year-old patient referred for suspected transient global amnesia, after an episode of anterograde amnesia which lasted 90 min. An EEG, performed after the episode, showed bilateral temporal electrographic seizures, orienting the diagnosis toward a transient epileptic amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is defined by temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent transient amnestic episodes of 30–90 min in duration, sometimes associated with olfactory hallucinations or oral automatisms. Response to antiepileptic drugs is excellent. We would like to raise awareness toward this epileptic amnesia when facing atypical or recurrent transient amnestic episodes.

  5. On the Use of FEM for Pyro-Shock Propagation in Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, R.; Galluccio, G.; Collini, L.; de Benedetti, M.

    2002-01-01

    Within the context of Large Flexible Space Structures (LFSS), a Finite Elements Method has been applied to reproduce the effects of the accelerations induced by the ignition of a pyro-device on the structure of a satellite. Aim of this paper is to describe the starting hypotheses, the calculation procedure and the results of the structural mechanical shock analyses that have been performed on the numerical model of the RADARSAT2 ATD (Antenna Tie Down) assembly. The dynamic non- linear structural behaviour under the shock solicitation environment of the assembly has been investigated. The high- frequency structural analyses have been conducted basing on two domains: the time domain and the frequency domain, leading to the comprehension of the structure dynamic behaviour under the shock vibration environment. The analyses have been performed basing on a dedicated FEM model, where the number of degrees of freedom has been balanced between the computing effort and the requested accuracy on the results. As a first step, the model has been prepared and tested. Successively, the model has been correlated, in order to provide as an output the same main static and dynamic results as the 3D FEM model that has been used for the static analyses. After this process, the FEM model for shock analysis purpose (also indicated in the rest of the following document as "shock model") has been analysed with a specific non-linear transient-time solution, in order to obtain the time-history of the accelerations detected in several output points. The analysis has been conducted over the time interval included between 0 and 25 msec, and in the frequency band between 0 and approximately 10 kHz. As a conclusion, a transformation from the time domain to the frequency domain allows the presentation of the results in the acceleration-Vs.-frequency form, either with diagrams or in table exposition.

  6. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Armus, Lee; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Cook, David; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Fox, Ori D.; Green, Wayne; Gehrz, R. D.; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab M.; Lau, Ryan M.; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Milne, Peter; Mohamed, Shazrene; Morrell, Nidia; Monson, Andy; Moore, Anna; Ofek, Eran O.; O' Sullivan, Donal; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Perez, Andres; Perley, Daniel A.; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Shenoy, Dinesh; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Williams, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer/IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between -11 and -14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]-[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from 7 mag yr-1. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  7. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  8. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  9. Universal hydrodynamic flow in holographic planar shock collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chesler, Paul M; van der Schee, Wilke

    2015-01-01

    We study the collision of planar shock waves in AdS$_5$ as a function of shock profile. In the dual field theory the shock waves describe planar sheets of energy whose collision results in the formation of a plasma which behaves hydrodynamically at late times. We find that the post-collision stress tensor near the light cone exhibits transient non-universal behavior which depends on both the shock width and the precise functional form of the shock profile. However, over a large range of shock widths, including those which yield qualitative different behavior near the future light cone, and for different shock profiles, we find universal behavior in the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution. Additionally, we compute the rapidity distribution of produced particles and find it to be well described by a Gaussian.

  10. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  11. Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Folli, V; Trillo, S; DelRe, E; Conti, C

    2012-01-01

    We are able to detect the details of spatial optical collisionless wave-breaking through the high aperture imaging of a beam suffering shock in a fluorescent nonlinear nonlocal thermal medium. This allows us to directly measure how nonlocality and nonlinearity affect the point of shock formation and compare results with numerical simulations.

  12. Localized shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, $W_{x_{n}}(t_{n}) ... W_{x_1}(t_1)$, where $W_x(t) = e^{-iHt} W_x e^{iHt}$. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in $t$. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  13. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  14. Shock Formation Height in the Solar Corona Estimated from SDO and Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Nitta, N.

    2011-01-01

    Wave transients at EUV wavelengths and type II radio bursts are good indicators of shock formation in the solar corona. We use recent EUV wave observations from SDO and combine them with metric type II radio data to estimate the height in the corona where the shocks form. We compare the results with those obtained from other methods. We also estimate the shock formation heights independently using white-light observations of coronal mass ejections that ultimately drive the shocks.

  15. 高纯钨在瞬态热冲击下的损伤行为研究%Preliminary study on transient thermal shock behavior of high purity tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 刘翔; 练友运

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shock performances of ITER-like high purity tungsten were examined by an electron beam heat load test and finite element code simulation. Experiments under ITER-like plasma major disruption instability happening condition with test sample background temperature at room temperature were simulated by an electron beam facility EMS-60 newly constructed. Recrystallization, cracking and melting behaviors of test sample after irradiation tests were observed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their formation mechanisms have been discussed. Finite element simulation has been carried out by ANSYS code and the result shows that the cracking threshold of ITER grade tungsten is about 1.5MJ⋅m-2 for 5ms pulse loading, which is in accordance with experimental results.%通过电子束辐照实验和有限元模拟研究了ITER类型面对等离子体的高纯钨材料在瞬态热冲击下的行为。在新建成的电子束实验平台EMS-60上进行了ITER等离子体发生大破裂不稳定下的模拟实验,实验中样品的基体温度为室温,脉冲宽度为1∼5ms,能量负载范围是1~5MJ⋅m-2。实验后通过扫描电镜观察了样品的再结晶、裂纹及熔化情况,讨论了裂纹形成机理。通过有限元模拟,得出在5ms的脉冲负载下钨的裂纹阈值为1.5MJ⋅m-2,与实验结果符合很好。

  16. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.

  17. CHAOTIC TRANSIENTS IN A CURVED FLUID CONVEYING TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Qiao; Wang Lin; Qian Qin

    2005-01-01

    The chaotic transients of a curved fluid conveying tube subjected to a nonlinear foundation are investigated. The assumption of the inextensibility of the tube is applied to derive the nonlinear differential equation of motion via the Newtonian approach, with the differential quadrature method used to discretize the curved tube model in the spatial domain. And the nonlinear dynamic motion equation is obtained. The numerical analysis shows that, the final steady states are sensitive to the initial system conditions in a large parameter region of the fluid speed. This phenomenon of chaotic transients is infrequent for fluid conveying tubes.

  18. Study on Nonlinear Dynamic Coefficients and Transient Vibration Response for a Non--contact Mechanical Seal%非接触机械密封的非线性动特性系数及瞬态振动响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王技德; 张国渊

    2012-01-01

    Considering the tilt of a seal ring, the transient vibration response analysis model of a non--contact mechanical seal was presented. The model was consisted of transient Reynolds equation, motion equation and equation for solving the second--order nonlinear dynamic coefficients of the seal. With Euler method, the characteristic parameters of the transient vibration response were obtained, which included the axial vibration displacements and the angle--swing of the static ring. 14 nonlinear forces and 14 nonlinear overturning moment dynamic coefficients for the non--contact mechanical seal were calculated. The results show that the influences of the damping effects of the sealed fluid between the seal gaps on the axial vibration displacements and the angle--swing are linear. The film thickness distribution changes with the axial vibration of seal, which will lead to static ring swing, and the swing can also cause the axial vibration of the seal.%建立了考虑倾斜情况的弹性补偿单元支撑的非接触机械密封瞬态振动响应分析模型,该模型包括了瞬态Reynolds方程、运动方程以及二阶非线性动特性系数求解方程等。采用Euler法求解获得了非接触机械密封在轴向振动位移和静环倾角随时间变化时的瞬态振动响应特性。计算得到瞬态油膜力作用下的密封轴向力和倾覆力矩相关的14个动特性系数。结果表明:密封间隙内流体阻尼对密封副和摆动的影响是线性的;密封副瞬态振动影响油膜厚度分布,从而引起油膜压力分布发生变化,结果导致密封环发生摆动;密封副摆动同样也会引起密封轴向振动。

  19. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  20. Diffusive Shock Acceleration the Fermi Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusive Fermi acceleration at collisionless plasma shock waves is widely invoked in astrophysics to explain the appearance of non-thermal particle populations in a variety of environments, including sites of cosmic ray production, and is observed to operate at several sites in the heliosphere. This review outlines the principal results from the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, focusing first on how it produces power-law distributions in test-particle regimes, where the shock dynamics are dominated by the thermal populations that provide the seed particles for the acceleration process. Then the importance of non-linear modifications to the shock hydrodynamics by the accelerated particles is addressed, emphasizing how these subsequently influence non-thermal spectral formation.

  1. Shock acceleration in partially neutral plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Blasi, P; Caprioli, D

    2010-01-01

    We present the non-linear theory of shock acceleration applied to SNRs expanding into partially neutral plasma. Using this theory we show how the Balmer lines detected from young SNRs can be used to test the efficiency of shocks in the production of cosmic rays. In particular we investigate the effect of charge-exchange between protons and neutral hydrogen occurring in the precursor formed ahead of the shock. In this precursor the CR pressure accelerate the ionized component of the plasma and a relative velocity between protons and neutral hydrogen is established. On the other hand the charge-exchange process tends to equilibrate ions and neutrals resulting in the heating of both components. We show that even when the shock converts only a few per cent of the total bulk kinetic energy into CRs, the heating is efficient enough to produce a detectable broadening of the narrow Balmer lines emitted by the neutral hydrogen.

  2. A combined dynamic analysis method for geometrically nonlinear vibration isolators with elastic rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie

    2016-08-01

    A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.

  3. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    CERN Document Server

    Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-01-01

    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

  4. A Note on Transients in the SRO and ASRO Long-Period Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon

    1982-01-01

    Data users have occasionally observed pulse-like transients in the long-period waveforms recorded at the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and at the Modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. In a recent paper, Dziewonski et al (1981) reported transients associated with earthquake signals record at some SRO stations, and the authors ascribed these transients to an unpredictable nonlinear system response. While some transients in the SRO and ASRO data are indeed generated by a nonlinear response (clipping), others are the result of linear processes. All event-associated transients are predictable in the sense that they are produced by large impulsive body-wave signals.

  5. A case of transient anisotropy during the recovery phase of a Forbush decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1966-01-01

    Transient anisotropic cosmic ray increase during recovery phase of Forbush decrease due to reflection from receding blast wave and co-rotating shock wave formed during explosive heating of solar corona

  6. Model of anisotropic nonlinearity in self-defocusing photorefractive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, C; Fleischer, J W

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phenomenological model of anisotropy in self-defocusing photorefractive crystals. In addition to an independent term due to nonlinear susceptibility, we introduce a nonlinear, non-separable correction to the spectral diffraction operator. The model successfully describes the crossover between photovoltaic and photorefractive responses and the spatially dispersive shock wave behavior of a nonlinearly spreading Gaussian input beam. It should prove useful for characterizing internal charge dynamics in complex materials and for accurate image reconstruction through nonlinear media.

  7. Transient Heat Transfer in Cylinpers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Chopra

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical solution has been obtained for transient heat transfer in cylinders by appropriate choice of body ,conforming grid points. The physical domain is transformed to computational domain using elliptic partial differential equation technique, wherein the grid spacing becomes uniform. The advantage of this method is that the discretisation of transformed equations. and accompanying boundary conditipns becdme very simple. The applicability of this method is very broad, as it can beused for carryinI giout study of any comple'x domain in contrast to finite difference methods, which have limited applicability. Detailedcalculations have been carried out to trace the evolution of temperaturedistribution frpm the initiial stages to the steadystate for circular cylinder, elliptical cylinder and square block with circular hole. This paper is aimed for general-shaped bodies and it has been applied to studytransient heat transfer in combustion-driven shock tube.

  8. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  9. Thermoviscous Model Equations in Nonlinear Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne

    Four nonlinear acoustical wave equations that apply to both perfect gasses and arbitrary fluids with a quadratic equation of state are studied. Shock and rarefaction wave solutions to the equations are studied. In order to assess the accuracy of the wave equations, their solutions are compared...... to solutions of the basic equations from which the wave equations are derived. A straightforward weakly nonlinear equation is the most accurate for shock modeling. A higher order wave equation is the most accurate for modeling of smooth disturbances. Investigations of the linear stability properties...... of solutions to the wave equations, reveal that the solutions may become unstable. Such instabilities are not found in the basic equations. Interacting shocks and standing shocks are investigated....

  10. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  11. Fast relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquizu, Merce [Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain); Correig, Antoni M. [Departament d' Astronomical i Meteorologia, Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics Eduard Fontsere, UB Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain) and Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ton.correig@am.ub.es

    2007-08-15

    Although nonlinear relaxation transients are very common in nature, very few studies are devoted to its characterization, mainly due to its short time duration. In this paper, we present a study about the nature of relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator, in which transients are generated in terms of continuous fast changes in the parameters of the system. We have found that transient dynamics can be described, rather than in terms of bifurcation dynamics, in terms of instantaneous stretching factors, which are related to the stability of fixed points of the corresponding stroboscopic maps.

  12. Characterization and Simulation of Transient Vibrations Using Band Limited Temporal Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Smallwood

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described to characterize shocks (transient time histories in terms of the Fourier energy spectrum and the temporal moments of the shock passed through a contiguous set of band pass filters. The product model is then used to generate of a random process as simulations that in the mean will have the same energy and moments as the characterization of the transient event.

  13. Nonlinear electrokinetic transport in networks of microscale and nanoscale pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Andersen, Mathias B.; Mani, Ali

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the understanding of nonlinear electrohydrodynamic effects in a wide range of systems including lab-on-a-chip systems, electroosmotic pumps, and, in general, porous media with random or fabricated pore morphology. We present a continuum model in which these systems are described as massive networks of long and thin pores. The thickness of the pores can vary from nanoscale to microscale, corresponding to the highly overlapped electric double layers (EDL) to the thin double layer limit. Within each pore the transport in the wall-normal direction is assumed to be in equilibrium leading to a reduced order model for the axial transport of species in the form of a transient one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE). PDEs from different pores are coupled through boundary conditions at the pore intersections by proper implementation of the conservation laws. We show that this model can capture important nonlinear dynamics, which are typically ignored in homogenized models. Specifically, our model captures concentration polarization shocks and flow recirculation zones respectively formed when micropores and nanopores are connected in series and in parallel. We present a comparison between our model and recent experiments in microfluidics, and will discuss applications in porous media modeling for energy storage and water purification systems.

