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Sample records for nonlinear resonant absorption

  1. Synthesis, multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance and electromagnetic absorption properties of hcp-cobalt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz

  2. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  3. Comment on resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerling, P.

    1977-01-01

    An average over angles of incidence of the usual resonant absorption function is presented. This form is appropriate under experimental conditions where the angles of incidence vary greatly and in an unknown manner. For comparison a lens-ellipsoidal mirror illumination system with a known longitudinal aberration is considered. In the latter example the angles of incidence are readily obtained and the resulting resonance absorption function evaluated. The associated fields are calculated in a similar fashion. (author)

  4. Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH

  5. Numerical study of surface plasmon enhanced nonlinear absorption and refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2008-07-07

    Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory is used to study the influence of silver nanoparticle induced field enhancement on the nonlinear response of a Kerr-type nonlinear host. We show that the composite nonlinear absorption coefficient, beta(c), can be enhanced relative to the host nonlinear absorption coefficient near the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. This enhancement is not due to a resonant enhancement of the host nonlinear absorption, but rather due to a phase shifted enhancement of the host nonlinear refractive response. The enhancement occurs at the expense of introducing linear absorption, alpha(c), which leads to an overall reduced figure of merit beta(c)/alpha(c) for nonlinear absorption. For thin (< 1 microm) composites, the use of surface plasmons is found to result in an increased nonlinear absorption response compared to that of the host material.

  6. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  7. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  8. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  9. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  10. Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel

    2018-04-01

    Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.

  11. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Oak, Shrikant M

    2006-06-01

    A single-shot method for measurement of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction is described and analyzed. A spatial intensity variation of an elliptical Gaussian beam in conjugation with an array detector is the key element of this method. The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup.

  12. Nonlinear Cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, I.F.; Bugal' ter, G.A.; Demikhovskii, V.Y.; Fisher, L.M.; Yudin, V.A.

    1977-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the nonlinear behavior of the impedance of a cadmium plate in the region of existence of the hole doppleron. It is shown theoretically that this phenomenon can be attributed to nonlinear cyclotron absorption of the wave in the metal. A theory of nonlinear cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium is constructed. The nonlinearity is due to the influence of the wave magnetic field H that alters the trajectories of the resonant electrons responsible for the cyclotron asorption. The Lorentz force connected with the field H modulates the particle velocity along the magnetic field at a characteristic frequency ..omega../sub 0/ proportional to the square root of the wave amplitude. The modulation of the longitudinal particle velocity leads to violation of the condition of their resonant interaction with the wave, as a result of which the absorption coefficient decreases. The nonlinearity is significant when the frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the electron-collision frequency. A decrease of the cyclotron absorption changes radically the picture of the surface-impedance oscillations of the plate in the magnetic field. We studied in the experiment the influence of the temperature, of the angle of inclination of the magnetic field, and of the frequency on the nonlinear-effect threshold field that separates the regions of linear and nonlinear behavior of the sample impedance. The measurement results are in qualitative agreement with the conclusions of the theory.

  13. On the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward leveraged buyout transactions implementation during private equity investment in conditions of resonant absorption of discrete information in diffusion - type financial system with induced nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors perform an original research on the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward the leveraged buyout transactions implementation during the private equity investment in the conditions of the resonant absorption of discrete information in the diffusion - type financial system with the induced nonlinearities at the influences by the Schumpeterian creative disruption processes in the free market economy. We propose that the money is a financial computing process, whic...

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Gulak, Yuiry; Sundaram, Bala; Benaroya, Haym

    2007-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer great promise for many applications including motion and mass sensing. Recent experimental results suggest the importance of nonlinear effects in NEMS, an issue which has not been addressed fully in theory. We report on a nonlinear extension of a recent analytical model by Armour et al [1] for the dynamics of a single-electron transistor (SET) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We consider the nonlinear resonator motion in both (a) the Duffing and (b) nonlinear pendulum regimes. The corresponding master equations are derived and solved numerically and we consider moment approximations as well. In the Duffing case with hardening stiffness, we observe that the resonator is damped by the SET at a significantly higher rate. In the cases of softening stiffness and the pendulum, there exist regimes where the SET adds energy to the resonator. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a single model displaying both negative and positive resonator damping in different dynamical regimes. The implications of the results for SET sensitivity as well as for, as yet unexplained, experimental results will be discussed. 1. Armour et al. Phys.Rev.B (69) 125313 (2004).

  15. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  16. Nonlinear refraction at the absorption edge in InAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, C D; Garmire, E

    1984-08-01

    The results of measurements of nonlinear refraction at the absorption edge in InAs between 68 and 90 K taken with an HF laser are compared with those of a band-gap resonant model in which the contribution of the light-hole band is included and found to account for more than 40% of the observed nonlinear refraction. A generalized expression for the nonlinear index is derived by using the complete Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, with no free parameters.

  17. Nonlinear Ion Harmonics in the Paul Trap with Added Octopole Field: Theoretical Characterization and New Insight into Nonlinear Resonance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Yongtai; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear harmonics within the ion motion are the fingerprint of the nonlinear fields. They are exclusively introduced by these nonlinear fields and are responsible to some specific nonlinear effects such as nonlinear resonance effect. In this article, the ion motion in the quadrupole field with a weak superimposed octopole component, described by the nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME), was studied by using the analytical harmonic balance (HB) method. Good accuracy of the HB method, which was comparable with that of the numerical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (4th RK), was achieved in the entire first stability region, except for the points at the stability boundary (i.e., β = 1) and at the nonlinear resonance condition (i.e., β = 0.5). Using the HB method, the nonlinear 3β harmonic series introduced by the octopole component and the resultant nonlinear resonance effect were characterized. At nonlinear resonance, obvious resonant peaks were observed in the nonlinear 3β series of ion motion, but were not found in the natural harmonics. In addition, both resonant excitation and absorption peaks could be observed, simultaneously. These are two unique features of the nonlinear resonance, distinguishing it from the normal resonance. Finally, an approximation equation was given to describe the corresponding working parameter, q nr , at nonlinear resonance. This equation can help avoid the sensitivity degradation due to the operation of ion traps at the nonlinear resonance condition.

  18. Noise in nonlinear nanoelectromechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Vidal, Diego N.

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), due to their nanometer scale size, possess a number of desirable attributes: high sensitivity to applied forces, fast response times, high resonance frequencies and low power consumption. However, ultra small size and low power handling result in unwanted consequences: smaller signal size and higher dissipation, making the NEMS devices more susceptible to external and intrinsic noise. The simplest version of a NEMS, a suspended nanomechanical structure with two distinct excitation states, can be used as an archetypal two state system to study a plethora of fundamental phenomena such as Duffing nonlinearity, stochastic resonance, and macroscopic quantum tunneling at low temperatures. From a technical perspective, there are numerous applications such nanomechanical memory elements, microwave switches and nanomechanical computation. The control and manipulation of the mechanical response of these two state systems can be realized by exploiting a (seemingly) counterintuitive physical phenomenon, Stochastic Resonance: in a noisy nonlinear mechanical system, the presence of noise can enhance the system response to an external stimulus. This Thesis is mainly dedicated to study possible applications of Stochastic Resonance in two-state nanomechanical systems. First, on chip signal amplification by 1/falpha is observed. The effectiveness of the noise assisted amplification is observed to decrease with increasing a. Experimental evidence shows an increase in asymmetry between the two states with increasing noise color. Considering the prevalence of 1/f alpha noise in the materials in integrated circuits, the signal enhancement demonstrated here, suggests beneficial use of the otherwise detrimental noise. Finally, a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR is presented. The logic function can be programmed (from AND to OR) dynamically, by

  19. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  20. Uncertainty quantification in resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2012-01-01

    We assess the uncertainty in the resonance escape probability due to uncertainty in the neutron and radiation line widths for the first 21 resonances in 232 Th as given by . Simulation, quadrature and polynomial chaos methods are used and the resonance data are assumed to obey a beta distribution. We find the uncertainty in the total resonance escape probability to be the equivalent, in reactivity, of 75–130 pcm. Also shown are pdfs of the resonance escape probability for each resonance and the variation of the uncertainty with temperature. The viability of the polynomial chaos expansion method is clearly demonstrated.

  1. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  2. Nonlinear plasma waves excited near resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear resonant response of a uniform plasma to an external plane-wave field is formulated in terms of the mismatch Δ/sub n l/ between the driving frequency and the time-dependent, complex, nonlinear normal mode frequency at the driving wavenumber. This formalism is applied to computer simulations of this process, yielding a deduced nonlinear frequency shift. The time dependence of the nonlinear phenomena, at frequency Δ/sub n l/ and at the bounce frequency of the resonant particles, is analyzed. The interdependence of the nonlinear features is described by means of energy and momentum relations

  3. Relativistic effects in resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the relativistic-electron-mass variation in the generation of plasma waves by the linear mode conversion of intense electromagnetic waves is investigated. The increase in the electron mass in high intensity regions of the mode-converted wave reduces the local plasma frequency and thereby strongly modifies the plasma-driver resonance. A spatial discontinuity in the structure of the mode-converted wave results and causes the wave to break. Under rather modest restrictions, the wave breaking resulting from these effects occurs before the wave amplitude is limited either by thermal convection or by breaking caused by previously investigated nonrelativistic effects. Consequently, the amplitude of the mode-converted plasma wave should saturate at a much lower level than previously predicted. For simplicity, the analysis is limited to the initial stages of mode conversion where the ion dynamics can be neglected. The validity of this approximation is discussed

  4. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-10-04

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  5. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  6. Buffer-gas-induced absorption resonances in Rb vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Novikova, Irina; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.

    2004-01-01

    We observe transformation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance into an absorption resonance in a Λ interaction configuration in a cell filled with 87 Rb and a buffer gas. This transformation occurs as one-photon detuning of the coupling fields is varied from the atomic transition. No such absorption resonance is found in the absence of a buffer gas. The width of the absorption resonance is several times smaller than the width of the EIT resonance, and the changes of absorption near these resonances are about the same. Similar absorption resonances are detected in the Hanle configuration in a buffered cell

  7. Dynamic beam cleaning by a nonlinear resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A W; Month, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y. (USA)

    1976-03-15

    The general framework for the dynamic cleaning of a stored proton beam by passing the beam through a nonlinear resonance is developed. The limitations and advantages of this technique are discussed. The method is contrasted with physical beam scraping, which is currently in use at the CERN ISR.

  8. Heavy nucleus resonance absorption in heterogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, M.; Tellier, H.; Brienne-Raepsaet, C.; Van Der Gucht, C.

    1992-01-01

    To compute easily the neutron reaction rates in the resonance energy range, the reactor physicists use the self-shielding formalism and the effective cross-section concept. Usually, for these calculations, and equivalence process is used, in such a way that the absorption rate is correctly computed for the whole fuel pin. This procedure does not allow to preserve the spatial absorption rate distribution inside the pin. It is an important handicap if we want to reproduce the plutonium distribution in a spent fuel. To avoid this inconvenience, new improvements of the self-shielding formalism have been recently introduced in the new assembly calculation code of the French Atomic Energy Commission, APOLLO 2. With this improved formalism, it is now possible to represent the spatial and energetic dependence of the heavy nucleus absorption inside the fuel pin and to use a fine energy dependent equivalence process. As it does not exist clean experimental results for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption, the authors used reference calculations to qualify the self-shielding formalism. For the strongly self-shielded nuclei of interest in reactor physics, U238, Pu240 and Th232, the agreement between the self-shielding calculation and the reference ones is fairly good for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption rate

  9. Nonlinear effects in varactor-tuned resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Jeremy; Zhou, Liang

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the effects of RF power level on the performance of varactor-tuned resonator circuits. A variety of topologies are considered, including series and parallel resonators operating in both unbalanced and balanced modes. As these resonators were designed to produce oscillators with minimum phase noise, the initial small signal insertion loss was set to 6 dB and, hence, QL/Q0 = 1/2. To enable accurate analysis and simulation, S parameter and PSPICE models for the varactors were optimized and developed. It is shown that these resonators start to demonstrate nonlinear operation at very low power levels demonstrating saturation and lowering of the resonant frequency. On occasion squegging is observed for modified bias conditions. The nonlinear effects are dependent on the unloaded Q (Q0), the ratio of loaded to unloaded Q (QL/Q0), the bias voltage, and circuit configurations with typical nonlinear effects occurring at -8 dBm in a circuit with a loaded Q of 63 and a varactor bias voltage of 3 V. Analysis, simulation, and measurements that show close correlation are presented.

  10. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption calculation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Coste, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Van der Gucht, C.

    1993-01-01

    The calculation of the space and energy dependence of the heavy nucleus resonant absorption in a heterogeneous lattice is one of the hardest tasks in reactor physics. Because of the computer time and memory needed, it is impossible to represent finely the cross-section behavior in the resonance energy range for everyday computations. Consequently, reactor physicists use a simplified formalism, the self-shielding formalism. As no clean and detailed experimental results are available to validate the self-shielding calculations, Monte Carlo computations are used as a reference. These results, which were obtained with the TRIPOLI continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, constitute a set of numerical benchmarks than can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the techniques or formalisms that are included in any reactor physics codes. Examples of such evaluations, for the new assembly code APOLLO2 and the slowing-down code SECOL, are given for cases of 238 U and 232 Th fuel elements

  11. Resonant driving of a nonlinear Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmisano, Carlo; Gervino, Gianpiero; Balma, Massimo; Devona, Dorina; Wimberger, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    As a proof of principle, we show how a classical nonlinear Hamiltonian system can be driven resonantly over reasonably long times by appropriately shaped pulses. To keep the parameter space reasonably small, we limit ourselves to a driving force which consists of periodic pulses additionally modulated by a sinusoidal function. The main observables are the average increase of kinetic energy and of the action variable (of the non-driven system) with time. Applications of our scheme aim for driving high frequencies of a nonlinear system with a fixed modulation signal.

  12. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: metelski@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: vfkvvfkv@gmail.com [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: bychenk@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  13. Heated electron distributions from resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGroot, J.S.; Tull, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified model of resonant absorption of obliquely incident laser light has been developed. Using a 1.5 dimensional electrostatic simulation computer code, it is shown that the inclusion of ion motion is critically important in determining the heated electron distributions from resonant absorption. The electromagnetic wave drives up an electron plasma wave. For long density scale lengths (Lapprox. =10 3 lambda/subD//sube/), the phase velocity of this wave is very large (ω/kapproximately-greater-than10V/sub th/) so that if heating does occur, a suprathermal tail of very energetic electrons is produced. However, the pressure due to this wave steepens the density profile until the density gradient scale length near the critical density (where the local plasma frequency equals the laser frequency) is of order 20lambda/subD//sube/. The electrostatic wave is thus forced to have a much lower phase velocity (ω/kapprox. =2.5V/sub th/). In this case, more electrons are heated to much lower velocities. The heated electron distributions are exponential in velocity space. Using a simple theory it is shown that this property of profile steepening applies to most of a typical laser fusion pulse. This steepening raises the threshold for parametric instabilities near the critical surface. Thus, the extensive suprathermal electron distributions typically produced by these parametric instabilities can be drastically reduced

  14. Nonlinear mode conversion with chaotic soliton generation at plasma resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, H.; Laedke, E.W.; Spatschek, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves near the critical density in inhomogeneous plasmas is studied. A driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the mode-converted oscillations is derived by multiple-scaling techniques. The model is simulated numerically. The generic transition from a stationary to a time-dependent solution is investigated. Depending on the parameters, a time-chaotic behavior is found. By a nonlinear analysis, based on the inverse scattering transform, solitons of a corresponding integrable equation are identified as the dominant coherent structures of the chaotic dynamics. Finally, a map is presented which predicts chaotic soliton generation and emission at the critical density. Its qualitative behavior, concerning the bifurcation points, is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations

  15. Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2006-01-01

    Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment

  16. Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator for low frequency absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Passive acoustic liners, used in aeronautic engine nacelles to reduce radiated fan noise, have a quarter-wavelength behavior, because of perforated sheets backed by honeycombs (with one or two degrees of freedom). However, their acoustic absorption ability is naturally limited to medium and high frequencies because of constraints in thickness. The low ratio "plate thickness/hole diameter" generates impedance levels dependent on the incident sound pressure level and the grazing mean flow (by a mechanism of nonlinear dissipation through vortex shedding), which penalises the optimal design of liners. The aim of this paper is to overcome this problem by a concept called LEONAR ("Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator"), in which a perforated plate is coupled with tubes of variable lengths inserted in a limited volume of a back cavity. To do this, experimental and theoretical studies, using different types of liners (material nature, hole diameter, tube length, cavity thickness) are described in this paper. It is shown that the impedance can be precisely determined with an analytical approach based on parallel transfer matrices of tubes coupled to the cavity. Moreover, the introduction of tubes in a cavity of a conventional resonator generates a significant shift in the frequency range of absorption towards lower frequencies or allows a reduction of cavity thickness. The impedance is practically independent of sound pressure level because of a high ratio "tube length/tube hole diameter". Finally, a test led in an aeroacoustic bench suggests that a grazing flow at a bulk Mach number of 0.3 has little impact on the impedance value. These first results allow considering these resonators with linear behavior as an alternative to classical resonators, in particular, as needed for future Ultra High Bypass Ratio engines with shorter and thinner nacelles.

  17. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption in heterogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Coste, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Van der Gucht, C.

    1992-11-01

    The new self shielding formalism which is implemented in the transport code APPOLO 2 allows to compute the space and the energy dependence of the resonant absorption rate inside a fuel rod. As it does not exist any experimental result to check such a computation, we used very sophisticated reference calculations to check the self shielding formalism. Two kinds of reference calculation were used: a multi-group slowing down calculation with a very detailed energy mesh and a MONTE CARLO computation with point wise cross sections. The purpose of this study is a comparison of the self-shielding result with the ones of the two reference calculations. The geometry of the fuel element is the one of a light water-reactor and the resonant nuclei are the most important self-shielded nuclei: 238U, 232Th or 240Pu. The reactor agreement between the three kinds of calculations is very satisfactory for the nominal water density and for a reduced water density which simulates incidental operating conditions

  18. Nonlinear nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaliev, T.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of nonlinear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been studied theoretically by taking into account the interaction between NMR and FMR in the ferromagnets. The Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equations, describing the electron and nuclear magnetization behaviour in ferromagnets are presented in an integral form for a weakly excited electronic system. The stationary solution of these equations has been analysed in the case of equal NMR and FMR frequencies: the criteria for the appearance of two stable dynamic states is found and the high-frequency magnetic susceptibility for these systems is investigated. 2 figs., 8 refs

  19. Nonlinear Absorptions of CdSeTe Quantum Dots under Ultrafast Laser Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Chai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil-soluble alloyed CdSeTe quantum dots (QDs are prepared by the electrostatic method. The basic properties of synthesized CdSeTe QDs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscope. The off-resonant nonlinear optical properties of CdSeTe QDs are studied by femtosecond Z-scan at 1 kHz (low-repetition rate and 84 MHz (high-repetition rate. Nonlinear absorption coefficients are calculated under different femtosecond laser excitations. Due to the long luminescent lifetime of CdSeTe QDs, under the conditions of high-repetition rate, for open-aperture curve, heat accumulation and bleaching of ground state are responsible for the decrease of two-photon absorption (TPA coefficient.

  20. Non-linear absorption in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Jalbert, G.; Malta, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    Multiphoton transitions in direct-gap crystals are studied considering a 'non-perturbative' approach, similar to Keldysh approximation. A simple two parabolic band model in the effective mass approximation is considered. So that exact solutions associated to the full, crystal plus field, Hamiltonian may be approximated by Volkov wavefunctions. An S-matrix which incorporates the electromagnetic field to all orders in an approximated way is constructed leading to analytical solutions for the multiphoton transition rates. The use of the saddle-point method and its limitations as well as the connection between multiphoton absorption and tunneling is discussed. It is shown that for near threshold excitations the Keldysh approach is fairly accurate as long as terms arising from the saddle-point integration are consistently accounted. (Author) [pt

  1. Non-linear absorption in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Jalbert, G.; Malta, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    Multiphoton transitions in direct-gap crystals are studied considering a 'non-perturbative' approach, similar to Keldysh approximation. A simple two parabolic band model in the effective mass approximation is considered, so that exact solutions associate to the full, crystal plus field, Hamiltonian may be approximated by Volkov wavefunctions. In this manner an S matrix is constructed which incorporates the electromagnetic field to all orders in an approximated way, leading to analytical solutions for the multiphoton transition rates. The use of the saddle point method and its limitations as well as the connection between multiphoton absorption and tunneling is discussed. It is shown that the Keldysh approach is fairly accurate as long as terms arising from the saddle point integration are consistently accounted. (Author) [pt

  2. Reflection effect of localized absorptive potential on non-resonant and resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, A.; Kumar, N.

    1992-06-01

    The reflection due to absorptive potential (-iV i ) for resonant and non-resonant tunneling has been considered. We show that the effect of reflection leads to a non-monotonic dependence of absorption on the strength V i with a maximum absorption of typically 0.5. This has implications for the operation of resonant tunneling devices. General conceptual aspects of absorptive potentials are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  3. Near resonant absorption by atoms in intense fluctuating laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this program was to make quantitative measurements of the effects of higher-order phase/frequency correlations in a laser beam on nonlinear optical absorption processes in atoms. The success of this program was due in large part to a unique experimental capability for modulating the extracavity beam of a stabilized (approx-lt 200 kHz) continuous-wave laser with statistically-well-characterized stochastic phase (or frequency) fluctuations, in order to synthesize laser bandwidths to ∼20 MHz (depending on noise amplitude), with profiles variable between Gaussian and Lorentzian (depending on noise bandwidth). Laser driven processes investigated included the following: (1) the optical Autler-Towns effect in the 3S 1/2 (F = 2, M F = 2) → 3P 3/2 (F = 3, M F = 3) two- level Na resonance, using a weak probe to the 4D 5/2 level; (2) the variance and spectra of fluorescence intensity fluctuations in the two-level Na resonance; (3) the Hanle effect in the 1 S 0 - 3 P 1 , transition at λ = 555.6 nm in 174 Yb; (4) absorption (and gain) of a weak probe, when the probe is a time-delayed replica of the resonant (with the two-level Na transition) pump laser; and (5) four-wave-mixing in a phase-conjugate geometry, in a sodium cell, and, finally, in a diffuse atomic sodium beam. The experimental results from these several studies have provided important confirmation of advanced theoretical methods

  4. Absorption of continuum radiation in a resonant expanding gaseous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparev, N Y

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with absorption of external continuum radiation in a self-similarly expanding gaseous sphere. Frequency probability and integral probability of radiation absorption in the resonance frequency range are determined depending on the expansion velocity gradient and thickness of the optical medium. It is shown that expansion results in a reduced optical thickness of the medium and enhanced integral absorption. (paper)

  5. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Molli; Kiran, Aditha Sai; Ravikanth, B.; Sowmendran, P.; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  6. Resonant ULF absorption in storm time conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badin V.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with ULF radar observations of the high-latitude ionosphere. Doppler data from the Norwegian STARE instrument are analyzed for the moderate magnetic storm observed on December 31, 1999 – January 01, 2000. Upon averaging the Doppler signals along radar beams, the spectral power of signals is determined for each beam as a function of frequency ranging from 1 to 10 mHz. Sharp drops (about 10 dB of spectral powers with frequency are found for all radar beams. A variational analysis of spectral powers is carried out by least squares, with power drops being modeled by stepwise profiles constructed of mean spectral powers preceding and succeeding the drops. Using this variational analysis, the frequency of the power drop is determined for each radar beam. Being averaged over all beams, this frequency is 4.8±0.5 mHz. The results obtained are interpreted as resonant absorption of ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves occurring on eigenfrequencies of magnetic field lines over wave propagation from the magnetopause deep into the magnetosphere.

  7. Nonlinearity in superconducting titanium nitride coplanar waveguide resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilinger, P.; Trgala, M.; Hrebikova, I.; Mikula, M.; Zahoran, M.; Truchly, M.; Grajcar, M.; Leporis, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present fabrication and characterization of superconducting CPW TiN resonator at 20 and 300 nm film thickness. Further we demonstrate strong nonlinearity in thin TiN resonators. (authors)

  8. Structural control of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in dense metal nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2009-08-17

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a composite containing interacting spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied as a function of interparticle separation using three dimensional frequency domain simulations. It is shown that for a fixed amount of metal, the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the composite chi((3))(omega) can be significantly enhanced with respect to the linear optical properties, due to a combination of resonant surface plasmon excitation and local field redistribution. It is shown that this geometry-dependent susceptibility enhancement can lead to an improved figure of merit for nonlinear absorption. Enhancement factors for the nonlinear susceptibility of the composite are calculated, and the complex nature of the enhancement factors is discussed.

  9. Coherent enhancement of resonance-mediated multiphoton absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hui; Jia, Tianqing; Wang, Zugeng; Sun, Zhenrong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the coherent enhancement of resonance-mediated (2+2) four-photon absorption. It is found that by shaping the spectral phase with a π phase step, the resonance-mediated (2+2) four-photon transition probability can be enhanced. Furthermore, the coherent enhancement dependences on the detuning between the two two-photon absorptions, laser spectral bandwidth and laser centre frequency are explicitly discussed and analysed. We believe these theoretical results may play an important role in enhancing more complex resonance-mediated multiphoton absorption processes.

  10. Suppression of two-photon resonantly enhanced nonlinear processes in extended media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.R.; Moore, M.A.; Payne, M.G.; Wunderlich, R.K.

    1988-11-01

    On the basis of combined experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear processes associated with two-photon excitations near 3d and 4d states in Na, we show how resonantly enhanced stimulated hyper-Raman emission, parametric four-wave mixing processes and total resonant two-photon absorption can become severely suppressed through the actions of internally generated fields on the total atomic response in extended media. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Interference scattering effects on intermediate resonance absorption at operating temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1975-01-01

    Resonance integrals may be accurately calculated using the intermediate resonance (IR) approximation. Results are summarized for the case of an absorber with given potential scattering cross sections and interference scattering parameter admixed with a non absorbing moderator of given cross section and located in a narrow resonance moderating medium. From the form of the IR solutions, it is possible to make some general observations about effects of interference scattering on resonance absorption. 2 figures

  12. Quasi-Resonant Absorption for Quantum Efficiency Improvement in Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quasi-resonant absorption has been demonstrated to enhance the quantum efficiency of devices across the spectrum, but specifically it is a challenge in the UV...

  13. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  14. Time evolution of absorption process in nonlinear metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Hatef, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The time evolution of the absorption coefficient in metallic photonic crystals has been studied numerically. These crystals are made from metallic spheres which are arranged periodically in air. The refractive index of the metallic spheres depends on the plasma frequency. Probe and pump fields are applied to monitor the absorption process. Ensembles of three-level particles are embedded in the crystal. Nanoparticles are interacting with the metallic crystals via the electron-photon interaction. It is found that when the resonance states lie away from the band edges system goes to transparent state. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear behaviour of cantilevered carbon nanotube resonators based on a new nonlinear electrostatic load model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study examines the nonlinear behaviour of a cantilevered carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator and its mass detection sensitivity, employing a new nonlinear electrostatic load model. More specifically, a 3D finite element model is developed in order to obtain the electrostatic load distribution on cantilevered CNT resonators. A new nonlinear electrostatic load model is then proposed accounting for the end effects due to finite length. Additionally, a new nonlinear size-dependent continuum model is developed for the cantilevered CNT resonator, employing the modified couple stress theory (to account for size-effects) together with the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear damping); the size-dependent model takes into account all sources of nonlinearity, i.e. geometrical and inertial nonlinearities as well as nonlinearities associated with damping, small-scale, and electrostatic load. The nonlinear equation of motion of the cantilevered CNT resonator is obtained based on the new models developed for the CNT resonator and the electrostatic load. The Galerkin method is then applied to the nonlinear equation of motion, resulting in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, consisting of geometrical, inertial, electrical, damping, and size-dependent nonlinear terms. This high-dimensional nonlinear discretized model is solved numerically utilizing the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. The nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the system are examined for various cases, investigating the effect of DC and AC voltages, length-scale parameter, nonlinear damping, and electrostatic load. Moreover, the mass detection sensitivity of the system is examined for possible application of the CNT resonator as a nanosensor.

  16. Far-wing light absorption induced by resonant or near-resonant collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, S.; Celli, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the absorption of light induced by a resonant or near-resonant collision between two atoms. The calculations have been performed by taking into account also the magnetic sublevels, which makes their theoretical predictions more applicable to realistic cases. Analytical expressions for the far-wing absorption cross-section have been obtained

  17. Broadband absorption through extended resonance modes in random metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, J.; Niemiec, R.; Lheurette, É.; Lippens, D.; Burgnies, L.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of disordered metamaterial absorbers are analyzed on the basis of numerical simulations and experimental characterizations. A broadening of the absorption spectrum is clearly evidenced. This effect is the consequence of both the coupling between nearby resonators leading to the occurrence of extended magnetic resonance modes and the interconnection of elementary particles yielding the definition of resonating clusters. The angular robustness of the absorbing structure under oblique incidence is also demonstrated for a wide domain of angles.

  18. An analysis of uncertainties in the reference resonance absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.

    1997-05-01

    A recently appeared generation of design-oriented methods, which allows to compute the space and energy dependence of the resonant absorption inside the fuel rod, induces a new problem of validation of results obtained with improved resonance treatments, Because no experimental results are available on the spatial and energy distribution of resonance absorption, detailed reference calculations were generated with the continuos-energy Monte Carlo and energy pointwise slowing-down codes. The accuracy of these calculations depends>on various in.fluences. In this paper an analysis of some influences, such as differences ;n nuclear data libraries and philosophy of reproducing the cross section data, is presented. Example application is given for a calculation benchmark that consists of determination of resonance absorption by 238 U in typical PWR pin cell geometry (author)

  19. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  20. Black phosphorus: broadband nonlinear optical absorption and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Yanliang; Cai, Yao; Chen, Shuqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yuanjiang, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), 2D layered material with layered dependent direct bandgap (0.3 eV (bulk), 2.0 eV (single layer)) that has gained renewed attention, has been demonstrated as an extremely appropriate optical material for broadband optical applications from infrared to mid-infrared wavebands. Herein, by coupling multi-layer BP films with microfiber, we fabricated a nonlinear optical device with long light-matter interaction distance and enhanced damage threshold. Through taking full advantage of its fine nonlinear optical absorption property, we obtained stable mode-locking (51 ps) and Q-switched mode-locking states in Yb-doped or Er-doped (403.7 fs) all-fiber lasers and the single-longitudinal-mode operation (53 kHz) in an Er-doped fiber laser with enhanced power tolerance, using the same nonlinear optical device. Our results showed that BP could be a favorable nonlinear optical material for developing BP-enabled wave-guiding photonic devices, and revealed new insight into BP for high optical power unexplored optical devices.

  1. Transient thermal effect, nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption properties of graphene oxide sheets in dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chun; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Xu-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo; Xu, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2013-03-25

    The nonlinear refraction (NLR) properties of graphene oxide (GO) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes by Z-scan technique. Results show that the dispersion of GO in DMF exhibits negative NLR properties in nanosecond time regime, which is mainly attributed to transient thermal effect in the dispersion. The dispersion also exhibits negative NLR in picosecond and femtosecond time regimes, which are arising from sp(2)- hybridized carbon domains and sp(3)- hybridized matrix in GO sheets. To illustrate the relations between NLR and nonlinear absorption (NLA), NLA properties of the dispersion were also studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes.

  2. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, S. P.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Zoethout, E.; Boller, K.-J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100 &\\#x02013; 400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for

  3. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, Sebastiaan; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Zoethout, E.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100−400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for optimal

  4. Nonlinear resonance in Duffing oscillator with fixed and integrative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the nonlinear resonance, one of the fundamental phenomena in nonlinear oscillators, in a damped and periodically-driven Duffing oscillator with two types of time-delayed feedbacks, namely, fixed and integrative. Particularly, we analyse the effect of the time-delay parameter and the strength of the ...

  5. Nonlinear resonance in Duffing oscillator with fixed and integrative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-02

    Mar 2, 2012 ... Abstract. We study the nonlinear resonance, one of the fundamental phenomena in nonlinear oscillators, in a damped and periodically-driven Duffing oscillator with two types of time-delayed feedbacks, namely, fixed and integrative. Particularly, we analyse the effect of the time-delay parameter α and the ...

  6. Absorption of acoustic waves by sunspots. II - Resonance absorption in axisymmetric fibril models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical calculations of acoustic waves scattered by sunspots which concentrate on the absorption at the magnetohydrodynamic Alfven resonance are extended to the case of a flux-tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. The model is based on a flux-tubes of varying radius that are highly structured, translationally invariant, and axisymmetric. The absorbed fractional energy is determined for different flux-densities and subphotospheric locations with attention given to the effects of twist. When the flux is highly concentrated into annuli efficient absorption is possible even when the mean magnetic flux density is low. The model demonstrates low absorption at low azimuthal orders even in the presence of twist which generally increases the range of wave numbers over which efficient absorption can occur. Resonance absorption is concluded to be an efficient mechanism in monolithic sunspots, fibril sunspots, and plage fields.