  14. NONLINEAR WAVES AND PERIODIC SOLUTION IN FINITE DEFORMATION ELASTIC ROD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhifang; Zhang Shanyuan

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear wave equation of elastic rod taking account of finite deformation, transverse inertia and shearing strain is derived by means of the Hamilton principle in this paper. Nonlinear wave equation and truncated nonlinear wave equation are solved by the Jacobi elliptic sine function expansion and the third kind of Jacobi elliptic function expansion method. The exact periodic solutions of these nonlinear equations are obtained, including the shock wave solution and the solitary wave solution. The necessary condition of exact periodic solutions, shock solution and solitary solution existence is discussed.

  15. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  16. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  17. Shear strength measurements in a shock loaded commercial silastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, J. C. F.; Whiteman, G.; Stirk, S. M.; Bourne, N. K.

    2011-05-01

    The shock-induced shear strength of a commercial silastomer, trade name Sylgard 184™, has been determined using laterally mounted manganin stress gauges. Shear strength has been observed to increase with increasing shock amplitude, in common with many other materials. Shear strength has also been observed to increase slightly behind the shock front as well. It is believed that a combination of polymer chain entanglement and cross linking between chains is responsible. Finally, a ramp on the leading edge of the lower amplitude stress traces has been observed. It has been suggested that this is due to shock-induced collapse of free space between the polymer chains. Similar explanations have been used to explain the apparent non-linearity of the shock velocity with particle velocity at low shock amplitudes.

  18. Shear strength measurements in a shock loaded commercial silastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J C F; Whiteman, G; Stirk, S M; Bourne, N K, E-mail: Jeremy.Millett@awe.co.uk [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR. UK (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-11

    The shock-induced shear strength of a commercial silastomer, trade name Sylgard 184(TM), has been determined using laterally mounted manganin stress gauges. Shear strength has been observed to increase with increasing shock amplitude, in common with many other materials. Shear strength has also been observed to increase slightly behind the shock front as well. It is believed that a combination of polymer chain entanglement and cross linking between chains is responsible. Finally, a ramp on the leading edge of the lower amplitude stress traces has been observed. It has been suggested that this is due to shock-induced collapse of free space between the polymer chains. Similar explanations have been used to explain the apparent non-linearity of the shock velocity with particle velocity at low shock amplitudes.

  19. Diffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification and Alfvenic drift

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2012-01-01

    We explore how wave-particle interactions affect diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at astrophysical shocks by performing time-dependent kinetic simulations, in which phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvenic drift, thermal leakage injection, Bohm-like diffusion, and a free escape boundary are implemented. If the injection fraction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles is greater than 2x10^{-4}, for the shock parameters relevant for young supernova remnants, DSA is efficient enough to develop a significant shock precursor due to CR feedback, and magnetic field can be amplified up to a factor of 20 via CR streaming instability in the upstream region. If scattering centers drift with Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum can be steepened significantly and the acceleration efficiency is reduced. Nonlinear DSA with self-consistent MFA and Alfvenic drift predicts that the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at 10 % of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks...

  20. Shock Formation in Electron-Ion Plasmas: Mechanism and Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, Antoine; Stockem Novo, Anne; Ricardo, Fonseca; Luis, Silva

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the formation of a collisionless shock in electron-ion plasmas in theory and simulations. In initially un-magnetized relativistic plasmas, such shocks are triggered by the Weibel instability. While in pair plasmas the shock starts forming right after the instability saturates, it is not so in electron-ion plasmas because the Weibel filaments at saturation are too small. An additional merging phase is therefore necessary for them to efficiently stop the flow. We derive a theoretical model for the shock formation time, taking into account filament merging in the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability. This process is much slower than in electron-positron pair shocks, and so the shock formation is longer by a factor proportional to √{mi /me } ln(mi /me).

  1. Plasma shock waves excited by THz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Shur, M.

    2016-10-01

    The shock plasma waves in Si MOS, InGaAs and GaN HEMTs are launched at a relatively small THz power that is nearly independent of the THz input frequency for short channel (22 nm) devices and increases with frequency for longer (100 nm to 1 mm devices). Increasing the gate-to-channel separation leads to a gradual transition of the nonlinear waves from the shock waves to solitons. The mathematics of this transition is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation that has the single propagating soliton solution.

  2. Lagrangian description of nonlinear chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Heng; LIU Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    Under the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamic separation theory (NTST), Local Lagrangian approach (LLA) was proposed to deal with the essential issues of the convection and diffusion (shock waves) phenomena in nonlinear chromatography with recursion equations based on the three basic theorems, Lagrangian description, continuity axiom and local equilibrium assumption (LEA). This approach remarkably distinguished from the system of contemporary chromatographic theories (Eulerian description-partial differential equations), and can felicitously match modern cybernetics.

  3. FEA for designing of floating raft shock-resistant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-long; HE Lin; HUANG Ying-yun; WANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Choosing the equipment with good shock-resistant performance and taking shock protection measures while designing the onboard settings, the safety of onboard settings can be assured when warships, especially submarine subjected to non-contact underwater explosion, that is, these means can be used to limit the rattlespace (i.e., the maximum displacement of the equipment relative to the base) and the peak acceleration experienced by the equipment. Using shock-resistant equipments is one of shock protection means. The shock-resistant performance of the shock-resistant equipments should be verified in the design phase of the equipments. The FEA (finite element analysis) software, for example, MSC.NASTRAN(R), can be used to verify the shock-resistant performance. MSC.PATRAN(R) and MSC.NASTRAN are used for modeling and analyzing the floating raft vibration isolating equipment. The model of the floating raft and the floating raft vibration isolating system are theoretically analyzed and calculated, and the analysis results are in agreement with the test results. The transient response analysis of the system model follows the modal analysis of the floating raft vibration isolating system. And it is used to verify the shock-resistant performance. The analysis and calculation method used in this paper can be used to analyze the shock-resistant performance of onboard shock-resistant equipments.

  4. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  5. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  6. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  7. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  8. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  9. Cosmological Shock Waves in the Large Scale Structure of the Universe: Non-gravitational Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, J P

    2007-01-01

    Cosmological shock waves result from supersonic flow motions induced by hierarchical clustering of nonlinear structures in the universe. These shocks govern the nature of cosmic plasma through thermalization of gas and acceleration of nonthermal, cosmic-ray (CR) particles. We study the statistics and energetics of shocks formed in cosmological simulations of a concordance $\\Lambda$CDM universe, with a special emphasis on the effects of non-gravitational processes such as radiative cooling, photoionization/heating, and galactic superwind feedbacks. Adopting an improved model for gas thermalization and CR acceleration efficiencies based on nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration calculations, we then estimate the gas thermal energy and the CR energy dissipated at shocks through the history of the universe. Since shocks can serve as sites for generation of vorticity, we also examine the vorticity that should have been generated mostly at curved shocks in cosmological simulations. We find that the dynamics and ene...

  10. Tracking controller for robot manipulators via composite nonlinear feedback law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wendong; Su Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    A composite nonlinear feedback tracking controller for motion control of robot manipulators is de-scribed. The structure of the controller is composed of a composite nonlinear feedback law plus full robot nonlinear dynamics compensation. The stability is carried out in the presence of friction. The controller takes advantage of varying damping ratios induced by the composite nonlinear feedback control, so the transient performance of the closed-loop is remarkably improved. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Interaction of Shock Waves in Cement Mortar Plate Investigated by the Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; LIU Kai-Xin; ZHANG Guang-Sheng; WEN Shang-Gang; TAN Fu-Li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Interaction of shock waves in cement mortar plate is studied by digital speckle correlation method and digital high-speed photography technique. When the plates were destroyed by two detonators exploding at the same time, variation of shock wave field is obtained. Experimental results show that the interaction of shock waves will result in a nonlinear huge increase of local normal strain, leading to large deformation and serious destruction. However, the occurrence of this strongly nonlinear phenomenon sensitively depends on the interval between detonators, and it will only appear when the interval is smaller than the diameter of the region where shock waves exist.

  12. Mach stem formation in reflection and focusing of weak shock acoustic pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzova, Maria M; Khokhlova, Vera A; Salze, Edouard; Ollivier, Sébastien; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to show the evidence of Mach stem formation for very weak shock waves with acoustic Mach numbers on the order of 10(-3) to 10(-2). Two representative cases are considered: reflection of shock pulses from a rigid surface and focusing of nonlinear acoustic beams. Reflection experiments are performed in air using spark-generated shock pulses. Shock fronts are visualized using a schlieren system. Both regular and irregular types of reflection are observed. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the Mach stem formation in the focal region of periodic and pulsed nonlinear beams in water.

  13. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  14. Transient Voltage Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  15. Explorer for Transient Astrophysics: an X-ray transient mission for the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Explorer for Transient Astrophysics (ETA) is a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed for flight starting in 2023. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 20 deg FoV in three separate modules, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ETA will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes an IR Telescope that allows on-board redshift determination of gamma-ray bursts, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor to be contributed by the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology.)

  16. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    definitions of what it means to be transient. The purpose of this technical report is to provide a background of the issues related to transient...In this section, we will attempt to identify these parameters and provide preliminary definitions for categories of transience behavior. Transient...programmable lifetimes. Ideally , such materials with expiration dates will deconstruct themselves into harmless and invisible remnants. The technology base

  17. Cleavage Fracture Modeling of Pressure Vessels under Transient Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xudong [National University of Singapore; Dodds, Robert [University of Illinois; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The next generation of fracture assessment procedures for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) will combine nonlinear analyses of crack-front response with stochastic treatments of crack size, shape, orientation, location, material properties and thermal-pressure transients. The projected computational demands needed to support stochastic approaches with detailed 3-D, nonlinear stress analyses of vessels containing defects appear well beyond current and near-term capabilities. In the interim, 2-D models become appealing to approximate certain classes of critical flaws in RPVs, and have computational demands within reach for stochastic frameworks. The present work focuses on the capability of 2-D models to provide values for the Weibull stress fracture parameter with accuracy comparable to those from very detailed 3-D models. Weibull stress approaches provide one route to connect nonlinear vessel response with fracture toughness values measured using small laboratory specimens. The embedded axial flaw located in the RPV wall near the cladding-vessel interface emerges from current linear-elastic, stochastic investigations as a critical contributor to the conditional probability of initiation. Three different types of 2-D models reflecting this configuration are subjected to a thermal-pressure transient characteristic of a critical pressurized thermal shock event. The plane-strain, 2-D models include: the modified boundary layer (MBL) model, the middle tension (M(T)) model, and the 2-D RPV model. The 2-D MBL model provides a high quality estimate for the Weibull stress but only in crack-front regions with a positive T-stress. For crack-front locations with low constraint (T-stress < 0), the M(T) specimen provides very accurate Weibull stress values but only for pressure load acting alone on the RPV. For RPVs under a combined thermal-pressure transient, Weibull stresses computed from the 2-D RPV model demonstrate close agreement with those computed from the

  18. Cleavage Fracture Modeling of Pressure Vessels Under Transient Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xudong [National University of Singapore; Dodds, Robert [University of Illinois; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The next generation of fracture assessment procedures for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) will combine nonlinear analyses of crack-front response with stochastic treatments of crack size, shape, orientation, location, material properties and thermal-pressure transients. The projected computational demands needed to support stochastic approaches with detailed 3-D, nonlinear stress analyses of vessels containing defects appear well beyond current and near-term capabilities. In the interim, 2-D models be-come appealing to approximate certain classes of critical flaws in RPVs, and have computational demands within reach for stochastic frameworks. The present work focuses on the capability of 2-D models to provide values for the Weibull stress fracture parameter with accuracy comparable to those from very detailed 3-D models. Weibull stress approaches provide one route to connect nonlinear vessel response with fracture toughness values measured using small laboratory specimens. The embedded axial flaw located in the RPV wall near the cladding-vessel interface emerges from current linear-elastic, stochastic investigations as a critical contributor to the conditional probability of initiation. Three different types of 2-D models reflecting this configuration are subjected to a thermal-pressure transient characteristic of a critical pressurized thermal shock event. The plane-strain, 2-D models include: the modified boundary layer (MBL) model, the middle tension (M(T)) model, and the 2-D RPV model. The 2-D MBL model provides a high quality estimate for the Weibull stress but only in crack-front regions with a positive T-stress. For crack-front locations with low constraint (T-stress < 0), the M(T) specimen provides very accurate Weibull stress values but only for pressure load acting alone on the RPV. For RPVs under a combined thermal-pressure transient, Weibull stresses computed from the 2-D RPV model demonstrate close agreement with those computed from

  19. Coupling capacitor voltage transformer: A model for electromagnetic transient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, D.; Neves, W.L.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882 Bodocongo, 58.109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vasconcelos, J.C.A. [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Rua Delmiro Gouveia, 333 Bongi, 50.761-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    In this work, an accurate coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT) model for electromagnetic transient studies is presented. The model takes into account linear and nonlinear elements. A support routine was developed to compute the linear 230kV CCVT parameters (resistances, inductances and capacitances) from frequency response data. The magnetic core and surge arrester nonlinear characteristics were estimated from laboratory measurements as well. The model is used in connection with the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) to predict the CCVT performance when it is submitted to transient overvoltages, as are the cases of voltages due to the ferroresonance phenomenon and circuit breaker switching. The difference between simulated and measured results is fairly small. Simulations had shown that transient overvoltages produced inside the CCVT, when a short circuit is cleared at the CCVT secondary side, are effectively damped out by the ferroresonance suppression circuit and the protection circuit. (author)

  20. The Zwicky Transient Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a next-generation optical synoptic survey that builds on the experience and infrastructure of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Using a new 47 deg$^2$ survey camera, ZTF will survey more than an order of magnitude faster than PTF to discover rare transients and variables. I describe the survey and the camera design. Searches for young supernovae, fast transients, counterparts to gravitational-wave detections, and rare variables will benefit from ZTF's high cadence, wide area survey.

  1. Shock finding on a moving-mesh: II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaal, Kevin; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements that robustly suppress spurious shock detections. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below $\\mathcal{M} \\approx 10$ contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in strong contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a lar...

  2. Pump and probe measurements of shock-compressed states

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, K G; Hironaka, Y; Kondo, K

    2002-01-01

    A pump and probe technique is used for time-resolved measurements of the microstructure of condensed matter under laser shock compression. Two types of experiment (picosecond x-ray diffraction and nanosecond Raman spectroscopy) are performed. The picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction results for laser-shocked Si(111) give the time evolution of the strain profiles in 60 ps intervals. Nanosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for laser-shocked poly-tetrafluoroethylene shows transient bond scission of the polymer chain.