  7. Successive collision calculation of resonance absorption (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Eisenhart, L.D.

    1980-07-01

    The successive collision method for calculating resonance absorption solves numerically the neutron slowing down problem in reactor lattices. A discrete energy mesh is used with cross sections taken from a Monte Carlo library. The major physical approximations used are isotropic scattering in both the laboratory and center-of-mass systems. This procedure is intended for day-to-day analysis calculations and has been incorporated into the current version of MUFT. The calculational model used for the analysis of the nuclear performance of LWBR includes this resonance absorption procedure. Test comparisons of results with RCPO1 give very good agreement

  8. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  9. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  10. Resonance absorption of ICRF wave in edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.

    1987-07-01

    An edge plasma is shown to significantly absorb ICRF wave when a resonant triplet, a cutoff-resonance-cutoff triplet, is constructed in the evanescent region. Two-ion-component plasmas in a torus are considered though the plasmas are modeled by a slab in which the density changes linearly along the x-axis. The resonance is a perpendicular-ion-cyclotron resonance, i.e., an Alfven resonance, and is formed when the applied frequency ω is smaller than the local cyclotron frequency, at the edge of the antenna side, of the lighter species of ions. Roughly the absorption rate A b is given by M 2 for M 2 >> S 2 and S 4 for S 2 >> M 2 where M = k y l and S ≅ k z l and l is a scale length of the order of the plasma minor radius and k y and k z are the perpendicular and the parallel components of the wave vector. It is noted that the both quantities, M and S, readily become of the order of unity. Since A b is not very sensitive to the density ratio of the two ion species, a few percent of impurities may cause a significant absorption. As the mass ratio of the two ion species comes close to unity the triplet forms readily. Therefore a D-T plasma seems to suffer more easily this kind of resonance absorption than a D-H plasma. (author)

  11. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  12. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  13. Nonlinear bleaching, absorption, and scattering of 532-nm-irradiated plasmonic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, V.; Sworin, M.; Kingsborough, R. P.; Geurtsen, G. P.; Rothschild, M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above ∼50 MW/cm 2 . Due to reduced laser damage in single-pulse experiments, the observed intrinsic nonlinear absorption coefficients are the highest reported to date for Au nanoparticles. We find size dependence to the nonlinear absorption enhancement for Au nanoparticles, peaking in magnitude for 80-nm nanospheres and falling off at larger sizes. The nonlinear absorption coefficients for Au and Ag spheres are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, the nonlinear absorption for Ag disks, when corrected for volume fraction, is several times higher. These trends in nonlinear absorption are correlated to local electric field enhancement through quasi-static mean-field theory. Through variable size aperture measurements, we also separate nonlinear scattering from nonlinear absorption. For all materials tested, we find that nonlinear scattering is highly directional and that its magnitude is comparable to that of nonlinear absorption. These results indicate methods to improve the efficacy of plasmonic nanoparticles as optical limiters in pulsed laser systems.

  14. Nonlinearity of the refractive index due to an excitonic molecule resonance state in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, R.; Broser, I.; Buschick, K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the observation of an intensity-dependent refractive-index nonlinearity in CdS due to a resonance state where an excitonic molecule is created by induced absorption of light. The refractive index n as a function of the incident laser photon energy E is measured directly by light refraction in thin crystal prisms. A renormalized dielectric function describes the measured n(E) spectra well. This strong refractive-index nonlinearity is well suited to produce an optical bistability and to further strengthen the evidence of CdS to be an important material for laser-induced dynamic gratings

  15. Absorption enhancement in graphene with an efficient resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Gu, Mingyue; Qin, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Graphene can be utilized in designing tunable terahertz (THz) devices due to its tunability of sheet conductivity, suffering however with weak light-graphene interactions. In this paper, an absorption enhancement in graphene using a Fabry–Perot resonator is presented, and its performance has been...

  16. Resonant Self-Trapping and Absorption of Intense Bessel Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the observation of resonant self-trapping and enhanced laser-plasma heating resulting from propagation of high intensity Bessel beams in neutral gas. The enhancement in absorption and plasma heating is directly correlated to the spatial trapping of laser radiation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field Hc1 is ...

  18. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves in transition anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong

    2017-11-27

    We study the mode conversion and resonant absorption phenomena occurring in a slab of a stratified anisotropic medium, optical axes of which are tilted with respect to the direction of inhomogeneity, using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation. When the tilt angle is zero, mode conversion occurs if the longitudinal component of the permittivity tensor, which is the one in the direction of inhomogeneity in the non-tilted case, varies from positive to negative values within the medium, while the transverse component plays no role. When the tilt angle is nonzero, the wave transmission and absorption show an asymmetry under the sign change of the incident angle in a range of the tilt angle, while the reflection is always symmetric. We calculate the reflectance, the transmittance and the absorptance for several configurations of the permittivity tensor and find that resonant absorption is greatly enhanced when the medium from the incident surface to the resonance region is hyperbolic than when it is elliptic. For certain configurations, the transmittance and absorptance curves display sharp peaks at some incident angles determined by the tilt angle.

  19. Nonlinear Resonance Analysis of Slender Portal Frames under Base Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Paullo Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nonlinear response and stability of slender structures in the main resonance regions are a topic of importance in structural analysis. In complex problems, the determination of the response in the frequency domain indirectly obtained through analyses in time domain can lead to huge computational effort in large systems. In nonlinear cases, the response in the frequency domain becomes even more cumbersome because of the possibility of multiple solutions for certain forcing frequencies. Those solutions can be stable and unstable, in particular saddle-node bifurcation at the turning points along the resonance curves. In this work, an incremental technique for direct calculation of the nonlinear response in frequency domain of plane frames subjected to base excitation is proposed. The transformation of equations of motion to the frequency domain is made through the harmonic balance method in conjunction with the Galerkin method. The resulting system of nonlinear equations in terms of the modal amplitudes and forcing frequency is solved by the Newton-Raphson method together with an arc-length procedure to obtain the nonlinear resonance curves. Suitable examples are presented, and the influence of the frame geometric parameters and base motion on the nonlinear resonance curves is investigated.

  20. The Resonance Absorption of Uranium Metal and Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E; Lundgren, G

    1962-06-15

    The resonance integrals for uranium metal and uranium oxide have been determined for a 1/E flux. The following results were obtained Metal RI 2.95 + 25.8{radical}(S/M); Oxide RI = 4.15 + 26.6{radical}(S/M). The oxide value agrees with the expression found earlier at this laboratory. But the result for the metal is 4. 5 % larger than the earlier one. In addition, the resonance absorption in a R1 fuel rod has been compared with that for a cadmium-covered rod placed in an approximate cell boundary flux. The former came out 3 % larger than the latter. A comparison of the fuel rod absorption with that for a 1/E flux yields a corresponding figure of 7 %. The neutron flux was monitored below the lowest resonance in uranium.

  1. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  2. Nonlinear resonance islands and modulational effects in a proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examine one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. The authors examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, the authors examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: Tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three parameters: The strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. The tune modulation model is successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. The authors present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and the authors make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment. The authors apply the tune modulation stability diagram to the explicitly two-dimensional phenomenon of modulational diffusion in the Fermilab Tevatron with beam-beam kicks as the source of nonlinearity. The amplitude growth created by this mechanism in simulation is exponential rather than root-time as predicted by modulational diffusion models. The authors comment upon the luminosity and lifetime limitations such a mechanism implies in a proton storage ring

  3. Comparison of stochastic resonance in static and dynamical nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yumei; Duan, Fabing

    2014-01-01

    We compare the stochastic resonance (SR) effects in parallel arrays of static and dynamical nonlinearities via the measure of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a received noisy periodic signal, parallel arrays of both static and dynamical nonlinearities can enhance the output SNR by optimizing the internal noise level. The static nonlinearity is easily implementable, while the dynamical nonlinearity has more parameters to be tuned, at the risk of not exploiting the beneficial role of internal noise components. It is of interest to note that, for an input signal buried in the external Laplacian noise, we show that the dynamical nonlinearity is superior to the static nonlinearity in obtaining a better output SNR. This characteristic is assumed to be closely associated with the kurtosis of noise distribution. - Highlights: • Comparison of SR effects in arrays of both static and dynamical nonlinearities. • Static nonlinearity is easily implementable for the SNR enhancement. • Dynamical nonlinearity yields a better output SNR for external Laplacian noise

  4. Nonlinear absorption and receptivity of the third order in InAs infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musayev, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear absorption and receptivity of the third order and coefficient nonlinear absorption in InAs n-type with different degree of alloying was measured. Obtained score considerably exceed sense, calculated on the basis of the models describing nonlinear receptivity of electrons, situated in the nonparabolic area of conductivity. It was shown that, observable deviations withdraw; if in the calculation apply energy dissipation of electrons. Growth of the efficiency under four-wave interaction in low-energy-gap semiconductors confines nonlinear absorption of interacting waves

  5. Nonlinear dynamics in micromechanical and nanomechanical resonators and oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler

    In recent years, the study of nonlinear dynamics in microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) has attracted considerable attention, motivated by both fundamental and practical interests. One example is the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Previous measurements have established the presence of this counterintuitive effect in NEMS, showing that certain amounts of white noise can effectively amplify weak switching signals in nanomechanical memory elements and switches. However, other types of noise, particularly noises with 1/falpha spectra, also bear relevance in these and many other systems. At a more fundamental level, the role which noise color plays in stochastic resonance remains an open question in the field. To these ends, this work presents systematic measurements of stochastic resonance in a nanomechanical resonator using 1/f alpha and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise types. All of the studied noise spectra induce stochastic resonance, proving that colored noise can also be beneficial; however, stronger noise correlations suppress the effect, decreasing the maximum signal-to-noise ratio and increasing the optimal noise intensity. Evidence suggests that 1/falpha noise spectra with increasing noise color lead to increasingly asymmetric switching, reducing the achievable amplification. Another manifestly nonlinear effect anticipated in these systems is modal coupling. Measurements presented here demonstrate interactions between various mode types on a wide scale, providing the first reported observations of coupling in bulk longitudinal modes of MEMS. As a result of anharmonic elastic effects, each mode shifts in frequency by an amount proportional to the squared displacement (or energy) of a coupled mode. Since all resonator modes couple in this manner, these effects enable nonlinear measurement of energy and mechanical nonlinear signal processing across a wide range of frequencies. Finally, while these experiments address nonlinear

  6. Intense laser effects on nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification in single quantum wells under applied electric and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.A.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the effects of intense laser on the electron-related nonlinear optical absorption and nonlinear optical rectification in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied under, applied electric and magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the growth direction of the quantum well whereas the magnetic field has been considered to be in-plane. The calculations were performed within the density matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The intense laser effects are included through the Floquet method, by modifying the confining potential associated to the heterostructure. Results are presented for the nonlinear optical absorption, the nonlinear optical rectification and the resonant peak of these two optical processes. Several configurations of the dimensions of the quantum well, the applied electric and magnetic fields, and the incident intense laser radiation have been considered. The outcome of the calculation suggests that the nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification are non-monotonic functions of the dimensions of the heterostructure and of the external perturbations considered in this work.

  7. Resonant photoionization absorption spectra of spherical quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, V

    2003-01-01

    We study theoretically the mid-infrared photon absorption spectra due to bound-free transitions of electrons in individual spherical quantum dots. It is established that change of the dot size in one or two atomic layers or/and number of electrons by one or two can change the peak value of the absorption spectra in orders of magnitude and energy of absorbed photons by tens of millielectronvolts. The reason for this is the formation of specific free states, called resonance states. Numerical calculations are performed for quantum dots (QDs) with radius varying up to 200 A, and one to eight electrons occupying the two lowest bound states. It is supposed that realistic QD systems with resonance states would be of much advantage to design novel infrared QD photo-detectors.

  8. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  9. Nonlinear Response of Cantilever Beams to Combination and Subcombination Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Nayfeh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear planar response of cantilever metallic beams to combination parametric and external subcombination resonances is investigated, taking into account the effects of cubic geometric and inertia nonlinearities. The beams considered here are assumed to have large length-to-width aspect ratios and thin rectangular cross sections. Hence, the effects of shear deformations and rotatory inertia are neglected. For the case of combination parametric resonance, a two-mode Galerkin discretization along with Hamilton’s extended principle is used to obtain two second-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. For the case of subcombination resonance, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the Lagrangian and virtual-work term. Then using Hamilton’s extended principle, we obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. In both cases, the modulation equations are used to generate frequency- and force-response curves. We found that the trivial solution exhibits a jump as it undergoes a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. Similarly, the nontrivial solutions also exhibit jumps as they undergo saddle-node bifurcations.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Silicon Nanowire Resonator Considering Nonlocal Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value. Furthermore, to characterize the role played by nonlocal effect in exerting influence on nonlinear behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos (typical phenomena in nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale devices), we have calculated the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram with and without nonlocal effect, and results shows the nonlocal effect causes the most significant effect as the device is at resonance. This work advances the development of nanowire resonators that are working beyond linear regime.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Helicopter Model in Ground Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.

  12. Nonlinear bounce resonances between magnetosonic waves and equatorially mirroring electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya

    2015-08-01

    Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the flux of these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from an equatorial pitch angle of 90° down to lower values. However, this mechanism has not been uniquely identified yet. Here we investigate the mechanism of bounce resonance with equatorial noise (or fast magnetosonic waves). A test particle simulation is used to examine the effects of monochromatic magnetosonic waves on the equatorially mirroring energetic electrons, with a special interest in characterizing the effectiveness of bounce resonances. Our analysis shows that bounce resonances can occur at the first three harmonics of the bounce frequency (nωb, n = 1, 2, and 3) and can effectively reduce the equatorial pitch angle to values where resonant scattering by whistler mode waves becomes possible. We demonstrate that the nature of bounce resonance is nonlinear, and we propose a nonlinear oscillation model for characterizing bounce resonances using two key parameters, effective wave amplitude à and normalized wave number k~z. The threshold for higher harmonic resonance is more strict, favoring higher à and k~z, and the change in equatorial pitch angle is strongly controlled by k~z. We also investigate the dependence of bounce resonance effects on various physical parameters, including wave amplitude, frequency, wave normal angle and initial phase, plasma density, and electron energy. It is found that the effect of bounce resonance is sensitive to the wave normal angle. We suggest that the bounce resonant interaction might lead to an observed pitch angle distribution with a minimum at 90°.

  13. Jump resonant frequency islands in nonlinear feedback control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, W. D.; Dunn, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A new type of jump resonance is predicted and observed in certain nonlinear feedback control systems. The new jump resonance characteristic is described as a 'frequency island' due to the fact that a portion of the input-output transfer characteristic is disjoint from the main body. The presence of such frequency islands was predicted by using a sinusoidal describing function characterization of the dynamics of an inertial gyro employing nonlinear ternary rebalance logic. While the general conditions under which such islands are possible has not been examined, a numerical approach is presented which can aid in establishing their presence. The existence of the frequency islands predicted for the ternary rebalanced gyro was confirmed by simulating the nonlinear system and measuring the transfer function.

  14. Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources. PMID:25854939

  15. Nonlinear damping of oblique whistler mode waves through Landau resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear trapping of electrons through Landau resonance is a characteristic dynamics in oblique whistler-mode wave particle interactions. The resonance velocity of the Landau resonance at quasi-parallel propagation becomes very close to the parallel group velocity of whistler-mode wave at frequency around 0.5 Ωe, causing a long distance of resonant interaction and strong acceleration of resonant electrons [1]. We demonstrate these effective accelerations for electrons with high equatorial pitch angle ( > 60°) by test particle simulations with parameters for the Earth's inner magnetosphere at L=5. In the simulations, we focus on slightly oblique whistler mode waves with wave normal angle 10.1002/2016JA023255.

  16. Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad; Chappanda, K. N.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

  17. Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-21

    We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

  18. Elastic Nonlinear Response in Granular Media Under Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Johnson, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    We are studying the elastic linear and nonlinear behavior of granular media using dynamic wave methods. In the work presented here, our goal is to quantify the elastic nonlinear response by applying wave resonance. Resonance studies are desirable because they provide the means to easily study amplitude dependencies of elastic nonlinear behavior and thus to characterize the physical nature of the elastic nonlinearity. This work has implications for a variety of topics, in particular, the in situ nonlinear response of surface sediments. For this work we constructed an experimental cell in which high sensitivity dynamic resonance studies were conducted using granular media under controlled effective pressure. We limit our studies here to bulk modes but have the capability to employ shear waves as well. The granular media are composed of glass beads held under pressure by a piston, while applying resonance waves from transducers as both the excitation and the material probe. The container is closed with two fitted pistons and a normal load is applied to the granular sample across the top piston. Force and displacement are measured directly. Resonant frequency sweeps with frequencies corresponding to the fundamental bulk mode are applied to the longitudinal source transducer. The pore pressure in the system is 1 atm. The glass beads used in our experiments are of diameter 0.5 mm, randomly deposited in a duralumin cylinder of diameter 30 mm and height of 15 mm. This corresponds to a granular skeleton acoustic wave velocity of v ª 750m/s under 50 N of force [0.07 Mpa]. The loaded system gives fundamental mode resonances in the audio frequency band at half a wavelength where resonance frequency is effective-pressure dependent. The volume fraction of glass beads thus obtained is found to be 0.63 ± 0.01. Plane-wave generating and detecting transducers of diameter 30 mm are placed on axis at the top and bottom of the cylindrical container in direct contact with the glass

  19. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Michiels, Matthieu; Snyders, Rony

    2015-12-01

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called "dynamic source triggering," between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  20. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britun, Nikolay, E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Michiels, Matthieu [Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called “dynamic source triggering,” between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  1. Parameter Identification for Nonlinear Circuit Models of Power BAW Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINESCU, F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The large signal operation of the bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators is characterized by the amplitude-frequency effect and the intermodulation effect. The measurement of these effects, together with that of the small signal frequency characteristic, are used in this paper for the parameter identification of the nonlinear circuit models developed previously by authors. As the resonator has been connected to the measurement bench by wire bonding, the parasitic elements of this connection have been taken into account, being estimated solving some electrical and magnetic field problems.

  2. ROLAIDS-CPM: A code for accurate resonance absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de.

    1993-08-01

    ROLAIDS is used to calculate group-averaged cross sections for specific zones in a one-dimensional geometry. This report describes ROLAIDS-CPM which is an extended version of ROLAIDS. The main extension in ROLAIDS-CPM is the possibility to use the collision probability method for a slab- or cylinder-geometry instead of the less accurate interface-currents method. In this way accurate resonance absorption calculations can be performed with ROLAIDS-CPM. ROLAIDS-CPM has been developed at ECN. (orig.)

  3. Depolarisation effects in resonance absorption neutron polarising filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1982-06-01

    The depolarisation of a neutron beam passing through a system of magnetically misaligned single domain particles is examined and simulated using a Monte-Carlo programme. The results of the simulations are in excellent agreement with those of analytic calculations within the regimes where such calculations are applicable. The simulations have been used in the estimation of the polarising efficiency and transmittance of a resonance absorption filter containing partially aligned particles of SmCo 5 . It is shown that the application of strong magnetic fields (approximately equal to 2T) should significantly improve the filter performance. A method of measuring this improvement is suggested. (author)

  4. Spatially resolved remote measurement of temperature by neutron resonance absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kockelmann, W.; Pooley, D.E. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Deep penetration of neutrons into most engineering materials enables non-destructive studies of their bulk properties. The existence of sharp resonances in neutron absorption spectra enables isotopically-resolved imaging of elements present in a sample, as demonstrated by previous studies. At the same time the Doppler broadening of resonance peaks provides a method of remote measurement of temperature distributions within the same sample. This technique can be implemented at a pulsed neutron source with a short initial pulse allowing for the measurement of the energy of each registered neutron by the time of flight technique. A neutron counting detector with relatively high timing and spatial resolution is used to demonstrate the possibility to obtain temperature distributions across a 100 µm Ta foil with ~millimeter spatial resolution. Moreover, a neutron transmission measurement over a wide energy range can provide spatially resolved sample information such as temperature, elemental composition and microstructure properties simultaneously.

  5. Multiphoton Absorption Order of CsPbBr3 As Determined by Wavelength-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouma, Felix O; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I

    2017-10-05

    CsPbBr 3 is a direct-gap semiconductor where optical absorption takes place across the fundamental bandgap, but this all-inorganic halide perovskite typically exhibits above-bandgap emission when excited over an energy level, lying above the conduction-band minimum. We probe this bandgap anomaly using wavelength-dependent multiphoton absorption spectroscopy and find that the fundamental gap is strictly two-photon forbidden, rendering it three-photon absorption (3PA) active. Instead, two-photon absorption (2PA) commences when the two-photon energy is resonant with the optical gap, associated with the level causing the anomaly. We determine absolute nonlinear optical dispersion over this 3PA-2PA region, which can be explained by two-band models in terms of the optical gap. The polarization dependence of 3PA and 2PA is also measured and explained by the relevant selection rules. CsPbBr 3 is highly luminescent under multiphoton absorption at room temperature with marked polarization and wavelength dependence at the 3PA-2PA crossover and therefore has potential for nonlinear optical applications.

  6. Suppressing nonlinear resonances in an impact oscillator using SMAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnikova, Elena; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Ing, James; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the resonant responses of an impact oscillator with a one sided SMA motion constraint operating in the pseudoelastic regime. The effectiveness of the SMA restraint in suppressing nonlinear resonances of the impact oscillator is assessed by comparing the dynamic responses of the impact oscillator with SMA and elastic restraints. It is shown that the hysteretic behaviour of the SMA restraint provides an overall vibration reduction in the resonant frequency ranges. Due to the softening behaviour of the SMA element, the resonant frequencies for the SMA oscillator were found to be lower than for the oscillator with an elastic restraint. At each resonance, a single periodic response for the oscillator with the elastic restraint corresponds to two co-existing periodic responses of the SMA oscillator. While at the first resonance peak the emergence of one of the co-existing responses is associated with the hardening effect of the SMA restraint when the pseudoelastic force varies over a complete transformation cycle, at higher frequency resonances incomplete phase transformations in the SMA were detected for both responses. The experimental study undertaken verified the response-modification effects predicted by the numerical analysis conducted under the isothermal approximation. The experimental results showed a good quantitative correspondence with the mathematical modelling. (paper)

  7. Unusual nonlinear absorption response of graphene oxide in the presence of a reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimzadeh, Rouhollah; Arandian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear absorption responses of graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are investigated using the Z-scan technique and laser beams at 405, 532 and 635 nm in a continuous wave regime. Results show that graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide do not show any open Z-scan signals at wavelengths of 532 and 635 nm. At the same time, fresh graphene oxide suspension is found to exhibit a nonlinear absorption process in the case of a laser light at 405 nm. Moreover, it can be observed that the reduction of graphene oxide by 405 nm laser irradiation decreases its nonlinear absorption value significantly. These findings highlight the important role of the reduction process on the nonlinear absorption performance of graphene oxide. (letter)

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  9. Fluctuation Reduction in a Si Micromechanical Resonator Tuned to Nonlinear Internal Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, B. Scott; Czaplewski, David; Chen, Changyao; Dykman, Mark; Lopez, Daniel; Shaw, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical results on an unusual behavior of fluctuations when the system exhibits internal resonance. We study the fundamental flexural mode (FFM) of a Si microbeam. The FFM is electrically actuated and detected. It is resonantly nonlinearly coupled to another mode, which is not directly accessible and has a frequency nearly three times the FFM frequency. Both the FFM and the passive mode have long lifetimes. We find that the passive mode can be a ``sink'' for fluctuations of the FFM. This explains the recently observed dramatic decrease of these fluctuations at nonlinear resonance. The re-distribution of the vibration amplitudes and the fluctuations is reminiscent of what happens at level anti-crossing in quantum mechanics. However, here it is different because of interplay of the dependence of the vibration frequency of the FFM on its amplitude due to internal nonlinearity and the nonlinear resonance with the passive mode. We study both the response of the system to external resonant driving and also the behavior of the system in the presence of a feedback loop. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  10. Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects.......Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects....

  11. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  12. The non-linear ion trap. Part 5. Nature of non-linear resonances and resonant ion ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The superposition of higher order multipole fields on the basic quadrupole field in ion traps generates a non-harmonic oscillator system for the ions. Fourier analyses of simulated secular oscillations in non-linear ion traps, therefore, not only reveal the sideband frequencies, well-known from the Mathieu theory, but additionally a commonwealth of multipole-specific overtones (or higher harmonics), and corresponding sidebands of overtones. Non-linear resonances occur when the overtone frequencies match sideband frequencies. It can be shown that in each of the resonance conditions, not just one overtone matches one sideband, instead, groups of overtones match groups of sidebands. The generation of overtones is studied by Fourier analysis of computed ion oscillations in the direction of thez axis. Even multipoles (octopole, dodecapole, etc.) generate only odd orders of higher harmonics (3, 5, etc.) of the secular frequency, explainable by the symmetry with regard to the planez = 0. In contrast, odd multipoles (hexapole, decapole, etc.) generate all orders of higher harmonics. For all multipoles, the lowest higher harmonics are found to be strongest. With multipoles of higher orders, the strength of the overtones decreases weaker with the order of the harmonics. Forz direction resonances in stationary trapping fields, the function governing the amplitude growth is investigated by computer simulations. The ejection in thez direction, as a function of timet, follows, at least in good approximation, the equation wheren is the order of multipole, andC is a constant. This equation is strictly valid for the electrically applied dipole field (n = 1), matching the secular frequency or one of its sidebands, resulting in a linear increase of the amplitude. It is valid also for the basic quadrupole field (n = 2) outside the stability area, giving an exponential increase. It is at least approximately valid for the non-linear resonances by weak superpositions of all higher odd

  13. Nonlinear Resonance Benchmarking Experiment at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, I; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Métral, Elias

    2003-01-01

    As a first step of a space charge - nonlinear resonance benchmarking experiment over a large number of turns, beam loss and emittance evolution were measured over 1 s on a 1.4 GeV kinetic energy flat-bottom in the presence of a single octupole. By lowering the working point towards the resonance a gradual transition from a loss-free core emittance blow-up to a regime dominated by continuous loss was found. Our 3D simulations with analytical space charge show that trapping on the resonance due to synchrotron oscillation causes the observed core emittance growth as well as halo formation, where the latter is explained as the source of the observed loss.

  14. A new active absorption system and its performance to linear and non-linear waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Clavero, M.; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •An active absorption system for wavemakers has been developed. •The theory for flush mounted gauges has been extended to cover also small gaps. •The new system has been validated in a wave flume with wavemakers in both ends. •A generation and absorption procedure for highly non-linear...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R. O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil); Holanda, J.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Vilela-Leão, L. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, PE (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-05-11

    We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2–6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.

  16. Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Sood, A. K.; Guha, Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Rao, C. N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Nonlinear transmission of 80 and 140fs pulsed light with 0.79μm wavelength through single walled carbon nanotubes suspended in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied. Pulse-width independent saturation absorption and negative cubic nonlinearity are observed, respectively, in open and closed aperture z-scan experiments. The theoretical expressions derived to analyze the z-dependent transmission in the saturable limit require two photon absorption coefficient β0˜1.4cm/MW and a nonlinear index γ ˜-5.5×10-11cm2/W to fit the data.

  17. Spectral dependence of nonlinear optical absorption of silica glass with copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A N; Nikitin, S I; Smirnov, M A; Stepanov, A L

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of silica glass with copper nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation were investigated by z-scan method in nanosecond time scale. The reverse saturation absorption (RSA) at the wavelength range of 450–540 nm and saturation absorption (SA) at 550–585 nm were observed. It was supposed that the two-photon electron absorption from bound of d-states determined the RSA effect and the SA is due to saturation of plasmon excitation.

  18. Mode Coupling and Nonlinear Resonances of MEMS Arch Resonators for Bandpass Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2017-01-30

    We experimentally demonstrate an exploitation of the nonlinear softening, hardening, and veering phenomena (near crossing), where the frequencies of two vibration modes get close to each other, to realize a bandpass filter of sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband. The concept is demonstrated based on an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS arch resonator operated in air. The in-plane resonator is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a deliberate curvature to form an arch shape. A DC current is applied through the resonator to induce heat and modulate its stiffness, and hence its resonance frequencies. We show that the first resonance frequency increases up to twice of the initial value while the third resonance frequency decreases until getting very close to the first resonance frequency. This leads to the phenomenon of veering, where both modes get coupled and exchange energy. We demonstrate that by driving both modes nonlinearly and electrostatically near the veering regime, such that the first and third modes exhibit softening and hardening behavior, respectively, sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband is achievable. We show a flat, wide, and tunable bandwidth and center frequency by controlling the electrothermal actuation voltage.

  19. Non-linear interactions of multi-level atoms with a near-resonant standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Walkiewicz, M.R.; Farrell, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a semiclassical density matrix formalism we have calculated the behavior of multi-level atoms interacting with a standing wave field, and show how complex non-linear phenomena, including multi-photon effects, combine to produce saturation spectra as observed in experiments. We consider both 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models, contrasting these with a simple 2-level case. The influence of parameters such as atomic trajectory and the time the atom remains in the beam are shown to have a critical effect on the lineshape of these resonances and the emission/absorption processes. Stable oscillations in the excited state populations for both the two-level and multi-level cases are shown to be limit cycles. These limit cycles undergo period doubling as the system evolves into chaos. Finally, using a Monte Carlo treatment, these processes average to produce saturated absorption spectra complete with power and Doppler broadening effects consistent with experiment. (authors)

  20. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G. [Solar Plasma Physics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Amy Johnson Building, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  1. THz induced nonlinear absorption in ZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied.......Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied....

  2. Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking

  3. The inherent complexity in nonlinear business cycle model in resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Junhai; Sun Tao; Liu Lixia

    2008-01-01

    Based on Abraham C.-L. Chian's research, we applied nonlinear dynamic system theory to study the first-order and second-order approximate solutions to one category of the nonlinear business cycle model in resonance condition. We have also analyzed the relation between amplitude and phase of second-order approximate solutions as well as the relation between outer excitements' amplitude, frequency approximate solutions, and system bifurcation parameters. Then we studied the system quasi-periodical solutions, annulus periodical solutions and the path leading to system bifurcation and chaotic state with different parameter combinations. Finally, we conducted some numerical simulations for various complicated circumstances. Therefore this research will lay solid foundation for detecting the complexity of business cycles and systems in the future

  4. Formalism of photons in a nonlinear microring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quang Loc; Yupapin, Preecha

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, using short Gaussian pulses input from a monochromatic light source, we simulate the photon distribution and analyse the output gate's signals of PANDA nonlinear ring resonator. The present analysis is restricted to directional couplers characterized by two parameters, the power coupling coefficient κ and power coupling loss γ. Add/drop filters are also employed and investigated for the suitable to implement in the practical communication system. The experiment was conducted by using the combination of Lumerical FDTD Solutions and Lumerical MODE Solutions software.

  5. Contribution to analytical theory of neutron resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactor systems with cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipicevic, K.

    1968-12-01

    Following a review of the existing theories od resonance absorption this thesis includes a new approach for calculating the effective resonance integral of absorbed neutrons, new approximate formula for the penetration factor, an analysis of the effective resonance integral and the correction of the resonance integral taking into account the interference of potential and resonance dissipation. A separate chapter is devoted to calculation of the effective resonance integral for the regular reactor lattice with cylindrical fuel elements

  6. Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.

    2000-04-01

    A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.

  7. The thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance integrals and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, J.S.

    1969-09-01

    The data available up to the end of November 1968 on the thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance absorption integrals, and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes are collected and discussed. Estimates are given of the mean spacing of the energy levels of the compound nuclei near the neutron binding energy. It is concluded that the thermal neutron absorption cross-section and resonance absorption integral of natural silicon are not well established. The data on these two parameters are somewhat correlated, and three different assessments of the resonance integral are presented which differ over-all by a factor of 230. Many resonances have been detected by charged particle reactions which have not yet been observed in neutron cross-section measurements. One of these resonances of Si 2 8, at E n = 4 ± 5 keV might account for the large resonance integral which is derived, very uncertainly, from integral data. The principal source of the measured resonance integral of Si 3 0 has not yet been located. The thermal neutron absorption cross-section of Si 2 8 appears to result mainly from a negative energy resonance, possibly the resonance at E n = - 59 ± 5 keV detected by the Si 2 8 (d,p) reaction. (author)

  8. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  9. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  10. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  11. Efficient frequency conversion through absorptive bands of the nonlinear crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, Gil; Arie, Ady

    2012-01-01

    Two simultaneous three wave mixing processes are analyzed, where an input frequency is converted to an output frequency via an intermediate stage. By employing simultaneous phase-matching and an adiabatic modulation of the nonlinear coupling strengths, the intermediate frequency is kept dark throughout the interaction, while obtaining high conversion efficiency. This feat is accomplished in a manner analogous to population transfer in atomic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). Applic...

  12. Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.

  13. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  14. Dispersive shock mediated resonant radiations in defocused nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Rik; Bhadra, Shyamal Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We report the evolution of resonant radiation (RR) in a self-defocused nonlinear medium with two zero dispersion wavelengths. RR is generated from dispersive shock wave (DSW) front when the pump pulse is in non-solitonic regime close to first zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW). DSW is responsible for pulse splitting resulting in the generation of blue solitons when leading edge of the pump pulse hits the first ZDW. DSW also generates a red shifted dispersive wave (DW) in the presence of higher order dispersion coefficients. Further, DSW through cross-phase modulation with red shifted dispersive wave (DW) excites a localized radiation. The presence of zero nonlinearity point in the system restricts red-shift of RR and enhances the red shifting of DW. It also helps in the formation of DSW at shorter distance and squeezes the solitonic region beyond second zero dispersion point. Predicted results indicate that the spectral evolution depends on the product of Kerr nonlinearity and group velocity dispersion.

  15. Dissimilar trend of nonlinearity in ultrasound transducers and systems at resonance and non-resonance frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Negareh; Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    Several factors can affect performance of an ultrasound system such as quality of excitation signal and ultrasound transducer behaviour. Nonlinearity of piezoelectric ultrasound transducers is a key determinant in designing a proper driving power supply. Although, the nonlinearity of piezoelectric...... was excited at different frequencies. Different excitation signals were generated using a linear power amplifier and a multilevel converter within a range of 30–200 V. Empirical relation was developed to express the resistance of the piezoelectric transducer as a nonlinear function of both excitation voltage...... and resonance frequency. The impedance measurements revealed that at higher voltage ranges, the piezoelectric transducer can be easily saturated. Also, it was shown that for the developed ultrasound system composed of two transducers (one transmitter and one receiver), the output voltage measured across...

  16. Theoretical and experimental nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped beam MEMS resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Fey, R.H.B.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Microelectromechanical resonators feature nonlineardynamic responses. A first-principles based modeling approach is proposed for a clamped-clamped beam resonator. Starting from the partial differential equation for the beam including geometric and electrostatic nonlinear effects, a reduced-order

  17. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  18. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  19. Rapidly reconfigurable slow-light system based on off-resonant Raman absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vudyasetu, Praveen K.; Howell, John C.; Camacho, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a slow-light system based on dual Raman absorption resonances in warm rubidium vapor. Each Raman absorption resonance is produced by a control beam in an off-resonant Λ system. This system combines all optical control of the Raman absorption and the low-dispersion broadening properties of the double Lorentzian absorption slow light. The bandwidth, group delay, and central frequency of the slow-light system can all be tuned dynamically by changing the properties of the control beam. We demonstrate multiple pulse delays with low distortion and show that such a system has fast switching dynamics and thus fast reconfiguration rates.

  20. Nonlinear absorption and transmission properties of Ge, Te and InAs using tuneable IR FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Becker, K.; Brau, C.A. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear absorption properties of Ge, Te and InAs are being investigated using the transmission of FEL optical pulses through these semiconductors (z-scan method). Wavelength, intensity and macropulse dependence are used to differentiate between two-photon and free-carrier absorption properties of these materials. Macropulse dependence is resolved by using a Pockles Cell to chop the 4-{mu}s macropulse down to 100 ns. Results of these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  1. Particle trapping by nonlinear resonances and space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchetti, G.; Hofmann, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the FAIR [C.D.R. http://www.gsi.de/GSI Future/cdr/] facility planned at GSI high space charge effects and nonlinear dynamics may play an important role for limiting nominal machine performance. The most relevant interplay of these two effects on the single particle dynamics has been proposed in terms of trapping of particles into stable islands [G. Franchetti, I. Hofmann, AIP Conf. Proc. 642 (2002) 260]. Subsequent numerical studies and dedicated experiments have followed [G. Franchetti et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003) 124201; G. Franchetti et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 773 (2005) 137]. We present here the effect of the chromaticity on the mechanisms of halo formation induced by particle trapping into resonances

  2. Nonlinear absorption of fullerene- and nanotubes-doped liquid crystal systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamanina, N.; Reshak, Ali H; Vasiliev, P.Y.; Vangonen, A. I.; Studeonov, V. I.; Usanov, Y. E.; Ebothe, J.; Gondek, E.; Wojcik, W.; Danel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2009), s. 391-394 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nonlinear absorption properties * organic electrooptical systems * liquid crystal * fullerene s * nanotubes * PVK-derivatives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.177, year: 2009

  3. Nonlinear stability, bifurcation and resonance in granular plane Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Priyanka; Alam, Meheboob

    2010-11-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory is developed to understand the effect of nonlinearities on various linear instability modes as well as to unveil the underlying bifurcation scenario in a two-dimensional granular plane Couette flow. The relevant order parameter equation, the Landau-Stuart equation, for the most unstable two-dimensional disturbance has been derived using the amplitude expansion method of our previous work on the shear-banding instability.ootnotetextShukla and Alam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 068001 (2009). Shukla and Alam, J. Fluid Mech. (2010, accepted). Two types of bifurcations, Hopf and pitchfork, that result from travelling and stationary linear instabilities, respectively, are analysed using the first Landau coefficient. It is shown that the subcritical instability can appear in the linearly stable regime. The present bifurcation theory shows that the flow is subcritically unstable to disturbances of long wave-lengths (kx˜0) in the dilute limit, and both the supercritical and subcritical states are possible at moderate densities for the dominant stationary and traveling instabilities for which kx=O(1). We show that the granular plane Couette flow is prone to a plethora of resonances.ootnotetextShukla and Alam, J. Fluid Mech. (submitted, 2010)

  4. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption of reduced graphene oxide by chemical reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongfei; Wang, Can; Sun, Zhipei; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Redfern, Simon A T; Yang, Guozhen

    2014-08-11

    Reduced graphene oxides with varying degrees of reduction have been produced by hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of both graphene oxide as well as the reduced graphene oxides have been measured by single beam Z-scan measurement in the picosecond region. The results reveal both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption, strongly dependent on the intensity of the pump pulse: saturable absorption occurs at lower pump pulse intensity (~1.5 GW/cm2 saturation intensity) whereas two-photon absorption dominates at higher intensities (≥5.7 GW/cm2). Intriguingly, we find that the two-photon absorption coefficient (from 1.5 cm/GW to 4.5cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (from 1 GW/cm2 to 2 GW/cm2) vary with chemical reduction, which is ascribed to the varying concentrations of sp2 domains and sp2 clusters in the reduced graphene oxides. Our results not only provide an insight into the evolution of the nonlinear optical coefficient in reduced graphene oxide, but also suggest that chemical engineering techniques may usefully be applied to tune the nonlinear optical properties of various nano-materials, including atomically thick graphene sheets.

  5. On-demand single-photon state generation via nonlinear absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tao; Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method for producing on-demand single-photon states based on collision-induced exchanges of photons and unbalanced linear absorption between two single-mode light fields. These two effects result in an effective nonlinear absorption of photons in one of the modes, which can lead to single-photon states. A quantum nonlinear attenuator based on such a mechanism can absorb photons in a normal input light pulse and terminate the absorption at a single-photon state. Because the output light pulses containing single photons preserve the properties of the input pulses, we expect this method to be a means for building a highly controllable single-photon source

  6. A novel nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation effect for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2017-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a theoretical model able to predict the generation of nonlinear elastic effects associated to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the steady-state nonlinear response of local defect resonance (LDR). The LDR effect is used in nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy to enhance the excitation of the material damage at its local resonance, thus to dramatically increase the vibrational amplitude of material nonlinear phenomena. The main result of this work is to prove both analytically and experimentally the generation of novel nonlinear elastic wave effects, here named as nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation, which correspond to a nonlinear intermodulation between the driving frequency and the LDR one. Beside this intermodulation effect, other nonlinear elastic wave phenomena such as higher harmonics of the input frequency and superharmonics of LDR frequency were found. The analytical model relies on solving the nonlinear equation of motion governing bending displacement under the assumption of both quadratic and cubic nonlinear defect approximation. Experimental tests on a damaged composite laminate confirmed and validated these predictions and showed that using continuous periodic excitation, the nonlinear structural phenomena associated to LDR could also be featured at locations different from the damage resonance. These findings will provide new opportunities for material damage detection using nonlinear ultrasounds.

  7. Effects of Nonlinear Absorption in BK7 and Color Glasses at 355 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J J; McCarville, T; Bruere, J; McElroy, J; Peterson, J

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated a simple experimental technique that can be used to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficients in glasses. We determine BK7, UG1, and UG11 glasses to have linear absorption coefficients of 0.0217 ± 10% cm -1 , 1.7 ± 10% cm -1 , and 0.82 ± 10% cm -1 , respectively, two-photon absorption cross-sections of 0.025 ± 20% cm/GW, 0.035 ± 20% cm/GW, and 0.047 ± 20% cm/GW, respectively, excited-state absorption cross-sections of 8.0 x 10 -18 ± 20% cm 2 , 2.8 x 10 -16 ± 20% cm 2 , and 5 x 10 -17 ± 20% cm 2 , respectively, and solarization coefficients of 8.5 x 10 -20 ± 20% cm 2 , 2.5 x 10 -18 ± 20% cm 2 , and 1.3 x 10 -19 ± 20% cm 2 , respectively. For our application, nonlinear effects in 10-cm of BK7 are small ((le) 2%) for 355-nm fluences 2 for flat-top pulses. However, nonlinear effects are noticeable for 355-nm fluences at 0.8 J/cm 2 . In particular, we determine a 20% increase in the instantaneous absorption from linear, a solarization rate of 4% per 100 shots, and a 10% temporal droop introduced in the pulse, for 355-nm flat-top pulses at a fluence of 0.8 J/cm 2 . For 0.5-cm of UG1 absorbing glass the non-linear absorption has a similar effect as that from 10-cm of BK7 on the pulse shape; however, the effects in UG11 are much smaller

  8. Two-dimensional thermometry by using neutron resonance absorption spectrometer DOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, T.; Noda, H.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ikeda, S.

    2001-01-01

    We applied the neutron resonance absorption spectroscopy to thermometry of a bulk object. The measurement was done by using the neutron resonance absorption spectrometer, DOG, installed at KENS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Neutron Source, which enables us to investigate effective temperature of a particular element by analyzing line width of resonance absorption spectrum. The effective temperature becomes consistence with the sample temperature above room temperature. For the analysis we applied the computed tomography method to reconstruct the temperature distribution on the object cross section. The results and the calculated distribution by the heat conducting equation are well agreed on the temperature difference inside the object. (author)

  9. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  10. Near resonant and nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; He, T. C.; Gao, Y.; Demir, H. V.; Sun, X. W.; Sun, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) using Z-scan technique with femtosecond pulses. The two-photon absorption cross-sections as high as 6.2 × 103 GM are observed at 800 nm (non-resonant regime) in InP/ZnS QDs with diameter of 2.8 nm, which is even larger than those of CdSe, CdS, and CdTe QDs at similar sizes. Furthermore, both of the 2.2 nm and 2.8 nm-sized InP/ZnS QDs exhibit strong saturable absorption in near resonant regime, which is attributed to large exciton Bohr radius in this material. These results strongly suggest the promising potential of InP/ZnS QDs for widespread applications, especially in two-photon excited bio-imaging and saturable absorbing.

  11. A resonant absorption measurement in the reaction 26Mg(p, γ)27Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, C. van der; Burhoven Jaspers, N.C.

    1966-01-01

    A resonant absorption measurement at the 1966 keV proton resonance in the reaction 26Mg(p, γ)27Al leads to an absolute determination of the resonance strength, (2J+1)ΓpΓγ/Γ, of 5.6±1.8 eV. Normalization of previously published strengths of 120 resonances in the reaction 26Mg(p, γ)27Al, reduces these

  12. Nonlinear resonance and dynamical chaos in a diatomic molecule driven by a resonant ir field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G.P.; Bulgakov, E.N.; Holm, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the transition from regular motion to dynamical chaos in a classical model of a diatomic molecule which is driven by a circularly polarized resonant ir field. Under the conditions of a nearly two-dimensional case, the Hamiltonian reduces to that for the nonintegrable motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave [A. J. Lichtenberg and M. A. Lieberman, Regular and Stochastic Motion (Springer-Verlag, City, 1983)]. In the general case, the transition to chaos is connected with the overlapping of vibrational-rotational nonlinear resonances and appears even at rather low radiation field intensity, S approx-gt 1 GW/cm 2 . We also discuss the possibility of experimentally observing this transition

  13. Nonlinear absorption dynamics using field-induced surface hopping: zinc porphyrin in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Merle I S; Petersen, Jens; Wohlgemuth, Matthias; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Mitrić, Roland

    2013-05-10

    We wish to present the application of our field-induced surface-hopping (FISH) method to simulate nonlinear absorption dynamics induced by strong nonresonant laser fields. We provide a systematic comparison of the FISH approach with exact quantum dynamics simulations on a multistate model system and demonstrate that FISH allows for accurate simulations of nonlinear excitation processes including multiphoton electronic transitions. In particular, two different approaches for simulating two-photon transitions are compared. The first approach is essentially exact and involves the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in an extended manifold of excited states, while in the second one only transiently populated nonessential states are replaced by an effective quadratic coupling term, and dynamics is performed in a considerably smaller manifold of states. We illustrate the applicability of our method to complex molecular systems by simulating the linear and nonlinear laser-driven dynamics in zinc (Zn) porphyrin in the gas phase and in water. For this purpose, the FISH approach is connected with the quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical approach (QM/MM) which is generally applicable to large classes of complex systems. Our findings that multiphoton absorption and dynamics increase the population of higher excited states of Zn porphyrin in the nonlinear regime, in particular in solution, provides a means for manipulating excited-state properties, such as transient absorption dynamics and electronic relaxation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dissipative Vortex Solitons in Defocusing Media with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Jing; Cai, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by solving a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation, radially symmetric dissipative vortex solitons are obtained analytically and are tested numerically. We find that spatially inhomogeneous nonlinear absorption gives rise to the stability of dissipative vortex solitons in self-defocusing nonlinear medium in the presence of constant linear gain. Numerical simulation reveals the interaction effect among linear gain and nonlinear loss in the azimuthal modulation instabilities of these vortices suppression. Apart from the uniform linear gain indeed affects the stability of vortex in this media, another noticeable feature of current setup is that the steep spatial modulation of the nonlinear absorption can suppress sidelobes effectively and support stable vortex solitons in situations with uniform linear gain. Under appropriate conditions, the vortex solitons can propagate stably and feature no symmetry breaking, although the beams exhibit radical compression and amplification as they propagate. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11705164 and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ16A040003

  15. Measurements of the effective total and resonance absorption cross sections for zircaloy-2 and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A; Markovic, V [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1967-04-15

    Zirconium and zircaloy-2 alloy, as constructive materials, have found wide application in reactor technology, especially in heavy water systems for two reasons: a) low neutron absorption cross section, b) good mechanical properties. The thickness of the zirconium and zircaloy-2 for different applications varies from several tenths of a millimeter to about ten millimeters. Therefore, to calculate reactor systems it is desirable to know the effective neutron absorption cross section for the range of thicknesses mention above. The thermal neutron cross sections for these materials are low and no appreciable variation of the effective neutron cross section occurs even for the largest thicknesses. However, this is not true for effective resonance absorption. On the other hand, due to the lack of detailed knowledge of the zirconium resonances, calculations of the effective resonance integrals cannot be performed. Therefore it is necessary to measure the effective total and resonance absorption cross section for zirconium (author)

  16. Alkali-Responsive Absorption Spectra and Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Imino Squaramides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong-Yu; Xu Song; Zhou Xin-Yu; Zhang Fu-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities and dynamic responses of two imino squaramides under neutral and base conditions were studied using the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique at 800 nm. Ultrafast optical responses have been observed and the magnitude of the second-order hyperpolarizabilities of the squaramides has been measured to be as large as 10 −31 esu. The absorption spectra, color of solution, and third-order optical nonlinearities of two imino squaramides change with the addition of sodium hydroxide. The γ value under the base condition for each dye is approximately 1.25 times larger than that under neutral conditions. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  17. Experimental determination of resonance absorption cross sections for Zircaloy-2 and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A; Markovic, V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-05-15

    The integral absorption cross section for the neutron spectrum and the thermal absorption cross section for zircaloy-2 have been determined using the pile oscillator technique. Using both values and a measured ratio of the epithermal to the thermal flux, the effective resonance integrals were obtained. After subtraction of the contributions for alloy and impurity elements, the effective resonance integrals for zirconium were evaluated. An extrapolated value of 0.91{+-}0.10 was obtained for the dilute integral. (author)

  18. Benchmark calculations on resonance absorption by 238U in a PWR pin-cell geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Janssen, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    Very accurate Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP have been performed to serve as a reference for benchmark calculations on resonance absorption by 238 U in a typical PWR pin-cell geometry. Calculations with the energy-pointwise slowing down code ROLAIDS-CPM show that this code calculates the resonance absorption accurately. Calculations with the multigroup discrete ordinates code XSDRN show that accurate results can only be achieved with a very fine energy mesh. (orig.)

  19. Observation of confinement effects through liner and nonlinear absorption spectroscopy in cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nano clusters, micro cubes and micro particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper (II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of pure single phase cubic. Raman spectrum shows the inevitable presence of CuO on the surface of the Cu2O powders which may have an impact on the stability of the phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro cubes and micro particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show that the absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nano clusters to micro cubes and micro particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Samples exhibited saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA is ascribed to excited-state absorption (ESA) induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap) we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) in the case of nano-clusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  20. Nonresonant absorption of one photon by one atom and resonant absorption of two photons by two atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Masataka

    1990-01-01

    When a radiation field of frequency ω 1 interacts with atoms, etch of which has a transition frequency ω ba =(E b -E a )/h, with ω 1 -ω ba =Δ≠0, nonresonant absorption can take place with probability P 1 inversely proportional to Δ 2 (a pressure broadening). When another radiation field of frequency ω 2 , such that ω 1 +ω 2 =2ω ba, interacts simultaneously with the gas a resonant two-photon absorption can take place in addition to the nonresonant absorption. The probability of this two-photon absorption process, P 2 , is found to be inversely proportional to Δ 4 . If Ω=| | is the Rabi frequency of the transition, it is found that P 2 /(P 1 (Δ)+P 1 (-Δ)) is given by 12 {Ω(-Δ)Ω(-Δ)} 2 / {Δ 2 (Ω(-Δ) 2 + Ω(Δ) 2 )}. (author)

  1. Volume fraction dependence of transient absorption signal and nonlinearities in metal nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Khan, Salahuddin; Chari, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Electron–lattice thermalization dynamics in metal nanoparticles or in bulk metal is usually estimated by measuring the decay time of the change in transmission following an optical excitation. Such measurements can be performed in transient absorption geometry using a femtosecond laser. We find that for silver nanoplatelet/water colloids, the decay time of the transient absorption depends on the volume fraction of silver in water. By estimating the volume fraction dependence of nonlinearities in the same samples, we show that the variation in the measured decay time is due to pump-depletion effects present in the sample. The correct correction factor for taking into account pump-depletion effects in fifth- and higher-order nonlinearities is also presented. (paper)

  2. Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinneken, Johannes; Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes

  3. A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear plasmonic resonator design is proposed for three-state all-optical switching at frequencies including near infrared and lower red parts of the spectrum. The tri-stable response required for three-state operation is obtained by enhancing nonlinearities of a Kerr medium through multiple (higher order) plasmons excited on resonator\\'s metallic surfaces. Indeed, simulations demonstrate that exploitation of multiple plasmons equips the proposed resonator with a multi-band tri-stable response, which cannot be obtained using existing nonlinear plasmonic devices that make use of single mode Lorentzian resonances. Multi-band three-state optical switching that can be realized using the proposed resonator has potential applications in optical communications and computing. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  4. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.; Tuccio, S.; Giugni, A.; Toma, A.; Liberale, Carlo; Das, G.; Angelis, F.D.; Fabrizio, E.D.; Zaccaria, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  5. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  6. Resonant behaviour of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. I - Connection formulae at the resonant surfaces. II - Absorption of sound waves by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1991-01-01

    The present method of addressing the resonance problems that emerge in such MHD phenomena as the resonant absorption of waves at the Alfven resonance point avoids solving the fourth-order differential equation of dissipative MHD by recourse to connection formulae across the dissipation layer. In the second part of this investigation, the absorption of solar 5-min oscillations by sunspots is interpreted as the resonant absorption of sounds by a magnetic cylinder. The absorption coefficient is interpreted (1) analytically, under certain simplifying assumptions, and numerically, under more general conditions. The observed absorption coefficient magnitude is explained over suitable parameter ranges.

  7. Coherent perfect absorption in a quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang-hua; Gu, Wen-ju; Yang, Guoqing; Zhu, Yifu; Li, Gao-xiang

    2018-05-01

    Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is investigated in the quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which a single two-level atom couples to a single-mode cavity weakly driven by two identical laser fields. In the strong-coupling regime and due to the photon blockade effect, the weakly driven CQED system can be described as a quantum system with three polariton states. CPA is achieved at a critical input field strength when the frequency of the input fields matches the polariton transition frequency. In the quantum nonlinear regime, the incoherent dissipation processes such as atomic and photon decays place a lower bound for the purity of the intracavity quantum field. Our results show that under the CPA condition, the intracavity field always exhibits the quadrature squeezing property manifested by the quantum nonlinearity, and the outgoing photon flux displays the super-Poissonian distribution.

  8. Numerical simulation of ultrasound-thermotherapy combining nonlinear wave propagation with broadband soft-tissue absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, S

    2000-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) thermotherapy is used to treat tumours, located deep in human tissue, by heat. It features by the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), high local temperatures of about 90 degrees C and short treating time of a few seconds. Dosage of the therapy remains a problem. To get it under control, one has to know the heat source, i.e. the amount of absorbed US power, which shows nonlinear influences. Therefore, accurate simulations are essential. In this paper, an improved simulation model is introduced which enables accurate investigations of US thermotherapy. It combines nonlinear US propagation effects, which lead to generation of higher harmonics, with a broadband frequency-power law absorption typical for soft tissue. Only the combination of both provides a reliable calculation of the generated heat. Simulations show the influence of nonlinearities and broadband damping for different source signals on the absorbed US power density distribution.

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. ► Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  10. Heat Dissipation of Resonant Absorption in Metal Nanoparticle-Polymer Films Described at Particle Separation Near Resonant Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Dunklin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer films containing plasmonic nanostructures are of increasing interest for development of responsive energy, sensing, and therapeutic systems. The present work evaluates heat dissipated from power absorbed by resonant gold (Au nanoparticles (NP with negligible Rayleigh scattering cross sections randomly dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. Finite element analysis (FEA of heat transport was coordinated with characterization of resonant absorption by Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation (CDA. At AuNP particle separation greater than resonant wavelength, correspondence was observed between measured and CDA-predicted optical absorption and FEA-derived power dissipation. At AuNP particle separation less than resonant wavelength, measured extinction increased relative to predicted values, while FEA-derived power dissipation remained comparable to CDA-predicted power absorption before lagging observed extinguished power at higher AuNP content and resulting particle separation. Effects of isolated particles, for example, scattering, and particle-particle interactions, for example, multiple scattering, aggregation on observed optothermal activity were evaluated. These complementary approaches to distinguish contributions to resonant heat dissipation from isolated particle absorption and interparticle interactions support design and adaptive control of thermoplasmonic materials for a variety of implementations.

  11. Multi-bi- and tri-stability using nonlinear plasmonic Fano resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    A plasmonic Fano resonator embedding Kerr nonlinearity is used to achieve multi-bi- and tri-stability. Fano resonance is obtained by inducing higher-order plasmon modes on metallic surfaces via geometrical symmetry breaking. The presence of the multiple higher order plasmon modes provides the means for producing multi-bi- or tri-stability in the response of the resonator when it is loaded with a material with Kerr nonlinearity. The multi-stability in the response of the proposed resonator enables its use in three-state all optical memory and switching applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. The Fourier transform method for infinite medium resonance absorption problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    A new method, using Fourier transforms, is developed for solving the integral equation of slowing down of neutrons in the resonance region. The transformations replace the slowing down equation with a discontinuous kernel by an integral equation with a continuous kernel over the interval (-infinity, infinity). Further the Doppler broadened line shape functions have simple analytical representations in the transform variable. In the limit of zero temperature, the integral equation reduces to a second order differential equation. Accurate expressions for the zero temperature resonance integrals are derived, using the WKB method. In general, the integral equation is seen to be amenable to solution by Ganss-Hermite quadrature formule. Doppler coefficients of 238 U resonances are given and compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The method is extended to include the effect of interference between neighbouring resonances of an absorber. For the case of two interfering resonances the slowing down equation is transformed to the coupled integral equations that are amenable to solution by methods indicated earlier. Numerical results presented for the low lying thorium-232 doublet show that the Doppler coefficients of the resonances are reduced considerably because of the overlap between them. (author)

  13. High intersubband absorption in long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector based on waveguide resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanliao; Chen, Pingping; Ding, Jiayi; Yang, Heming; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid structure consisting of periodic gold stripes and an overlaying gold film has been proposed as the optical coupler of a long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector. Absorption spectra and field distributions of the structure at back-side normal incidence are calculated by the finite difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the intersubband absorption can be greatly enhanced based on the waveguide resonance as well as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode. With the optimized structural parameters of the periodic gold stripes, the maximal intersubband absorption can exceed 80%, which is much higher than the SPP-enhanced intersubband absorption (the one of the standard device. The relationship between the structural parameters and the waveguide resonant wavelength is derived. Other advantages of the efficient optical coupling based on waveguide resonance are also discussed.

  14. Unbounded Perturbations of Nonlinear Second-Order Difference Equations at Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ruyun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of solutions of nonlinear discrete boundary value problems , , , where is the first eigenvalue of the linear problem , , , satisfies some “asymptotic nonuniform” resonance conditions, and for .

  15. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  16. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  17. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption in Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeesh, M. M.; Shakhi, P. K.; Varier, Geetha K.; Nandakumar, P.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films and its dependence on gold nanoparticle concentration. Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films with different molar ratio of Au/Ba are prepared by sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV Visible absorption spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. An open aperture Z-scan technique is employed to study the third order nonlinear optical properties of Au/BaTiO3 thin films. An Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm wavelength having a pulse width of 5 ns is used for the measurements. The two-photon absorption coefficient of the films increases linearly with gold nanoparticle concentration and significant enhancement of nonlinear optical absorption is observed. This ability to fine tune the nonlinear optical coefficients of Au/BaTiO3 films would be handy in optical device applications.

  18. A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear plasmonic resonator design is proposed for three-state all-optical switching at frequencies including near infrared and lower red parts of the spectrum. The tri-stable response required for three-state operation is obtained by enhancing nonlinearities of a Kerr medium through multiple (higher order) plasmons excited on resonator's metallic surfaces. Indeed, simulations demonstrate that exploitation of multiple plasmons equips the proposed resonator with a multi-band tri-stable response, which cannot be obtained using existing nonlinear plasmonic devices that make use of single mode Lorentzian resonances. Multi-band three-state optical switching that can be realized using the proposed resonator has potential applications in optical communications and computing. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  19. Effects of error feedback on a nonlinear bistable system with stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian-Long; Zhou Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effects of error feedback on the output of a nonlinear bistable system with stochastic resonance. The bit error rate is employed to quantify the performance of the system. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation are presented. By investigating the performances of the nonlinear systems with different strengths of error feedback, we argue that the presented system may provide guidance for practical nonlinear signal processing

  20. Nonlinear absorption properties of some 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines and their metallated derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    BLAU, WERNER

    2003-01-01

    PUBLISHED The third-order nonlinear optical properties of a series of 15 unmetallated and metallated 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines have been investigated. The palladium-metallated compound is the strongest nonlinear absorber of the series, but, due to its comparatively high linear absorption coefficient, it exhibits a relatively low ratio of excited- to ground-state absorption cross-sections (?) when compared to the other compounds. The highest values for ? were found for d...

  1. Tunable THz wave absorption by graphene-assisted plasmonic metasurfaces based on metallic split ring resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Gerislioglu, Burak; Kaya, Serkan; Pala, Nezih

    2017-01-01

    Graphene plasmonics has been introduced as a novel platform to design various nano- and microstructures to function in a wide range of spectrum from optical to THz frequencies. Herein, we propose a tunable plasmonic metamaterial in the THz regime by using metallic (silver) concentric microscale split ring resonator arrays on a multilayer metasurface composed of silica and silicon layers. We obtained an absorption percentage of 47.9% including two strong Fano resonant dips in THz regime for the purely plasmonic metamaterial without graphene layer. Considering the data of an atomic graphene sheet (with the thickness of ~0.35 nm) in both analytical and experimental regimes obtained by prior works, we employed a graphene layer under concentric split ring resonator arrays and above the multilayer metasurface to enhance the absorption ratio in THz bandwidth. Our numerical and analytical results proved that the presence of a thin graphene layer enhances the absorption coefficient of MM to 64.35%, at the highest peak in absorption profile that corresponds to the Fano dip position. We also have shown that changing the intrinsic characteristics of graphene sheet leads to shifts in the position of Fano dips and variations in the absorption efficiency. The maximum percentage of absorption (~67%) was obtained for graphene-based MM with graphene layer with dissipative loss factor of 1477 Ω. Employing the antisymmetric feature of the split ring resonators, the proposed graphene-based metamaterial with strong polarization dependency is highly sensitive to the polarization angle of the incident THz beam.

  2. Impact of MIE-Resonances on the Atmospheric Absorption of Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W.; Kinne, S.; Nussenzveig, H.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds strongly modulate radiative transfer processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Studies, which simulate bulk properties of clouds, such as absorption, require methods that accurately account for multiple scattering among individual cloud particles. Multiple scattering processes are well described by MIE-theory, if interacting particles have a spherical shape. This is a good assumption for water droplets. Thus, simulations for water clouds (especially for interactions with solar radiation) usually apply readily available MIE-codes. The presence of different drop-sizes, however, necessitates repetitive calculations for many sizes. The usual representation by a few sizes is likely to miss contributions from densely distributed, sharp resonances. Despite their usually narrow width, integrated over the entire size-spectrum of a cloud droplet distribution, the impact of missed resonances could add up. The consideration of these resonances tends to increase cloud extinction and cloud absorption. This mechanism for a larger (than by MIE-methods predicted) solar absorption has the potential to explain observational evidence of larger than predicted cloud absorption at solar wavelengths. The presentation will address the absorption impact of added resonances for typical properties of water clouds (e.g. drop size distributions, drop concentrations and cloud geometry). Special attention will be given to scenarios with observational evidence of law than simulated solar absorption; particularly if simultaneous measurements of cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are available.

  3. Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liping; Knox, Wayne H

    2010-01-01

    Two-color nonlinear absorption imaging has been previously demonstrated with endogenous contrast of hemoglobin and melanin in turbid media using transmission-mode detection and a dual-laser technology approach. For clinical applications, it would be generally preferable to use backscattering mode detection and a simpler single-laser technology. We demonstrate that imaging in backscattering mode in turbid media using nonlinear absorption can be obtained with as little as 1-mW average power per beam with a single laser source. Images have been achieved with a detector receiving backscattered light at a 45-deg angle relative to the incoming beams' direction. We obtain images of capillary tube phantoms with resolution as high as 20 microm and penetration depth up to 0.9 mm for a 300-microm tube at SNR approximately 1 in calibrated scattering solutions. Simulation results of the backscattering and detection process using nonimaging optics are demonstrated. A Monte Carlo-based method shows that the nonlinear signal drops exponentially as the depth increases, which agrees well with our experimental results. Simulation also shows that with our current detection method, only 2% of the signal is typically collected with a 5-mm-radius detector.

  4. Engineering non-linear resonator mode interactions in circuit QED by continuous driving: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Reagor, Matthew; Heeres, Reinier; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2015-03-01

    High-Q microwave resonators show great promise for storing and manipulating quantum states in circuit QED. Using resonator modes as such a resource in quantum information processing applications requires the ability to manipulate the state of a resonator efficiently. Further, one must engineer appropriate coupling channels without spoiling the coherence properties of the resonator. We present an architecture that combines millisecond lifetimes for photonic quantum states stored in a linear resonator with fast measurement provided by a low-Q readout resonator. We demonstrate experimentally how a continuous drive on a transmon can be utilized to generate highly non-classical photonic states inside the high-Q resonator via effective nonlinear resonator mode interactions. Our approach opens new avenues for using modes of long-lived linear resonators in the circuit QED platform for quantum information processing tasks.

  5. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Na2O–50B2O3–10As2O3 glasses. In this paper, we report the ESR and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xLi2O–(40 – x)Na2O–50B2O3–. 10As2O3 glasses. The values of x were adjusted so that the compositional parameter defined as ...