  3. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana; Pasternak Janko; Milovanović Stanislav; Ivanov Dejan; Milić Saša

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella pre...

  4. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  5. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed

  6. Acceleration at Relativistic Shocks in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1999-01-01

    Most recent extragalactic models of gamma-ray bursts consider the expansion of a relativistic blast wave, emanating from a solar-mass type progenitor, into the surrounding interstellar medium as the site for their activity. The popular perception is that the optical afterglows result from the external shock interface, while the prompt transient gamma-ray signal arises from multiple shocks internal to the expansion. This paper illustrates a number of acceleration properties of relativistic and ultrarelativistic shocks that pertain to GRB models, by way of a standard Monte Carlo simulation. Computations of the spectral shape, the range of spectral indices, and the energy gain per shock crossing are presented, as functions of the shock speed and the type of particle scattering.

  7. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  8. Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    JD. Modeling nonlinear electromechanical behavior of shocked silicon carbide. Journal of Applied Physics . 2010;107:013520. 30. Clayton JD. A... Physics by JD Clayton Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers...of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  9. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  10. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  11. Nonlinear ship waves and computational fluid dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIYATA, Hideaki; ORIHARA, Hideo; SATO, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    .... Finding of the occurrence of nonlinear waves (named Free-Surface Shock Waves) in the vicinity of a ship advancing at constant speed provided the start-line for the progress of innovative technologies in the ship hull-form design...

  12. Simulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Holst, B.; Tóth, G.; Sokolov, I. V.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Powell, K. G.; Drake, R. P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the recently developed Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative shock experiments. These shocks are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1 ns. Later times are calculated with the CRASH code. CRASH solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative shocks of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound shock structure of the primary and wall shock is captured and verify that the shock properties are consistent with order-of-magnitude estimates. The synthetic radiographs produced can be used for comparison with future nozzle experiments at high-energy-density laser facilities.

  13. Simulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubes

    CERN Document Server

    van der Holst, B; Sokolov, I V; Daldorff, L K S; Powell, K G; Drake, R P

    2011-01-01

    We use the recently developed Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative shock experiments. These shocks are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1ns. The later times are calculated with the CRASH code. This code solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative shocks of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound shock structure of the primary and wall shock is captured and verify that the shock properties a...

  14. When Shock Waves Collide

    CERN Document Server

    Hartigan, P; Frank, A; Hansen, E; Yirak, K; Liao, A S; Graham, P; Wilde, B; Blue, B; Martinez, D; Rosen, P; Farley, D; Paguio, R

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than an oblique one does. In this paper we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and ...

  15. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  16. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  17. Nonlinear standing wave and acoustic streaming in an exponential-shape resonator by gas-kinetic scheme simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Feng, Heying; Qu, Chengwu

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear standing waves and acoustic streaming in an axial-symmetrical resonator with exponentially varying cross-sectional area were studied. A two-dimensional gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook scheme based on the non-structure triangular grid was established to simulate nonlinear acoustic oscillations in the resonator. Details of the transient and steady flow fields and streaming were developed. The effects of winding index of the exponential-shape resonator, the displacement amplitude of the acoustic piston on the streaming, and the vortex pattern were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the acoustic streaming pattern in such resonators is different from the typical Rayleigh flow in a constant cross-sectional area resonator. No obvious shock wave appeared inside the exponential-shape resonator. The comparison reveals that with increasing the displacement amplitude of the acoustic piston energy dissipation is accompanied by vortex break-up from a first-level to a second-level transition, and even into turbulent flow. This research demonstrates that the exponential-shape resonator, especially that with a winding index of 2.2 exhibits better acoustic features and suppression effects on shock-wave, acoustic streaming, and the vortex.

  18. Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.

  19. New developments in the physical chemistry of shock compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlott, Dana D

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses new developments in shock compression science with a focus on molecular media. Some basic features of shock and detonation waves, nonlinear excitations that can produce extreme states of high temperature and high pressure, are described. Methods of generating and detecting shock waves are reviewed, especially those using tabletop lasers that can be interfaced with advanced molecular diagnostics. Newer compression methods such as shockless compression and precompression shock that generate states of cold dense molecular matter are discussed. Shock compression creates a metallic form of hydrogen, melts diamond, and makes water a superionic liquid with unique catalytic properties. Our understanding of detonations at the molecular level has improved a great deal as a result of advanced nonequilibrium molecular simulations. Experimental measurements of detailed molecular behavior behind a detonation front might be available soon using femtosecond lasers to produce nanoscale simulated detonation fronts.

  20. Optical dispersive shock waves in defocusing colloidal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X.; Marchant, T. R.; Smyth, N. F.

    2017-03-01

    The propagation of an optical dispersive shock wave, generated from a jump discontinuity in light intensity, in a defocusing colloidal medium is analysed. The equations governing nonlinear light propagation in a colloidal medium consist of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the beam and an algebraic equation for the medium response. In the limit of low light intensity, these equations reduce to a perturbed higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Solutions for the leading and trailing edges of the colloidal dispersive shock wave are found using modulation theory. This is done for both the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the full colloid equations for arbitrary light intensity. These results are compared with numerical solutions of the colloid equations.

  1. Nonlinear modeling of thermoacoustically driven energy cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo; Lodato, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We present an investigation of nonlinear energy cascade in thermoacoustically driven high-amplitude oscillations, from the initial weakly nonlinear regime to the shock wave dominated limit cycle. We develop a first principle based quasi-1D model for nonlinear wave propagation in a canonical minimal unit thermoacoustic device inspired by the experimental setup of Biwa et al.. Retaining up to quadratic nonlinear terms in the governing equations, we develop model equations for nonlinear wave propagation in the proximity of differentially heated no-slip boundaries. Furthermore, we discard the effects of acoustic streaming in the present study and focus on nonlinear energy cascade due to high amplitude wave propagation. Our model correctly predicts the observed exponential growth of the thermoacoustically amplified second harmonic, as well as the energy transfer rate to higher harmonics causing wave steepening. Moreover, we note that nonlinear coupling of local pressure with heat transfer reduces thermoacoustic amplification gradually thus causing the system to reach limit cycle exhibiting shock waves. Throughout, we verify the results from the quasi-1D model with fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations.

  2. Electron Weibel Instability Mediated Laser Driven Electromagnetic Collisionless Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qing; Mima, Kunioki; Cai, Hong-Bo; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Nagatomo, Hideo; He, X. T.

    2015-11-01

    As a fundamental nonlinear structure, collisionless shock is widely studied in astrophysics. Recently, the rapidly-developing laser technology provides a good test-bed to study such shock physics in laboratory. In addition, the laser driven shock ion acceleration is also interested due to its potential applications. We explore the effect of external parallel magnetic field on the collisionless shock formation and resultant particle acceleration by using the 2D3V PIC simulations. We show that unlike the electrostatic shock generated in the unmagnetized plasma, the shock generated in the weakly-magnetized laser-driven plasma is mostly electromagnetic (EM)-like with higher Mach number. The generation mechanism is due to the stronger transverse magnetic field self-generated at the nonlinear stage of the electron Weibel instability which drastically scatters particles and leads to higher energy dissipation. Simulation results also suggest more ions are reflected by this EM shock and results in larger energy transfer rate from the laser to ions, which is of advantage for applications such as neutron production and ion fast ignition.

  3. Burnett-Cattaneo continuum theory for shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon

    2011-02-01

    We model strong shock-wave propagation, both in the ideal gas and in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid, using a refinement of earlier work, which accounts for the cold compression in the early stages of the shock rise by a nonlinear, Burnett-like, strain-rate dependence of the thermal conductivity, and relaxation of kinetic-temperature components on the hot, compressed side of the shock front. The relaxation of the disequilibrium among the three components of the kinetic temperature, namely, the difference between the component in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, is accomplished at a much more quantitative level by a rigorous application of the Cattaneo-Maxwell relaxation equation to a reference solution, namely, the steady shock-wave solution of linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory, along with the nonlinear Burnett heat-flux term. Our new continuum theory is in nearly quantitative agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock-wave conditions, using relaxation parameters obtained from the reference solution.

  4. Perturbation analysis of transient population dynamics using matrix projection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Non-stable populations exhibit short-term transient dynamics: size, growth and structure that are unlike predicted long-term asymptotic stable, stationary or equilibrium dynamics. Understanding transient dynamics of non-stable populations is important for designing effective population management...... strategies, predicting the responses of populations to environmental change or disturbance, and understanding population processes and life-history evolution in variable environments. Transient perturbation analyses are vital tools for achieving these aims. They assess how transient dynamics are affected...... of model being analysed, the perturbation structure, the population response of interest, nonlinear response to perturbation, standardization for asymptotic dynamics, the initial population structure, and the time frame of interest. I discuss these with reference to the application of transient...

  5. Global Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation for Multimachine Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark; Hill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses simultaneously the major fundamental and difficult issues of nonlinearity, uncertainty, dimensionality and globality to derive performance enhancing power system stability control. The main focus is on simultaneous enhancement of transient stability and voltage regulation...... law is implemented to coordinate transient stabilizer and voltage regulator for each machine. Digital simulation studies show that global control scheme achieves unified transient stability and voltage regulation in the presence of parametric uncertainties and significant sudden changes in the network...... of power systems. This problem arises from the practical concern that both frequency and voltage control are important indices of power system control and operation but they are ascribed to different stages of system operation, i.e. the transient and post transient period respectively. The Direct Feedback...

  6. Discontinuity and complexity in nonlinear physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Luo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This unique book explores recent developments in experimental research in this broad field, organized in four distinct sections. Part I introduces the reader to the fractional dynamics and Lie group analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations. Part II covers chaos and complexity in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, important to understand the resonance interactions in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as Tsunami waves and wildfire propagations; as well as Lev flights in chaotic trajectories, dynamical system synchronization and DNA information complexity analysis. Part III examines chaos and periodic motions in discontinuous dynamical systems, extensively present in a range of systems, including piecewise linear systems, vibro-impact systems and drilling systems in engineering. And in Part IV, engineering and financial nonlinearity are discussed. The mechanism of shock wave with saddle-node bifurcation and rotating disk stability will be presented, and the financial nonlinear models will be discussed....

  7. Transient unsteadiness of SWBLI in an axisymmetric geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.

    2013-11-01

    Shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLIs) inside an axisymmetric large area ratio nozzle (Me = 5 . 58) are studied by way of unsteady wall pressure measurements. First, a case of non-transient SWBLI is considered by operating at a nozzle pressure ratio of 28.7, at which a RSS structure forms with trapped annular separation bubbles [Baars et al. AIAA J. 50:1, 2012]. Conditional selection of the data [Erengil and Dolling, AIAA J. 29:5, 1991] resemble similar unsteady features as encountered in nominally 2D interactions. That is, 1) pressures increase in the separated regions as the incipient separation shock translates downstream, and vice versa, which indicates a breathing behavior, and 2) the PDF of the time between shock crossings in the intermittent region is highly skewed, e.g. the shock zero frequency is 33% of the most probable frequency. Secondly, ramping the pressure ratio sweeps the shock system over the transducers and allows the study of transient SWBLI. Time-frequency analyses reveal global features of the unsteady wall signatures, such as low-frequency oscillations in separated regions, and it is identified that nozzle shut-downs are more energetic than start-ups. Post Doctoral Research Fellow.

  8. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  9. Comparison of geometrical shock dynamics and kinematic models for shock-wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoux, J.; Lardjane, N.; Monasse, L.; Coulouvrat, F.

    2017-09-01

    Geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) is a simplified model for nonlinear shock-wave propagation, based on the decomposition of the shock front into elementary ray tubes. Assuming small changes in the ray tube area, and neglecting the effect of the post-shock flow, a simple relation linking the local curvature and velocity of the front, known as the A{-}M rule, is obtained. More recently, a new simplified model, referred to as the kinematic model, was proposed. This model is obtained by combining the three-dimensional Euler equations and the Rankine-Hugoniot relations at the front, which leads to an equation for the normal variation of the shock Mach number at the wave front. In the same way as GSD, the kinematic model is closed by neglecting the post-shock flow effects. Although each model's approach is different, we prove their structural equivalence: the kinematic model can be rewritten under the form of GSD with a specific A{-}M relation. Both models are then compared through a wide variety of examples including experimental data or Eulerian simulation results when available. Attention is drawn to the simple cases of compression ramps and diffraction over convex corners. The analysis is completed by the more complex cases of the diffraction over a cylinder, a sphere, a mound, and a trough.

  10. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  11. Shock dynamics of phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Moro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic phase transition denotes a drastic change of state of a physical system due to a continuous change of thermodynamic variables, as for instance pressure and temperature. The classical van der Waals equation of state is the simplest model that predicts the occurrence of a critical point associated with the gas-liquid phase transition. Nevertheless, below the critical temperature, theoretical predictions of the van der Waals theory significantly depart from the observed physical behaviour. We develop a novel approach to classical thermodynamics based on the solution of Maxwell relations for a generalised family of nonlocal entropy functions. This theory provides an exact mathematical description of discontinuities of the order parameter within the phase transition region, it explains the universal form of the equations of state and the occurrence of triple points in terms of the dynamics of nonlinear shock wave fronts.

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  13. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  14. Searches for radio transients

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, N D R

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of the transient Universe is an exciting and fast-emerging area within radio astronomy. Known transient phenomena range in time scales from sub-nanoseconds to years or longer, thus spanning a huge range in time domain and hinting a rich diversity in their underlying physical processes. Transient phenomena are likely locations of explosive or dynamic events and they offer tremendous potential to uncover new physics and astrophysics. A number of upcoming next-generation radio facilities and recent advances in computing and instrumentation have provided a much needed impetus for this field which has remained a relatively uncharted territory for the past several decades. In this paper we focus mainly on the class of phenomena that occur on very short time scales (i.e. from $\\sim$ milliseconds to $\\sim$ nanoseconds), known as {\\it fast transients}, the detections of which involve considerable signal processing and data management challenges, given the high time and frequency resolutions required in the...

  15. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only difference between a stroke ...

  16. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  17. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  18. Nonlinear Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-20

    Genack and R. G. Brewer, Physical Review B17 , 2821 (1978). 3. Optical Coherent Transients by Laser Frequency Switching: Subnanosecond Studies R. G...field as witnessed in previous studies. 12 13 By contour integration, the Doppler integral of Bt(t) is * 21 6 T, 4 ei A <Bl(t)> r -- Ng w el[ _A ?-0/2

  19. Nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-01-01

    Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.