  6. Effect of nonlinear wave-particle interaction on electron-cyclotron absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    We perform a self-consistent analysis of the nonlinear interaction of magnetized plasmas with electron-cyclotron (EC) waves. A closed set of equations is derived, which consists of the relativistic equations of motion under the wave field and the wave equation for the vector potential. The plasma is described in terms of ensembles of electrons which collectively determine the evolution of the wave amplitude and frequency through the current response. This description allows for effects of the electron motions on the efficiency of the wave absorption, for example, the asynchrony between the wave phase and the gyroperiod. As an application, we study the absorption of an EC wave beam in a simplified tokamak geometry, for plasma parameters relevant to current and future fusion experiments. We conclude that, within the limits of our model, there are cases where the linear theory for the absorption of EC waves, used widely in the current literature, may overestimate the energy deposition. In such cases, nonlinear effects are essential for the accurate estimation of the plasma-wave coupling and their inclusion should be considered, especially when the wave power is dramatically increased as in the case of ITER.

  7. Effect of nonlinear wave-particle interaction on electron-cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L

    2006-01-01

    We perform a self-consistent analysis of the nonlinear interaction of magnetized plasmas with electron-cyclotron (EC) waves. A closed set of equations is derived, which consists of the relativistic equations of motion under the wave field and the wave equation for the vector potential. The plasma is described in terms of ensembles of electrons which collectively determine the evolution of the wave amplitude and frequency through the current response. This description allows for effects of the electron motions on the efficiency of the wave absorption, for example, the asynchrony between the wave phase and the gyroperiod. As an application, we study the absorption of an EC wave beam in a simplified tokamak geometry, for plasma parameters relevant to current and future fusion experiments. We conclude that, within the limits of our model, there are cases where the linear theory for the absorption of EC waves, used widely in the current literature, may overestimate the energy deposition. In such cases, nonlinear effects are essential for the accurate estimation of the plasma-wave coupling and their inclusion should be considered, especially when the wave power is dramatically increased as in the case of ITER

  8. Broadband photocarrier dynamics and nonlinear absorption of PLD-grown WTe2 semimetal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenbin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Jinlong; Chen, Yequan; Zhu, Chunhui; Nie, Zhonghui; Li, Yao; Wang, Xuefeng; Xie, Zhenda; Zhu, Shining; Xu, Jun; Wan, Xiangang; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yongbing; Shi, Yi; Wang, Fengqiu

    2018-04-01

    WTe2 is a unique material in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides and it has been proposed as a candidate for type-II Weyl semimetals. However, thus far, studies on the optical properties of this emerging material have been significantly hindered by the lack of large-area, high-quality WTe2 materials. Here, we grow a centimeter-scale, highly crystalline WTe2 ultrathin film (˜35 nm) by a pulsed laser deposition technique. Broadband pump-probe spectroscopy (1.2-2.5 μm) reveals a peculiar ultrafast optical response where an initial photo-bleaching signal (lasting ˜3 ps) is followed by a long-lived photoinduced absorption signature. Nonlinear absorption characterization using femtosecond pulses confirms the saturable absorption response of the WTe2 ultrathin films, and we further demonstrated a mode-locked Thulium fiber laser using a WTe2 absorber. Our work provides important insights into linear and nonlinear optical responses of WTe2 thin films.

  9. Ultrasensitive mass sensing with nonlinear optics in a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 DongChuan Road, Shanghai 2 00240 (China)

    2013-12-07

    Nanomechanical resonator makes itself as an ideal system for ultrasensitive mass sensing due to its ultralow mass and high vibrational frequency. The mass sensing principle is due to the linear relationship of the frequency-shift and mass-variation. In this work, we will propose a nonlinear optical mass sensor based on a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator in all-optical domain. The masses of external particles (such as nitric oxide molecules) landing onto the surface of carbon nanotube can be determined directly and accurately via using the nonlinear optical spectroscopy. This mass sensing proposed here may provide a nonlinear optical measurement technique in quantum measurements and environmental science.

  10. Anomalous non-resonant microwave absorption in SmFeAs(O,F) polycrystalline sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onyancha, R.B., E-mail: 08muma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa); Shimoyama, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Singh, S.J. [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hayashi, K.; Ogino, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Srinivasu, V.V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) line shape in evolved with microwave power. • Observed a cross over from ‘normal’ absorption to ‘anomalous’ absorption as a function of microwave power. • The anomalous absorption has been explained in the context of non-hysteretic Josephson junction. - Abstract: Here we present the non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies on SmFeAsO{sub 0.88}F{sub 0.12} polycrystalline sample measured at 6.06 K with the magnetic field swept from −250 G to +250 G at a frequency of 9.45 GHz. It was observed that the (NRMA) line shape evolves as a function of microwave power. Again, the signal intensity increases from 22.83 µW to 0.710 mW where it reaches a maximum and quite remarkably it changed from ‘normal’ absorption to ‘anomalous’ absorption at 2.247 mW, then the intensity decreases with further increase of microwave power. The crossover from ‘normal’ to ‘anomalous’ NRMA absorption and its dependence on microwave power is a new phenomenon in iron pnictides superconductors and we have attributed this anomaly to come from non-hysteretic Josephson junction.

  11. Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.

  12. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy with an optimized nonlinear absorption cross interference correction algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.

  13. measurements of the absorption resonance integrals by reactor oscillator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.; Kocic, A.

    1965-12-01

    Experimental values of resonance integrals for silver vary significantly dependent on authors. That is why we have chosen this sample to measure RI. On the other hand, nuclear fuel (for example natural uranium) still represents an interesting objective for research in reactor physics. Measurements of natural uranium are done as a function of S/M. Measurements were done by amplitude reactor oscillator ROB-1/5 with precision from 0.5% - 2% dependent on the conditions of the oscillator. Measurements were completed at the heavy water reactor RB with 2% enriched uranium fuel [fr

  14. Nonlinear resonance phenomena of a doped fibre laser under cavity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quence and other routes to chaos, generalized multistability and crisis. But, doped ... of chaos and synchronization of coupled chaotic lasers (for communication with a ... The two basic issues in focus here for the nonlinear dynamical studies.

  15. A generalized resonating group method with absorptive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1981-01-01

    A generalized Hill-Wheeler equation for the elastic collision at two composite nuclei is obtained projecting the complete many-body Schroedinger equation on the subspace of model internal wave functions and on its orthogonal complement. We get a new, non hermitian (absorptive) interaction term W which takes into account the flux loss in the elastic channel, besides the usual RGM effective Hamiltonian and normalization kernels. A perturbation series expansion for W containing only linked diagrams is given. Finally, the antisymmetrized product of internal wave functions of the fragments that appear in the projection operator is expressed in terms of complex generator coordinates, then the terms appearing in effective interaction can be written as matrix elements of the microscopic interactions and/or the antisymmetrizer between two center shell model states. (author)

  16. Nonlinear narrow Doppler-free resonances for optical transitions and annihilation radiation of a positronium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of obtaining narrow resonances without the Doppler broadening for transition between the fine structure levels of the ground and first excited states of a positronium atom are considered. An analysis is carried out of the conditions required for observation of the narrow resonances of saturation of single quantum absorption in the 1S-2P transitions and observation of narrow two-photon absorption resonances in the 1S-2S transitions. It is shown that narrow 2γ annihilation radiation lines of a positronium atom may be obtained with a width much smaller than the Doppler one

  17. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in water: linear absorption and onset of nonlinear spectral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexei V; Naveira, Lucas M; Poudel, Milan P; Strohaber, James; Trendafilova, Cynthia S; Buck, William C; Wang, Jieyu; Strycker, Benjamin D; Wang, Chao; Schuessler, Hans; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Kattawar, George W

    2010-01-20

    We study propagation of short laser pulses through water and use a spectral hole filling technique to essentially perform a sensitive balanced comparison of absorption coefficients for pulses of different duration. This study is motivated by an alleged violation of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law at low light intensities, where the pulse propagation is expected to be linear, and by a possible observation of femtosecond optical precursors in water. We find that at low intensities, absorption of laser light is determined solely by its spectrum and does not directly depend on the pulse duration, in agreement with our earlier work and in contradiction to some work of others. However, as the laser fluence is increased, interaction of light with water becomes nonlinear, causing energy exchange among the pulse's spectral components and resulting in peak-intensity dependent (and therefore pulse-duration dependent) transmission. For 30 fs pulses at 800 nm center wavelength, we determine the onset of nonlinear propagation effects to occur at a peak value of about 0.12 mJ/cm(2) of input laser energy fluence.

  18. Electron volt spectroscopy on a pulsed neutron source using resonance absorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport, R.J.; Williams, W.G.

    1983-05-01

    The design aspects of an inelastic neutron spectrometer based on energy selection by the resonance absorption filter difference method are discussed. Detailed calculations of the accessible dynamical range (Q, ω), energy and momentum transfer resolutions and representative count rates are presented for Sm and Ta resonance filters in an inverse geometry spectrometer on a high intensity pulsed source such as the RAL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A discussion is given of the double-difference method, which provides a means of improving the resonance attenuation peak shape. As a result of this study, as well as preliminary experimental results, recommendations are made for the future development of the technique. (author)

  19. Coal thickness gauge using RRAS techniques, part 1. [radiofrequency resonance absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollwitz, W. L.; King, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A noncontacting sensor having a measurement range of 0 to 6 in or more, and with an accuracy of 0.5 in or better is needed to control the machinery used in modern coal mining so that the thickness of the coal layer remaining over the rock is maintained within selected bounds. The feasibility of using the radiofrequency resonance absorption (RRAS) techniques of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the basis of a coal thickness gauge is discussed. The EMR technique was found, by analysis and experiments, to be well suited for this application.

  20. Iota-dependent resonance absorption in the optical model description of alpha particle elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Maciuk, B.; Zipper, W.

    1976-01-01

    Alpha particle scattering from 28 Si has been studied at five bombarding energies from 23.5 to 28.5 MeV. iota-dependent resonance absorption has been introduced to the optical model analysis of 28 Si (α,β) 28 Si reaction. (author)

  1. Profile modification and hot electron temperature from resonant absorption at modest intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Langdon, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Resonant absorption is investigated in expanding plasmas. The momentum deposition associated with the ejection of hot electrons toward low density via wavebreaking readily exceeds that of the incident laser radiation and results in significant modification of the density profile at critical. New scaling of hot electron temperature with laser and plasma parameters is presented

  2. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura; Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Younis, Mohammad I.; Cui, Weili; Lenci, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance

  3. A Novel Approach to Resonant Absorption of the Fast Magnetohydrodynamic Eigenmodes of a Coronal Arcade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Jain, Rekha

    2018-05-01

    The arched field lines forming coronal arcades are often observed to undulate as magnetohydrodynamic waves propagate both across and along the magnetic field. These waves are most likely a combination of resonantly coupled fast magnetoacoustic waves and Alfvén waves. The coupling results in resonant absorption of the fast waves, converting fast wave energy into Alfvén waves. The fast eigenmodes of the arcade have proven difficult to compute or derive analytically, largely because of the mathematical complexity that the coupling introduces. When a traditional spectral decomposition is employed, the discrete spectrum associated with the fast eigenmodes is often subsumed into the continuous Alfvén spectrum. Thus fast eigenmodes become collective modes or quasi-modes. Here we present a spectral decomposition that treats the eigenmodes as having real frequencies but complex wavenumbers. Using this procedure we derive dispersion relations, spatial damping rates, and eigenfunctions for the resonant, fast eigenmodes of the arcade. We demonstrate that resonant absorption introduces a fast mode that would not exist otherwise. This new mode is heavily damped by resonant absorption, travelling only a few wavelengths before losing most of its energy.

  4. Nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) applied to damage assessment in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marie; Sutin, Alexander; Guyer, Robert; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal; Johnson, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    Nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) is a resonance-based technique exploiting the significant nonlinear behavior of damaged materials. In NRUS, the resonant frequency(ies) of an object is studied as a function of the excitation level. As the excitation level increases, the elastic nonlinearity is manifest by a shift in the resonance frequency. This study shows the feasibility of this technique for application to damage assessment in bone. Two samples of bovine cortical bone were subjected to progressive damage induced by application of mechanical cycling. Before cycling commenced, and at each step in the cycling process, NRUS was applied for damage assessment. For independent assessment of damage, high-energy x-ray computed tomography imaging was performed but was only useful in identifying the prominent cracks. As the integral quantity of damage increased, NRUS revealed a corresponding increase in the nonlinear response. The measured change in nonlinear response is much more sensitive than the change in linear modulus. The results suggest that NRUS could be a potential tool for micro-damage assessment in bone. Further work must be carried out for a better understanding of the physical nature of damaged bone and for the ultimate goal of the challenging in vivo implementation of the technique.

  5. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-01-01

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies

  6. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions

  7. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  8. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  9. Dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow MHD waves in twisted flux tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Erdélyi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves are studied in weakly dissipative isotropic plasmas in cylindrical geometry. This geometry is suitable and is needed when one intends to study resonant MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes (e.g. for sunspots, coronal loops, solar plumes, solar wind, the magnetosphere, etc. The resonant behaviour of slow MHD waves is confined in a narrow dissipative layer. Using the method of simplified matched asymptotic expansions inside and outside of the narrow dissipative layer, we generalise the so-called connection formulae obtained in linear MHD for the Eulerian perturbation of the total pressure and for the normal component of the velocity. These connection formulae for resonant MHD waves across the dissipative layer play a similar role as the well-known Rankine-Hugoniot relations connecting solutions at both sides of MHD shock waves. The key results are the nonlinear connection formulae found in dissipative cylindrical MHD which are an important extension of their counterparts obtained in linear ideal MHD (Sakurai et al., 1991, linear dissipative MHD (Goossens et al., 1995; Erdélyi, 1997 and in nonlinear dissipative MHD derived in slab geometry (Ruderman et al., 1997. These generalised connection formulae enable us to connect solutions obtained at both sides of the dissipative layer without solving the MHD equations in the dissipative layer possibly saving a considerable amount of CPU-time when solving the full nonlinear resonant MHD problem.

  10. Effect of an additional magnetic field on Hanle-type absorption resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Grewal, Raghwinder; Pattabiraman, M

    2014-01-01

    We computationally compare Hanle-type resonances for a F g =1→F e =0 transition of the 87 RbD 2 line for magnetic field scans parallel (longitudinal scan) and perpendicular (transverse scan) to the direction of propagation of the optical field in the presence of an additional transverse magnetic field (TMF). For a linearly polarized light, the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances split at line centre and are identical for both longitudinal and transverse scans. When the probe beam ellipticity is varied, the effect of the TMF is found to be opposite for longitudinal and transverse scans. For a longitudinal scan, the splitting observed in the CPT resonance evolves into an enhanced absorption resonance with an increase in ellipticity. For a transverse scan, the splitting vanishes at higher ellipticities. This can be understood in terms of population redistribution in the ground state sublevels and near-neighbor ground state coherences created by the TMF. We also show that the enhanced absorption signal that splits the CPT resonance strongly depends on transit time, and the CPT resonance strength depends on the excited state dephasing rate. (paper)

  11. Two and four photon absorption and nonlinear refraction in undoped, chromium doped and copper doped ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun

    2015-12-01

    The ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with Cr and Cu doping were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanostructures of the prepared undoped and doped ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sizes of QDs were found to be within 3-5 nm range. The nonlinear parameters viz. Two photon absorption coefficient (β2), nonlinear refractive index (n2), third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) at wavelength 532 nm and Four photon absorption coefficient (β4) at wavelength 1064 nm have been calculated by Z-scan technique using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser in undoped, Cr doped and Cu doped ZnS QDs. Higher values of nonlinear parameters for doped ZnS infer that they are potential material for the development of photonics devices and sensor protection applications.

  12. Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.

  13. Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problems at Resonance with Nonlinear Wentzell Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian G. Gal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded domain Ω⊂RN with a Lipschitz boundary ∂Ω and p,q∈(1,+∞, we consider the quasilinear elliptic equation -Δpu+α1u=f in Ω complemented with the generalized Wentzell-Robin type boundary conditions of the form bx∇up-2∂nu-ρbxΔq,Γu+α2u=g on ∂Ω. In the first part of the article, we give necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the given functions f, g and the nonlinearities α1, α2, for the solvability of the above nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with the nonlinear boundary conditions. In other words, we establish a sort of “nonlinear Fredholm alternative” for our problem which extends the corresponding Landesman and Lazer result for elliptic problems with linear homogeneous boundary conditions. In the second part, we give some additional results on existence and uniqueness and we study the regularity of the weak solutions for these classes of nonlinear problems. More precisely, we show some global a priori estimates for these weak solutions in an L∞-setting.

  14. RICM, Resonance Absorption in Multi-Region Slab or Square or Hexagonal Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, H.; Aoyama, K.; Fukai, Y.

    1968-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculates the resonance absorption integral of resonant isotope in a multi-region lattice using the first flight collision probability. The lattice configurations considered are a slab lattice, a square or hexagonal lattice and a cylindricalized lattice with isotropic or perfect reflecting boundary condition. Cases for an isolated rod or plate and homogeneous system can also be treated. 2 - Method of solution: Slowing down of neutrons by each isotope in each region is solved by either exact numerical integration of the slowing down equation or narrow - or wide-resonance approximation. Breit-Wigner's single level formula is used for the resonance cross section and Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron width is taken into account in the unresolved region. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of regions: 5; Maximum Number of groups: 100

  15. Effect of nonlinearity of spin interaction with electromagnetic resonance field on characteristics of polarized nuclear target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertij, A.A.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shestopalov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of incident nuclear particle beam with J = 1/2 (neutrons) spin and (J = 1/2) protons with the target substance is considered. It is shown that neutron polarization at the target exit and neutron transparency (G) of the target depend significantly on incident wave amplitude level and physical parameter values which characterize the target, such as target temperature, resonator mirror reflection factor, number of spins interacting with the field, etc. Under interaction of neutrons with a target resonator which features a high mirror reflection factor and low losses for absorption which is not related to magnetic dipole absorption, a bistable response of neutron polarization and G manifests itself. 1 ref

  16. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  17. Linear and nonlinear resonance features of an erbium-doped fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Abstract. The continuous-wave output of a single-mode erbium-doped fibre ring laser when sub- jected to cavity-loss modulation is found to exhibit linear as well as nonlinear resonances. At sufficiently low driving amplitude, the system resembles a linear damped oscillator. At higher amplitudes, the ...

  18. The mixed BVP for second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation at resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 290, 2-3 (2017), s. 393-400 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : mixed problem at resonance * nonlinear ordinary differencial equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  19. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedar, Ashutosh; Kataria, N D

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T c superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO 3 substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis

  20. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  1. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption

  2. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  3. Weak-periodic stochastic resonance in a parallel array of static nonlinearities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Ma

    Full Text Available This paper studies the output-input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR gain of an uncoupled parallel array of static, yet arbitrary, nonlinear elements for transmitting a weak periodic signal in additive white noise. In the small-signal limit, an explicit expression for the SNR gain is derived. It serves to prove that the SNR gain is always a monotonically increasing function of the array size for any given nonlinearity and noisy environment. It also determines the SNR gain maximized by the locally optimal nonlinearity as the upper bound of the SNR gain achieved by an array of static nonlinear elements. With locally optimal nonlinearity, it is demonstrated that stochastic resonance cannot occur, i.e. adding internal noise into the array never improves the SNR gain. However, in an array of suboptimal but easily implemented threshold nonlinearities, we show the feasibility of situations where stochastic resonance occurs, and also the possibility of the SNR gain exceeding unity for a wide range of input noise distributions.

  4. Broadband perfect infrared absorption by tuning epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole resonances of multilayer ITO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Cheng, Qiang; Song, Jinlin; Lu, Lu; Jia, Zhihao; Li, Junwei

    2018-01-01

    We numerically investigate the broadband perfect infrared absorption by tuning epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and epsilon-near-pole (ENP) resonances of multilayer indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs). The monolayer ITO NWs array shows intensive absorption at ENZ and ENP wavelengths for p polarization, while only at the ENP wavelength for s polarization. Moreover, the ENP resonances are almost omnidirectional and the ENZ resonances are angularly dependent. Therefore, the absorption bandwidth is broader for p polarization than that for s polarization when polarized waves are incident obliquely. The ENZ resonances can be tuned by altering the doping concentration and volume filling factor of ITO NWs. However, the ENP resonances only can be tuned by changing the doping concentration of ITO NWs, and volume filling factor impacts little on the ENP resonances. Based on the strong absorption properties of each layer at their own ENP and ENZ resonances, the tuned absorption of the bilayer ITO NWs with the different doping concentrations can be broader and stronger. Furthermore, multilayer ITO NWs can achieve broadband perfect absorption by controlling the doping concentration, volume filling factor, and length of the NWs in each layer. This study has the potential to apply to applications requiring efficient absorption and energy conversion.

  5. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A

    2015-03-12

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  6. Progresses in the studies of adiabatic splitting of charged particle beams by crossing nonlinear resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Franchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by nonlinear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Progresses in the Studies of Adiabatic Splitting of Charged Particles Beams by Crossing Nonlinear Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    The multi-turn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by non-linear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  8. Nonlinear Parameter Identification of a Resonant Electrostatic MEMS Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Majed S.; Alneamy, Ayman M.; Park, Sangtak; Li, Beichen; Khater, Mahmoud E.; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab M.; Heppler, Glenn R.; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the primary superharmonic of order two and subharmonic of order one-half resonances of an electrostatic MEMS actuator under direct excitation. We identify the parameters of a one degree of freedom (1-DOF) generalized Duffing oscillator model representing it. The experiments were conducted in soft vacuum to reduce squeeze-film damping, and the actuator response was measured optically using a laser vibrometer. The predictions of the identified model were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. We also identified the noise spectral density of process (actuation voltage) and measurement noise. PMID:28505097

  9. Nonlinear interactions of focused resonance cone fields with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Gekelman, W.

    1977-01-01

    A simple yet novel rf exciter structure has been developed for generating remotely intense rf fields in a magnetoplasma. It is a circular line source of radius R in a plane perpendicularB 0 driven with an rf signal at ω 0 E/sub rf/ 2 /nkT/sub e/>0.2, a strong density depression in the focal region (deltan/n>40%) is observed. The density perturbation modifies the cone angle and field distribution. This nonlinear interaction leads to a rapid growth of ion acoustic wave turbulence and a corresponding random rf field distribution in a broadened focal region. The development of the interaction is mapped in space and time

  10. Basic mode of nonlinear spin-wave resonance in normally magnetized ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu.V.; Zil'berman, P.E.; Timiryazev, A.G.; Tikhomirova, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    Modes of nonlinear and spin-wave resonance (SWR) in the normally magnetized ferrite films were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The particular emphasis was placed on the basic mode of SWR. One showed theoretically that with the growth of the precession amplitude the profile of the basic mode changed. The nonlinear shift of the resonance field depends on the parameters of fixing of the surface spins. Films of ferroyttrium garnet (FYG) with strong gradient of the single-axis anisotropy field along the film thickness, as well as, FYG films of the submicron thickness where investigated experimentally. With the intensification of Uhf-power one observed the sublinear shift of the basic mode resonance field following by the superlinear growth of the absorbed power. That kind of behaviour is explained by variation of the profile of the varying magnetization space distribution [ru

  11. Mechanical nonlinearity elimination with a micromechanical clamped-free semicircular beams resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Xuying; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xinxin; Guan, Yangyang; Xie, Jin

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a micro-machined clamped-free semicircular beam resonator aiming to eliminate the nonlinearity that widely exists in traditional mechanical resonators. Cubic coefficients over vibration displacement due to axial extension of the beams are analyzed through theoretical modelling, and the corresponding frequency effect is demonstrated. With the device working in the elastic vibration mode, the cubic coefficients are eliminated by using a free end to release the nonlinear extension of beams and thus the inside axial stress. The amplitude-frequency (A-f) effect is overcome in a large region of source power, and the coefficient of frequency softening is linearized in a large region of polarization voltage. As a result, the resonator can be driven at larger vibration amplitude to achieve a high signal to noise ratio and power handling performance.

  12. Alfven wave resonances and flow induced by nonlinear Alfven waves in a stratified atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, B. A.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    A nonlinear, time-dependent, ideal MHD code has been developed and used to compute the flow induced by nonlinear Alfven waves propagating in an isothermal, stratified, plane-parallel atmosphere. The code is based on characteristic equations solved in a Lagrangian frame. Results show that resonance behavior of Alfven waves exists in the presence of a continuous density gradient and that the waves with periods corresponding to resonant peaks exert considerably more force on the medium than off-resonance periods. If only off-peak periods are considered, the relationship between the wave period and induced longitudinal velocity shows that short period WKB waves push more on the background medium than longer period, non-WKB, waves. The results also show the development of the longitudinal waves induced by finite amplitude Alfven waves. Wave energy transferred to the longitudinal mode may provide a source of localized heating

  13. The effect of background absorption on the compound cross-section in resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of channel-channel correlations in the compound cross-section is studied in a model of a resonance above a compound background characterized by equal absorption in all open channels. A general rule which cannot be derived from unitarity alone is proved for the fluctuating cross-section. It provides new understanding of level-level correlations in scattering through compound nucleus states. (author)

  14. Proton emission from resonant laser absorption and self-focusing effects from hydrogenated structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, M.; Torrisi, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 272, May (2013), s. 50-54 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : resonant absorption * self-focusing * Thomson parabola * spectrometer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  15. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported

  16. Spatiotemporal behavior and nonlinear dynamics in a phase conjugate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siuying Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The work described can be divided into two parts. The first part is an investigation of the transient behavior and stability property of a phase conjugate resonator (PCR) below threshold. The second part is an experimental and theoretical study of the PCR's spatiotemporal dynamics above threshold. The time-dependent coupled wave equations for four-wave mixing (FWM) in a photorefractive crystal, with two distinct interaction regions caused by feedback from an ordinary mirror, was used to model the transient dynamics of a PCR below threshold. The conditions for self-oscillation were determined and the solutions were used to define the PCR's transfer function and analyze its stability. Experimental results for the buildup and decay times confirmed qualitatively the predicted behavior. Experiments were carried out above threshold to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the PCR as a function of Pragg detuning and the resonator's Fresnel number. The existence of optical vortices in the wavefront were identified by optical interferometry. It was possible to describe the transverse dynamics and the spatiotemporal instabilities by modeling the three-dimensional-coupled wave equations in photorefractive FWM using a truncated modal expansion approach.

  17. Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.

  18. Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of thin film containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... resonant conditions. The temporal profile of DFWM signal was obtained with a time resolution of 0·3 ps (FWHM), ... in the probability of absorption and emission of light. In the ... The wavelength of the laser was adjusted to 760 nm. .... distribution of different arrangements) of the dye molecules on the glass ...

  19. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy’s law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined. Keywords: Porous medium, Heat generation/absorption, SWCNTs and MWCNTs, Nonlinear radiation

  20. Enhancement of the nonlinear optical absorption of the E7 liquid crystal at the nematic-isotropic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M.; Bechtold, I.H.; Figueiredo Neto, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the nonlinear optical absorption of the eutectic mixture E7 at the nematic-isotropic phase transition by the Z-scan technique, under continuous-wave excitation at 532 nm. In the nematic region, the effective nonlinear optical coefficient P, which vanishes in the isotropic phase, is negative for the extraordinary beam and positive for an ordinary beam. The parameter SNL, whose definition in terms of the nonlinear absorption coefficient follows the definition of the optical-order parameter in terms of the linear dichroic ratio, behaves like an order parameter with critical exponent 0.22 ± 0.05, in good agreement with the tricritical hypothesis for the nematic isotropic transition. (author)

  1. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  2. Compact extended model for doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, A. J; Granada, J.R

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified compact model for calculating Doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in an incoherent Debye solid. Our model extends the effective temperature gas model to cover the whole range of energies and temperatures, and reduces the information of the dynamical system to a minimum content compatible with a much better accuracy of the calculation. This model is thus capable of replacing the existing algorithm in standard codes for resonance cross sections preparation aimed at neutron and reactor physics calculations. The model is applied to the 238 U 6.671 eV effective broadened cross section. We also show how this model can be used for thermometry in an improved fashion compared to the effective temperature gas model. Experimental data of the same resonance at low and high temperatures are also shown and the performances of each model are put to the test on this basis. [es

  3. Mode Coupling and Nonlinear Resonances of MEMS Arch Resonators for Bandpass Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    the passband to the stopband. The concept is demonstrated based on an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS arch resonator operated in air. The in-plane resonator is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a deliberate curvature

  4. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  5. Control of the symmetry breaking in double-well potentials by the resonant nonlinearity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional model of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), combining the double-well potential, which is a usual setting for the onset of spontaneous-symmetry-breaking (SSB) effects, and time-periodic modulation of the nonlinearity, which may be implemented by means of the Feshbach-resonance-management (FRM) technique. Both cases of the nonlinearity that is repulsive or attractive on the average are considered. In the former case, the main effect produced by the application of the FRM is spontaneous self-trapping of the condensate in either of the two potential wells in parameter regimes where it would remain untrapped in the absence of the management. In the weakly nonlinear regime, the frequency of intrinsic oscillations in the FRM-induced trapped state is very close to half the FRM frequency, suggesting that the effect is accounted for by a parametric resonance. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, the FRM-induced effect is the opposite, i.e., enforced detrapping of a state which is self-trapped in its unmanaged form. In the latter case, the frequency of oscillations of the untrapped mode is close to a quarter of the driving frequency, suggesting that a higher-order parametric resonance may account for this effect.

  6. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  7. Non-destructive studies of fuel pellets by neutron resonance absorption radiography and thermal neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vogel, S.C.; Mocko, M.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Yuan, V.; Nelson, R.O.; Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Many isotopes in nuclear materials exhibit strong peaks in neutron absorption cross sections in the epithermal energy range (1–1000 eV). These peaks (often referred to as resonances) occur at energies specific to particular isotopes, providing a means of isotope identification and concentration measurements. The high penetration of epithermal neutrons through most materials is very useful for studies where samples consist of heavy-Z elements opaque to X-rays and sometimes to thermal neutrons as well. The characterization of nuclear fuel elements in their cladding can benefit from the development of high resolution neutron resonance absorption imaging (NRAI), enabled by recently developed spatially-resolved neutron time-of-flight detectors. In this technique the neutron transmission of the sample is measured as a function of spatial location and of neutron energy. In the region of the spectra that borders the resonance energy for a particular isotope, the reduction in transmission can be used to acquire an image revealing the 2-dimensional distribution of that isotope within the sample. Provided that the energy of each transmitted neutron is measured by the neutron detector used and the irradiated sample possesses neutron absorption resonances, then isotope-specific location maps can be acquired simultaneously for several isotopes. This can be done even in the case where samples are opaque or have very similar transmission for thermal neutrons and X-rays or where only low concentrations of particular isotopes are present (<0.1 atom% in some cases). Ultimately, such radiographs of isotope location can be utilized to measure isotope concentration, and can even be combined to produce three-dimensional distributions using tomographic methods. In this paper we present the proof-of-principle of NRAI and transmission Bragg edge imaging performed at Flight Path 5 (FP5) at the LANSCE pulsed, moderated neutron source of Los Alamos National Laboratory. A set of urania mockup

  8. Parametric study on nonlinear vibration of composite truss core sandwich plate with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.

  9. Multiproton final states in positive pion absorption below the Δ(1232) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannelli, R. A.; Ritchie, B. G.; Applegate, J. M.; Beck, E.; Beck, J.; Vanderpool, A. O.; Morris, C. L.; Rahwool-Sullivan, M.; Jones, M. K.; Ransome, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections for positive pion absorption leading to final states including two or more protons have been measured with a large solid angle detector for incident pion energies from 30 to 135 MeV for targets with A=2-208. The mass dependences for the inclusive (π + ,2p), (π + ,3p), and total absorption cross sections for multiproton final states were found to be proportional to A n with n≅0.5. These cross sections also were observed to have an energy dependence at energies below 150 MeV reflective of the importance of the Δ(1232) resonance, similar to that observed for πd→pp. The inclusive cross sections for (π + ,4p) were found to be less than 10 mb for all targets at all energies. Estimates were also obtained for cross sections for pion absorption leading to 2p1n and 3p1n final states. Quasideuteron absorption contributions increase slowly with A, and the energy dependence of those contributions mirrors that for πd→pp. The data obtained here for multiproton final states indicate that a significant fraction of absorption events, increasing with A, most likely arises from final states containing fewer than two protons. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Fast wave absorption at the Alfven resonance during ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Hellsten, T.; Alava, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    For ICRH scenarii where the majority cyclotron resonance intersects the plasma core, mode conversion of the fast magnetosonic wave to an Alfven wave takes place at the plasma boundary on the high field side. Simple analytical estimates of the converted power for this mode conversion process are derived and compared with numerical calculations including finite electron inertia and kinetic effects. The converted power is found to depend on the local value of the wave field as well as on plasma parameters at the Alfven wave resonance. The interference with the reflected wave will therefore modify the mode conversion. If the conversion layer is localized near the wall, the conversion will be strongly reduced. The conversion coefficient is found to be strongest for small density gradients and high density and it is sensitive to the value of the parallel wave number. Whether it increases or decreases with the latter depends on the ion composition. Analysis of this problem for ICRH in JET predicts that a large fraction of the power is mode converted at the plasma boundary for first harmonic heating of tritium in a deuterium-tritium plasma. (author). 13 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  11. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  12. Unexpected nonlinear effects and critical coupling in NbN superconducting microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, B.; Buks, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:In this work, we have designed and fabricated several NbN superconducting stripline microwave resonators sputtered on sapphire substrates. The low temperature response exhibits strong and unexpected nonlinear effects, including sharp jumps as the frequency or poser are varied, frequency hysteresis loops changing direction as the input power is varied, and others. Contrary to some other superconducting resonators, a simple model of a one-dimensional Duffing resonator cannot account for the experimental results. Whereas the physical origin of the unusual nonlinear response of our samples remains an open question, our intensive experimental study of these effects under varying conditions provides some important insight. We consider a hypothesis according to which Josephson junctions forming weak links between the grains of the NbN are responsible for the observed behavior. We show that most of the experimental results are qualitatively consistent with such hypothesis. While revealing the underlying physics remains an outstanding challenge for future research, the utilization of the unusual nonlinear response for some novel applications is already demonstrated in the present work. In particular an operate the resonator as an inter modulation amplifier and find that the gain can be as high as 15 dB. To the best of our knowledge, inter modulation gain greater than unity has not been reported before in the scientific literature. In another application we demonstrate for the first time that the coupling between the resonator and its feed line can be made amplitude dependent. This novel mechanism allows us to tune the resonator into critical coupling conditions

  13. Detailed resonance absorption calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP and collision probability version of the slowing down code ROLAIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Janssen, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Very accurate Mote Carlo calculations with Monte Carlo Code have been performed to serve as reference for benchmark calculations on resonance absorption by U 238 in a typical PWR pin-cell geometry. Calculations with the energy-pointwise slowing down code calculates the resonance absorption accurately. Calculations with the multigroup discrete ordinates code XSDRN show that accurate results can only be achieved with a very fine energy mesh. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Ultra-broadband nonlinear saturable absorption of high-yield MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Qiao, Tian; He, Xin; Guo, Qiangbing; Tian, Xiangling; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with strong nonlinear optical (NLO) responses in a broad near-infrared range were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The observation of saturable absorption, which was excited by the light with photon energy smaller than the gap energy of MoS2, can be attributed to the enhancement of the hybridization between the Mo d-orbital and S p-orbital by the oxygen incorporation into MoS2. High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with high modulation depth and large saturable intensity generated a stable, passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.56 μm. The high output power of 1.08 mW can be attained under a very low pump power of 30.87 mW. Compared to recently reported passively Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, the efficiency of the laser for our passive Q-switching operation is larger and reaches 3.50%. This research may extend the understanding on the NLO properties of MoS2 and indicate the feasibility of the high-yield MoS2 nanosheets to passively Q-switched fiber laser effectively at low pump strengths.

  15. Advances in gamma ray resonant scattering and absorption long-lived isomeric nuclear states

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and advanced topics of research of gamma ray physics. It describes measuring of  Fermi surfaces with gamma resonance spectroscopy and the theory of angular distributions of resonantly scattered gamma rays. The dependence of excited-nuclei average lifetime on the shape of the exciting-radiation spectrum and electron binding energies in the spectra of scattered gamma rays is described. Resonant excitation by gamma rays of nuclear isomeric states with long lifetime leads to the emission and absorption lines. In the book, a new gamma spectroscopic method, gravitational gamma spectrometry, is developed. It has a resolution hundred million times higher than the usual Mössbauer spectrometer. Another important topic of this book is resonant scattering of annihilation quanta by nuclei with excited states in connection with positron annihilation. The application of the methods described is to explain the phenomenon of Coulomb fragmentation of gamma-source molecules and resonant scatt...

  16. Z-scan measurement for nonlinear absorption property of rGO/ZnO:Al thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide integrated aluminium doped zinc oxide (rGO/ZnO:Al) composite thin film on a glass substrate by spin coating technique. The effect of rGO on structural and linear optical properties of rGO/ZnO:Al composite thin film was explored with the help of X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Structural studies reveals that the composite film has hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong bonding between rGO and ZnO:Al material. The band gap energy of ZnO:Al thin film was red shifted by the addition of rGO. The Nonlinear absorption property was investigated by open aperture Z-scan technique by using Q switched Nd-YAG laser at 532nm. The Z-scan results showed that the composite film demonstrates reverse saturable absorption property with a nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, of 12.75×10-7m/w. The results showed that investigated rGO/ZnO:Al thin film is a promising material suitable for the applications in absorbing type optical devices such as optical limiters, optical switches and protection of the optical sensors in the field of nonlinear optics.

  17. Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Yang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.

  18. Nonlinear properties of double and triple barrier resonant tunneling structures in the sub-THz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuzskij, A.L.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Volchkov, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The high-frequency nonlinear properties of GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD) nanostructures and perspectives of implementation of the quantum regime of amplification in such structures, which is especially efficient in the range of sub-THz and THz ranges, are investigated. It is shown that in a triple barrier RTD the symmetry between the processes of amplification and dissipation can be avoided because of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with both of resonant states in two quantum wells, that results in the significant growth of an RTD efficiency [ru

  19. Tunable absorption resonances in the ultraviolet for InP nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Anttu, Nicklas; Nylund, Gustav; Samuelson, Lars; Lehmann, Sebastian; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2014-11-17

    The ability to tune the photon absorptance spectrum is an attracting way of tailoring the response of devices like photodetectors and solar cells. Here, we measure the reflectance spectra of InP substrates patterned with arrays of vertically standing InP nanowires. Using the reflectance spectra, we calculate and analyze the corresponding absorptance spectra of the nanowires. We show that we can tune absorption resonances for the nanowire arrays into the ultraviolet by decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. When we compare our measurements with electromagnetic modeling, we generally find good agreement. Interestingly, the remaining differences between modeled and measured spectra are attributed to a crystal-phase dependence in the refractive index of InP. Specifically, we find indication of significant differences in the refractive index between the modeled zinc-blende InP nanowires and the measured wurtzite InP nanowires in the ultraviolet. We believe that such crystal-phase dependent differences in the refractive index affect the possibility to excite optical resonances in the large wavelength range of 345 InP nanowire-based solar cells and photodetectors.

  20. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  1. Frequency tuning, nonlinearities and mode coupling in circular mechanical graphene resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A M; Midtvedt, D; Croy, A; Isacsson, A

    2013-01-01

    We study circular nanomechanical graphene resonators by means of continuum elasticity theory, treating them as membranes. We derive dynamic equations for the flexural mode amplitudes. Due to the geometrical nonlinearity the mode dynamics can be modeled by coupled Duffing equations. By solving the Airy stress problem we obtain analytic expressions for the eigenfrequencies and nonlinear coefficients as functions of the radius, suspension height, initial tension, back-gate voltage and elastic constants, which we compare with finite element simulations. Using perturbation theory, we show that it is necessary to include the effects of the non-uniform stress distribution for finite deflections. This correctly reproduces the spectrum and frequency tuning of the resonator, including frequency crossings. (paper)

  2. Design and implementation of optical switches based on nonlinear plasmonic ring resonators: Circular, square and octagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadrdan, Majid; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, all-optical plasmonic switches (AOPS) based on various configurations of circular, square and octagon nonlinear plasmonic ring resonators (NPRR) were proposed and numerically investigated. Each of these configurations consisted of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a ring resonator (RR). Nonlinear Kerr effect was used to show switching performance of the proposed NPRR. The result showed that the octagon switch structure had lower threshold power and higher transmission ratio than square and circular switch structures. The octagon switch structure had a low threshold power equal to 7.77 MW/cm2 and the high transmission ratio of approximately 0.6. Therefore, the octagon switch structure was an appropriate candidate to be applied in optical integration circuits as an AOPS.

  3. Probing ultrafast ππ*/nπ* internal conversion in organic chromophores via K-edge resonant absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Myhre, Rolf H.; Cryan, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    -edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a hole forms in the n orbital during ππ*/nπ* internal conversion, the absorption spectrum at the heteroatom K-edge exhibits an additional resonance. We demonstrate the concept using the nucleobase thymine at the oxygen K-edge, and unambiguously show that ππ...

  4. Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss phase-locking phenomena at low-level of quanta for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR) in strong quantum regime. Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space and analyse formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime.

  5. Bifurcation topology transfer in nonlinear nanocantilever arrays subject to parametric and internal resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souayeh Saoussen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective nonlinear dynamics of a coupled array of nanocantilevers is investigated while taking into account the main sources of nonlinearities. The amplitude and phase equations of this device, subject to parametric and internal resonances, are analytically derived by means of a multi-modal Galerkin discretization coupled with a multiscale analysis. Based on the steady-state solutions of these equations, the frequency responses are numerically computed for a two-beam array. The effects of different parameters are investigated and several dynamical aspects are confirmed by numerical simulations. Particularly, we have demonstrated that the bifurcation topology transfer is imposed by the first nanocantilever and it can be general to the collective nonlinear dynamics of the NEMS array.

  6. Nonlinear aeroacoustic characterization of Helmholtz resonators with a local-linear neuro-fuzzy network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förner, K.; Polifke, W.

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear acoustic behavior of Helmholtz resonators is characterized by a data-based reduced-order model, which is obtained by a combination of high-resolution CFD simulation and system identification. It is shown that even in the nonlinear regime, a linear model is capable of describing the reflection behavior at a particular amplitude with quantitative accuracy. This observation motivates to choose a local-linear model structure for this study, which consists of a network of parallel linear submodels. A so-called fuzzy-neuron layer distributes the input signal over the linear submodels, depending on the root mean square of the particle velocity at the resonator surface. The resulting model structure is referred to as an local-linear neuro-fuzzy network. System identification techniques are used to estimate the free parameters of this model from training data. The training data are generated by CFD simulations of the resonator, with persistent acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. The estimated nonlinear, reduced-order models show good agreement with CFD and experimental data over a wide range of amplitudes for several test cases.

  7. Delay-controlled primary and stochastic resonances of the SD oscillator with stiffness nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Cao, Qingjie

    2018-03-01

    This work presents analytical studies of the stiffness nonlinearities SD (smooth and discontinuous) oscillator under displacement and velocity feedback control with a time delay. The SD oscillator can capture the qualitative characteristics of quasi-zero-stiffness and negative-stiffness. We focus mainly on the primary resonance of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator and the stochastic resonance (SR) of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator. Using the averaging method, we have been analyzed the amplitude response of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator. In this regard, the optimum time delay for changing the control intensity according to the optimization standard proposed can be obtained. For the optimum time delay, increasing the displacement feedback intensity is advantageous to suppress the vibrations in resonant regime where vibration isolation is needed, however, increasing the velocity feedback intensity is advantageous to strengthen the vibrations. Moreover, the effects of time-delayed feedback on the SR of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator are investigated under harmonic forcing and Gaussian white noise, based on the Langevin and Fokker-Planck approaches. The time-delayed feedback can enhance the SR phenomenon where vibrational energy harvesting is needed. This paper established the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a stiffness nonlinearities SD which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed control for vibration isolation and vibrational energy harvesting of the nonlinear systems.

  8. Coexistence of Multiple Nonlinear States in a Tristable Passive Kerr Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Anderson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Passive Kerr cavities driven by coherent laser fields display a rich landscape of nonlinear physics, including bistability, pattern formation, and localized dissipative structures (solitons. Their conceptual simplicity has for several decades offered an unprecedented window into nonlinear cavity dynamics, providing insights into numerous systems and applications ranging from all-optical memory devices to microresonator frequency combs. Yet despite the decades of study, a recent theoretical work has surprisingly alluded to an entirely new and unexplored paradigm in the regime where nonlinearly tilted cavity resonances overlap with one another [T. Hansson and S. Wabnitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 1259 (2015JOBPDE0740-322410.1364/JOSAB.32.001259]. We use synchronously driven fiber ring resonators to experimentally access this regime and observe the rise of new nonlinear dissipative states. Specifically, we observe, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the stable coexistence of temporal Kerr cavity solitons and extended modulation instability (Turing patterns, and perform real-time measurements that unveil the dynamics of the ensuing nonlinear structure. When operating in the regime of continuous wave tristability, we further observe the coexistence of two distinct cavity soliton states, one of which can be identified as a “super” cavity soliton, as predicted by Hansson and Wabnitz. Our experimental findings are in excellent agreement with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations of the infinite-dimensional Ikeda map that governs the cavity dynamics. The results from our work reveal that experimental systems can support complex combinations of distinct nonlinear states, and they could have practical implications to future microresonator-based frequency comb sources.

  9. Coexistence of Multiple Nonlinear States in a Tristable Passive Kerr Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Miles; Wang, Yadong; Leo, François; Coen, Stéphane; Erkintalo, Miro; Murdoch, Stuart G.

    2017-07-01

    Passive Kerr cavities driven by coherent laser fields display a rich landscape of nonlinear physics, including bistability, pattern formation, and localized dissipative structures (solitons). Their conceptual simplicity has for several decades offered an unprecedented window into nonlinear cavity dynamics, providing insights into numerous systems and applications ranging from all-optical memory devices to microresonator frequency combs. Yet despite the decades of study, a recent theoretical work has surprisingly alluded to an entirely new and unexplored paradigm in the regime where nonlinearly tilted cavity resonances overlap with one another [T. Hansson and S. Wabnitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 1259 (2015), 10.1364/JOSAB.32.001259]. We use synchronously driven fiber ring resonators to experimentally access this regime and observe the rise of new nonlinear dissipative states. Specifically, we observe, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the stable coexistence of temporal Kerr cavity solitons and extended modulation instability (Turing) patterns, and perform real-time measurements that unveil the dynamics of the ensuing nonlinear structure. When operating in the regime of continuous wave tristability, we further observe the coexistence of two distinct cavity soliton states, one of which can be identified as a "super" cavity soliton, as predicted by Hansson and Wabnitz. Our experimental findings are in excellent agreement with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations of the infinite-dimensional Ikeda map that governs the cavity dynamics. The results from our work reveal that experimental systems can support complex combinations of distinct nonlinear states, and they could have practical implications to future microresonator-based frequency comb sources.

  10. Numerical examinations of simplified spondylodesis models concerning energy absorption in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadert Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are a potential safety risk since the energy absorption may increase temperature of the surrounding tissue. The temperature rise is highly dependent on implant size. Numerical examinations can be used to calculate the energy absorption in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR induced by MRI on orthopaedic implants. This research presents the impact of titanium osteosynthesis spine implants, called spondylodesis, deduced by numerical examinations of energy absorption in simplified spondylodesis models placed in 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI body coils. The implants are modelled along with a spine model consisting of vertebrae and disci intervertebrales thus extending previous investigations [1], [2]. Increased SAR values are observed at the ends of long implants, while at the center SAR is significantly lower. Sufficiently short implants show increased SAR along the complete length of the implant. A careful data analysis reveals that the particular anatomy, i.e. vertebrae and disci intervertebrales, has a significant effect on SAR. On top of SAR profile due to the implant length, considerable SAR variations at small scale are observed, e.g. SAR values at vertebra are higher than at disc positions.

  11. A comparison of neutron resonance absorption in thermal reactor lattices in the AUS neutronics code system with Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1985-08-01

    The calculation of resonance shielding by the subgroup method, as incorporated in the MIRANDA module of the AUS neutronics code system, is compared with Monte Carlo calculatons for a number of thermal reactor lattices. For the large range of single rod and rod cluster lattices considered, AUS results for resonance absorption were high by up to two per cent

  12. Recent Results of Search for Solar Axions Using Resonant Absorption by 83Kr nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Yu M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Muratova, V. N.; Panashenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    A search for resonant absorption of the solar axion by 83Kr nuclei was performed using the proportional counter installed inside the low-background setup at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The obtained model independent upper limit on the combination of isoscalar and isovector axion-nucleon couplings |g 3 - g 0| ≤ 8.4 × 10-7 allowed us to set the new upper limit on the hadronic axion mass of mA ≤ 65 eV (95% C.L.) with the generally accepted values S=0.5 and z=0.56.

  13. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbara, Ahmed S; Othaman, Zulkafli; Saeed, M A

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. (paper)

  14. Experimental study of neutron-optical potential with absorption using Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, M.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Kawai, T.; Achiwa, N.; Yamazaki, D.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently spin precession angles of neutrons tunneling and non-tunneling through [Permalloy45(PA)-germanium(Ge)]-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator have been observed [1]. The spin precession angle is well reproduced by the theoretical phase difference of up and down spin neutron wave function based on one-dimensional Schroedinger equation using optical potential model [2]. Spin precession angle and transmission probability of neutron through PA-(Ge/Gd)-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator are presented, where the gap(Ge/Gd) layer consists of germanium and gadolinium atoms, and the optical potential model for magnetic multilayer system with absorption is discussed. (author) [1] M. Hino, et al., Physica B 241-243, 1083 (1998).; [2] S. Yamada, et al., Annu. Rep. Res. Reactor Inst. Kyoto Univ. 11, 8 (1978)

  15. Optimal trajectory control of a series-resonant inverter with a non-linear resonant inductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.; Baskurt, F.; Bouloukos, A; Baars, N.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    ies-Resonant (SR) converters have been used as building blocks for DC-AC and DC-DC power converters for at least half a century. Applications were first found in induction heating [1], where generating a substantial AC current at moderately high frequency was required by the application. Later, the

  16. Studies of the Effective Total and Resonance Absorption Cross Sections for Zircaloy 2 and Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E; Lindahl, G; Lundgren, G

    1961-06-15

    Using pile oscillator technique, the total absorption cross section for zircaloy 2 plates has been determined in the neutron spectrum of the reactor R1. The plate thickness was varied in six steps from 0. 2 mm to 6. 4 mm. The thermal cross section for the alloy was calculated from cross section data and the known composition of the alloy. By subtracting this value from the measured cross sections and dividing by the factor {alpha}=2/{radical}({pi}) x r x {radical}(T/T{sub 0}) the effective resonance integrals were obtained. After subtraction of a constant amount for resonance contributions from hafnium, tin etc., effective resonance integrals for zirconium could be evaluated. An extrapolated value of 0.85 {+-} 0.15 b was obtained for the infinitely dilute integral (l/v part excluded). The ratio of the resonance integral at plate thicknesses 0.2 and 6.4 mm came out as 1.65 {+-} 0.25.

  17. Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.O.

    1993-08-01

    Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder in the presence of the electron-LO-phonon resonance is investigated theoretically. The electron-LO-phonon resonance occurs when the energy spacing between adjacent Stark-ladder levels coincides with the LO-phonon energy. We propose a model describing the polaron effect in a superlattice. Calculations show that the absorption line shape is strongly modified due to the polaron effect under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition. We consider optical phenomena in a normal magnetic field that leads to enhancement of polaron effects. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs

  18. Pulse-bandwidth dependence of coherent phase control of resonance-mediated (2+1) three-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandman, Andrey; Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid; Amitay, Zohar

    2007-01-01

    We study in detail coherent phase control of femtosecond resonance-mediated (2+1) three-photon absorption and its dependence on the spectral bandwidth of the excitation pulse. The regime is the weak-field regime of third perturbative order. The corresponding interference mechanism involves a group of three-photon excitation pathways that are on resonance with the intermediate state and a group of three-photon excitation pathways that are near resonant with it. The model system of the study is atomic sodium (Na), for which experimental and numerical-theoretical results are obtained. Prominent among the results is our finding that with simple proper pulse shaping an increase in the excitation bandwidth leads to a corresponding increase in the enhancement of the three-photon absorption over the absorption induced by the (unshaped) transform-limited pulse. For example, here, a 40 nm bandwidth leads to an order-of-magnitude enhancement over the transform-limited absorption

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  20. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  1. Wideband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Absorptive Frequency Selective Surface and Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for wideband radar cross section (RCS reduction of a microstrip array antenna is presented and discussed. The scheme is based on the microstrip resonators and absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS with a wideband absorptive property over the low band 1.9–7.5 GHz and a transmission characteristic at high frequency 11.05 GHz. The AFSS is designed to realize the out-of-band RCS reduction and preserve the radiation performance simultaneously, and it is placed above the antenna with the operating frequency of 11.05 GHz. Moreover, the microstrip resonators are loaded to obtain the in-band RCS reduction. As a result, a significant RCS reduction from 1.5 GHz to 13 GHz for both types of polarization has been accomplished. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated results exhibit that the monostatic RCS of the proposed array antenna in x- and y-polarization can be reduced as much as 17.6 dB and 21.5 dB, respectively. And the measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

  2. Synthetic model for Doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in molecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alejandro J., E-mail: villanueva@cab.cnea.gov.a [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2010-08-15

    A general and systematic approach expressed in modern language, accounting for molecular motion effects on Doppler Broadening of Neutron Absorption Resonances (DBNAR) is given the form of a new model. It relies on well validated hypothesis: The separability of atomic from nuclear degrees of freedom, the use of the Van Hove scattering formalism and the fact that a conceptually identical approach produced experimentally proved predictions when applied to DBNAR in solid systems. We treat the molecular internal degrees of freedom approximately as harmonic oscillators. As a second contribution of this work, a synthetic model is presented in order to make the more complete model mentioned above suitable for neutron calculation codes. This second synthetic model reduces to the exact expressions of the complete model in the low and high neutron energy regimes and provides a plausible transition in between. Numerical results are presented for a general hypothetical case to show its strengths and limitations. Also, both models are applied to a real case of the {sup 238}U 6.674 eV resonant effective broadened absorption cross-section in UF6 (uranium hexafluoride). A direct experimental validation of our models is still necessary for which a special high resolution neutron transmission experiment ought to be devised at low temperatures and pressures on a gaseous system. It is showed how the synthetic model can be used to make thermometric predictions in an improved fashion in comparison to the effective temperature gas model at low temperatures.

  3. Distribution and absorption of local anesthetics in inferior alveolar nerve block: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Sinan; Küçük, Dervisşhan; Gümüş, Cesur; Kara, M Isa

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and absorption of local anesthetic solutions in inferior alveolar nerve block using magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers were divided into 4 groups and injected with 1.5 mL for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.3 mL for lingual nerve block. The solutions used for the different groups were 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with 0.125 mg/mL epinephrine, 4% articaine with 0.006 mg/mL epinephrine, and 4% articaine with 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All subjects had axial T2-weighted and fat-suppressed images at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection. The localization, area, and intensity (signal characteristics) of the solutions were analyzed and onset and duration times of the anesthesia were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to the intensity and area of the solutions at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection, but differences were found within each group. No between-group differences were found on magnetic resonance imaging in the distribution and absorption of lidocaine with or without epinephrine and articaine with 0.006 and 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All solutions were noticeably absorbed at 120 minutes after injection. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator: Experimental investigation and reduced-order modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device consisting of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected, the first four experimental natural frequencies are identified and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. Several backward and forward frequency sweeps are acquired. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the nonresonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is also capable of capturing the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Nonlinear intersubband absorption and refractive index changes in square and graded quantum well modulated by temperature and Hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Emine; Sokmen, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the linear and nonlinear intersubband transitions and the refractive index changes in the conduction band of square and graded quantum well (QW) are theoretically calculated within the framework of effective mass approximation. Results obtained show that the energy levels in different QWs and intersubband properties can be modified and controlled by the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. The modulation of the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes which can be suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infrared optical device applications can be easily obtained by tuning the temperature and the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear optical processes can be changed by pressure and temperature. ► Magnitude and energy of absorption peaks decrease as pressure increases. ► Refractive index changes in magnitude and energy decrease by increasing pressure. ► Energy differences are dependent on pressure, temperature and QW shapes. ► By increasing pressure we can obtain redshift in the optical transitions. ► For SQW, the absorption spectrum shows blueshift as the temperature increases. ► For GQW, the absorption spectrum shows redshift by temperature.

  6. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Luo Jinming; Xie Xiaotao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipole-dipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  7. Approaching Resonant Absorption of Environmental Xenobiotics Harmonic Oscillation by Linear Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia A. Bulucea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, it has become increasingly accepted that the term xenobiotic relates to environmental impact, since environmental xenobiotics are understood to be substances foreign to a biological system, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. In this context, xenobiotics are persistent pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, as well as plastics and pesticides. Dangerous and unstable situations can result from the presence of environmental xenobiotics since their harmful effects on humans and ecosystems are often unpredictable. For instance, the immune system is extremely vulnerable and sensitive to modulation by environmental xenobitics. Various experimental assays could be performed to ascertain the immunotoxic potential of environmental xenobiotics, taking into account genetic factors, the route of xenobiotic penetration, and the amount and duration of exposure, as well as the wave shape of the xenobiotic. In this paper, we propose an approach for the analysis of xenobiotic metabolism using mathematical models and corresponding methods. This study focuses on a pattern depicting mathematically modeled processes of resonant absorption of a xenobiotic harmonic oscillation by an organism modulated as an absorbing oscillator structure. We represent the xenobiotic concentration degree through a spatial concentration vector, and we model and simulate the oscillating regime of environmental xenobiotic absorption. It is anticipated that the results could be used to facilitate the assessment of the processes of environmental xenobiotic absorption, distribution, biotransformation and removal within the framework of compartmental analysis, by establishing appropriate mathematical models and simulations.

  8. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar, Ashutosh [RADL Division, Electronics and Radar Development Establishment, C V Raman Nagar, Bangalore-560093 (India); Kataria, N D [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

    2005-08-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis.

  9. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2015-01-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state. (paper)

  10. Nonlinearities and noise in micromechanical resonators: From understanding to characterization and design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, Pavel M.

    In this work we consider several nonlinearity-based and/or noise-related phenomena that have been recently observed in micro-electromechanical vibratory systems. The main goals are to closely examine these phenomena, develop an understanding of their underlying physics, derive techniques for characterizing parameters in relevant mathematical models, and determine ways to improve the performance of specific classes of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) used in applications. The general perspective of this work is based on the fact that nonlinearity and noise represent integral parts of the models needed to describe the response of these systems, and the focus is on situations where these generally undesirable features can be utilized or accounted for in design. We consider three different, but related, topics in this general area. The first topic uses the slowly varying states in a rotating frame of reference where we analyze the stationary probability distribution of a nonlinear parametrically-driven resonator subjected to Poisson pulses and thermal noise. We show that Poisson pulses with low pulse rates, as compared with the resonator decay rate, cause a power-law divergence of the probability density at the resonator equilibrium in both the underdamped (overdamped) regimes, in which the response does (does not) spiral in the rotating frame. We have also found that the shape of the probability distribution away from the equilibrium position is qualitatively different for the overdamped and underdamped cases. In particular, in the overdamped regime, the form of the secondary singularity in the probability distribution depends strongly on the reference phase of the resonator response and the pulse modulation phase, while in the underdamped regime several singular peaks occur in the distribution, and their locations are determined by the resonator frequency and decay rate in the rotating frame. Finally, we show that even weak Gaussian noise smoothens out the

  11. Long-term evolution of electron distribution function due to nonlinear resonant interaction with whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.

    2018-04-01

    Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.

  12. Sensitivity of 238U resonance absorption to library multigroup structure as calculated by WIMS-AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughton, P.J.; Donnelly, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    In simulations of the TRX-1 experimental lattice, WIMS-AECL overpredicts, relative to MCNP, resonance absorption in neutron-energy groups containing the three large, low-lying resonances of 238 U when a standard ENDF/B-V-based library is used. A total excess in these groups of 4.0 neutron captures by 238 U per thousand fission neutrons has been observed. Similar comparisons are made in this work for the MIT-4 experimental lattice and simplified CANDU lattice cells containing 37-element fuel, with and without heavy-water coolant. Eleven different 89-group cross-section libraries were constructed for WIMS-AECL from ENDF/B-V data: only the neutron-energy-group boundaries used in generating multigroup cross sections and the Goldstein-Cohen correction factors differ from one library to the next. The first library uses the original 89-group structure, and the other ten involve energy groups of varying widths centred on the three large, low-lying resonances of 238 U. For TRX-1, some reduction in total discrepancy in 238 U capture can be achieved by using a new structure, although the improvement is small. The discrepancies in 238 U capture are of the same order for the MIT-4 case as those observed for TRX-1 for both the original group structure and the ten new structures. The WIMS-AECL calculation of 238 U resonance absorption in the same ranges of energy for the simplified CANDU 37-element lattice are in better agreement with MCNP than they are for TRX-1 and MIT-4: when the original structure is used, WIMS-AECL underpredicts total capture rate by 238 U in the energy range of interest by only 0.56 per thousand fission neutrons (coolant present) and 0.88 per thousand fission neutrons (voided coolant channel). The discrepancies are reduced when some of the new structures are used. For almost all of the cases considered here-TRX-1, MIT-4 and CANDU with coolant-better group-by-group agreement of 238 U capture around the 6.67-eV resonance is achieved by using a new library

  13. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  14. Excitation of multiphase waves of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation by capture into resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, L.; Shagalov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    A method for adiabatic excitation and control of multiphase (N-band) waves of the periodic nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation is developed. The approach is based on capturing the system into successive resonances with external, small amplitude plane waves having slowly varying frequencies. The excitation proceeds from zero and develops in stages, as an (N+1)-band (N=0,1,2,...), growing amplitude wave is formed in the (N+1)th stage from an N-band solution excited in the preceding stage. The method is illustrated in simulations, where the excited multiphase waves are analyzed via the spectral approach of the inverse scattering transform method. The theory of excitation of 0- and 1-band NLS solutions by capture into resonances is developed on the basis of a weakly nonlinear version of Whitham's averaged variational principle. The phenomenon of thresholds on the driving amplitudes for capture into successive resonances and the stability of driven, phase-locked solutions in these cases are discussed

  15. Nonlinear Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Effects in Microcantilever Resonators Dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayon, M A; Sayyaadi, H; Jazar, G Nakhaie

    2006-01-01

    Thermal dependency of material characteristics in micro electromechanical systems strongly affects their performance, design, and control. Hence, it is essential to understand and model that in MEMS devices to optimize their designs. A thermal phenomenon introduces two main effects: damping due to internal friction, and softening due to Young modulus temperature relation. Based on some reported theoretical and experimental results, we model the thermal phenomena and use two Lorentzian functions to describe the restoring and damping forces caused by thermal phenomena. In order to emphasize the thermal effects, a nonlinear model of the MEMS, by considering capacitor nonlinearity, have been used. The response of the system is developed by employing multiple time scales perturbation method on nondimensionalized form of equations. Frequency response, resonant frequency and peak amplitude are examined for variation of dynamic parameters involved

  16. Numerical analysis of non-linear vibrations of a fractionally damped cylindrical shell under the conditions of combinational internal resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossikhin Yury A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.

  17. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe_2O_4 were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe_2O_4-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe_2O_4 decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe_2O_4. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10"−"1"0 m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp"3) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe_2O_4 along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable properties which are exceedingly required in both optoelectronics and photothermal therapy

  18. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C., E-mail: sabarigirisun@bdu.ac.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10{sup −10} m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp{sup 3}) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable

  19. Nonlinear resonance rotation of polarization plane in the conditions of coherent captivity of occupation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Zelenskij, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the nonlinear resonance rotation of the polarization plane of the electromagnetic radiation under the conditions of the coherent occupation captivity in the 87 Rb pairs at the F = 2 → F' = 1 transition of the D 1 -line is studied within the wide range of the experimental parameters change. The nonmonotonous dependence of the turning angle on the laser radiation intensity and applied magnetic field is identified. The effect of the occupation optical pumping out on the F = 1 level is discussed. The twofold increase in the polarization plane turning angle by the pumping out compensation is experimentally demonstrated [ru

  20. Damping characteristic identification of non-linear soil-structural system interaction by phase resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poterasu, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method and the phase resonance for damping characteristic identification of non-linear soil-structural interaction. The algorithm can be applied in case of any, not necessarily, damping characteristic of the system examined. For the identification, the system is harmonically excited and are considered the super-harmonic amplitudes for odd and even powers of the x. The response of shear beam system for different levels of base excitation and for different locations of the load is considered. (Author) [pt

  1. Statistics of Poincare recurrences and the structure of the stochastic layer of a nonlinear resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, B.V.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    Motion in the stochastic layer around the separatrix of a nonlinear resonance was investigated. The integral distribution function F(tau) of trajectory recurrence times tau to the center of the layer was numerically determined. It was found that the distribution F(tau) = A tau - /sup p/ is a power function, the exponent assuming two different values: for tau less than or equal to tau 0 , p = 1/2 and for tau >> tau 0 , p = 3/2 (time tau 0 is determined by the characteristics of the layer)

  2. Preparation, characterization and nonlinear absorption studies of cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, H.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2012-07-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper(II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR studies revealed that the formation of pure single-phase cubic. Raman and EPR spectral studies show the presence of CuO in as-synthesized powders of Cu2O. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm 6 ns laser pulses. Samples-exhibited both saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap), we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) in the case of nanoclusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  3. Experimental test of resonant absorption theory. Final report, January 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1979-05-01

    This experimental research has probed the nature of resonant absorption (RA) of laser light by laser-produced plasmas. The plasmas were created by optical breakdown of a shockfront produced in an electrothermal shock tube. This procedure allows the density structure of the plasma, and in particular, the orientation of the plasma critical-density surface, to be reproducibly formed from one shot to the next. Thus, for the first time, RA has been controllably and reproducibly studied in isolation from other plasma physics. The angular distribution of fast electrons emitted by RA and wavebreaking has been studied, and it is observed that the emission is directed in a narrow cone centered on the shockfront density-gradient vector, in agreement with the theory of wavebreaking

  4. Laser photo-reflectance characterization of resonant nonlinear electro-refraction in thin semiconductor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Will; Cartwright, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Photo-reflectance (PR) measurements provide a non-contact means for the precise characterization of semiconductor electronic properties. In this paper, we investigate the use of a laser beam as the probe beam in the PR setup. In this case it is seen that the nonlinear refraction is responsible for the amplitude change of the reflected probe field, whereas the phase change is due to nonlinear absorption. The open aperture condition may then be used to eliminate the spatial phase at the detector, thereby isolating the electro-refractive contribution to the PR signal. This greatly simplifies the PR analysis and allows absolute measurements of electro-refraction in thin semiconductor films. We report the application of the laser PR technique to characterize physical strain in thin silicon on silicon-germanium films. - Highlights: ► We describe the theory of laser photoreflectance. ► Laser photoreflectance is used to independently characterize nonlinear refraction. ► We report the characterization of strain in thin strained silicon films.