  20. Simulation of transients of high amplitude in pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.M.; Looijmans, K.N.H.

    1999-01-01

    Fast high-amplitude transients ask for a non-linear modelling approach in which large density variations and heat exchange can be considered. Operation of safety-valves, relief valves, the occurrence of valve failure and the start-up or shutdown of rotating equipment in industrial pipe systems can l

  1. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... en español Síndrome de shock tóxico About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious ...

  2. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  3. When Shock Waves Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  4. Anti-Shock Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  5. Chiral Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Srimoyee

    2016-01-01

    We study shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine- Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is linearly proportional to the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. We also show that rarefaction shock waves, which do not exist in usual nonchiral fluids, can appear in chiral matter. These features are exemplified by shock propagation in dense neutrino matter in the hydrodynamic regime.

  6. Steady and transient least square solvers for thermal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joe

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchical least square solution algorithm for highly nonlinear heat transfer problems. The methodology's capability is such that both steady and transient implicit formulations can be handled. This includes problems arising from highly nonlinear heat transfer systems modeled by either finite-element or finite-difference schemes. The overall procedure developed enables localized updating, iteration, and convergence checking as well as constraint application. The localized updating can be performed at a variety of hierarchical levels, i.e., degree of freedom, substructural, material-nonlinear groups, and/or boundary groups. The choice of such partitions can be made via energy partitioning or nonlinearity levels as well as by user selection. Overall, this leads to extremely robust computational characteristics. To demonstrate the methodology, problems are drawn from nonlinear heat conduction. These are used to quantify the robust capabilities of the hierarchical least square scheme.

  7. Transient impact responses of laminated composite cylindrical shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The generalized ray method(GRM) has been successfully used to study the transient elastic wave transmitting in the beams,planar trusses,space frames and infinite layered media.In this letter,the GRM is extended to investigate the early short time transient responses of laminated composite cylindrical shells under impact load.By using the Laplace transformation and referring to the boundary conditions,the ray groups transmitting in the finite laminated cylindrical shells under the shock load are obtained ...

  8. Observations of a New Foreshock Region Upstream of a Foreshock Bubble's Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. Z.; Hietala, H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Turner, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's foreshock is a region within the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock filled with back-streaming solar wind particles reflected at the shock. Within this region, when the interplanetary field is approximately radial, foreshock bubbles (FBs) can be formed when the back-streaming particles interact with approaching discontinuities embedded in the solar wind. Foreshock bubbles can grow to 5-10 RE in scale, well upstream of the bow shock. Having a high concentration of thermalized upstream ions and slow, or even sunward, speeds within them, these transient phenomena deflect the solar wind by forming a new shock ahead of them. Although FBs eventually succumb to solar wind dynamic pressure and crash onto Earth's bow-shock and magnetopause, they may last long enough to allow solar wind reflection at their own shocks, which forms a new FB foreshock region upstream of them. The FB shock may be of different obliquity than the parent bow-shock providing new and diverse opportunities for particle acceleration. Using a case study from THEMIS, we demonstrate that ions and electrons are reflected at the FB shock, where they acquire energies consistent with shock acceleration theory. These are the first definitive observations of a new ion and electron foreshock region upstream of the FB shock with implications for shock acceleration in general.

  9. Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  10. Interaction of cylindrically converging diffracted shock with uniform interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Ding, Juchun; Zhai, Zhigang; Si, Ting; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of an unperturbed air/SF6 interface subjected to a diffracted shock is experimentally studied by high-speed schlieren photography under cylindrical circumstances. The cylindrically converging diffracted shock (CCDS) is produced by a cylindrically uniform shock diffracting around a rigid cylinder(s), and the unperturbed interface is created by a soap film technique. The effects of coupling of multiple rigid cylinders and diverse spacings from the cylinder to interface on a flow field are highlighted. Schlieren images indicate that the amplitude of disturbances on the CCDS increases compared with the local shock radius. After the CCDS impact, a bulge is derived from the interface due to the shock-shock interaction inside the interface, and the number of bulges depends upon the number of cylinders. As the number of cylinders increases, the bulge becomes less pronounced, which is ascribed to additional shock-shock interactions inside the volume. As the distance between the cylinder and interface increases, an air cavity is first observed before the formation of a bulge. The amplitude of perturbation on the interface is found to reduce before the central reflected shock arrival because of the Rayleigh-Taylor stabilization effect. Through equating the pre-interface disturbance of the CCDS to the pre-shock perturbation of the perturbed interface, the initially linear growth rate is theoretically computed based on the impulsive model considering the Bell-Plesset effect. The theoretical results are found to deviate greatly from the experimental counterparts. Instead, taking the post-shock interface amplitude as an initial interface amplitude, the model works well. Therefore, the interface perturbations produced are notably smaller than the disturbances causing them. Moreover, the nonlinear behavior of perturbation growth is estimated by the model considering the Rayleigh-Taylor effect.

  11. Modeling of Shock Propagation and Attenuation in Viscoelastic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rusovici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection from the potentially damaging effects of shock loading is a common design requirement for diverse mechanical structures ranging from shock accelerometers to spacecraft. High damping viscoelastic materials are employed in the design of geometrically complex, impact-absorbent components. Since shock transients are characterized by a broad frequency spectrum, it is imperative to properly model frequency dependence of material behavior over a wide frequency range. The Anelastic Displacement Fields (ADF method is employed herein to model frequency-dependence within a time-domain finite element framework. Axisymmetric, ADF finite elements are developed and then used to model shock propagation and absorption through viscoelastic structures. The model predictions are verified against longitudinal wave propagation experimental data and theory.

  12. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  13. Wavelet neural network based fault diagnosis in nonlinear analog circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Shirong; Chen Guangju; Xie Yongle

    2006-01-01

    The theories of diagnosing nonlinear analog circuits by means of the transient response testing are studied. Wavelet analysis is made to extract the transient response signature of nonlinear circuits and compress the signature dada. The best wavelet function is selected based on the between-category total scatter of signature. The fault dictionary of nonlinear circuits is constructed based on improved back-propagation(BP) neural network. Experimental results demonstrate that the method proposed has high diagnostic sensitivity and fast fault identification and deducibility.

  14. A corrugated termination shock in pulsar wind nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M

    2016-01-01

    Successful phenomenological models of pulsar wind nebulae assume efficient dissipation of the Poynting flux of the magnetized electron-positron wind as well as efficient acceleration of the pairs in the vicinity of the termination shock, but how this is realized is not yet well understood. The present paper suggests that the corrugation of the termination shock, at the onset of non-linearity, may lead towards the desired phenomenology. Non-linear corrugation of the termination shock would convert a fraction of order unity of the incoming ordered magnetic field into downstream turbulence, slowing down the flow to sub-relativistic velocities. The dissipation of turbulence would further preheat the pair population on short length scales, close to equipartition with the magnetic field, thereby reducing the initial high magnetization to values of order unity. Furthermore, it is speculated that the turbulence generated by the corrugation pattern may sustain a relativistic Fermi process, accelerating particles close...

  15. The Configuration of Shock Wave Reflection for the TSD Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we mainly study the nonlinear wave configuration caused by shock wave reflection for the TSD (Transonic Small Disturbance) equation and specify the existence and nonexistence of various nonlinear wave configurations.We give a condition under which the solution of the RR (Regular reflection) for the TSD equation exists.We also prove that there exists no wave configuration of shock wave reflection for the TSD equation which consists of three or four shock waves.In phase space,we prove that the TSD equation has an IR (Irregular reflection) configuration containing a centered simple wave.Furthermore,we also prove the stability of RR configuration and the wave configuration containing a centered simple wave by solving a free boundary value problem of the TSD equation.

  16. Dynamical Properties of Internal Shocks Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Internal shocks between propagating plasma shells, originally ejected at different times with different velocities are believed to play a major role in dissipating the kinetic energy, thereby explaining the observed lightcurve and spectra in a large range of transient objects. Even if initially the colliding plasmas are cold, following the first collision the plasma shells are substantially heated, implying that in a scenario of multiple collisions, most collisions take place between plasmas of non-zero temperatures. Here, we calculate the dynamical properties of plasmas resulting from collision between arbitrarily hot plasma shells, moving at arbitrary speeds. We provide simple analytical expressions valid for both the ultra-relativistic and Newtonian velocities, for both hot and cold plasmas. We derive the minimum criteria required for the formation of the two-shock wave system, and show that in the relativistic limit, the minimum Lorentz factor is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the initial...

  17. Shock Electrodeposition in Charged Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Ji-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that surface conduction in porous media can drastically alter the stability and morphology of electrodeposition at high rates, above the diffusion-limited current. Copper electrodeposits are visualized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in cellulose nitrate membranes, whose pores are coated with positive or negative charged polymers. Above the limiting current, surface conduction inhibits growth in the positive membrane and produces irregular dendrites, while it enhances growth and suppresses dendrites behind a deionization shock in the negative membrane. The discovery of uniform growth contradicts quasi-steady leaky membrane models, which are in the same universality class as unstable Laplacian growth, and indicates the importance of transient electro-diffusion or electro-osmotic dispersion. Shock electrodeposition could be exploited for high-rate recharging of metal batteries or manufacturing of metal matrix composite coatings.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Dual-Pulse Shock Test Machine for Simulating Underwater Explosion Shock Loads on Warship Equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yi; WANG Gong-xian; WANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify shock resistance performance of shipboard equipments and simulate real underwater explosion environment, a novel dual-puise shock test machine is proposed. The new machine will increase testing capability and meet special shock testing requirement. Two key parts of the machine, the velocity generator and the shock pulse regulator, play an important role in producing the positive acceleration pulse and the succeeding negative acceleration pulse, respectively. The generated dual-pulse shock for test articles is in conformity with an anti-shock test specification. Based on the impact theory, a nonlinear dynamic model of the hydraulically-actuated test machine is established with thorough analysis on its mechanism that involves conversion of gas potential energy and dissipation of kinetic energy. Simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed machine is able to produce a double-pulse acceleration shock in the time domain or a desired shock response spectrum in the frequency domain, which sets up a base for the construction of the machine.

  19. On the feasibility of a transient dynamic design analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, George J.; Cunniff, Patrick F.

    1992-04-01

    This Annual Report summarizes the progress that was made during the first year of the two-year grant from the Office of Naval Research. The dynamic behavior of structures subjected to mechanical shock loading provides a continuing problem for design engineers concerned with shipboard foundations supporting critical equipment. There are two particular problems associated with shock response that are currently under investigation. The first topic explores the possibilities of developing a transient design analysis method that does not degrade the current level of the Navy's shock-proofness requirements for heavy shipboard equipment. The second topic examines the prospects of developing scaling rules for the shock response of simple internal equipment of submarines subjected to various attack situations. This effort has been divided into two tasks: chemical explosive scaling for a given hull; and scaling of equipment response across different hull sizes. The computer is used as a surrogate shock machine for these studies. Hence, the results of the research can provide trends, ideas, suggestions, and scaling rules to the Navy. In using these results, the shock-hardening program should use measured data rather than calculated data.

  20. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION ON THE MECHANISM OF A NOVEL DUAL-WAVE SHOCK TEST MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gongxian; ZHANG Zhiyi; CHU Deying; SHEN Rongying

    2008-01-01

    For qualifying the anti-shock performance of shipboard equipments and simulating actual underwater explosion environments, a novel dual-wave shock test machine is proposed to increase testing capability of shock test machines as well as to meet certain shock testing specification. The machine can generate a double-pulse acceleration shock for test articles according to specification defined in BV043/85. On the basis of the impact theory, a nonlinear dynamic model of the hydraulically-actuated test machine is established with thorough analysis on its mechanism which involves conversion of gas potential energy and dissipation of kinetic energy. Simulation results have demonstrated that the machine can produce a double-pulse acceleration shock in the time domain or a desired shock response spectrum in the frequency domain, which sets a theoretical base for the construction of the proposed machine.

  1. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation f

  2. [Historical vision of shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosne Pasqualini, C

    1998-01-01

    The concept of shock and its close relationship with that of stress dates back to the experiments of Hans Selye initiated in 1936 at McGill University in Montreal, with whom I collaborated between 1939 and 1942. It was demonstrated that the General Adaptation Syndrome begins with an Alarm Reaction, which consists of a Stage of Shock and one of Counter-Shock, followed by a Stage of Adaptation and finally a Stage of Exhaustion. My Ph.D. thesis concluded that shock was due to an adrenal insufficiency postulating that active metabolic processes drain the body of certain essential compounds the lack of which causes shock. My interest in the role of the glucose metabolism in shock led me to work with Bernardo Houssay in 1942 at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Buenos Aires and in 1944 with C.N.H. Long at Yale University. There I developed a method for the induction of hemorrhagic shock in the guinea pig with 94% lethality; curiously, the administration of 200 mg of ascorbic acid prevented death. Upon my return to Buenos Aires, these results were confirmed and moreover, it was demonstrated that the administration of cortisone led to 40% survival of the animals while desoxycorticosterone had no effect. At the time, no explanation was available but to-day, half a century later, this Symposium should be able to explain the mechanisms leading to death by hemorrhagic shock.

  3. [Shock waves in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, G

    1997-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock waves have revolutionized urological stone treatment. Nowadays shock waves are widely used in orthopedics, too. This article reviews the applications of extracorporeal shock waves on bone and adjacent soft tissue. The osteoneogenetic effect of extracorporeal shock waves has been proven and can be used to treat pseudarthrosis with a success rate of around 75%. Shock waves have a positive effect in tennis and golfer's elbow, calcaneal spur, and the complex called "periarthritis humero-scapularis." The mechanism for this is not yet known, and results from large prospective and randomized studies are still lacking. However, the treatment has been performed many thousands of times. In patients in whom conservative treatment has failed surgery used to be the only choice, but its success rate barely exceeds that of shock wave therapy and surgery can still be done if shock wave therapy fails. Extracorporeal shock waves will have an impact on orthopedics comparable to its effect in urology. Scientific evaluations, professional certifications, quality assurance and reimbursement issues present great challenges.

  4. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...

  5. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    shocks? In this text we exchange personal experiences of cinematic shocks and ponder over these questions as related to wider theories on human trauma, emancipation, and enlightenment. In conclusion we argue for a revision of anthropological notions of validity in terms of the efficacy of the cinematic...