  5. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ullah, Siraj; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.; Zaigham Zia, Q. M.

    2018-03-01

    Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy's law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined.

  6. Measurement of specific heat and specific absorption rate by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, David H., E-mail: david.gultekin@aya.yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Gore, John C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    We evaluate a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method of calorimetry for the measurement of specific heat (c{sub p}) and specific absorption rate (SAR) in liquids. The feasibility of NMR calorimetry is demonstrated by experimental measurements of water, ethylene glycol and glycerol using any of three different NMR parameters (chemical shift, spin-spin relaxation rate and equilibrium nuclear magnetization). The method involves heating the sample using a continuous wave laser beam and measuring the temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter by non-invasive means. The temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter as a function of thermal power yields the ratio of the heat capacity to the respective nuclear thermal coefficient, from which the specific heat can be determined for the substance. The specific absorption rate is obtained by subjecting the liquid to heating by two types of radiation, radiofrequency (RF) and near-infrared (NIR), and by measuring the change in the nuclear spin phase shift by a gradient echo imaging sequence. These studies suggest NMR may be a useful tool for measurements of the thermal properties of liquids.

  7. Contribution to analytical theory of neutron resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactor systems with cylindrical geometry; Prilog analitickoj teoriji rezonzntne apsorpcije neutron u heterogenom reaktorskim sistemima sa cilindricnom geometrijom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slipicevic, K [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-07-01

    Following a review of the existing theories od resonance absorption this thesis includes a new approach for calculating the effective resonance integral of absorbed neutrons, new approximate formula for the penetration factor, an analysis of the effective resonance integral and the correction of the resonance integral taking into account the interference of potential and resonance dissipation. A separate chapter is devoted to calculation of the effective resonance integral for the regular reactor lattice with cylindrical fuel elements.

  8. High-sensitivity dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, D.A.; Chashin, D.V.; Ekonomov, N.A.; Fetisov, Y.K.; Stashkevich, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and operation principle of dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect in a ferromagnetic–piezoelectric structure are described. It is shown that under action of ac pumping magnetic field the structure generates the output voltage containing higher harmonics whose amplitudes depend on the dc magnetic field. Best performance of the device is obtained if the signal of the third harmonics is used for the dc field measurement. The sensitivity can be considerably (by approximately three orders of magnitude) increased if advantage is taken of the acoustic resonance of the structure at this frequency. There exists the optimal pumping field ensuring the highest sensitivity. Further increasing of this field expands the range of measurable dc fields at the expense of deteriorated sensitivity. The magnetometer fabricated on the basis of a planar langatate-Metglas structure had sensitivity up to ~1 V/Oe and allowed detection of the fields as low as ~10"−"5 Oe. - Highlights: • Operational principle and design of new type dc field magnetometer is described. • Magnetometer uses nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in a langatate-Metglas structure. • Magnetometer has sensitivity of ~1 V/Oe and detects fields as low as 10"−"5 Oe. • The proposed magnetometer can compete with well known fluxgate sensors.

  9. High-sensitivity dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, D.A.; Chashin, D.V.; Ekonomov, N.A. [Moscow State University of Information Technologies, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fetisov, Y.K., E-mail: fetisov@mirea.ru [Moscow State University of Information Technologies, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stashkevich, A.A. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2016-05-01

    The design and operation principle of dc field magnetometer using nonlinear resonance magnetoelectric effect in a ferromagnetic–piezoelectric structure are described. It is shown that under action of ac pumping magnetic field the structure generates the output voltage containing higher harmonics whose amplitudes depend on the dc magnetic field. Best performance of the device is obtained if the signal of the third harmonics is used for the dc field measurement. The sensitivity can be considerably (by approximately three orders of magnitude) increased if advantage is taken of the acoustic resonance of the structure at this frequency. There exists the optimal pumping field ensuring the highest sensitivity. Further increasing of this field expands the range of measurable dc fields at the expense of deteriorated sensitivity. The magnetometer fabricated on the basis of a planar langatate-Metglas structure had sensitivity up to ~1 V/Oe and allowed detection of the fields as low as ~10{sup −5} Oe. - Highlights: • Operational principle and design of new type dc field magnetometer is described. • Magnetometer uses nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in a langatate-Metglas structure. • Magnetometer has sensitivity of ~1 V/Oe and detects fields as low as 10{sup −5} Oe. • The proposed magnetometer can compete with well known fluxgate sensors.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression for the electrostatic force generated between the combs of the rotor and the stator is derived and takes into account both the transverse and longitudinal capacitances present. After formulating the problem, the resulting stiff differential equations are solved analytically using the method of multiple scales, and a closed-form solution is obtained. Furthermore, the nonlinear boundary value problem that describes the dynamics of inextensional spring beams is solved using straightforward perturbation to obtain the linear and nonlinear spring constants of the beam. The analytical solution is verified numerically using a Matlab/Simulink environment, and the results from both analyses exhibit excellent agreement. Stability analysis based on phase plane trajectory is also presented and fully explains previously reported empirical results that lacked sufficient theoretical description. Finally, the proposed solutions are, once again, verified with previously published measurement results. The closed-form solutions provided are easy to apply and enable predicting the actual behavior of resonators and gyroscopes with similar structures. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of double walled carbon nanotube based resonator with curvature factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration analysis of a double walled carbon nanotube based mass sensor with curvature factor or waviness, which is doubly clamped at a source and a drain. Nonlinear vibrational behaviour of a double-walled carbon nanotube excited harmonically near its primary resonance is considered. The double walled carbon nanotube is harmonically excited by the addition of an excitation force. The modelling involves stretching of the mid plane and damping as per phenomenon. The equation of motion involves four nonlinear terms for inner and outer tubes of DWCNT due to the curved geometry and the stretching of the central plane due to the boundary conditions. The vibrational behaviour of the double walled carbon nanotube with different surface deviations along its axis is analyzed in the context of the time response, Poincaré maps and Fast Fourier Transformation diagrams. The appearance of instability and chaos in the dynamic response is observed as the curvature factor on double walled carbon nanotube is changed. The phenomenon of Periodic doubling and intermittency are observed as the pathway to chaos. The regions of periodic, sub-harmonic and chaotic behaviour are clearly seen to be dependent on added mass and the curvature factors in the double walled carbon nanotube. Poincaré maps and frequency spectra are used to explicate and to demonstrate the miscellany of the system behaviour. With the increase in the curvature factor system excitations increases and results in an increase of the vibration amplitude with reduction in excitation frequency.

  12. On the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam near Primary Resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Masri, Karim M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally various nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. Mainly, we investigate the transition behavior from hardening, mixed, and then softening behavior. We show in a single frequency-response curve, under a constant voltage load, the transition from hardening to softening behavior demonstrating the dominance of the quadratic electrostatic nonlinearity over the cubic geometric nonlinearity of the beam as the motion amplitudes becomes large, which may lead eventually to dynamic pull-in. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Frequency sweep tests are conducted for different values of DC bias revealing hardening, mixed, and softening behavior of the microbeam. A multi-mode Galerkin model combined with a shooting technique are implemented to generate the frequency response curves and to analyze the stability of the periodic motions using the Floquet theory. The simulated curves show good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Optimum Design of a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber Coupled to a Resonant Oscillator: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Abundis-Fong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal design of a passive autoparametric cantilever beam vibration absorber for a linear mass-spring-damper system subject to harmonic external force. The design of the autoparametric vibration absorber is obtained by using an approximation of the nonlinear frequency response function, computed via the multiple scales method. Based on the solution given by the perturbation method mentioned above, a static optimization problem is formulated in order to determine the optimum parameters (mass and length of the nonlinear absorber which minimizes the steady state amplitude of the primary mass under resonant conditions; then, a PZT actuator is cemented to the base of the beam, so the nonlinear absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility of controlling the effective stiffness associated with the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. Finally, some simulations and experimental results are included to validate and illustrate the dynamic performance of the overall system.

  14. On the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam near Primary Resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-04-07

    This work aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally various nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. Mainly, we investigate the transition behavior from hardening, mixed, and then softening behavior. We show in a single frequency-response curve, under a constant voltage load, the transition from hardening to softening behavior demonstrating the dominance of the quadratic electrostatic nonlinearity over the cubic geometric nonlinearity of the beam as the motion amplitudes becomes large, which may lead eventually to dynamic pull-in. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Frequency sweep tests are conducted for different values of DC bias revealing hardening, mixed, and softening behavior of the microbeam. A multi-mode Galerkin model combined with a shooting technique are implemented to generate the frequency response curves and to analyze the stability of the periodic motions using the Floquet theory. The simulated curves show good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Novel threshold pressure sensors based on nonlinear dynamics of MEMS resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad H.; Alsaleem, Fadi M.; Ouakad, Hassen M.

    2018-06-01

    Triggering an alarm in a car for low air-pressure in the tire or tripping an HVAC compressor if the refrigerant pressure is lower than a threshold value are examples for applications where measuring the amount of pressure is not as important as determining if the pressure has exceeded a threshold value for an action to occur. Unfortunately, current technology still relies on analog pressure sensors to perform this functionality by adding a complex interface (extra circuitry, controllers, and/or decision units). In this paper, we demonstrate two new smart tunable-threshold pressure switch concepts that can reduce the complexity of a threshold pressure sensor. The first concept is based on the nonlinear subharmonic resonance of a straight double cantilever microbeam with a proof mass and the other concept is based on the snap-through bi-stability of a clamped-clamped MEMS shallow arch. In both designs, the sensor operation concept is simple. Any actuation performed at a certain pressure lower than a threshold value will activate a nonlinear dynamic behavior (subharmonic resonance or snap-through bi-stability) yielding a large output that would be interpreted as a logic value of ONE, or ON. Once the pressure exceeds the threshold value, the nonlinear response ceases to exist, yielding a small output that would be interpreted as a logic value of ZERO, or OFF. A lumped, single degree of freedom model for the double cantilever beam, that is validated using experimental data, and a continuous beam model for the arch beam, are used to simulate the operation range of the proposed sensors by identifying the relationship between the excitation signal and the critical cut-off pressure.

  16. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  17. Intermolecular interaction of photoexcited Cu(/TMpy-P4) with water studied by transient resonance Raman and picosecond absorption spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, Sergei G.; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V.; Shvedko, Alexander G.; Orlovich, Valentine A.; Galievsky, Victor A.; Chirvony, Vladimir S.; Otto, Cornelis; Turpin, Pierre-Yves

    1997-01-01

    photoinduced complex between Cu(TMpy-P4) and water molecules, reversibly axially coordinated to the central metal, was observed in picosecond transient absorption and nanosecond resonance Raman experiments. This complex is rapidly created (τ1 = 15 ± 5 ps) in the excited triplet (π, π*) state of

  18. Resonant absorption in semiconductor nanowires and nanowire arrays: Relating leaky waveguide modes to Bloch photonic crystal modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountaine, Katherine T., E-mail: kfountai@caltech.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Whitney, William S. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We present a unified framework for resonant absorption in periodic arrays of high index semiconductor nanowires that combines a leaky waveguide theory perspective and that of photonic crystals supporting Bloch modes, as array density transitions from sparse to dense. Full dispersion relations are calculated for each mode at varying illumination angles using the eigenvalue equation for leaky waveguide modes of an infinite dielectric cylinder. The dispersion relations along with symmetry arguments explain the selectivity of mode excitation and spectral red-shifting of absorption for illumination parallel to the nanowire axis in comparison to perpendicular illumination. Analysis of photonic crystal band dispersion for varying array density illustrates that the modes responsible for resonant nanowire absorption emerge from the leaky waveguide modes.

  19. Direct observation of effective temperature of Ta atom in layer compound TaS2 by neutron resonance absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Koji; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Moreh, R.; Ikeda, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    A neutron resonance absorption spectrometer, DOG has been installed at KENS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Neutron Source, which enables us to investigate the motions of a particular element by analyzing the line width of resonance absorption spectrum. We measured the temperature dependence of the effective temperature of Ta motion in TaS 2 as well as in Ta metal using DOG. The effective temperatures extracted from the observed absorption spectrum agree well with the calculated values from the phonon density of states of Ta metal over a wide temperature range of 10 to 300 K. We also succeeded in measuring both the angular dependence and the temperature dependence of effective temperatures of Ta in a layer compound TaS 2 . Based on the temperature dependence of the effective temperature, the partial phonon density of states of Ta in TaS 2 was discussed. (author)

  20. Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingjie; Guo Kangxian; Liu Guanghui; Wu Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential with applied magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are presented by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that taking into account the electron-LO-phonon interaction, not only are the linear, the nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhanced, but also the total optical absorption coefficients are more sensitive to the incident optical intensity. It is also found that no matter whether the electron-LO-phonon interaction is considered or not, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes above are strongly dependent on the radial frequency, the magnetic field and the linear potential coefficient.

  1. Nonlinear Relationships Between Particulate Absorption and Chlorophyll: Detritus or Pigment Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    for another polar area. For samples from Antartic waters, the mean a*pan(4 3 5 ), normalized to chl a + pheo, was 0.0 18 m2 (mg chl a)-I (Mitchell and...specific absorption coefficients, was suggested as the cause of relatively low mean specific absorption coefficients in the Antartic . The values of c1...moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399-7412. Mitchell, B.G., and 0. Holm-Hansen 1991. Bio-optical properties of Antartic

  2. Coronal heating by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves - Importance of the global mode and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, Richard S.; Davila, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the MHD equations for a fully compressible, low-beta, resistive plasma are used to study the resonance absorption process for the heating of coronal active region loops. Comparisons with more approximate analytic models show that the major predictions of the analytic theories are, to a large extent, confirmed by the numerical computations. The simulations demonstrate that the dissipation occurs primarily in a thin resonance layer. Some of the analytically predicted features verified by the simulations are (a) the position of the resonance layer within the initial inhomogeneity; (b) the importance of the global mode for a large range of loop densities; (c) the dependence of the resonance layer thickness and the steady-state heating rate on the dissipation coefficient; and (d) the time required for the resonance layer to form. In contrast with some previous analytic and simulation results, the time for the loop to reach a steady state is found to be the phase-mixing time rather than a dissipation time. This disagreement is shown to result from neglect of the existence of the global mode in some of the earlier analyses. The resonant absorption process is also shown to behave similar to a classical driven harmonic oscillator.

  3. Origin of optical non-linear response in TiN owing to excitation dynamics of surface plasmon resonance electronic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, S.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Mujeeb, A.

    2014-08-01

    TiN nanoparticles of average size 55 nm were investigated for their optical non-linear properties. During the experiment the irradiated laser wavelength coincided with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of the nanoparticle. The large non-linearity of the nanoparticle was attributed to the plasmon resonance, which largely enhanced the local field within the nanoparticle. Both open and closed aperture Z-scan experiments were performed and the corresponding optical constants were explored. The post-excitation absorption spectra revealed the interesting phenomenon of photo fragmentation leading to the blue shift in band gap and red shift in the SPR. The results are discussed in terms of enhanced interparticle interaction simultaneous with size reduction. Here, the optical constants being intrinsic constants for a particular sample change unusually with laser power intensity. The dependence of χ(3) is discussed in terms of the size variation caused by photo fragmentation. The studies proved that the TiN nanoparticles are potential candidates in photonics technology offering huge scope to study unexplored research for various expedient applications.

  4. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Roshni, E-mail: rbiswas@usc.edu; Povinelli, Michelle L. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  5. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Roshni; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest

  6. Electronic decay cascades in media initiated by resonant absorption of X-ray photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miteva, Tsveta

    2015-07-16

    The resonant-Auger - interatomic Coulombic decay (RA-ICD) cascade was recently proposed as a very efficient means of controlling the generation site and energies of slow ICD electrons. The control mechanism was verified in a series of experiments where both the energy of the photons producing the initial core excitation, and the neighbouring species were varied. The aim of this thesis is to provide a detailed theoretical investigation of the RA-ICD cascade in rare-gas dimers and give a first insight into the course of the cascade in aqueous medium. The potential energy curves (PECs) of ionisation satellites are key ingredients in the theoretical description of electronic decay cascades. In the first chapter, we conducted a study on the PECs of the ionisation satellites of the ArHe dimer with a view to modelling such PECs in heavier dimers. Our results show that the complex valence structure in the rare-gas atom leads to the mixing of different electronic configurations of the dimer, which prevents one from assigning a single dicationic parent state to some of the ionisation satellites. In the second part of the thesis, we present and analyse the ICD-electron and kinetic-energy-release (KER) spectra following different resonant core excitations of Ar in the rare-gas dimers Ar{sub 2} and ArKr. We demonstrate that the manifold of ICD states populated in the resonant Auger process consists of fast- and slow-decaying ionisation satellites, and that the accurate description of nuclear dynamics in the latter ICD states is crucial for obtaining theoretical electron and KER spectra in good agreement with the experiment. We also show that by varying the neighbouring atom one can tune the energies of the emitted ICD electrons and even control the ICD yield. Finally, as a first step towards the investigation of the RA-ICD cascade in aqueous medium, we present and discuss the X-Ray absorption spectra of microsolvated clusters of Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} at the metal 1s

  7. Optical resonance-enhanced absorption-based near-field immunochip biosensor for allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Irene; Morgan, Michael R A; Lindner, Wolfgang; Pittner, Fritz

    2008-04-15

    An optical immunochip biosensor has been developed as a rapid method for allergen detection in complex food matrixes, and its application evaluated for the detection of the egg white allergens, ovalbumin and ovomucoid. The optical near-field phenomenon underlying the basic principle of the sensor design is called resonance-enhanced absorption (REA), which utilizes gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as signal transducers in a highly sensitive interferometric setup. Using this approach, a novel, simple, and rapid colorimetric solid-phase immunoassay on a planar chip substrate was realized in direct and sandwich assay formats, with a detection system that does not require any instrumentation for readout. Semiquantitative immunochemical responses are directly visible to the naked eye of the analyst. The biosensor shows concentration-dependent color development by capturing antibody-functionalized Au NPs on allergen-coated chips and has a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. To establish a rapid method, we took advantage of the physicochemical microenvironment of the Au NP-antibody bioconjugate to be bound directly over an interacting poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) interlayer by an immobilized antigen. In the direct assay format, a coating time with allergen of only 5 min under "soft" nondenaturing conditions was sufficient for accurate reproducibility and sensitivity. In conclusion, the REA-based immunochip sensor is easy to fabricate, is reproducible and selective in its performance, has minimal technical requirements, and will enable high-throughput screening of affinity binding interactions in technological and medical applications.

  8. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  9. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  10. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D.G. [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  11. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D G [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  12. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  13. Experimental Investigation of 2:1 and 3:1 Internal Resonances in Nonlinear MEMS Arch Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-12-05

    We demonstrate experimentally internal resonances in MEMS resonators. The investigation is conducted on in-plane MEMS arch resonators fabricated with a highly doped silicon. The resonators are actuated electrostatically and their stiffness are tuned by electrothermal loading by passing an electrical current though the microstructures. We show that through this tuning, the ratio of the various resonance frequencies can be varied and set at certain ratios. Particularly, we adjust the resonance frequencies of two different vibrational modes to 2:1 and 3:1. Finally, we validate the internal resonances at these ratios through frequency-response curves and FFTs.

  14. Experimental Investigation of 2:1 and 3:1 Internal Resonances in Nonlinear MEMS Arch Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally internal resonances in MEMS resonators. The investigation is conducted on in-plane MEMS arch resonators fabricated with a highly doped silicon. The resonators are actuated electrostatically and their stiffness are tuned by electrothermal loading by passing an electrical current though the microstructures. We show that through this tuning, the ratio of the various resonance frequencies can be varied and set at certain ratios. Particularly, we adjust the resonance frequencies of two different vibrational modes to 2:1 and 3:1. Finally, we validate the internal resonances at these ratios through frequency-response curves and FFTs.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics near resonances of a rotor-active magnetic bearings system with 16-pole legs and time varying stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R. Q.; Zhang, W.; Yao, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the complicated nonlinear dynamics of rotor-active magnetic bearings (rotor-AMB) with 16-pole legs and the time varying stiffness. The magnetic force with 16-pole legs is obtained by applying the electromagnetic theory. The governing equation of motion for rotor-active magnetic bearings is derived by using the Newton's second law. The resulting dimensionless equation of motion for the rotor-AMB system is expressed as a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system including the parametric excitation, quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The averaged equation of the rotor-AMB system is obtained by using the method of multiple scales when the primary parametric resonance and 1/2 subharmonic resonance are taken into account. From the frequency-response curves, it is found that there exist the phenomena of the soft-spring type nonlinearity and the hardening-spring type nonlinearity in the rotor-AMB system. The effects of different parameters on the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the rotor-AMB system are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions occur alternately in the rotor-AMB system.

  16. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling on linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in a GaAs quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughnetsyan, V.N.; Manaselyan, A.Kh.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and Rashba spin–orbit interaction on intraband linear and nonlinear light absorption has been investigated in cylindrical quantum ring. The one electron energy spectrum has been found using the effective mass approximation and diagonalization procedure. We have found that the Rashba interaction can lead both to the blue- or to the red-shift of the absorption spectrum depending on the transitions character, while the only red-shift is observed due to the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► The effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling are investigated for quantum ring. ► The non-linear absorption coefficient is calculated. ► The hydrostatic pressure leads to the decrease in the absorption coefficient. ► Spin–orbit coupling weakens some transitions and strengthens others.

  17. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n 2 , of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response ( 2 was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 composition. Large values of n 2 ≅10 -14 cm 2 /W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications

  18. Study of nonlinear optical absorption properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molli, Muralikrishna; Bhat Kademane, Abhijit; Pradhan, Prabin; Sai Muthukumar, V. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles were synthesized through solution combustion technique. The as-synthesized samples were further characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDAX, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies showed the size of the nanoparticles to be ∝200 nm. Open-aperture z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical absorption behavior of the synthesized samples using a 100-fs laser pulses at 800 nm from a regeneratively amplified Ti: sapphire laser. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption was found to be a three-photon absorption process which was explained using the density of states of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} obtained using density functional theory. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity-dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered for optical-power-limiting applications. (orig.)

  19. The effects of proton-beam quality on the production of gamma rays for nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.; Morgado, R.E.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe a method for performing nuclear-resonance absorption with the proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The objective was to assess the suitability of the pulsed beam from an RFQ to image nitrogen compared to electrostatic accelerators. This choice of accelerator results in trade-offs in performance and complexity, in return for the prospect of higher average current. In spite of a reduced resonance attenuation coefficient in nitrogen, they successfully produced three-dimensional tomographic images of real explosives in luggage the first time the unoptimized system was operated. The results and assessments of the initial laboratory measurements are reported

  20. The effects of proton-beam quality on the production of gamma rays for nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graybill, R. [ed.; Morgado, R.E.; Cappiello, C.C. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe a method for performing nuclear-resonance absorption with the proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The objective was to assess the suitability of the pulsed beam from an RFQ to image nitrogen compared to electrostatic accelerators. This choice of accelerator results in trade-offs in performance and complexity, in return for the prospect of higher average current. In spite of a reduced resonance attenuation coefficient in nitrogen, they successfully produced three-dimensional tomographic images of real explosives in luggage the first time the unoptimized system was operated. The results and assessments of the initial laboratory measurements are reported.

  1. Polarization dependence of two-photon absorption coefficient and nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shoichi; Takayama, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) effect in (001) InP is investigated using fs laser. Its dependences on wavelength and polarization are clarified by single and double beam methods with linearly polarized lights. Characteristic features are revealed and discussed with scaling law, crystal bonding and mutual relation of polarizations for double beams. The results are successfully analyzed on the basis of the third-order susceptibility tensor for comprehensive understanding of TPA effect at any polarization geometry. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  3. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  4. Effect of endorsed body weight on specific absorption rate during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harish K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gujral, R.B.; Shukla, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    As a routine safety of the patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the limits of radiofrequency (RF) specific absorption rate (SAR) are set by the manufacturers of all MRI systems because RF causes thermo genesis of the RF exposed tissue. It has been mandatory practice to endorse body weight and age of the patients required by the MRI systems for the SAR check. The problems arise on those patients who are critically ill, and consequently body weight could not be measured. In such cases, approximate body weight has to be endorsed. In case of underweight and overweight patients, sometimes SAR check does not permit to run the MRI pulse sequences. Also, in such cases, body weight remains the parameter which is being changed to get the MRI done. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of SAR with endorsed body weight. The change of SAR was recorded with the endorsed weight using phantoms and most commonly used T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequence on clinical MRI system. At true endorsed weight, using respective coils and the head and spine coil phantoms, the body averaged and localised SAR were found to be within limits while this was not the case with body coil phantom. Unrealistic endorsed weights are permissible for the adult age cases in all coils while using the routine T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences. This finding is absolutely new in the field and certainly, will be of great applicability to develop a uniform and standard system of SAR checks in the patient interest. (author)

  5. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  6. Resonant metallic nanostructure for enhanced two-photon absorption in a thin GaAs p-i-n diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, Benjamin; Pardo, Fabrice; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Steveler, Emilie; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Lemaître, Aristide; Pelouard, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.pelouard@lpn.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Vest, Benjamin; Jaeck, Julien; Rosencher, Emmanuel [ONERA The French Aerospace Lab, Chemin de la Hunière, F-91760 Palaiseau (France); Haïdar, Riad [ONERA The French Aerospace Lab, Chemin de la Hunière, F-91760 Palaiseau (France); École Polytechnique, Département de Physique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-07-07

    Degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) is investigated in a 186 nm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diode embedded in a resonant metallic nanostructure. The full device consists in the GaAs layer, a gold subwavelength grating on the illuminated side, and a gold mirror on the opposite side. For TM-polarized light, the structure exhibits a resonance close to 1.47 μm, with a confined electric field in the intrinsic region, far from the metallic interfaces. A 109 times increase in photocurrent compared to a non-resonant device is obtained experimentally, while numerical simulations suggest that both gain in TPA-photocurrent and angular dependence can be further improved. For optimized grating parameters, a maximum gain of 241 is demonstrated numerically and over incidence angle range of (−30°; +30°).

  7. Resonant metallic nanostructure for enhanced two-photon absorption in a thin GaAs p-i-n diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, Benjamin; Pardo, Fabrice; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Steveler, Emilie; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Lemaître, Aristide; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Vest, Benjamin; Jaeck, Julien; Rosencher, Emmanuel; Haïdar, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) is investigated in a 186 nm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diode embedded in a resonant metallic nanostructure. The full device consists in the GaAs layer, a gold subwavelength grating on the illuminated side, and a gold mirror on the opposite side. For TM-polarized light, the structure exhibits a resonance close to 1.47 μm, with a confined electric field in the intrinsic region, far from the metallic interfaces. A 109 times increase in photocurrent compared to a non-resonant device is obtained experimentally, while numerical simulations suggest that both gain in TPA-photocurrent and angular dependence can be further improved. For optimized grating parameters, a maximum gain of 241 is demonstrated numerically and over incidence angle range of (−30°; +30°).

  8. Nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a monochromatic radiation near resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, J.I.C.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a strong monochromatic radiation causing saturation effects is calculated. The gas is supposed to be composed of two-level molecules with which the external field is nearly resonant. It is assumed homogeneous (hard collisions, spontaneous decay) and inhomogeneous (Doppler effect) broadening mechanisms acting on the real index of refraction of the medium. The nonlinear dispersion of the medium is studied as a function of the detuning frequencies, saturation conditions and for various ratios between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths. In particular, the modification of the index of refraction due to saturation effects are emphasized. (Author) [pt

  9. Resonance absorption of nuclear gamma radiation; Absorption par resonance des rayons gamma; Rezonansnaya absorbtsiya i rasseyanie yadernogo gamma-izlucheniya; Absorcion por resonancia de las radiaciones gamma en los nucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S S; Perlow, G J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-01-15

    Recoilless emission and absorption of nuclear radiation, as demonstrated by Moessbauer, provides a simple means of studying the interaction of nuclei with electromagnetic radiation and, of greater importance, provides an extremely sensitive tool for the investigation of a large number of physical problems. A very favourable situation arises with the Fe{sup 57} nucleus where resonance absorption may be used as a very sensitive detector of the frequency change of electromagnetic radiation. Resonance absorption in Fe57 has been studied in detail. The strength of the absorption, the line shape, and line shift have all been observed as a function of temperature. The polarization of the radiation has been examined by means of experiments with magnetized sources and absorbers. The hyperfine spectrum of the resonance radiation has been analysed with and without polarization. These studies have led to an interpretation of the hyperfine structure in terms of the properties of the nuclear states and the hyperfine interaction in iron. The effect of an external magnetic field on the hyperfine structure has also been investigated. The resonance absorption in Fe{sup 57} has been used to study the connexion between the time development of the decay of a nuclear state and the spectrum of the observed radiation. Detailed observations are made of the time spectrum of filtered resonance radiation for a variety of conditions. (author) [French] L'emission et l'absorption de rayonnements nucleaires sans recul, phenomenes mis en evidence par Mossbauer, offrent un moyen simple d'etudier l'interaction des noyaux et des rayonnements electromagnetiques et, ce qui est plus important encore, fournissent un instrument extremement sensible pour l'etude d'un grand nombre de problemes de physique. Une situation tres favorable se presente dans le cas du noyau de {sup 57}Fe, ou l'on peut utiliser l'absorption par resonance comme un detecteur tres sensible des changements de frequence des rayonnements

  10. Experimental observation of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the two plasmon decay instability and resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in two experimental devices. In the first device an investigation was made of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the parametric decay of microwaves into electron plasma waves (Two Plasmon Decay instability, TPDI), modeling a process which can occur near the quarter critical surface in laser driven pellets. P-polarized microwave (f = 1.2 GHz, P 0 less than or equal to 12 kW) are applied to an essentially collisionless, inhomogeneous plasma, in an oversized waveguide, in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III device. The initial density scale length near the quarter critical surface is quite long (L/lambda/sub De/ approx. = 3000 or k 0 L approx. = 15). The observed threshold power for the TPDI is quite low (P/sub T/approx. = 0.1 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ approx. = 0.1). Near the threshold the decay waves only occur near the quarter critical surface. As the incident power is increased above threshold, the decay waves spread to lower densities, and for P 0 greater than or equal to lkW, (v/sub os//v/sub e/ greater than or equal to 0.3) suprathermal electron heating is strong for high powers (T/sub H/ less than or equal to 12 T/sub e/ for P 0 less than or equal to 8 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.9)

  11. Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-10-01

    An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  12. Accelerated Computing in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Real-Time Imaging Using Nonlinear Inverse Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schaetz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop generic optimization strategies for image reconstruction using graphical processing units (GPUs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and to exemplarily report on our experience with a highly accelerated implementation of the nonlinear inversion (NLINV algorithm for dynamic MRI with high frame rates. Methods. The NLINV algorithm is optimized and ported to run on a multi-GPU single-node server. The algorithm is mapped to multiple GPUs by decomposing the data domain along the channel dimension. Furthermore, the algorithm is decomposed along the temporal domain by relaxing a temporal regularization constraint, allowing the algorithm to work on multiple frames in parallel. Finally, an autotuning method is presented that is capable of combining different decomposition variants to achieve optimal algorithm performance in different imaging scenarios. Results. The algorithm is successfully ported to a multi-GPU system and allows online image reconstruction with high frame rates. Real-time reconstruction with low latency and frame rates up to 30 frames per second is demonstrated. Conclusion. Novel parallel decomposition methods are presented which are applicable to many iterative algorithms for dynamic MRI. Using these methods to parallelize the NLINV algorithm on multiple GPUs, it is possible to achieve online image reconstruction with high frame rates.