  6. [Transient expression in microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shide; Cheng, Caixia; Lin, Ziyang; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Minghua; Zhou, Zhuolong; Tian, Shengli; Xing, Miao

    2009-06-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a suitable eukaryotic cell for cell cycle investigation, but there is no compatible transient expression system for the plasmodium. Using the promoter and terminator of ardC actin of Physarum polycephalum substituted the CMV IE and SV40 polyA of plasmid pDsRedl-N1, using cassette PardC-MCS-DsRed1-TardC substituted the cassette PardC-hph-TardC of plasmid pTB38, we constructed plasmids pXM1 and pXM2 for transient expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP) in Physarum polycephalum respectively. After reconstituting the transcription elongation factor homologous gene (pelf1) of Physarum polycephalum into the pXM2, we generated a plasmid pXM2-pelf1. After the plasmid pXM1, pXM2 and pXM2-pelf1 were electroporated into the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, we observed optimum RFP and PELF1-RFP expression under fluoroscope and confocal microscope between 24-48 h after electroporation, and found that ELF1-RFP expression was accumulated in nucleus of microplasmodium, the optimum electroporation parameters were 40 V/cm electric field, 1 ampere current, and 70 micros electric shock time. The results suggest that this expression system is qualified for transient expression of specific protein in plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum.

  7. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  8. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  9. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  10. Observation of Dispersive Shock Waves, Solitons, and Their Interactions in Viscous Fluid Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle D; Lowman, Nicholas K; Anderson, Dalton V; Schubert, Marika E; Hoefer, Mark A

    2016-04-29

    Dispersive shock waves and solitons are fundamental nonlinear excitations in dispersive media, but dispersive shock wave studies to date have been severely constrained. Here, we report on a novel dispersive hydrodynamic test bed: the effectively frictionless dynamics of interfacial waves between two high viscosity contrast, miscible, low Reynolds number Stokes fluids. This scenario is realized by injecting from below a lighter, viscous fluid into a column filled with high viscosity fluid. The injected fluid forms a deformable pipe whose diameter is proportional to the injection rate, enabling precise control over the generation of symmetric interfacial waves. Buoyancy drives nonlinear interfacial self-steepening, while normal stresses give rise to the dispersion of interfacial waves. Extremely slow mass diffusion and mass conservation imply that the interfacial waves are effectively dissipationless. This enables high fidelity observations of large amplitude dispersive shock waves in this spatially extended system, found to agree quantitatively with a nonlinear wave averaging theory. Furthermore, several highly coherent phenomena are investigated including dispersive shock wave backflow, the refraction or absorption of solitons by dispersive shock waves, and the multiphase merging of two dispersive shock waves. The complex, coherent, nonlinear mixing of dispersive shock waves and solitons observed here are universal features of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamic flows.

  11. Shock barometry of the Siljan impact structure, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sanna; Alwmark, Carl; Alvarez, Walter; Schmitz, Birger

    2011-12-01

    The Siljan impact structure in Sweden is the largest confirmed impact structure in Western Europe. Despite this, the structure has been poorly studied in the past, and detailed studies of shock metamorphic features in the target lithologies are missing. Here, we present the results of a detailed systematic search for shock metamorphic features in quartz grains from 73 sampled localities at Siljan. At 21 localities from an area approximately 20 km in diameter located centrally in the structure, the orientations of 2851 planar deformation feature sets in 1179 quartz grains were measured. Observations of shatter cones outside of the zone with shocked quartz extend the total shocked area to approximately 30 km in diameter. The most strongly shocked samples, recording pressures of up to 20 GPa, occur at the very central part of the structure, and locally in these samples, higher pressures causing melting conditions in the affected rocks were reached. Pressures recorded in the studied samples decrease outwards from the center of the structure, forming roughly circular envelopes around the proposed shock center. Based on the distribution pattern of shocked quartz at Siljan, the original transient cavity can be estimated at approximately 32-38 km in diameter. After correcting for erosion, we conclude that the original rim to rim diameter of the Siljan crater was somewhere in the size range 50-90 km.

  12. Nonlinear PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...

  13. Basic Problems in Design and Inverse Engineering Solution for Outer Characteristic of Vehicle Suspension Shock Absorbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞德孚; 陈庆东; 李文君

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory and the practical experiences of linearity design of feasible design area and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension shock absorber, in accordance with non-linearity outer characteristic formed by open-up damping coefficient, full-open damping coefficient and smoothness to safety ratio of suspension shock absorber, a method and a research conclusion of the feasible design and inverse solution for the basic problems of designing and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension damping components are provided.

  14. Transient from crystallization to fractal growth observed in both boar bile and SnI sub 2 vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ji Zhong; Xie An Jian

    2003-01-01

    A visual transient of the growth mechanism from crystallization to fractal growth was observed clearly in a drop of boar bile. The growing crystals were replaced by treelike fractal structures during solidification of the sample. It is fascinating to compare the transient with the result observed in SnI sub 2 vapour. They were completely identical, and revealed that under certain conditions a linear growth could be transferred spontaneously into nonlinear growth. It may be possible to consider the transient as a 'bridge' between linear and nonlinear growth, and to develop a quantitative expression of transient dynamics.

  15. Nonlinear wavetrains in viscous conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Viscous fluid conduits provide an ideal system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background medium through which a lighter, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable pipe forms. The long wave interfacial dynamics are well-described by a dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. In this talk, experiments, numerics, and asymptotics of the viscous fluid conduit system will be presented. Structures at multiple length scales are discussed, including solitons, dispersive shock waves, and periodic waves. Modulations of periodic waves will be explored in the weakly nonlinear regime with the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Modulational instability (stability) is identified for sufficiently short (long) periodic waves due to a change in dispersion curvature. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical simulations of perturbed nonlinear periodic wave solutions. Also, numerically observed are envelope bright and dark solitons well approximated by NLS. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  16. Numerical Study of Shock Waves Propagating in a Rectangular Elbow : Effects of Area Reduction and Rounded Corner

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the shock wave propagating in a rectangular elbow and the transient flow induced by the shock were investigated numerically in order to clarify how the transmitted shock wave past the elbow is stabilized to uniformity by the effects of area reduction and the rounded corner. Computations were carried out by solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations by using the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. Calculations were performed for three kinds of area re...

  17. Time fractional effect on ion acoustic shock waves in ion-pair plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@hotmail.com [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); El-Shewy, E. K.; Mahmoud, A. A. [Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The nonlinear properties of ion acoustic shock waves are studied. The Burgers equation is derived and converted into the time fractional Burgers equation by Agrawal’s method. Using the Adomian decomposition method, shock wave solutions of the time fractional Burgers equation are constructed. The effect of the time fractional parameter on the shock wave properties in ion-pair plasma is investigated. The results obtained may be important in investigating the broadband electrostatic shock noise in D- and F-regions of Earth’s ionosphere.

  18. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  19. Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.

  20. Nonlinear propagation of planet-generated tidal waves

    OpenAIRE

    Rafikov, Roman

    2001-01-01

    The propagation and evolution of planet-generated density waves in protoplanetary disks is considered. The evolution of waves, leading to the shock formation and wake dissipation, is followed in the weakly nonlinear regime. The local approach of Goodman & Rafikov (2001) is extended to include the effects of surface density and temperature variations in the disk as well as the disk cylindrical geometry and nonuniform shear. Wave damping due to shocks is demonstrated to be a nonlocal process sp...

  1. Analyzing the Dynamics of Nonlinear Multivariate Time Series Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DenghuaZhong; ZhengfengZhang; DonghaiLiu; StefanMittnik

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of nonlinear multivariate time series models that is represented by generalized impulse response functions and asymmetric functions. We illustrate the measures of shock persistences and asymmetric effects of shocks derived from the generalized impulse response functions and asymmetric function in bivariate smooth transition regression models. The empirical work investigates a bivariate smooth transition model of US GDP and the unemployment rate.

  2. Transient lingual papillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, Ida M; Senye, Mireya; Peters, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    A case of recurrent, clinically innocuous, but painful papules involving the tongue dorsum of a 25-year-old man is presented. The lesions were interpreted to represent a transient lingual papillitis. This a poorly understood, but benign and self-limited condition involving the tongue fungiform papillae, which does not appear to be widely recognized.

  3. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  4. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or reabsorbing it. The first few breaths a baby takes after delivery fill the lungs with air and help to ... goes away within 24 to 48 hours after delivery. In most cases, babies who have had transient tachypnea have no further ...

  5. On Detecting Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger, G

    2013-01-01

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximise the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients that is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method is optimal in the sense that all the information that is available in the data is used in the statistical decision making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. We here consider those most common in astrophysics which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the cases of a transient in a time series or in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting a...

  6. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinbank, J.; Staley, T.; Molenaar, G.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Scheers, L.H.A.; Spreeuw, H.; Bell, M.E.; Broderick, J.; Carbone, D.; Garsden, H.; Horst, A. van der; Law, C.J.; Wise, M.W.; Breton, R.P.; Cendes, Y.; Corbel, S.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.P.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Stappers, B.W.; Stewart, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissione

  7. Efficient Finite Element Methods for Transient Nonlinear Analysis of Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    governing equations for a beam based on shallow shell theory and the variational formulations which pertain in this context to displacement, hybrid, and...functions, respectively. Because the curvature is treated by shallow - shell theory , cf. Eqs. (1), all terms were integrated over the straight x-axis. Only

  8. A cylindrical converging shock tube for shock-interface studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xisheng; Si, Ting; Yang, Jiming; Zhai, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    A shock tube facility for generating a cylindrical converging shock wave is developed in this work. Based on the shock dynamics theory, a specific wall profile is designed for the test section of the shock tube to transfer a planar shock into a cylindrical one. The shock front in the converging part obtained from experiment presents a perfect circular shape, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the method. The time variations of the shock strength obtained from numerical simulation, experiment, and theoretical estimation show the desired converging effect in the shock tube test section. Particular emphasis is then placed on the problem of shock-interface interaction induced by cylindrical converging shock waves. For this purpose, membrane-less gas cylinder is adopted to form the interface between two different fluids while the laser sheet technique to visualize the flow field. The result shows that it is convenient to perform such experiments in this facility.

  9. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  10. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Delgado Alves Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods: We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results: Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%, 199 (27.75% had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1% had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4% had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03. Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001. Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005, hemotherapy (P=0.0001, enteral nutrition (P=0.0012, or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451. Conclusion: Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and

  11. Transients from Initial Conditions A Perturbative Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scoccimarro, R

    1998-01-01

    The standard procedure to generate initial conditions (IC) in numerical simulations is to use the Zel'dovich approximation (ZA). Although the ZA correctly reproduces the linear growing modes of density and velocity perturbations, non-linear growth is inaccurately represented because of the ZA failure to conserve momentum. This implies that it takes time for the actual dynamics to establish the correct statistical properties of density and velocity fields. We extend perturbation theory (PT) to include transients as non-linear excitations of decaying modes caused by the IC. We focus on higher-order statistics of the density contrast and velocity divergence, characterized by the S_p and T_p parameters. We find that the time-scale of transients is determined, at a given order p, by the spectral index n. The skewness factor S_3 (T_3) attains 10% accuracy only after a=6 (a=15) for n=0, whereas higher (lower) n demands more (less) expansion away from the IC. These requirements become much more stringent as p increas...

  12. Evolution of perturbed accelerating relativistic shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, G; Vietri, M; Del Zanna, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolution of an accelerating hyperrelativistic shock under the presence of upstream inhomogeneities wrinkling the discontinuity surface. The investigation is conducted by means of numerical simulations using the PLUTO code for astrophysical fluid dynamics. The reliability and robustness of the code are demonstrated against well known results coming from the linear perturbation theory. We then follow the nonlinear evolution of two classes of perturbing upstream atmospheres and conclude that no lasting wrinkle can be preserved indefinitely by the flow. Finally we derive analytically a description of the geometrical effects of a turbulent upstream ambient on the discontinuity surface.

  13. Shock structures of astrospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Klaus; Kleimann, Jens; Wiengarten, Tobias; Bomans, Dominik J; Weis, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between a supersonic stellar wind and a (super-)sonic interstellar wind has recently been viewed with new interest. We here first give an overview of the modeling, which includes the heliosphere as an example of a special astrosphere. Then we concentrate on the shock structures of fluid models, especially of hydrodynamic (HD) models. More involved models taking into account radiation transfer and magnetic fields are briefly sketched. Even the relatively simple HD models show a rich shock structure, which might be observable in some objects. We employ a single fluid model to study these complex shock structures, and compare the results obtained including heating and cooling with results obtained without these effects. Furthermore, we show that in the hypersonic case valuable information of the shock structure can be obtained from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations. We solved the Euler equations for the single fluid case and also for a case including cooling and heating. We also discuss the analytic...

  14. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  15. Shock waves in dispersive Eulerian fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Hoefer, M A

    2013-01-01

    The long time behavior of an initial step resulting in a dispersive shock wave (DSW) for the one-dimensional isentropic Euler equations regularized by generic, third order dispersion is considered by use of Whitham averaging. Under modest assumptions, the jump conditions (DSW locus and speeds) for admissible, weak DSWs are characterized and found to depend only upon the sign of dispersion (convex or concave) and a general pressure law. Two mechanisms leading to the breakdown of this simple wave DSW theory for sufficiently large jumps are identified: a change in the sign of dispersion, leading to gradient catastrophe in the modulation equations, and the loss of genuine nonlinearity in the modulation equations. Large amplitude DSWs are constructed for several particular dispersive fluids with differing pressure laws modeled by the generalized nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. These include superfluids (Bose-Einstein condensates and ultracold Fermions) and "optical fluids". Estimates of breaking times for smoo...

  16. [Pathophysiology of hemorragic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copotoiu, R; Cinca, E; Collange, O; Levy, F; Mertes, P-M

    2016-11-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock, a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. The initial neuroendocrine response is mainly a sympathetic activation. Haemorrhagic shock is associated altered microcirculatory permeability and visceral injury. It is also responsible for a complex inflammatory response associated with hemostasis alteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshkov, O M [Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. Electron Acceleration by Transient Ion Foreshock Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Particle acceleration is a topic of considerable interest in space, laboratory, and astrophysical plasmas as it is a fundamental physical process to all areas of physics. Recent THEMIS [e.g., Turner et al., 2014] and Wind [e.g., Wilson et al., 2013] observations have found evidence for strong particle acceleration at macro- and meso-scale structures and/or pulsations called transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP). Ion acceleration has been extensively studied, but electron acceleration has received less attention. Electron acceleration can arise from fundamentally different processes than those affecting ions due to differences in their gyroradii. Electron acceleration is ubiquitous, occurring in the solar corona (e.g., solar flares), magnetic reconnection, at shocks, astrophysical plasmas, etc. We present new results analyzing the dependencies of electron acceleration on the properties of TIFP observed by the THEMIS spacecraft.