  13. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  14. The applicability of detailed process for neutron resonance absorption to neutronics analyses in LWR next generation fuels to extend burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Takanori; Nauchi, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics analyses with detail processing for neutron resonance absorption in LWR next generation UOX and MOX fuels to extend burnup were performed based on the neutronic transport and burnup calculation. In the detailed processing, ultra-fine energy nuclear library and collision probabilities between neutron and U, Pu nuclides (actinide nuclides) are utilized for two-dimension geometry. In the usual simple processing (narrow resonance approximation), shielding factors and compensation equations for neutron resonance absorption are utilized. The results with detailed and simple processing were compared to clarify where the detailed processing is needed. The two processing caused difference of neutron multiplication factor by 0.5% at the beginning of irradiation, while the difference became smaller as burnup increased and was not significant at high burnup. The nuclide compositions of the fuel rods for main actinide nuclides were little different besides Cm isotopes by the processing, since the neutron absorption rate of 244 Cm became different. The detail processing is needed to evaluate the neutron emission rate in spent fuels. In the fuel assemblies, the distributions of rod power rates were not different within 0.5%, and the peak rates of fuel rod were almost the same by the two processing at the beginning of irradiation when the peak rate is the largest during the irradiation. The simple processing is also satisfied for safety evaluation based on the peak rate of rod power. The difference of local power densities in fuel pellets became larger as burnup increased, since the neutron absorption rate of 238 U in the peripheral region of pellets were significantly different by the two processing. The detail processing is needed to evaluate the fuel behavior at high burnup. (author)

  15. A study on axial and torsional resonant mode matching for a mechanical system with complex nonlinear geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brett; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James

    2010-06-01

    Making use of mechanical resonance has many benefits for the design of microscale devices. A key to successfully incorporating this phenomenon in the design of a device is to understand how the resonant frequencies of interest are affected by changes to the geometric parameters of the design. For simple geometric shapes, this is quite easy, but for complex nonlinear designs, it becomes significantly more complex. In this paper, two novel modeling techniques are demonstrated to extract the axial and torsional resonant frequencies of a complex nonlinear geometry. The first decomposes the complex geometry into easy to model components, while the second uses scaling techniques combined with the finite element method. Both models overcome problems associated with using current analytical methods as design tools, and enable a full investigation of how changes in the geometric parameters affect the resonant frequencies of interest. The benefit of such models is then demonstrated through their use in the design of a prototype piezoelectric ultrasonic resonant micromotor which has improved performance characteristics over previous prototypes.

  16. Engineering non-linear resonator mode interactions in circuit QED by continuous driving: Manipulation of a photonic quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Heeres, Reinier; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Albert, Victor V.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in circuit QED have shown great potential for using microwave resonators as quantum memories. In particular, it is possible to encode the state of a quantum bit in non-classical photonic states inside a high-Q linear resonator. An outstanding challenge is to perform controlled operations on such a photonic state. We demonstrate experimentally how a continuous drive on a transmon qubit coupled to a high-Q storage resonator can be used to induce non-linear dynamics of the resonator. Tailoring the drive properties allows us to cancel or enhance non-linearities in the system such that we can manipulate the state stored in the cavity. This approach can be used to either counteract undesirable evolution due to the bare Hamiltonian of the system or, ultimately, to perform logical operations on the state encoded in the cavity field. Our method provides a promising pathway towards performing universal control for quantum states stored in high-coherence resonators in the circuit QED platform.

  17. Anomalies in resonant absorption line profiles of atoms with large hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; Pod'yachev, S.P.; Privalov, T.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    We examine a monochromatic absorption line in the velocity-nonselective excitation of atoms when the components of the hyperfine stricture of the electronic ground states are optically pumped. We show that the absorption lines possess unusual substructures for some values of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state (which exceed the Doppler absorption linewidth severalfold). These substructures in the absorption spectrum are most apparent if the hyperfine structure of the excited electronic state is taken into account. We calculate the absorption spectra of monochromatic light near the D 1 and D 2 lines of atomic rubidium 85,87 Rb. With real hyperfine splitting taken into account, the D 1 and D 2 lines are modeled by 4- and 6-level diagrams, respectively. Finally, we show that atomic rubidium vapor can be successfully used to observe the spectral features experimentally

  18. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  19. Suppression of chaos by weak resonant excitations in a non-linear oscillator with a non-symmetric potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Syta, Arkadiusz; Borowiec, Marek

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Melnikov criterion for transition to chaos in case of one degree of freedom non-linear oscillator with non-symmetric potential. This system, when subjected to an external periodic force, shows homoclinic transition from regular vibrations to chaos just before escape from a potential well. We focus especially on the effect of a second resonant excitation with a different phase on the system transition to chaos. We propose a way of its control

  20. Explicit and exact solutions for a generalized long-short wave resonance equations with strong nonlinear term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions

  1. Nonlinear self-precession and wavenumber shift of electromagnetic waves under resonance and of Alfven waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1979-01-01

    Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)

  2. Nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials incorporating nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of biological applications such as drug delivery, biosensors and hemodialysis can be provided by nanoporous biomaterials due to their uniform pore size as well as considerable pore density. In the current study, the size dependency in the nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials is anticipated. To accomplish this end, a refined truncated cube is introduced to model the lattice structure of nanoporous biomaterial. Accordingly, analytical expressions for the mechanical properties of material are derived as functions of pore size. After that, based upon a nonlocal strain gradient beam model, the size-dependent nonlinear Duffing type equation of motion is constructed. The Galerkin technique together with the multiple time-scales method is employed to obtain the nonlocal strain gradient frequency-response and amplitude-response related to the nonlinear primary resonance of a micro/nano-beam made of the nanoporous biomaterial with different pore sizes. It is indicated that the nonlocality causes to decrease the response amplitudes associated with the both bifurcation points of the jump phenomenon, while the strain gradient size dependency causes to increase them. Also, it is found that increasing the pore size leads to enhance the nonlinearity, so the maximum deflection of response occurs at higher excitation frequency.

  3. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Tischler, Jonathan R.; Tisdale, William A.; Walker, Brian J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  4. Resonance absorption spectroscopy for laser-ablated lanthanide atom. (1) Optimized experimental conditions for isotope-selective absorption of gadolinium (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Iimura, Hideki; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2008-06-01

    For remote isotope analysis of low-decontaminated TRU fuel, we are developing an analytical technique on the basis of the resonance absorption spectroscopy for the laser-ablation plume. To improve isotopic selectivity and detection sensitivity of this technique, we measured absorption spectra of Gd atom with various plume production conditions (ablation laser intensity, ambient gas and its pressure) and observation conditions (transition, probe height from sample, observation timing). As a result, high resolution spectrum was obtained from the observation of slow component of the plume produced under low-pressure rare-gas ambient. The observed narrowest linewidth of about 0.85GHz was found to be close to the Doppler width estimated for Gd atom of room temperature. Furthermore, relaxation rate of higher meta-stable state was found to be higher than that of ground state, suggesting that use of the transition arising from ground state or lower meta-stable state is preferable for highly sensitive isotope analysis. (author)

  5. Equivalent circuit method research of resonant magnetoelectric characteristic in magnetoelectric laminate composites using nonlinear magnetostrictive constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Chao; Xuan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Ji-Xiang; Wei, Jing

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the magnetoelectric (ME) response around the resonance frequency in the magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive (MPM) magnetoelectric laminate composites. Following the equivalent circuit method and considering the mechanical loss, we select the nonlinear magnetostrictive constitutive model to present a novel explicit nonlinear expression for the resonant magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of the magnetoelectric laminate composites. Compared with the experimental results, the predicted resonant ME coefficient of the explicit expression shows a good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively. Also, when the electromechanical coupling factor of the piezoelectric material, k 31 p , is small, this explicit expression can be reduced to the existing model. On this basis, this paper considers and predicts the magnetoelectric conversion characteristics of the magnetoelectric laminate composites, calculates and analyzes the influences of the thickness ratio of magnetostrictive layer and piezoelectric material, bias magnetic field, and saturation magnetostrictive coefficient on the resonant ME coefficient. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the preparation of magnetoelectric devices with good magnetoelectric conversion characteristics, such as magnetoelectric sensors, energy harvesting transducers, microwave devices etc

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  7. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-01

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (?PO3 2??Zr4+?) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). Aft...

  8. Second and third peaks in the non-resonant microwave absorption spectra of superconducting Bi2212 crystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, V V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available . Bhat, S.V., Ganguly, P., Ramakrishnan, T.V., Rao, C.N.R.: J. Phys. C 20, L559 (1987) 2. Blazey, K.W., Muller, K.A., Bednorz, J.G., Berlinger, W., Amoretti, G., Buluggiu, E., Vera, A., Matacotta, F.C.: Phys. Rev. B 36, 7241 (1987) 3. Kachaturyan, K... 10.1007/s10948-009-0530-5 O R I G I NA L PA P E R Second and Third Peaks in the Non-resonant Microwave Absorption Spectra of Superconducting Bi2212 Crystals V.V. Srinivasu Received: 19 August 2009 / Accepted: 25 August 2009 ' Springer Science...

  9. Hyperfine structure of 147,149Sm measured using saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunmin; Lee, Miran; Rhee, Yongjoo

    2003-01-01

    The hyperfine structures of four levels of the Sm isotopes have been measured by means of diode-laser-based Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with a diode-laser-initiated resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that combining the two spectroscopic methods was very effective for the identification and accurate measurement of the spectral lines of atoms with several isotopes, such as the rare-earth elements. From the obtained spectra, the hyperfine constants A and B for the odd-mass isotopes 147 Sm and 149 Sm were determined for four upper levels of the studied transitions.

  10. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  11. Resonant photoemission of La and Yb at the 3d absorption edge

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarde, P; Ogasawara, H; Kotani, A

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoemission and resonant Auger experiments at the 3d threshold are presented for La and Yb over a binding energy domain which extends up to the 4p levels. These experimental results are well explained by calculations in the framework of full-multiplet Hartree-Fock theory with an atomic model. Strong participator and spectator Auger transitions are observed without ordinary Auger transition, indicating that the 4f wavefunction is well localized in the intermediate state even in the case of La. The 4d sub 3 sub / sub 2 and 4d sub 5 sub / sub 2 branching ratio of the 4d resonant photoemission of La at the M sub 4 and M sub 5 edges is observed experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The difference in the resonant processes behavior for La and Yb is discussed based upon the different 4f occupation number.

  12. Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot with a parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in a static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guanghui [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo Kangxian, E-mail: axguo@sohu.com [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chao [Institute of Public Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot (DSQD) with parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in the presence of a static magnetic field are theoretically investigated within the framework of the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The energy levels and the wave functions of an electron in the DSQD are obtained by using the effective mass approximation. Numerical calculations are presented for typical GaAs/AlAs DSQD. It is found that the optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected not only by a static magnetic field, but also by the strength of external field, the confinement frequency and the incident optical intensity.

  13. Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot with a parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guanghui; Guo Kangxian; Wang Chao

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot (DSQD) with parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in the presence of a static magnetic field are theoretically investigated within the framework of the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The energy levels and the wave functions of an electron in the DSQD are obtained by using the effective mass approximation. Numerical calculations are presented for typical GaAs/AlAs DSQD. It is found that the optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected not only by a static magnetic field, but also by the strength of external field, the confinement frequency and the incident optical intensity.

  14. Determination of nonlinear nanomechanical resonator-qubit coupling coefficient in a hybrid quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2016-07-10

    We have theoretically investigated a hybrid system that is composed of a traditional optomechanical component and an additional charge qubit (Cooper pair box) that induces a new nonlinear interaction. It is shown that the peak in optomechanically induced transparency has been split by the new nonlinear interaction, and the width of the splitting is proportional to the coupling coefficient of this nonlinear interaction. This may give a way to measure the nanomechanical oscillator-qubit coupling coefficient in hybrid quantum systems.

  15. Double resonance capacitance spectroscopy (DORCAS): A new experimental technique for assignment of X-ray absorption peaks to surface sites of semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, M

    2003-01-01

    As a new microspectroscopy for semiconductor surface analysis using an X-ray beam, double resonance capacitance spectroscopy (DORCAS) is proposed. For a microscopic X-ray absorption measurement, a local capacitance change owing to X-ray induced emission of localized electrons is detected by a microprobe. The applied bias voltage V sub b dependence of the capacitance also provides information on the surface density of state. The resonance of the Fermi energy with a surface level by V sub b control makes possible the selection of the observable surface site in the X-ray absorption measurements, i.e. site-specific spectroscopy. The double resonance of the surface site selection (V sub b resonance) and the resonant X-ray absorption of the selected site (photon energy h nu resonance) enhances the capacitance signal. The DORCAS measurement of the GaAs surface shows correlation peaks at h nu=10.402 keV and V sub b =-0.4 V and h nu=10.429 keV and V sub b =+0.1 V, indicating that these resonant X-ray absorption peaks ...

  16. Using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy to study the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Bao-Sheng; Li, Gai-Xia; Han, Rong

    2016-08-01

    At different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K), the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The first method studied changes in the fluorescence of BSA on addition of gliclazide, and the latter two methods studied the spectral change in gliclazide while BSA was being added. The results indicated that the quenching mechanism between BSA and gliclazide was static. The binding constant (Ka ), number of binding sites (n), thermodynamic parameters, binding forces and Hill's coefficient were calculated at three temperatures. Values for the binding constant obtained using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy were much greater than those obtained from fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, indicating that methods monitoring gliclazide were more accurate and reasonable. In addition, the results suggest that other residues are involved in the reaction and the mode 'point to surface' existed in the interaction between BSA and gliclazide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, M.; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.; Yamamoto, I.; Imamura, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-04-01

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4, m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L23 and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimes of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.

  18. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, M., E-mail: kamada@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.; Yamamoto, I.; Imamura, M.; Takahashi, K. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4,  m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L{sub 23} and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimes of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.

  19. New sub-Doppler absorption resonances in a thin gas cell produced by means of a running monochromatic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajalli, H; Ahmadi, S; Izmailov, A Ch

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out through the interaction of the plane running monochromatic light wave, having an arbitrary intensity, with atoms (molecules) of a rarefied gas in the plane cell (at the normal incidence of the wave). Cases of closed and open resonance transitions from the non-degenerate ground (or metastable) quantum level are considered. Possible sub-Doppler resonances are analysed in the wave absorption, caused by the transient establishment of the optical coherence on the transition, Rabi oscillations between its levels, and optical pumping during the free flights of particles between the walls of the cell. Results of the previous works on given problems are generalized, which were obtained at definite restrictions on the wave intensity and cell length. Moreover, non-trivial sub-Doppler spectral structures, resulting as a consequence of the dependence of the absorption saturation on the transit relaxation of particles, have been established and investigated. Such structures may consist of a number of peaks and dips caused by Rabi oscillations between the transition levels. The results obtained can be used in sub-Doppler spectroscopy and for the stabilization of laser frequencies in thin gas cells

  20. Enhanced absorption in Au nanoparticles/a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells exploiting Au surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bianco, Giuseppe V.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Au nanoparticles (NPs)/(n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si heterojunctions have been deposited combining plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition (PECVD) with Au sputtering. We demonstrate that a density of {proportional_to}1.3 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} of Au nanoparticles with an approximately 20 nm diameter deposited onto (n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si heterojunctions enhance performance exploiting the improved absorption of light by the surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs. In particular, Au NPs/(n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si show an enhancement of 20% in the short-circuit current, J{sub SC}, 25% in the power output, P{sub max} and 3% in the fill factor, FF, compared to heterojunctions without Au NPs. Structures have been characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurements to correlate the plasmon resonance-induced enhanced absorption of light with photovoltaic performance. (author)

  1. A generalization of the Livolant-Jeanpierre theory for resonance absorption calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1985-04-01

    Because of the large number of heavy nuclide resonances a detailed neutron flux calculation in the epithermal range cannot be made by standard nuclear reactor codes: it would need several tens of thousand of energy points. However, by using pre-calculated effective reaction rates only a few tens of groups are sufficient for accurate spectrum and reaction rate calculations, if a consistent formalism is used. Such a formalism was elaborated in the 1970s by M. Livolant and F. Jeanpierre (L.-J.) for the ''one resonant nuclide - one resonant zone'' problem, and was implemented in the APOLLO code. In practical cases there are several resonant nuclides and often resonant zones of different characteristics, e.g. a lattice constituted with different kinds of pins, a lattice with irregular ''water-holes'', a fuel element with temperature (therefore Doppler effect) gradients,... Since these problem cannot be correctly treated by APOLLO, a generalization of the formalism was derived. The basic principles were retained, and our aim was to construct an algorithm which would not require too expensive calculations. After a brief recall of the L.-J. theory, equations for the most general case are presented, some approximations for practical calculations proposed, and numerical tests on significant examples commented

  2. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu 2 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2O3–As2O3 glasses. N Srinivasa Rao Shashidhar ... K Siva Kumar Syed Rahman. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 589-592 ... Keywords. Glass transition temperature; ESR; optical absorption; bonding parameters.

  3. Resonantly enhanced nonlinear optics in semiconductor quantum wells: An application to sensitive infrared detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelin, S.F.; Hemmer, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of coherent nonlinear optical phenomena, involving induced transparency in semiconductor quantum wells, is considered in the context of a particular application to sensitive long-wavelength infrared detection. It is shown that the strongest decoherence mechanisms can be suppressed or mitigated, resulting in substantial enhancement of nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum wells

  4. Nonlinear Stimulated Raman Exact Passage by Resonance-Locked Inverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorier, V.; Gevorgyan, M.; Ishkhanyan, A.; Leroy, C.; Jauslin, H. R.; Guérin, S.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an exact and robust stimulated Raman process for nonlinear quantum systems driven by pulsed external fields. The external fields are designed with closed-form expressions from the inverse engineering of a given efficient and stable dynamics. This technique allows one to induce a controlled population inversion which surpasses the usual nonlinear stimulated Raman adiabatic passage efficiency.

  5. Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Mo 4p→4d absorption edge in MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lince, J.R.; Didziulis, S.V.; Yarmoff, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted of the resonant behavior of the valence-band photoelectron spectrum of MoS 2 for hν=26--70 eV, spanning the Mo 4p→4d transition region. A broad Fano-like resonance appears at ∼42 eV in the constant-initial-state (CIS) intensity plot of the d z 2 peak near the valence-band maximum [∼2 eV binding energy (BE)], confirming its predominantly Mo 4d character. A second shoulder on the higher-hν side of the maximum in the d z 2 CIS intensity plot is suggested to result from transitions to unoccupied states in the 5sp band ∼10 eV above E F , by comparison with a partial-yield spectrum and previous inverse-photoemission data. The region of the valence band in the range 3--4.5-eV BE also exhibits resonant behavior, indicating Mo 4d character, although somewhat less than for the d z 2 peak. The 5--7-eV BE range does not exhibit resonance behavior at the Mo 4p edge and, therefore, contains negligible Mo 4d character. A feature at ∼30 eV in the CIS intensity plot for the 5--7-eV BE range could not be definitively assigned in this study, but may be due to a resonance between direct photoemission and a process involving absorption and autoionization of electronic states that contain Mo 5s and 5p character

  6. Real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance at high temporal resolution: radial FLASH with nonlinear inverse reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merboldt Klaus-Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional assessments of the heart by dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR commonly rely on (i electrocardiographic (ECG gating yielding pseudo real-time cine representations, (ii balanced gradient-echo sequences referred to as steady-state free precession (SSFP, and (iii breath holding or respiratory gating. Problems may therefore be due to the need for a robust ECG signal, the occurrence of arrhythmia and beat to beat variations, technical instabilities (e.g., SSFP "banding" artefacts, and limited patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe a new approach providing true real-time CMR with image acquisition times as short as 20 to 30 ms or rates of 30 to 50 frames per second. Methods The approach relies on a previously developed real-time MR method, which combines a strongly undersampled radial FLASH CMR sequence with image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. While iterative reconstructions are currently performed offline due to limited computer speed, online monitoring during scanning is accomplished using gridding reconstructions with a sliding window at the same frame rate but with lower image quality. Results Scans of healthy young subjects were performed at 3 T without ECG gating and during free breathing. The resulting images yield T1 contrast (depending on flip angle with an opposed-phase or in-phase condition for water and fat signals (depending on echo time. They completely avoid (i susceptibility-induced artefacts due to the very short echo times, (ii radiofrequency power limitations due to excitations with flip angles of 10° or less, and (iii the risk of peripheral nerve stimulation due to the use of normal gradient switching modes. For a section thickness of 8 mm, real-time images offer a spatial resolution and total acquisition time of 1.5 mm at 30 ms and 2.0 mm at 22 ms, respectively. Conclusions Though awaiting thorough clinical evaluation, this work describes a robust and

  7. Real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance at high temporal resolution: radial FLASH with nonlinear inverse reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Uecker, Martin; Voit, Dirk; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens

    2010-07-08

    Functional assessments of the heart by dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) commonly rely on (i) electrocardiographic (ECG) gating yielding pseudo real-time cine representations, (ii) balanced gradient-echo sequences referred to as steady-state free precession (SSFP), and (iii) breath holding or respiratory gating. Problems may therefore be due to the need for a robust ECG signal, the occurrence of arrhythmia and beat to beat variations, technical instabilities (e.g., SSFP "banding" artefacts), and limited patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe a new approach providing true real-time CMR with image acquisition times as short as 20 to 30 ms or rates of 30 to 50 frames per second. The approach relies on a previously developed real-time MR method, which combines a strongly undersampled radial FLASH CMR sequence with image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. While iterative reconstructions are currently performed offline due to limited computer speed, online monitoring during scanning is accomplished using gridding reconstructions with a sliding window at the same frame rate but with lower image quality. Scans of healthy young subjects were performed at 3 T without ECG gating and during free breathing. The resulting images yield T1 contrast (depending on flip angle) with an opposed-phase or in-phase condition for water and fat signals (depending on echo time). They completely avoid (i) susceptibility-induced artefacts due to the very short echo times, (ii) radiofrequency power limitations due to excitations with flip angles of 10 degrees or less, and (iii) the risk of peripheral nerve stimulation due to the use of normal gradient switching modes. For a section thickness of 8 mm, real-time images offer a spatial resolution and total acquisition time of 1.5 mm at 30 ms and 2.0 mm at 22 ms, respectively. Though awaiting thorough clinical evaluation, this work describes a robust and flexible acquisition and reconstruction technique for

  8. Experimental test of resonant absorption theory. Annual progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1979-09-01

    New results are reported on the angular and energy spectrum of resonantly accelerated electrons from a shock front as measured by a miniature β-ray spectrometer. We have devised a multichannel electron collector based on printed circuit board technology. It has been multiplexed into a fast oscilloscope to provide a complete absolute spectrum on a single laser shot

  9. Imaging Plasmon Hybridization of Fano Resonances via Hot-Electron-Mediated Absorption Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Li, Yi; Cortés, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A

    2018-05-04

    The inhibition of radiative losses in dark plasmon modes allows storing electromagnetic energy more efficiently than in far-field excitable bright-plasmon modes. As such, processes benefiting from the enhanced absorption of light in plasmonic materials could also take profit of dark plasmon modes to boost and control nanoscale energy collection, storage, and transfer. We experimentally probe this process by imaging with nanoscale precision the hot-electron driven desorption of thiolated molecules from the surface of gold Fano nanostructures, investigating the effect of wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Spatially resolved absorption maps allow us to show the contribution of each element of the nanoantenna in the hot-electron driven process and their interplay in exciting a dark plasmon mode. Plasmon-mode engineering allows control of nanoscale reactivity and offers a route to further enhance and manipulate hot-electron driven chemical reactions and energy-conversion and transfer at the nanoscale.

  10. Non-classical nonlinear feature extraction from standard resonance vibration data for damage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters.

  11. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance in natural, irradiated and heated spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, A.S.; Isotani, S.

    1983-09-01

    Heat treatment and X and γ-Rays irradiation of lylac and colorless natural spodumene, LiAlSi 2 O 6 , have been studied. Irradiation produces a color change, from lylac or colorless to green. Irradiated samples heated at 200 0 C turn lylac and bleach at 400 0 C. Optical absorption spectra were decomposed into gaussian line shape bands and it is observed that green and lylac centers are simultaneously created by irradiation. These centers are independent from each other. Optical absorption, EPR and X-Ray fluorescence results show the spectra of impurities, responsible by the presence of the created centers and indicated Mn participation in the process of centers creation and destruction. Decay Kinetics of green and lylac centers have been studied and it is observed that simple Kinetic models do not apply to these cases. An empirical fit allowed the calculation of activation energies of the lylac and green centers decays. Discussions about the present results led us to propose a new model where the green and lylac centers are due to Mn 3+ ions in two different Al 3+ sites, whose absorption are intensified by the interaction with an electron trapped in a neighbour oxygen. (Author) [pt

  12. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klofai, Yerima; Essimbi, B Z; Jaeger, D

    2011-01-01

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  13. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  14. Signature of ferro–paraelectric transition in biferroic LuCrO{sub 3} from electron paramagnetic resonance and non-resonant microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G., E-mail: memodin@yahoo.com [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M, Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, México DF 07738 (Mexico); Montiel, H. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-186, México DF 04510 (Mexico); Durán, A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apartado Postal 14, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, B.C. México (Mexico); Conde-Gallardo, A. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, México DF 07360 (Mexico); Zamorano, R. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M, Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, México DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study in the polycrystalline biferroic LuCrO{sub 3} is carried out at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in the 295–510 K temperature range. For all the temperatures, the EPR spectra show a single broad line attributable to Cr{sup 3+} (S = 3/2) ions. The onset of a ferro–paraelectric transition has been determined from the temperature dependence of the parameters deduced from EPR spectra: the peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔH{sub pp}), the g-factor and the integral intensity (I{sub EPR}). Magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS) and low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) are used to give further information on this material, where these techniques give also evidence of the ferro–paraelectric transition; indicating a behavior in agreement with a diffuse phase transition. - Highlights: • LuCrO{sub 3} powders are obtained via auto-ignition synthesis. • EPR is employed to study the onset of the ferro–paraelectric transition. • MAMMAS and LFMA techniques are used to give further information on this material.

  15. Signature of ferro–paraelectric transition in biferroic LuCrO3 from electron paramagnetic resonance and non-resonant microwave absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, G.; Montiel, H.; Durán, A.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Zamorano, R.

    2014-01-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study in the polycrystalline biferroic LuCrO 3 is carried out at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in the 295–510 K temperature range. For all the temperatures, the EPR spectra show a single broad line attributable to Cr 3+ (S = 3/2) ions. The onset of a ferro–paraelectric transition has been determined from the temperature dependence of the parameters deduced from EPR spectra: the peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔH pp ), the g-factor and the integral intensity (I EPR ). Magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS) and low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) are used to give further information on this material, where these techniques give also evidence of the ferro–paraelectric transition; indicating a behavior in agreement with a diffuse phase transition. - Highlights: • LuCrO 3 powders are obtained via auto-ignition synthesis. • EPR is employed to study the onset of the ferro–paraelectric transition. • MAMMAS and LFMA techniques are used to give further information on this material

  16. All-optical switching based on a tunable Fano-like resonance in nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Zhen; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    A low-power all-optical switching is presented based on the all-optical tunable Fano-like resonance in a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of polycrystalline lithium niobate. An asymmetric Fano-like line shape is achieved in the transmission spectrum by using two cascaded and uncoupled photonic crystal microcavities. The physical mechanism underlying the all-optical switching is attributed to the dynamic shift of the Fano-like resonance peak caused by variations in the dispersion relations of the photonic crystal structure induced by pump light. A large switching efficiency of 61% is reached under excitation of a weak pump light with an intensity as low as 1 MW cm −2 . (paper)

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Behavior of a 2-DOF Spring Resonator with End Stopper for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF spring resonator with end stopper for an energy harvesting application is presented. Then we characterize its nonlinear dynamical behavior by numerical simulations when some suitable parameters are varied. The system is formed by two resonators subject to external vibrational excitation and with an end stopper. We present the continuous time dynamical model of the system in the form of a switched fourth order differential equation. Harmonic vibrations are considered as the main ambient energy source for the system and its frequency response representing the RMS value of the displacement is first computed. The dynamical behavior is unveiled by computing state-space trajectories, timedomain series and FFT spectra and frequency response as the excitation amplitude is varied.

  18. Near resonant absorption by atoms in intense, fluctuating fields: [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    During the present grant period preparations for photon echo studies of the role of phase fluctuations of an optical driving field resonant with the 1 S 0 - 3 P 1 transition in 174 Yb are moving forward. This experimental study emphasizes the role of fluctuations as a decorrelating mechanism on a phased array of excited atoms. Improvements in laser stabilization and in the quality of the fluctuation spectrum have been carried out and the first spectroscopic measurements will be carried out during this grant year. In response to an important recent theoretical study we have also applied the phase fluctuation synthesizing capability to the study of the atomic sodium resonance fluorescence line profile, driven by a phase fluctuating laser. The measured fluctuations in the fluorescence, characterized in terms of the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity, have an unexpected and strong dependence on detuning of the driving laser

  19. Study of hyperon-pion resonances from kaonic absorption with KLOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Doce Oton

    2015-01-01

    The study of the antiK-hadron interactions inside the drift chamber of KLOE was initiated in order to search for signals from the formation of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and the study of resonances like the Λ(1405 and the Σ(1385, and constitute a first step towards the preparation of the AMADEUS experiment at DAFNE, the e+e− collider of the Frascati National Laboratories (Italy of INFN.

  20. Nuclear resonance absorption (NRA): method and application to detection of contraband in a baggage, cargo and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, M.B.; Vartsky, D.; Engler, G.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Resonance Absorption (NRA) has played a prominent role in nuclear spectroscopy for almost 5 decades, but found only few and marginal applications outside the laboratory before 1985. In that year the situation changed markedly when scientists from this laboratory proposed to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the U.S. to study its suitability for detecting explosives in passenger baggage via nitrogen-specific radiographic imaging (explosives, as a category, have inordinately high nitrogen densities). Following a basic feasibility study and the first laboratory demonstration of explosives detection in 1989, this project has attained the stage of a pre-industrial prototype that exhibited excellent performance characteristics in a 1993 blind test conducted by the FAA. In terms of NRA operational system concept, data taking methodology, development of dedicated detectors and image analysis algorithms, the Soreq group has made a major, if not exclusive, contribution over the years. (authors)

  1. Resonant absorption effects induced by polarized laser ligth irradiating thin foils in the tnsa regime of ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Pfeifer, M.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Thin foils were irradiated by short pulsed lasers at intensities of 10 16−19 W/cm 2 in order to produce non-equilibrium plasmas and ion acceleration from the target-normal-sheath-acceleration (TNSA) regime. Ion acceleration in forward direction was measured by SiC detectors and ion collectors used in the time-of-flight configuration. Laser irradiations were employed using p-polarized light at different incidence angles with respect to the target surface and at different focal distances from the target surface. Measurements demonstrate that resonant absorption effects, due to the plasma wave excitations, enhance the plasma temperature and the ion acceleration with respect to those performed without to use of p-polarized light. Dependences of the ion flux characteristics on the laser energy, wavelength, focal distance and incidence angle will be reported and discussed

  2. Alcohol-catalyzed photoreduction of iron-porphyrin complexes revealed by resonance raman and absorption spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, T.; Fidler, V.; Ozaki, Y.; Kitagawa, T.

    1990-06-01

    Photoreduction of Fe III(OEP) (2-MeIm) (OEP is octaethylporphyrin; 2-MeIm is 2-methylimidazole) was found to be catalyzed by a trace amount of MeOH present in Ch 2Cl 2 as a stabilizer. The absence of either 2-MeIm or MeOH in the CH 2Cl 2 solution of Fe III(OEP) X (X is Cl -, Br - or I -) leads to no photoreduction. The presence of MeOH in the Fe III(OEP) (2-MeIm) solution results in the appearance of a new absorption band at 585 nm, and when Raman scattering was excited at 590 nm, a new Raman band appeared at 524 cm -. This band exhibited an upshift by 4 cm - with 54Fe(OEP) (2-MeIm)(CH 3OH) and a downshift by 12 cm -1 with 56Fe(OEP)(2-MeIm) (CD 3OD) and was therefore assigned to the Fe III-MeOH stretching vibration. The excitation profile of this band gave a peak around 585 nm and accordingly, the new absorption band at 584 nm was assigned to a charge-transfer (CT) band from MeOH to the Fe III ion. It was most unexpected that the photoreduction did not occur upon laser illumination within the CT band.