  19. Time-Frequency Analysis of Rocket Nozzle Wall Pressures During Start-up Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale, thrust- optimized parabolic nozzle in order to develop a physical intuition for its Fourier-azimuthal mode behavior during fixed and transient start-up conditions. These unsteady signatures are driven by shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions which depend on the nozzle pressure ratio and nozzle geometry. The focus however, is on the degree of similarity between the spectral footprints of these modes obtained from transient start-ups as opposed to a sequence of fixed nozzle pressure ratio conditions. For the latter, statistically converged spectra are computed using conventional Fourier analyses techniques, whereas the former are investigated by way of time-frequency analysis. The findings suggest that at low nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in a Free Shock Separation state -- strong spectral similarities occur between fixed and transient conditions. Conversely, at higher nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in Restricted Shock Separation -- stark differences are observed between the fixed and transient conditions and depends greatly on the ramping rate of the transient period. And so, it appears that an understanding of the dynamics during transient start-up conditions cannot be furnished by a way of fixed flow analysis.

  20. Dynamics of Transiently Chaotic Neural Network and Its Application to Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-Jiang; CHEN Tian-Lun; HUANG Wu-Qun

    2001-01-01

    Through adding a nonlinear self-feedback term in the evolution equations of neural network, we introduced a transiently chaotic neural network model. In order to utilize the transiently chaotic dynamics mechanism in optimization problem efficiently, we have analyzed the dynamical procedure of the transiently chaotic neural network rnodel and studied the function of the crucial bifurcation parameter which governs the chaotic behavior of the system. Based on the dynamical analysis of the transiently chaotic neural network model, chaotic annealing algorithm is also examined and improved. As an example, we applied chaotic annealing method to the traveling salesman problem and obtained good results.``

  1. Coherent Transient Systems Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-17

    manuscript is submitted for publication with the understanding that the United States Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints...for governmental purposes. 1.0 Introduction The continuous optical correlator presented here is based on the phenomena of coherent transients, also...Gating the Continuous Processor Programming the continuous processor is accomplished by illuminati , n, the material with ,.’ modulated light pulses: a

  2. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  3. Convective response of a wall-mounted hot-film sensor in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Ortgies, Kelly R.; Gartenberg, Ehud; Carraway, Debra L.

    1991-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed in order to determine the response of a single hot-film element of a sensor array to transiently induced flow behind weak normal shock waves. The experiments attempt to isolate the response due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface mounted on the wall of the shock tube. The experiments are described, the results being correlated with transient boundary layer theory and compared with an independent set of experimental results. One of the findings indicates that the change in the air properties (temperature and pressure) precedes the air mass transport, causing an ambiguity in the sensor response to the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, a transient, local heat transfer coefficient is formulated to be used as a forcing function in an hot-film instrument model and simulation which remains under investigation.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Shock-Induced Nanobubble Collapse in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedadi, Mohammad; Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; van Duin, Adri

    2011-03-01

    Structure of water under shock and shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. In the presence of a nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of nanobubble shrinkage and a secondary shock wave upon nanobubble collapse. The secondary shock wave propagates spherically backwards and induces high pressure as it propagates. Both the propagation velocity and the induced pressure are larger than those of the primary shock. We explored effects of nanobubble radius and shock amplitude on nanojet formation. The nanojet size increases by increasing particle velocity but the effect of increasing radius is more significant. The jet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. Shock-induced collapse of a nanobubble in the vicinity of a cell membrane creates a transient nanopore when the nanojet impacts the membrane. Transient cell poration has potential applications in drug delivery.

  5. Estimating nonlinear dynamic equilibrium economies: a likelihood approach

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to undertake likelihood-based inference in nonlinear dynamic equilibrium economies. The authors develop a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm that delivers an estimate of the likelihood function of the model using simulation methods. This likelihood can be used for parameter estimation and for model comparison. The algorithm can deal both with nonlinearities of the economy and with the presence of non-normal shocks. The authors show consistency of the estimate and...

  6. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.

  8. Wave Propagation In Strongly Nonlinear Two-Mass Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si Yin; Herbold, Eric B.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2010-05-01

    We developed experimental set up that allowed the investigation of propagation of oscillating waves generated at the entrance of nonlinear and strongly nonlinear two-mass granular chains composed of steel cylinders and steel spheres. The paper represents the first experimental data related to the propagation of these waves in nonlinear and strongly nonlinear chains. The dynamic compressive forces were detected using gauges imbedded inside particles at depths equal to 4 cells and 8 cells from the entrance gauge detecting the input signal. At these relatively short distances we were able to detect practically perfect transparency at low frequencies and cut off effects at higher frequencies for nonlinear and strongly nonlinear signals. We also observed transformation of oscillatory shocks into monotonous shocks. Numerical calculations of signal transformation by non-dissipative granular chains demonstrated transparency of the system at low frequencies and cut off phenomenon at high frequencies in reasonable agreement with experiments. Systems which are able to transform nonlinear and strongly nonlinear waves at small sizes of the system are important for practical applications such as attenuation of high amplitude pulses.

  9. Shock initiated instabilities in underwater cylindrical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sachin; Matos, Helio; LeBlanc, James M.; Shukla, Arun

    2016-10-01

    An experimental investigation to understand the mechanisms of dynamic buckling instability in cylindrical structures due to underwater explosive loadings is conducted. In particular, the effects of initial hydrostatic pressure coupled with a dynamic pressure pulse on the stability of metallic cylindrical shells are evaluated. The experiments are conducted at varying initial hydrostatic pressures, below the critical buckling pressure, to estimate the threshold after which dynamic buckling will initiate. The transient underwater full-field deformations of the structures during shock wave loading are captured using high-speed stereo photography coupled with modified 3-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Experimental results show that increasing initial hydrostatic pressure decreases the natural vibration frequency of the structure indicating loss in structural stiffness. DIC measurements reveal that the initial structural excitations primarily consist of axisymmetric vibrations due to symmetrical shock wave loading in the experiments. Following their decay after a few longitudinal reverberations, the primary mode of vibration evolves which continues throughout later in time. At the initial hydrostatic pressures below the threshold value, these vibrations are stable in nature. The analytical solutions for the vibration frequency and the transient response of cylindrical shell are discussed in the article by accounting for both (1) the added mass effect of the surrounding water and (2) the effect of initial stress on the shell imposed by the hydrostatic pressure. The analytical solutions match reasonably well with the experimental vibration frequencies. Later, the transient response of a cylindrical shell subjected to a general underwater pressure wave loading is derived which leads to the analytical prediction of dynamic stability.

  10. Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, C. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (Taiwan); Reimann, K.; Woerner, M.; Elsaesser, T. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Max-Born-Str. 2A, 12489, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion and electro-optic sampling allow for the generation and phase-resolved characterization of few-cycle pulses in the frequency range up to 50 THz. Electric field transients with amplitudes of up to several MV/cm are applied to study coherent nonlinear excitations of low-dimensional semiconductors. We report the first observation of Rabi oscillations on intersubband transitions of electrons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Frequency and phase of such oscillations are controlled in the 0.3- to 2.5-THz range via the strength and shape of the mid-infrared driving pulse. (orig.)

  11. SUBOPTIMAL NONLINEAR CONTROL OF PACKAGING MACHINERY DRIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Kudin, V. F.; Toropov, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure of synthesis of a nonlinear position controller for the «feeder» of packaging mechanism. The mathematical model of «feeder» drive with regard to the restriction on the control output of external PLC. Linearization of nonlinear characteristic by the «secants» method is implemented and selected functional quality that defines the minimal time of transients is selected. Quality functional in the form of a quadratic functional with a variable weighting factor i...

  12. Relativistic Radiation Mediated Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Budnik, Ran; Sagiv, Amir; Waxman, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The structure of relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) propagating into a cold electron-proton plasma is calculated and analyzed. A qualitative discussion of the physics of relativistic and non relativistic shocks, including order of magnitude estimates for the relevant temperature and length scales, is presented. Detailed numerical solutions are derived for shock Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_u$ in the range $6\\le\\Gamma_u\\le30$, using a novel iteration technique solving the hydrodynamics and radiation transport equations (the protons, electrons and positrons are argued to be coupled by collective plasma processes and are treated as a fluid). The shock transition (deceleration) region, where the Lorentz factor $ \\Gamma $ drops from $ \\Gamma_u $ to $ \\sim 1 $, is characterized by high plasma temperatures $ T\\sim \\Gamma m_ec^2 $ and highly anisotropic radiation, with characteristic shock-frame energy of upstream and downstream going photons of a few~$\\times\\, m_ec^2$ and $\\sim \\Gamma^2 m_ec^2$, respectively.P...

  13. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  14. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  15. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 2: TETRA 2 theoretical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Vincente C.; Black, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical development of the forced steady state analysis of the structural dynamic response of a turbine engine having nonlinear connecting elements is discussed. Based on modal synthesis, and the principle of harmonic balance, the governing relations are the compatibility of displacements at the nonlinear connecting elements. There are four displacement compatibility equations at each nonlinear connection, which are solved by iteration for the principle harmonic of the excitation frequency. The resulting computer program, TETRA 2, combines the original TETRA transient analysis (with flexible bladed disk) with the steady state capability. A more versatile nonlinear rub or bearing element which contains a hardening (or softening) spring, with or without deadband, is also incorporated.

  16. Charged dust and shock phenomena in the Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Popel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on shock phenomena in dusty plasmas of the Solar System are reviewed. The problems of dust ion acoustic bow shock in interaction of the solar wind with dusty cometary coma and formation of transient atmospheres of atmosphereless cosmic bodies such as Moon, Mercury, asteroids and comets are considered. The latter assumes the evolution of meteoroid impact plumes and production of charged dust grains due to the condensation of both the plume substance and the vapor thrown from the crater and the surrounding regolith layer. Physical phenomena occurring during large meteoroid impacts can be modeled with the aid of active rocket experiments, which involve the release of some gaseous substance in near-Earth space. New vistas in investigation of shock processes in natural dusty plasmas are determined.

  17. Acceleration of 3HE and heavy ions at interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Koug, R. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have surveyed the 0.5-2.0 MeV nucleon-1 ion composition of 56 interplanetary shocks (IP) observed with the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from 1997 October 1 through 2000 November 30. Our results show the first ever measurement (25 cases) of 3 He ions being accelerated at IP shocks. The 3 He/4 He ratio at the 25 shocks exhibited a wide range of values between 0.00140.24; the ratios were enhanced between factors of ~3-600 over the solar wind value. During the survey period, the occurrence probability of 3 He-rich shocks increased with rising solar activity as measured in terms of the daily occurrence rates of sunspots and X-ray flares. The 3 He enhancements at IP shocks cannot be attributed to rigidity dependent acceleration of solar wind ions and are better explained if the shocks accelerate ions from multiple sources, one being remnant impulsive solar flare material enriched in 3 He ions. Our results also indicate that the contribution of impulsive flares to the seed population for IP shocks varies from event to event, and that the interplanetary medium is being replenished with impulsive material more frequently during periods of increased solar activity. 1. Introduction Enhancements in the intensities of energetic ions associated with transient interplanetary (IP) shocks have been observed routinely at 1 AU since the 1960's (e.g., Reames 1999). It is presently believed that the majority of such IP shocks are driven by fast coronal mass ejections or CMEs as they propagate through interplanetary space (e.g., Gosling 1993), and that the associated ion intensity enhancements are due to diffusive shock acceleration of solar wind ions (Lee 1983; Jones and Ellison 1991; Reames 1999). However, the putative solar wind origin of the IP-shock accelerated ions is based on composition measurements associated with a very limited number of individual IP shocks (Klecker et al. 1981; Hovestadt et al. 1982; Tan et

  18. Ferrite Solutions for Electromagnetic Shock Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Phillip D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Primm, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop tools and test procedures for identifying ferrites suitable for use in shock line applications. Electromagnetic shocklines have been used to provide fast rising voltage pulses for many applications. In these applications a slow rising pulse is injected into the line where currents drive the ferrites into saturation leading to a fast rising output pulse. A shockline’s unique capabilities could be applied to new detonator configurations. A properly conditioned voltage pulse is critical for fire set applications. A carefully designed shockline could provide a passive solution to generating a fast rising voltage pulse for the fire set. Traditional circuits use ferrites operating in a linear regime. Shock lines push the ferrites well into the nonlinear regime where very few tools and data currently exist. Ferrite material is key to the operation of these shock lines, and tools for identifying suitable ferrites are critical. This report describes an experimental setup to that allows testing of ferrite samples and comparison to models with the goal of identifying optimal ferrites for shockline use.

  19. Thermal transient anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  20. DSN Transient Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Monroe, R. M.; White, L. A.; Garcia Miro, C.; Levin, S. M.; Majid, W. A.; Soriano, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) Transient Observatory (DTO) is a signal processing facility that can monitor up to four DSN downlink bands for astronomically interesting signals. The monitoring is done commensally with reception of deep space mission telemetry. The initial signal processing is done with two CASPERa ROACH1 boards, each handling one or two baseband signals. Each ROACH1 has a 10 GBe interface with a GPU-equipped Debian Linux workstation for additional processing. The initial science programs include monitoring Mars for electrostatic discharges, radio spectral lines, searches for fast radio bursts and pulsars and SETI. The facility will be available to the scientific community through a peer review process.

  1. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  2. Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail

    2005-01-01

    A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.

  3. Shock Geometry and Spectral Breaks in Large SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Zank, G. P.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mason, G. M.; Desai, M. I.

    2009-09-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are traditionally classified as "impulsive" or "gradual." It is now widely accepted that in gradual SEP events, particles are accelerated at coronal mass ejection-driven (CME-driven) shocks. In many of these large SEP events, particle spectra exhibit double power law or exponential rollover features, with the break energy or rollover energy ordered as (Q/A)α, with Q being the ion charge in e and A the ion mass in units of proton mass mp . This Q/A dependence of the spectral breaks provides an opportunity to study the underlying acceleration mechanism. In this paper, we examine how the Q/A dependence may depend on shock geometry. Using the nonlinear guiding center theory, we show that α ~ 1/5 for a quasi-perpendicular shock. Such a weak Q/A dependence is in contrast to the quasi-parallel shock case where α can reach 2. This difference in α reflects the difference of the underlying parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients κ|| and κbottom. We also examine the Q/A dependence of the break energy for the most general oblique shock case. Our analysis offers a possible way to remotely examine the geometry of a CME-driven shock when it is close to the Sun, where the acceleration of particle to high energies occurs.

  4. Parallel collisionless shocks forming in simulations of the LAPD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidl, Martin S.; Jenko, Frank; Niemann, Chris; Winske, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Research on parallel collisionless shocks, most prominently occurring in the Earth's bow shock region, has so far been limited to satellite measurements and simulations. However, the formation of collisionless shocks depends on a wide range of parameters and scales, which can be accessed more easily in a laboratory experiment. Using a kJ-class laser, an ongoing experimental campaign at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA is expected to produce the first laboratory measurements of the formation of a parallel collisionless shock. We present hybrid kinetic/MHD simulations that show how beam instabilities in the background plasma can be driven by ablating carbon ions from a target, causing non-linear density oscillations which develop into a propagating shock front. The free-streaming carbon ions can excite both the resonant right-hand instability and the non-resonant firehose mode. We analyze their respective roles and discuss optimizing their growth rates to speed up the process of shock formation.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics new directions models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ugalde, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    This book, along with its companion volume, Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Theoretical Aspects, covers topics ranging from fractal analysis to very specific applications of the theory of dynamical systems to biology. This second volume contains mostly new applications of the theory of dynamical systems to both engineering and biology. The first volume is devoted to fundamental aspects and includes a number of important new contributions as well as some review articles that emphasize new development prospects. The topics addressed in the two volumes include a rigorous treatment of fluctuations in dynamical systems, topics in fractal analysis, studies of the transient dynamics in biological networks, synchronization in lasers, and control of chaotic systems, among others. This book also: ·         Develops applications of nonlinear dynamics on a diversity of topics such as patterns of synchrony in neuronal networks, laser synchronization, control of chaotic systems, and the study of transient dynam...

  6. Ultrafast Structure Switching through Nonlinear Phononics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, D. M.; Fechner, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a mechanism by which nonlinear phononics allows ultrafast coherent and directional control of transient structural distortions. With ErFeO3 as a model system, we use density functional theory to calculate the structural properties as input into an anharmonic phonon model that describes the response of the system to a pulsed optical excitation. We find that the trilinear coupling of two orthogonal infrared-active phonons to a Raman-active phonon causes a transient distortion of the lattice. In contrast to the quadratic-linear coupling that has been previously explored, the direction of the distortion is determined by the polarization of the exciting light, introducing a novel mechanism for nonlinear phononic switching. Since the occurrence of the coupling is determined by the symmetry of the system we propose that it is a universal feature of orthorhombic and tetragonal perovskites.

  7. Ultrafast Degenerate Transient Lens Spectroscopy in Semiconductor Nanosctructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyev A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the non-resonant excitation and probing of the nonlinear refractive index change in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum dots through degenerate transient lens spectroscopy. The signal oscillates at the center laser field frequency, and the envelope of the former in quantum dots is distinctly different from the one in bulk sample. We discuss the applicability of this technique for polarization state probing in semiconductor media with femtosecond temporal resolution.

  8. Shock wave reflection phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-dor, Gabi

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-knowledge description of the shock wave reflection phenomena from a phenomenological point of view. The first part is a thorough introduction to oblique shock wave reflections, presenting the two major well-known reflection wave configurations, namely, regular (RR) and Mach (MR) reflections, the corresponding two- and three-shock theories, their analytical and graphical solution and the proposed transition boundaries between these two reflection-wave configurations. The second, third and fourth parts describe the reflection phenomena in steady, pseudo-steady and unsteady flows, respectively. Here, the possible specific types of reflection wave configurations are described, criteria for their formation and termination are presented and their governing equations are solved analytically and graphically and compared with experimental results. The resolution of the well-known von Neumann paradox and a detailed description of two new reflection-wave configurations - t...

  9. Very low energy supernovae and their resulting transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth

    Core-collapse supernovae play a key role in many of astrophysical processes, but the details of how these explosive events work remain elusive. Many questions about the CCSN explosion mechanism and progenitor stars could be answered by either detecting very-low-energy supernovae (VLE SNe) or alternately placing a tight upper bound on their fraction of the CCSN population. However, VLE SNe are by definition dim events. Many VLE SNe result from the failure of the standard CCSN explosion mechanism, meaning that any observable signature must be created by secondary processes either before or during the collapse. In this dissertation I examine alternate means of producing transients in otherwise-failed CCSNe and consider the use of shock breakout flashes to both detect VLE SNe and retrieve progenitor star information. I begin by simulating neutrino-mediated mass loss in CCSNe progenitors to show that a dim, unusual, but still observable transient can be produced. I then simulate shock breakout flashes in VLE SNe for both the purposes of detection as well as extracting information about the exploding star. I discuss particular challenges of modeling shock breakout at low energies and behaviors unique to this regime, in particular the behavior of the spectral temperature. All simulations in this dissertation were done with the CASTRO radiation-hydrodynamic code.

  10. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  11. Relationship of Interplanetary Shock Micro and Macro Characteristics: A Wind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A

    2008-01-01

    The non-linear least squared MHD fitting technique of Szabo 11 9941 has been recently further refined to provide realistic confidence regions for interplanetary shock normal directions and speeds. Analyzing Wind observed interplanetary shocks from 1995 to 200 1, macro characteristics such as shock strength, Theta Bn and Mach numbers can be compared to the details of shock micro or kinetic structures. The now commonly available very high time resolution (1 1 or 22 vectors/sec) Wind magnetic field data allows the precise characterization of shock kinetic structures, such as the size of the foot, ramp, overshoot and the duration of damped oscillations on either side of the shock. Detailed comparison of the shock micro and macro characteristics will be given. This enables the elucidation of shock kinetic features, relevant for particle energization processes, for observations where high time resolution data is not available. Moreover, establishing a quantitative relationship between the shock micro and macro structures will improve the confidence level of shock fitting techniques during disturbed solar wind conditions.

  12. Shock interaction with organized structures: Theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong

    Unsteady interactions between shocks and turbulence are important phenomena frequently encountered in high-speed flows. In this dissertation the problem of a shock interaction with an entropy spot is studied by means of both theoretical analysis and nonlinear computation. The main objective of the studies is to apply both theoretical and computational approaches to study the physics underlying such shock interaction process. The theoretical analysis is based on the Fourier decomposition of the upstream disturbance, the interaction of each Fourier mode with the shock, and the reconstruction of the downstream disturbance via the inverse Fourier transform. The theory is linear in that it assumes the principle of superposition and that the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are linearized about the mean position of the shock. The numerical simulation is carried out within the framework of the unsteady and compressible Euler equations, coupled with an equation for the shock motion, solved numerically by a sixth-order accurate spatial scheme and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-integration method. Analyses of the results are concentrated on the case of a Mach 2.0 shock interaction with an entropy spot that has a Gaussian density distribution. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation are verified with each other for small amplitude disturbances. The roles of the evanescent and the non-evanescent waves and the mechanisms for downstream disturbance generations are explored in details. In addition, the quasi three-dimensional interaction between a shock and a vortex ring is investigated computationally within the framework of the axisymmetric Euler equations. The vortex ring, which is based on Lamb's formula, has an upstream circulation Gamma = 0.01 and its aspect ratio R lies in the range 8 ≤ R ≤ 100. The shock Mach number varies in the range 1.1 ≤ M1 ≤ 1.8. The interaction results in the streamwise compression of the vortex core and the generation of a toroidal

  13. [Traumatic neurogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, O; de Régloix, S; Caballé, D; Arvis, A-M; Perrochon, J-C; Tourtier, J-P

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic neurogenic shock is a rare but serious complication of spinal cord injury. It associates bradycardia and hypotension caused by a medullary trauma. It is life-threatening for the patient and it aggravates the neurological deficit. Strict immobilization and a quick assessment of the gravity of cord injury are necessary as soon as prehospital care has begun. Initial treatment requires vasopressors associated with fluid resuscitation. Steroids are not recommended. Early decompression is recommended for incomplete deficit seen in the first 6 hours. We relate the case of secondary spinal shock to a luxation C6/C7 treated in prehospital care.

  14. [Corticosteroids and septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouletreau, P; Petit, P; Latarjet, J

    1976-01-01

    According to the data in the literature, the authors attempted to sum-up present attitudes on the value of corticoids in the treatment of septic shock. If their cardiovascular effects after a period of enthusiasm, are presently rather controversial, their cellular and sub-cellular actions, on the lysosomal membranes, capillary permeability and perhaps the intimate mechanisms of cellular oxygenation seem to be more real. However, the contra-indications which persist in the results of clinical works have resulted in the fact that the exact place of cortico-steroids in the therapeutic arsenal of septic shock still remains to be specified.

  15. Culture shock and travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  16. Characteristics of Weak Interplanetary Shocks and Shock-like Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, A.; Gloag, J. M.

    The variation of magnetic and plasma parameters across the discontinuity of a colli- sionless shock wave are clearly understood and presented in MHD theory. The anal- ysis of 116 shock waves appearing on the Ulysses shock list in the period mid 1996 to the end of 1999 show that in the cases of the stronger shock waves, measured by the ratio of downstream to upstream magnetic field magnitudes, this MHD descrip- tion is adequate. However in the case of many of the weaker shocks there are events which are not clearly characterised in MHD terms and in these cases plasma param- eters are particularly difficult to interpret. To explore the issues associated with these very weak shocks further, a set of shock-like events is considered which have shock characteristics in the high frequency wave data measured by the plasma wave inves- tigation(URAP) but are not considered to be clearly shock waves purely considering magnetic and plasma data. These shock-like events are thought to extend the spectrum of interplanetary shocks at the very weakest end and possibly beyond what should be considered a collisionless shock wave.

  17. Analysis of nonlinear damping properties of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, Olga I.; Smolin, Igor Yu.; Bezmozgiy, Iosif M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes research results of nonlinear damping properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The experimental and computational research is performed on flat composite specimens with the gradual structure complication (from 1 to 12 layers). Specimens are subjected to three types of testing which are modal, harmonic and transient analyses. Relationships between the amplitude response and damping ratio are obtained by means of the analysis of variance as the result of this research.

  18. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  19. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  20. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time.

  1. An Improved Shock Factor to Evaluate the Shock Environment of Small-Sized Structures Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock factor is conventionally used to assess the effect of an underwater explosion on a target. The dimensions of some structures are much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave induced by the underwater explosion. The conventional shock factor may be excessively severe for small-sized structures because it neglects the effect of scattering; so it is necessary to study the shock factor for small objects. The coupled mode method is applied to study the scattering field surrounding the cylindrical shells. A nonlinear relation differential is derived from the impact received by the cylindrical shells and the ratio between the diameters of the shells and the wavelength of the incident wave. An improved shock factor is developed based on the fitted curve, considering the scattering effect caused by the diameters of the submerged cylindrical shells. A set of numerical simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The results show that the cylindrical shells and spherical shells under different conditions, but with the same shock factor, have almost the same shock responses.

  2. Exact periodic wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Wakil, S.A. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Elgarayhi, A. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: elgarayhi@yahoo.com; Elhanbaly, A. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2006-08-15

    The periodic wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations, including generalized Klein-Gordon equation, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and Boussinesq equations, are obtained by using the solutions of Jacobi elliptic equation. Under limit conditions, exact solitary wave solutions, shock wave solutions and triangular periodic wave solutions have been recovered.

  3. A nonlinear long memory model for US unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTwo important empirical features of monthly US unemployment are that shocks to the series seem rather persistent and that unemployment seems to rise faster in recessions than that it falls during expansions. To jointly capture these features of long memory and nonlinearity, respectively,

  4. Effective Path Towards Relativistic Transients at Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajo, Sergio; Cankaya, Huseyin; Alcorta, Paula; Ravi, Koustuban; Ahr, Frederike; Wu, Xiaojun; Fallahi, Arya; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    We refine the method towards extraction of sub-cycle transients in the 0.1-1 THz frequency (mm-wavelength) range from optical rectification in lithium niobate using tilted pulse fronts. Our scheme exploits previously unexplored spatio-temporal shaping of the pump pulses, resulting in highly efficient and near diffraction-limited sub-THz transients reaching 0.2 GV/m electric field strengths in free-space using only mJ-level optical ps-pulses. We address experimentally and theoretically the means to producing above-GV/m relativistic sub-THz transients with proper beam confinement and under moderate pumping conditions, thereby bringing widespread access to strong-field and nonlinear terahertz applications and devices.

  5. Self Referencing Heterodyne Transient Grating Spectroscopy with Short Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Grilj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterodyning by a phase stable reference electric field is a well known technique to amplify weak nonlinear signals. For short wavelength, the generation of a reference field in front of the sample is challenging because of a lack of suitable beamsplitters. Here, we use a permanent grating which matches the line spacing of the transient grating for the creation of a phase stable reference field. The relative phase among the two can be changed by a relative translation of the permanent and transient gratings in direction orthogonal to the grating lines. We demonstrate the technique for a transient grating on a VO2 thin film and observe constructive as well as destructive interference signals.

  6. Transient Performance of Electrical System in a Military Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical system in a military vehicle is a low voltage (28 V dc system which is an unsymmetrical and nonlinear system made up of silicon-rectifying generator and a battery in parallel. Studies have been carried out using numerical method to calculate its transient performance. State variable and coordinate transformation have been adopted to express the functional modes and its transfer law of the silicon-rectifying generator; the battery is expressed as a simplified equivalent circuit according to its characteristics during transient process: Consequently, the general mathematical model of electrical system in a military vehicle is presented. Examples of electrical systems in somemilitary vehicles have been taken to carry out the calculation of transient performance and the findings have been compared with the test results of an actual vehicle to show that the numerical method designed works.

  7. Switching Tracking Control for Planar Systems with Transient Performance Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qing-Yu; SUN Xi-Ming; ZHAO Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the output tracking problem for a class of planar systems with some given transient performance constraints which are determined by the overshoot and the settling time.The problem of switched static output feedback tracking with output constraints (SSOFTOC) is proposed and solved for the first time.The static output feedback controllers and a so-called conic switching law are designed under which the output of the closed-loop switched system can track the step signal asymptotically without violating the transient performance constraints.Furthermore,an optimal weighted transient performance is obtained by.solving a nonlinear programming problem.Finally,a numerical example and an application to aircraft turbofan engine are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Flow behind concave shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.

  9. Flow behind concave shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticle composites for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y. E-mail: takeda.yoshihiko@nims.go.jp; Kishimoto, N

    2003-05-01

    Optical absorption and nonlinear optical response were investigated for nanoparticle composites in amorphous SiO{sub 2} fabricated by negative Ta ion implantation at 60 keV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify Ta and the oxide formation in the matrix. Optical absorption clearly indicated a surface plasmon peak at 2.2 eV and the peak resulted from formation of nanoparticles embedded in the matrix. The measured absorption was compared with calculated ones, evaluated by Maxwell-Garnett theory. Nonlinear absorption was measured with a pump-probe method using a femtosecond laser system. The pumping laser transiently bleached the surface plasmon band and lead to the nonlinearity. The transient response recovered in several picoseconds and behaved in terms of electron dynamics in metallic nanoparticles. The Ta nanoparticle composite is one of the promising candidates for nonlinear optical materials with good thermal stability.

  11. Replacement policy in a system under shocks following a Markovian arrival process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Carmen Segovia, Maria del [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    We present a system subject to shocks that arrive following a Markovian arrival process. The system is minimally repaired. It is replaced when a certain number of shocks arrive. A general model where the replacements are governed by a discrete phase-type distribution is studied. For this system, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and the interarrival times between replacements and the number of replacements are calculated. A special case of this system is when it can stand a prefixed number of shocks. For this new system, the same performance measures are calculated. The systems are considered in transient and stationary regime.

  12. Numerical Study of Shock Waves Propagating in an Elbow : Effects of Elbow Angle

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the shock wave propagating in an elbow and the transient flow induced by the shock were investigated numerically in order to clarify how the shock wave transmitted past the elbow is stabilized to uniformity by the effects of the elbow angle. Computations were carried out by solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. Calculations were performed for six elbow angles between 5° to 120°, and the flow fields w...

  13. Characterization of a High Temporal Resolution TDLAS System for Measurements in a Shock Tube Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, F.; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, H.; Weigand, B.

    Transient heating and pressurization of a gas by shock waves can be useful for a variety of purposes, particularly for configurations involving shock wave focussing. Unless the geometry is particularly simple, the time history of temperature can be difficult to predict accurately. Hence, a non-intrusive measurement technique with high temporal resolution is required to record the time history of the very rapidly changing temperature of a shock-heated flow. One promising measurement techniques for these high-speed flows is Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)

  14. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of traveling wave-type ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yosuke; Saito, Akira; Maeno, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, nonlinear dynamic response of a traveling wave-type ultrasonic motor was investigated. In particular, understanding the transient dynamics of a bar-type ultrasonic motor, such as starting up and stopping, is of primary interest. First, the transient response of the bar-type ultrasonic motor at starting up and stopping was measured using a laser Doppler velocimeter, and its driving characteristics are discussed in detail. The motor is shown to possess amplitude-dependent nonlinearity that greatly influences the transient dynamics of the motor. Second, a dynamical model of the motor was constructed as a second-order nonlinear oscillator, which represents the dynamics of the piezoelectric ceramic, stator, and rotor. The model features nonlinearities caused by the frictional interface between the stator and the rotor, and cubic nonlinearity in the dynamics of the stator. Coulomb's friction model was employed for the interface model, and a stick-slip phenomenon is considered. Lastly, it was shown that the model is capable of representing the transient dynamics of the motor accurately. The critical parameters in the model were identified from measured results, and numerical simulations were conducted using the model with the identified parameters. Good agreement between the results of measurements and numerical simulations is observed.

  15. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  16. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  17. The special relativistic shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  18. Shock conditions for hypoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renardy, Michael; Rogers, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The equations governing the motion of hypoelastic materials (and related models of non-Newtonian fluids) are not in conservation form. Hence there is no obvious formulation of Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions across a shock. In this paper we demonstrate that a viscosity criterion can be used to obtain meaningful shock conditions. In particular, we discuss shocks of small amplitude. The shock conditions obtained will in general depend on the form of the viscosity term.

  19. Incoherent shock waves in long-range optical turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Faccio, D.; Trillo, S.; Picozzi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Considering the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as a representative model, we report a unified presentation of different forms of incoherent shock waves that emerge in the long-range interaction regime of a turbulent optical wave system. These incoherent singularities can develop either in the temporal domain through a highly noninstantaneous nonlinear response, or in the spatial domain through a highly nonlocal nonlinearity. In the temporal domain, genuine dispersive shock waves (DSW) develop in the spectral dynamics of the random waves, despite the fact that the causality condition inherent to the response function breaks the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation. Such spectral incoherent DSWs are described in detail by a family of singular integro-differential kinetic equations, e.g. Benjamin-Ono equation, which are derived from a nonequilibrium kinetic formulation based on the weak Langmuir turbulence equation. In the spatial domain, the system is shown to exhibit a large scale global collective behavior, so that it is the fluctuating field as a whole that develops a singularity, which is inherently an incoherent object made of random waves. Despite the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation, the regularization of such a collective incoherent shock does not require the formation of a DSW - the regularization is shown to occur by means of a different process of coherence degradation at the shock point. We show that the collective incoherent shock is responsible for an original mechanism of spontaneous nucleation of a phase-space hole in the spectrogram dynamics. The robustness of such a phase-space hole is interpreted in the light of incoherent dark soliton states, whose different exact solutions are derived in the framework of the long-range Vlasov formalism.

  20. Nonlinear electrostatic waves in inhomogeneous dense dusty magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, S., E-mail: shahzad_mahmoodpk@yahoo.co [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-25

    The nonlinear electrostatic drift waves are studied using quantum hydrodynamic model in dusty quantum magnetoplasmas. The dissipative effects due to collisions between ions and dust particles have also been taken into account. The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) like equation is derived and analytical solution is obtained using tanh method. The limiting cases of KdV type solitary waves, Burger type monotonic shock waves and oscillatory shock solutions are also presented. It is found that both hump and dip type solitary structures are possible in quantum dusty plasmas. However, amplitude and width of the nonlinear structure depend on the dust charge polarity and its concentration in electron-ion quantum plasmas. The monotonic shock like structure is independent of the quantum parameter. It is found that shock strength is increased in the presence of positively charged particles in comparison with negatively charged dust particles. The oscillatory shock structures are also obtained and it is found that change in dust charge polarity only shifts the phase of the oscillatory shock in plasmas. The numerical results are also presented for illustration.

  1. Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser-matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption

  2. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  3. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Dario; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Rowlinson, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte-Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  4. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  5. Some properties of the formation of fast magnetosonic shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2015-12-18

    Nonlinear waves advancing into equilibrium states may become shocks. This possibility depends on the equilibrium quantities plus the velocity and shape of the wavefronts. The equation describing this phenomenon is described for the case of the fast magnetosonic waves, and the particular case of plane flow with vertical magnetic field is analyzed in detail. It is also shown that in two-species MHD, both collisions between species and their chemical reactivity tend to delay or prevent the formation of shocks. - Highlights: • Magnetosonic waves may evolve into shock waves. • The problem is analyzed in detail for vertical magnetic fields and plane flows. • The essential parameter is the curvature of wavefronts. • The method may be extended to two-species and reactive plasmas.

  6. Radiation from relativistic shocks with turbulent magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, K -I; Medvedev, M; Zhang, B; Hardee, P; Nordlund, A; Frederiksen, J; Mizuno, Y; Sol, H; Pohl, M; Hartmann, D H; Oka, M; Fishman, G J

    2009-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the new technique to calculate emission from electrons based on...

  7. Observation of thermoacoustic shock waves in a resonance tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Sobata, Kazuya; Otake, Shota; Yazaki, Taichi

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports thermally induced shock waves observed in an acoustic resonance tube. Self-sustained oscillations of a gas column were created by imposing an axial temperature gradient on the short stack of plates installed in the resonance tube filled with air at atmospheric pressure. The tube length and axial position of the stack were examined so as to make the acoustic amplitude of the gas oscillations maximum. The periodic shock wave was observed when the acoustic pressure amplitude reached 8.3 kPa at the fundamental frequency. Measurements of the acoustic intensity show that the energy absorption in the stack region with the temperature gradient tends to prevent the nonlinear excitation of harmonic oscillations, which explains why the shock waves had been unfavorable in the resonance tube thermoacoustic systems.

  8. ON INTERACTION OF SHOCK AND SOUND WAVE (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENSHUXING

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of shock and gradient wave (sound wave) of solutions to the system of inviscid isentropic gas dynamics as a model for the corresponding problems for nonlinear hyperbolic systems. The problem can be reduced to a boundary value problem in a wedged dormain, By using the method of constructing asymptotic solutions and Newton'siteration process it is proved that if a weak shock hits a gradient wave, then the grandient wave will split into two gradient waves, while the shock continuses propagating. In this paper the author reduces the problem to a standard form and constructs asymptotic solution of the problem. The existence of the genuine solution will he given in the following paper.

  9. Decoupling of Double Extraction Turbo-Unit by Nonlinear Multivariable Inverse System Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎浩荣; 李立勤; 李东海; 宋兆星; 王伟

    2001-01-01

    A multivariable inverse nonlinear control scheme is developed to decouple the strongly nonlinear double extraction steam turbo-unit, improving the transient stability of the power and heating system. Computer simulation tests show that not only does the control scheme achieve satisfactory decoupling of the high and low pressure turbines and the electric power, remarkably improving the transient stability, but also the design is very intuitive and concise.

  10. Relativistic electrons produced by foreshock disturbances observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynn Bruce, III; Sibeck, David G.; Turner, Drew L.; Osmane, Adnane; Caprioli, Damiano; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2017-04-01

    It has been known for years that charged particles can be accelerated by high Mach number collisionless shock waves. The accelerated particles can stream away upstream to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Due to differences in gyroradii, ions are more readily accelerated than electrons by collisionless shocks. These energetic, suprathermal ions stream against the incident flow providing free energy that can generate foreshock disturbances - large-scale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion gyroradii), transient ( 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV [e.g., Wilson et al., 2013] and even produce their own mini foreshocks [e.g., Liu et al., 2016]. While the high Mach number (M > 40) Kronian bow shock can generate MeV electrons [e.g., Masters et al., 2013], the much weaker Earth's bow shock (1 ≤ M questions in heliospheric and astrophysical plasmas.

  11. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  12. Transient transport processes in deformable porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cs. Mészáros; (A). Bálint

    2011-01-01

    The basic partial differential equations relevant for convection-diffusion and convection-diffusion-wave phenomena are presented and solved analytically by using the MAPLE symbolic computer algebra system.The possible general nonlinear character of the constitutive equation of the convection-discussion process is replaced by a direct posteriori stochastic refinement of its solution represented for Dirichlet-type boundary conditions.A thermodynamic analysis is performed for connecting the relaxation time constants and Jacobi-determinants of deformations at transient transport processes.Finally,a new procedure for general description of coupled transport processes on the basis of the formalism originally developed for convection-free phenomena is presented by matrix analysis methods in the Fourier space.

  13. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  14. Tailored Buckling Microlattices as Reusable Light-Weight Shock Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Tobias; Findeisen, Claudio; Kadic, Muamer; Gumbsch, Peter; Wegener, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Structures and materials absorbing mechanical (shock) energy commonly exploit either viscoelasticity or destructive modifications. Based on a class of uniaxial light-weight geometrically nonlinear mechanical microlattices and using buckling of inner elements, either a sequence of snap-ins followed by irreversible hysteretic - yet repeatable - self-recovery or multistability is achieved, enabling programmable behavior. Proof-of-principle experiments on three-dimensional polymer microstructures are presented.

  15. Plasmonic shock waves and solitons in a nanoring

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We apply the hydrodynamic theory of electron liquid to demonstrate that a circularly polarized radiation induces the diamagnetic, helicity-sensitive dc current in a ballistic nanoring. This current is dramatically enhanced in the vicinity of plasmonic resonances. The resulting magnetic moment of the nanoring represents a giant increase of the inverse Faraday effect. With increasing radiation intensity, linear plasmonic excitations evolve into the strongly non-linear plasma shock waves. These ...

  16. The Fock-Kemmer approach to precursor shock waves in relativistic field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Rawand H

    2016-01-01

    We use distribution theory (generalized functions) to extend and justify the Fock-Kemmer approach to the propagation of precursor shock wave discontinuities in classical and quantum field theory. We apply lightcone causality arguments to propose that shock wave singularities in non-linear classical field theories and in Maxwell's equations for responsive media require a form of classical renormalization analogous to Wilson operator product expansions in quantum field theories.

  17. The Zwicky Transient Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) has been designed with a singular focus: a systematic exploration of the night sky at a magnitude level well suited for spectral classification and follow up with the existing class of 4-m to 10-m class telescopes. ZTF is the successor to the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). The discovery engine for ZTF is a 47 square degree camera (realized through 16 e2V monolithic CCDs) that fills the entire focal plane of the 48-inch Oschin telescope of the Palomar Observatory. Single 30-s epoch sensitivity is about 20.5 in g and R bands. The Infarared Processing & Analysis Center (IPAC) is the data center for ZTF. ZTF is a public-private partnership with equal contributions from a consortium of world-wide partners and an NSF MSIP grant. Forty percent of ZTF time is set aside for two major community surveys: a 3-day cadence survey of high latitudes (to mimic LSST) and a time domain survey of the entire Northern Galactic plane. We expect first light in February 2017 and begin a 3-year survey starting summer of 2017. The first year will be spent on building up deep reference images of the sky (a must for transient surveys). During the second year IPAC will deliver near archival quality photometric products within 12 hours of observations. By comparison to reference images photometric alerts will be sent out. Year 3 will see the near real-time release of image differencing products. A Community Science Advisory Committee (CSAC), chaired by S. Ridgway (NOAO), has been set up to both advise the PI and to ensure that the US community's interests are well served. Astronomers interested in getting a head start on ZTF may wish to peruse the data releases from PTF. Young people (or young at heart) may wish to attend the annual summer school on PTF/ZTF (August, Caltech campus). The Principal Investigator (PI) for the project is S. Kulkarni and the Project Scientist is Eric Bellm.For further details please consult http://www.ptf.caltech.edu/ztf

  18. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  19. Early Treatment in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    of L-arginine resuscitation in shock were carried out by An-1 gele , Chaudry, and co-workers. 6-10 They used the rat model, bleeding to 40 mm Hg in...17 14. Preissler G, Lothe F, Ebersberger U, Huff I, Bittmann I, Messmer K, Jauch KW, An-18 gele , MK. Recipient treatment with L-arginine

  20. A Shocking New Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.