  3. Resonant silicon nanoparticles for enhancement of light absorption and photoluminescence from hybrid perovskite films and metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguntseva, E; Chebykin, A; Ishteev, A; Haroldson, R; Balachandran, B; Ushakova, E; Komissarenko, F; Wang, H; Milichko, V; Tsypkin, A; Zuev, D; Hu, W; Makarov, S; Zakhidov, A

    2017-08-31

    Recently, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising types of materials for thin-film photovoltaic and light-emitting devices because of their low-cost and potential for high efficiency. Further boosting their performance without detrimentally increasing the complexity of the architecture is critically important for commercialization. Despite a number of plasmonic nanoparticle based designs having been proposed for solar cell improvement, inherent optical losses of the nanoparticles reduce photoluminescence from perovskites. Here we use low-loss high-refractive-index dielectric (silicon) nanoparticles for improving the optical properties of organo-metallic perovskite (MAPbI 3 ) films and metasurfaces to achieve strong enhancement of photoluminescence as well as useful light absorption. As a result, we observed experimentally a 50% enhancement of photoluminescence intensity from a perovskite layer with silicon nanoparticles and 200% enhancement for a nanoimprinted metasurface with silicon nanoparticles on top. Strong increase in light absorption is also demonstrated and described by theoretical calculations. Since both silicon nanoparticle fabrication/deposition and metasurface nanoimprinting techniques are low-cost, we believe that the developed all-dielectric approach paves the way to novel scalable and highly effective designs of perovskite based metadevices.

  4. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  5. Changing of optical absorption and scattering coefficients in nonlinear-optical crystal lithium triborate before and after interaction with UV-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, Artem S.; Nikitin, Dmitriy G.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2016-04-01

    In current work optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with ultraviolet (UV) (λ= 266 nm) induced volume macroscopic defect (track) are investigated using novel piezoelectric resonance laser calorimetry technique. Pulsed laser radiation of 10 W average power at 532 nm wavelength, is consecutively focused into spatial regions with and without optical defect. For these cases exponential fitting of crystal temperature kinetics measured during its irradiation gives different optical absorption coefficients α1 = 8.1 • 10-4 cm-1 (region with defect) and α =3.9ṡ10-4 cm-1 (non-defected region). Optical scattering coefficient is determined as the difference between optical absorption coefficients measured for opaque and transparent lateral facets of the crystal respectively. Measurements reveal that scattering coefficient of LBO in the region with defect is three times higher than the optical absorption coefficient.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced light absorption and wavelength tuneable in gold-coated iron oxide spherical nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasri, Thananchai; Chingsungnoen, Artit

    2018-06-01

    Surface plasmon in nano-sized particles, such as gold, silver, copper and their composites, has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its possible uses in many applications, especially in life sciences. It is desirable for application devices with a tenability of surface plasmon wavelength and optical properties enhancement. This article presents enhanced optical light absorption and tunable wavelength in gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au core-shell) nanoparticles embedded in water using the theoretical method of discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The absorption spectra in the wavelengths from 350 to 900 nm were found to be the spectra obtained from Fe3O4@Au core-shell nanoparticles, and when compared with pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the surface plasmon resonance can be enhanced and tuned over the entire visible spectrum (viz. 350-800 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum by varying the Au shell thickness (2-5 nm). Similarly, the Faraday rotation spectra can also be obtained.

  7. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  8. X-ray absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy of epitaxial Fe-doped SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, Annemarie; Lenser, Christian; Xu, Chencheng; Wicklein, Sebastian; Dittmann, Regina [Peter Gruenberg Institut 7, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kajewski, Dariusz; Kubacki, Jurek; Szade, Jacek [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowic (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years resistive switching in transition metal oxides received a lot of research interest due to the proposed application as non-volatile data memory. SrTiO{sub 3} serves as a model system for the investigation of resistive switching due to the valency change mechanism. Frequently, slightly Fe doping is used, as it has shown to improve the switching properties. The focus of this study is the effect of Fe-doping of SrTiO{sub 3} in thin epitaxial films. Thin film samples with Fe concentration of 2 at.% and 5 at.% were prepared by pulsed laser deposition at varying substrate temperatures. The surface morphology of the films is studied with AFM. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is performed in total-electron and auger-electron yield offering different probing depths. Significant variations of the Fe-L edge between bulk and interface as well as after annealing are observed and discussed in terms of integration into the lattice and evolution of secondary phases. Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the absorption edge of Ti, O and Fe was used to determine the spectral contributions to the valence band. Most noteworthy we find significant spectral weight above the valence band, which can be attributed to Fe-states.

  9. Suppression of nonlinear frequency-sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovsky, D.; Levitt, B.; Mauel, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Interchange instabilities excited by energetic electrons trapped by a magnetic dipole nonlinearly saturate and exhibit complex, coherent spectral characteristics and frequency sweeping [H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4185 (1995)]. When monochromatic radio frequency (rf) fields are applied in the range of 100-1000 MHz, the saturation behavior of the interchange instability changes dramatically. For applied fields of sufficient intensity and pulse-length, coherent interchange fluctuations are suppressed and frequency sweeping is eliminated. When rf fields are switched off, coherent frequency sweeping reappears. Since low frequency interchange instabilities preserve the electron's first and second adiabatic invariants, these observations can be interpreted as resulting from nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions described within a particle phase-space, (ψ,φ), comprised of the third adiabatic invariant and the azimuthal angle. Self-consistent numerical simulation is used to study (1) the nonlinear development of the instability, (2) the radial mode structure of the interchange instability, and (3) the suppression of frequency sweeping. When the applied rf heating is modeled as an 'rf collisionality', the simulation reproduces frequency sweeping suppression and suggests an explanation for the observations that is consistent with Berk and co-workers [H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3102 (1999)

  10. On the Effect of Thermoelastic Damping in Nonlinear Micro Electro Mechanical Resonators using Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karami Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper, a nonlinear model of clamped-clamped microbeam actuated by electrostatic load with stretching and thermoelastic effects is presented. Free vibration frequency is calculated by discretization based on DQ method. Frequency is a complex value due to the thermoelastic effect that dissipates the energy. By separating the real and imaginary parts of frequency, quality factor of thermoelastic damping is calculated. Both stretching and thermoelastic effects are validated against the results of the reference papers. The variations of thermoelastic damping versus elasticity modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and geometrical parameters such as thickness, gap distance, and length are investigated and these results are compared in the linear and nonlinear models for high values of voltage. Also, this paper shows that since for high values of electrostatic voltage the linear model reveals a large error for calculating the thermoelastic damping, the nonlinear model should be used for this purpose.

  11. Nonlinear optical sub-bandgap excitation of ZnO-based photonic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Christina A.; Zeuner, Franziska; Bader, Manuel H. W.; Zentgraf, Thomas; Meier, Cedrik [Department of Physics and Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2015-12-07

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile candidate for photonic devices due to its highly efficient optical emission. However, for pumping of ZnO photonic devices UV-sources are required. Here, we investigate the alternative usage of widely available pulsed near-infrared (NIR)-sources and compare the efficiency of linear and nonlinear excitation processes. We found that bulk ZnO, ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisk devices exhibit strong nonlinear response when excited with NIR pulses (λ ≈ 1060 nm). In addition, we show that the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisks exhibit sharp whispering gallery modes over the blue-yellow part of the visible spectrum for both excitation conditions and high Q-factors up to Q = 4700. The results demonstrate that nonlinear excitation is an efficient way to pump ZnO photonic devices.

  12. A Determination of the 2200 m/s Absorption Cross Section and Resonance Integral of Arsenic by Pile Oscillator Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E K; Bladh, R

    1969-02-15

    Pile oscillator measurements of heavy-water solutions of As, B, Mn and In have been carried out in two different neutron spectra in the R0 reactor. For B, Mn and In the 2200 m/s cross section values recommended in BNL-325 are given to within 1.5 % or less, while for As the stated uncertainty is 5 %. In the present work the BNL values for B, Mn and In were used to derive weighted mean calibration constants for the reactor, which were then in turn used for obtaining self-consistent cross section values for all four elements. The values thus obtained for B, Mn and In were within experimental error of the recommended BNL values. The absorption cross section for As is in good agreement with a recently published value for the activation cross section. The value for the resonance integral of As, derived from the present measurements, is in better agreement with calculations from resonance parameters than values reported earlier.

  13. Tunable plasmon-induced absorption effects in a graphene-based waveguide coupled with graphene ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Nian; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Fu, Guang-Lai; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Qin, Meng; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a structure composed of two graphene waveguides and dual coupled graphene ring resonators (GRRs) to achieve a plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect. A three-level plasmonic system and a temporal coupled mode theory (CMT) are utilized to verify the simulation results. Moreover, a double-window-PIA effect can be conveniently attained by introducing another GRR with proper parameters to meet more specific acquirement in optical modulation process. The pronounced PIA resonances can be tuned in a number of ways, such as by adjusting the coupling distance between the GRRs and the couplings between the GRR and the waveguide, and tuning the radius and the Fermi energy of the GRRs. Besides, the produced PIA effect shows a high group delay up to - 1 . 87 ps, exhibiting a particularly prominent fast-light feature. Our results have potential applications in the realization of THz-integrated spectral control and graphene plasmonic devices such as sensors, filters, ultra-fast optical switches and so on.

  14. A Determination of the 2200 m/s Absorption Cross Section and Resonance Integral of Arsenic by Pile Oscillator Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, E.K.; Bladh, R.

    1969-02-01

    Pile oscillator measurements of heavy-water solutions of As, B, Mn and In have been carried out in two different neutron spectra in the R0 reactor. For B, Mn and In the 2200 m/s cross section values recommended in BNL-325 are given to within 1.5 % or less, while for As the stated uncertainty is 5 %. In the present work the BNL values for B, Mn and In were used to derive weighted mean calibration constants for the reactor, which were then in turn used for obtaining self-consistent cross section values for all four elements. The values thus obtained for B, Mn and In were within experimental error of the recommended BNL values. The absorption cross section for As is in good agreement with a recently published value for the activation cross section. The value for the resonance integral of As, derived from the present measurements, is in better agreement with calculations from resonance parameters than values reported earlier

  15. Room temperature lasing unraveled by a strong resonance between gain and parasitic absorption in uniaxially strained germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashank; Nam, Donguk; Vuckovic, Jelena; Saraswat, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible on-chip light source is the holy grail of silicon photonics and has the potential to alleviate the key scaling issues arising due to electrical interconnects. Despite several theoretical predictions, a sustainable, room temperature laser from a group-IV material is yet to be demonstrated. In this work, we show that a particular loss mechanism, inter-valence-band absorption (IVBA), has been inadequately modeled until now and capturing its effect accurately as a function of strain is crucial to understanding light emission processes from uniaxially strained germanium (Ge). We present a detailed model of light emission in Ge that accurately models IVBA in the presence of strain and other factors such as polarization, doping, and carrier injection, thereby revising the road map toward a room temperature Ge laser. Strikingly, a special resonance between gain and loss mechanisms at 4%-5% 〈100 〉 uniaxial strain is found resulting in a high net gain of more than 400 cm-1 at room temperature. It is shown that achieving this resonance should be the goal of experimental work rather than pursuing a direct band gap Ge.

  16. Dispersion of the resonant second order nonlinearity in 2D semiconductors probed by femtosecond continuum pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an effective microspectroscopy technique by tracing the dispersion of second order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(2 in a monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2. The χ(2 dispersion obtained with better than 3 meV photon energy resolution showed peak value being within 6.3-8.4×10-19 m2/V range. We estimate the fundamental bandgap to be at 2.2 eV. Sub-structure in the χ(2 dispersion reveals a contribution to the nonlinearity due to exciton transitions with exciton binding energy estimated to be at 0.7 eV.

  17. Nonlinear beam clean-up using resonantly enhanced sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving the beam quality and obtaining high conversion efficiency in nonlinear sum-frequency generation. A 765 nm beam from an external cavity tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal situated in the high intracavity field of a 1342 nm N......:YVO4 laser, generating a SFG beam at 488 nm. The ECDL have MH^2=1.9 and MV^2=2.4 and the solid-state laser has M^2...

  18. On the problem of negative dissipation of fast waves at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance and the accuracy of absorption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S.S.; Swanson, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Negative dissipation appears when ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating at first harmonic in a thermal plasma is estimated using some numerical schemes. The causes of the appearance of such a problem are investigated analytically and numerically in this work showing that the problem is connected with the accuracy with which the absorption coefficient at the first ICR harmonic is estimated. The corrections for the absorption estimation are presented for the case of quasiperpendicular propagation of fast wave in this frequency range. A method to solve the problem of negative dissipation is presented and, as a result, an enhancement of absorption is found for reactor-size plasmas

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Khirallah, Kareem; Tawfik, Hani H.; Emira, Ahmed; Abdel Aziz, Ahmed K S; Sedky, Sherif M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression

  20. Two-ion hybrid resonances and ion cyclotron absorption in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Ottaviani, M.

    1983-11-01

    The behaviour of IC waves near resonances in tokamak geometry is investigated in details. For this purpose, a one-dimensional model is proposed, which takes into account the orientation of the incident wavefronts with respect both to the singular layer and to the magnetic surfaces. The differential equations describing the waves are derived again from Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the finite Larmor radius approximation; they are shown to conserve the wave power flux in the absence of dissipation, and to reproduce the local dispersion relation in the WKB limit. These equations are solved exactly in some important situations, and with the Green-function technique in the general case. The amount of power coupled to Bernstein waves and absorbed by cyclotron damping is explicitly evaluated. (orig.)

  1. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  2. Measurement of the resonance escape probability; Mesure de l'absorption resonnante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P; Bacher, P; Lheureux, L; Moreau, J; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The average cadmium ratio in natural uranium rods has been measured, using equal diameter natural uranium disks. These values correlated with independent measurements of the lattice buckling, enabled us to calculate values of the resonance escape probability for the G1 reactor with one or the other of two definitions. Measurements were performed on 26 mm and 32 mm rods, giving the following values for the resonance escape probability p: 0.8976 {+-} 0.005 and 0.912 {+-} 0.006 (d. 26 mm), 0.8627 {+-} 0.009 and 0.884 {+-} 0.01 (d. 32 mm). The influence of either definition on the lattice parameters is discussed, leading to values of the effective integral. Similar experiments have been performed with thorium rods. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure le rapport cadmium moyen dans des barres d'uranium a l'aide de disques d'uranium naturel de meme diametre que ces dernieres. Ces mesures nous ont permis, conjointement avec des mesures de Laplacien du reseau, de determiner deux facteurs antitrappes du reacteur G1 correspondant a deux definitions exposees. Les mesures ont ete faites sur deux diametres de barres 26 et 32 mm. Resultats: 0.8976 {+-} 0.005 and 0.912 {+-} 0.006 (d. 26 mm), 0.8627 {+-} 0.009 and 0.884 {+-} 0.01 (d. 32 mm). L'influence de ces deux definitions sur les divers parametres du reseau, est discutee. La determination de 'p' pour un diametre de barres d'uranium de 26 mm, et les mesures de variation de Laplacien, nous ont permis de calculer une valeur de l'integrale effective correspondant a chaque definition. Les mesures analogues faites sur des barres de thorium sont egalement indiquees. (auteur)

  3. Nonlinear saturation of non-resonant internal instabilities in a straight spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Jardin, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    An initial value numerical solution of the time dependent nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations demonstrates that spheromak equilibria which are linearly unstable to nonresonant helical internal perturbations saturate at low amplitude without developing singularities. These instabilities thus represent the transition from an axisymmetric to a non-axisymmetric equilibrium state, caused by a peaking of the current density

  4. Seventh annual symposium on the anomalous absorption of intense high-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts are given for fifty-five papers presented at the conference. The papers covered the following topics: profile modification and related phenomena, nonlinear wave-plasma interactions, profile modification and resonance absorption, fast particles and related phenomena, anomalous transport, magnetic field effects, and absorption and other experiments

  5. Self-Focusing of Quadruple Gaussian Laser Beam in an Inhomogenous Magnetized Plasma with Ponderomotive Non-Linearity: Effect of Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in a plasma characterized by axial inhomogeneity and nonlinearity due to ponderomotive force in the paraxial ray approximation is investigated. An appropriate expression for the nonlinear dielectric constant has been developed in the presence of external magnetic field, with linear absorption and due to saturation effects for arbitrary large intensity. The effects of different types of plasma axial inhomogeneities on self-focusing of laser beam have been studied with the typical laser and plasma parameters. Self-focusing of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in the presence of externally applied magnetic field and saturating parameter is found significantly improved in the case of extraordinary mode. Our results reveal that initially converging beam shows oscillatory convergence whereas initially diverging beam shows oscillatory divergence. The beam is more focussed at lower intensity in both cases viz. extraordinary and ordinary mode. (paper)

  6. Sensitive measurement of nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in undoped and Fe-doped ZnO quantum dots using pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D.; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, A.

    2016-11-01

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (QDs) with Fe-doping at different concentrations were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared QDs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Z-scan technique. The sizes of QDs were found to be within 4.6-6.6 nm range. The nonlinear parameters viz. two-photon absorption coefficient (βTPA) and two-photon absorption cross-section (σTPA) were extracted with the help of open aperture Z-scan technique using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at wavelength 532 nm. Higher values of βTPA and σTPA for Fe doped ZnO implied that they were potential materials for development of photonics devices and sensor protection applications. Fe doped sample (3 % by wt) was found to be the best optical limiter with limiting threshold intensity of 0.64 TW/cm2.

  7. Energy and momentum balance in nonlinear interactions of resonant and nonresonant waves in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Nambu, Mitsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    From investigations of resonant interactions of particles and waves in turbulent plasmas it is well known that not only resonant particles contribute to expressions for the wave energy and momentum providing conservation of these quantities for closed systems. In particular, it was demonstrated that contribution of the nonresonant particles is very important for the energy conservation in the quasilinear theory: although the nonresonant terms do not appear in the diffusion equation, they contribute to the wave energy (and, in general, wave momentum) ensuring the conservation of total energy (and momentum) in the system. We note that the real part of the dielectric permittivity ε ωk as well as the wave frequency ω k of the resonant waves do not depend on time in the quasilinear approximation since only nonresonant particles (which distribution is constant) contribute to them. The resonant wave amplitude, however, is the function on time, and changing of the wave energy is completely balanced by the corresponding change of the resonant particle energy. If in the system there are only nonresonant waves, and it is closed (i.e., there is no energy exchange with some external sources or sinks), the system is stationary and the nonresonant wave as well as particle energy are not changing

  8. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Campos, José Ángel; Segade Robleda, Abraham; Vilán Vilán, José Antonio; García Nieto, Paulino José; Blanco Cordero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa) are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM). One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given. PMID:28793607

  9. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel López Campos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM. One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given.

  10. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption in heterogeneous lattices. I- Apollo 2 self-shielding formalism; Absorption resonnante des noyaux lourds dans les reseaux heterogenes. I -Formalisme du module d`autoprotection d`Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, M.

    1994-01-01

    This note gives in detailed way the self-shielding formalism which is used in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. The self-shielded cross-sections are performed with the same scheme as in APOLLO1. We use two equivalencies, first an heterogeneous/homogeneous equivalence which gives the reaction rates and then a multigroup equivalence in order to obtain the cross-sections which preserve these reaction rates. However, numerous improvements were implemented, specially in the homogenization step. Homogenization can be performed group per group with different modelizations of the heavy slowing-down operator (statistical, intermediary and ``wide resonance`` models), which allows us to fit correctly the resonance shapes. Moreover, we can take exactly into account the spatial interferences between resonant isotopes with the background matrix model. Consequently, we are now able to perform, for instance, the radial distribution of the resonant absorption inside a fuel pin. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Double-resonant processes in x.sup.20.sup. nonlinear periodic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2000), s. 1874-1883 ISSN 0740-3224 Grant - others:Fundo European de Desenvolvimento Regional and Program PRAXIS XXI(PT) PRAXIS/2/2.1/FIS/176/94 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : nonlinear media * electromagnetic wave propagation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2000

  12. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance; Estocasticidad de la absorcion de energia en la resonancia electron-ciclotronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O

    1998-07-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  13. Observation of self-pulsing in singly resonant optical second-harmonic generation with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lodahl, Peter; Mamaev, Alexander V.

    2002-01-01

    We predict and experimentally observe temporal self-pulsing in singly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation under conditions of simultaneous parametric oscillation. The threshold for self-pulsing as a function of cavity tuning and phase mismatch are found from analysis of a three...

  14. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head ...

  15. Amplitude calibration of 2D mechanical resonators by nonlinear optical transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolleman, R.J.; Davidovikj, D.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Contactless characterization of mechanical resonances using Fabry-Perot interferometry is a powerful tool to study the mechanical and dynamical properties of atomically thin membranes. However, amplitude calibration is often not performed or only possible by making assumptions on the device

  16. Ultra-fast all-optical plasmonic switching in near infra-red spectrum using a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohammadi, Tofiq; Abbasian, Karim; Yadipour, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an all-optical plasmonic switch based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanoplasmonic waveguide with a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator is introduced and studied. Two-dimensional simulations utilizing the finite-difference time-domain algorithm are used to demonstrate an apparent optical bistability and significant switching mechanisms (in enabled-low condition: T(ON/OFF) =21.9 and in enabled-high condition: T(ON/OFF) =24.9) of the signal light arisen by altering the pump-light intensity. The proposed all-optical switching demonstrates femtosecond-scale feedback time (90 fs) and then ultra-fast switching can be achieved. The offered all-optical switch may recognize potential significant applications in integrated optical circuits.

  17. Nonlinear Response of Vibrational Conveyers with Nonideal Vibration Exciter: Superharmonic and Subharmonic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bayıroğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational conveyers with a centrifugal vibration exciter transmit their load based on the jumping method. Common unbalanced-mass driver oscillates the trough. The motion is strictly related to the vibrational parameters. The transition over resonance of a vibratory system, excited by rotating unbalances, is important in terms of the maximum vibrational amplitude produced and the power demand on the drive for the crossover. The mechanical system is driven by the DC motor. In this study, the working ranges of oscillating shaking conveyers with nonideal vibration exciter have been analyzed analytically for superharmonic and subharmonic resonances by the method of multiple scales and numerically. The analytical results obtained in this study agree well with the numerical results.

  18. Dichroic mirror embedded in a submicrometer waveguide for enhanced resonant nonlinear optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccabarozzi, Luigi; Fejer, M M; Huo, Yijie; Fan, Shanhui; Yu, Xiaojun; Harris, James S

    2006-11-15

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel dichroic mirrors embedded in a tightly confining AlGaAs/Al(x)O(y) waveguide. Reflection at the first-harmonic wavelength as high as 93% is achieved, while high transmission is maintained at the second-harmonic wavelength. The measured cavity spectrum is in excellent agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such a mirror is essential for achieving resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation.

  19. Parametric resonances in the amplitude-modulated probe-field absorption spectrum of a two-level atom driven by a resonance amplitude- and phase-modulated pumping field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushilov, N.V.; Kholodkevich, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the polarization induced by a weak probe field with periodically modulated amplitude in a two-level medium saturated by a strong amplitude-and phase-modulated resonance field. It is shown that the absorption spectrum of the probe field includes parametric resonances, the maxima corresponding to the condition δ= 2nΓ-Ω w and the minima to that of δ= (2n + 1)Γ- w , where δ is the probe-field detuning front the resonance frequency, Ω w is the modulation frequency of the probe-field amplitude, and Γ is the transition line width, n = 1, 2, 3, hor-ellipsis. At the specific modulation parameters, a substantial region of negative values (i.e., the region of amplification without the population inversion) exists in the absorption spectrum of the probe field

  20. Inactivation of bacteriophage T1 by the Auger effect following phosphorus resonance absorption of monoenergetic synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Yoshiya; Maezawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Suzuki, Masao; Hieda, Kotaro

    1992-01-01

    Killing effect on bacteriophage T1 by the Auger cascade of phosphorus in DNA following K shell photoabsorption was studied with monoenergetic X rays obtained from synchrotron radiations. Phages embedded in nutrient broth were irradiated under vacuum with X rays at the resonance peak (2,153 eV), and below (2,147 eV) and above (2,159 eV) the peak. The corresponding mean lethal exposures (D 0 ) were 554, 332 and 434 kR, respectively. The Auger enhancements, as an energy dependent fractional increment of phase sensitivity, were 0.67 at 2,153 eV and 0.28 at 2,159 eV. Using the DNA absorption spectrum measured in this experiment, photoionization cross sections of Scofield (17), and the Auger yield after creation of a K shell vacancy, the number of phosphorus Auger cascades in one phage DNA at D 0 were calculated to be 0.00, 0.98 and 0.25 at 2,147, 2,153 and 2,159 eV, respectively. Comparison between the Auger enhancement of phage killing and the number of Auger cascades indicated that one phosphorus Auger cascade in phage DNA caused about 0.41 (at 2,153 eV) or 0.84 (at 2,159 eV) lethal events

  1. Validation studies on quick analysis of MOX fuel by combination of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and ablation resonance absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Ikuo; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Kato, Masaaki; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Ohoba, Hironori; Khumaeni, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Research and development of laser based quick analysis without chemical analysis and neutron measurement for next-generation Minor Actinide containing MOX fuel has been carried out, and the basic performances by using un-irradiated MOX fuel were demonstrated. The glove box had been re-constructed and specialized for laser spectroscopy, and the remote spectroscopy of MOX sample contained several concentrations of Pu was performed. In elemental analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with high resolution spectrometer, relative error of 2.9% at 30% Pu and the detection lower limit of 2500ppm in natural U oxide were demonstrated with the operation time of 5 min. In isotope ratio analysis by Ablation Resonance Absorption Spectroscopy, tunable semiconductor laser system was constructed, and the performances such as relative deviation less than 1% in the ratio of "2"4"0Pu/"2"3"9Pu and the sensitivity of 30-100ppm in natural U were also accomplished with laser operation time of 3 to 5min. As for an elemental analysis of the simulated liquid sample, ultra-thin laminate flow was experimented as LIBS target, and the sensitivity comparable to conventional ICP-AES was confirmed. Present study includes the result of the entrusted project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT). (author)

  2. Anionic and cationic redox and interfaces in batteries: Advances from soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to resonant inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2018-06-01

    Recent advances in battery science and technology have triggered both the challenges and opportunities on studying the materials and interfaces in batteries. Here, we review the recent demonstrations of soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying the interfaces and electrode materials. The focus of this review is on the recently developed mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (mRIXS) as a powerful probe of battery chemistry with superior sensitivity. Six different channels of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) are introduced for different experimental purposes. Although conventional sXAS channels remain effective tools for quantitative analysis of the transition-metal states and surface chemistry, we elaborate the limitations of sXAS in both cationic and anionic redox studies. Particularly, based on experimental findings in various electrodes, we show that sXAS is unreliable for studying oxygen redox. We then demonstrate the mRIXS as a reliable technique for fingerprinting oxygen redox and summarize several crucial observations. We conclude that mRIXS is the tool-of-choice to study both the practical issue on reversibility of oxygen redox and the fundamental nature of bulk oxygen states. We hope this review clarifies the popular misunderstanding on oxygen sXAS results of oxide electrodes, and establishes a reliable technique for detecting oxygen redox through mRIXS.

  3. Stochastic resonance in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Shen, Yajun; Tan, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by a periodic signal and correlated noises for the cases of a multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and an additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. Applying the path integral approach, the unified colored noise approximation and the two-state model theory, the analytical expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. It is found that conventional stochastic resonance exists in this system. From numerical computations we obtain that: (i) As a function of the non-Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is increased when the non-Gaussian noise deviation parameter q is increased. (ii) As a function of the Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is decreased when q is increased. This demonstrates that the effect of the non-Gaussian noise on SNR is different from that of the Gaussian noise in this system. Moreover, we further discuss the effect of the correlation time of the non-Gaussian noise, cross-correlation strength, the amplitude and frequency of the periodic signal on SR.

  4. A hybrid filter to mitigate harmonics caused by nonlinear load and resonance caused by power factor correction capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, N. F.; Soomro, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Power factor correction capacitor (PFCC) is commonly installed in industrial applications for power factor correction (PFC). With the expanding use of non-linear equipment such as ASDs, power converters, etc., power factor (PF) improvement has become difficult due to the presence of harmonics. The resulting capacitive impedance of the PFCC may form a resonant circuit with the source inductive reactance at a certain frequency, which is likely to coincide with one of the harmonic frequency of the load. This condition will trigger large oscillatory currents and voltages that may stress the insulation and cause subsequent damage to the PFCC and equipment connected to the power system (PS). Besides, high PF cannot be achieved due to power distortion. This paper presents the design of a three-phase hybrid filter consisting of a single tuned passive filter (STPF) and shunt active power filter (SAPF) to mitigate harmonics and resonance in the PS through simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC software. SAPF was developed using p-q theory. The hybrid filter has resulted in significant improvement on both total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV) and total demand distortion for current (TDDI) with maximum values of 2.93% and 9.84% respectively which were within the recommended IEEE 519-2014 standard limits. Regarding PF improvement, the combined filters have achieved PF close to desired PF at 0.95 for firing angle, α values up to 40°.

  5. Periodic Forcing of Inhibition-Stabilized Networks: Nonlinear Resonances and Phase-Amplitude Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltz, Romain; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition-stabilized networks (ISNs) are neural architectures with strong positive feedback among pyramidal neurons balanced by strong negative feedback from inhibitory interneurons, a circuit element found in the hippocampus and the primary visual cortex. In their working regime, ISNs produce damped oscillations in the γ-range in response to inputs to the inhibitory population. In order to understand the properties of interconnected ISNs, we investigated periodic forcing of ISNs. We show that ISNs can be excited over a range of frequencies and derive properties of the resonance peaks. In particular, we studied the phase-locked solutions, the torus solutions, and the resonance peaks. Periodically forced ISNs respond with (possibly multistable) phase-locked activity, whereas networks with sustained intrinsic oscillations respond more dynamically to periodic inputs with tori. Hence, the dynamics are surprisingly rich, and phase effects alone do not adequately describe the network response. This strengthens the importance of phaseamplitude coupling as opposed to phase-phase coupling in providing multiple frequencies for multiplexing and routing information. PMID:26496044

  6. Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, E.C.; Pearson, B.J.; Florean, A.C.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene to form 1,3,5-cis-hexatriene (Z-HT) using optical pulse shaping to enhance multiphoton excitation. A closed-loop learning algorithm was used to search for an optimal spectral phase function, with the effectiveness or fitness of each optical pulse assessed using the UV absorption spectrum. The learning algorithm was able to identify pulses that increased the formation of Z-HT by as much as a factor of 2 and to identify pulse shapes that decreased solvent fragmentation while leaving the formation of Z-HT essentially unaffected. The highest yields of Z-HT did not occur for the highest peak intensity laser pulses. Rather, negative quadratic phase was identified as an important control parameter in the formation of Z-HT

  7. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  8. Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...

  9. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry; Filho, Luiz Tomaz; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe 3+ . -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca 2 MgAl 2 (SiO 4 )(Si 2 O 7 )(OH) 2 ·(H 2 O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe 2+ → e − + Fe 3+ . On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn 2+ , and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe 3+ around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe 3+ hides all Mn 2+ lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe 3+ dipole–dipole interactions

  10. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-12

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (-PO₃ 2- -Zr 4+ -) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A 520nm / A 650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  11. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zr(IV can form phosphate and Zr(IV (–PO32−–Zr4+– complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV with phosphate. Zr(IV can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, while adenosine triphosphate(ATP can prevent Zr(IV-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRAsensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IVwith ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV. After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV, ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945 with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  12. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry, E-mail: henrysjc@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Arequipa, Urb. D. A. Carrión G-14, J. L. Bustamante y Rivero, Arequipa (Peru); Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Filho, Luiz Tomaz [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências Exatas, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, Rua Taquari 546, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+}. •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca{sub 2}MgAl{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe{sup 2+} → e{sup −} + Fe{sup 3+}. On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn{sup 2+}, and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe{sup 3+} around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe{sup 3+} hides all Mn{sup 2+} lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe{sup 3+} dipole–dipole interactions.

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption study of V{sup 4+} centres in YVO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, N Y [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Stevens, K T [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Synoptics, Charlotte, NC 28273 (United States); Foundos, G K [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Synoptics, Charlotte, NC 28273 (United States); Halliburton, L E [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2004-10-06

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to characterize three distinct V{sup 4+} centres in undoped Czochralski-grown yttrium orthovanadate (YVO{sub 4}) crystals. These EPR signals are observed at low temperatures, and their average c-axis splittings between adjacent {sup 51}V hyperfine lines are 40 G, 123 G, and 140 G. We refer to these centres as [V{sup 4+}]{sub A}, [V{sup 4+}]{sub B}, and [V{sup 4+}]{sub C}, respectively. The [V{sup 4+}]{sub A} and [V{sup 4+}]{sub B} centres are present in as-grown crystals. Exposure at 77 K to ionizing radiation (x-rays or an ultraviolet laser beam) destroys these centres and creates the [V{sup 4+}]{sub C} centres. The as-grown state of the crystal is restored upon returning to room temperature. Angular dependence data are used to determine the principal values and principal directions of the g tensor and the {sup 51}V hyperfine tensor for each of the centres. We suggest that the [V{sup 4+}]{sub A} centre is a V{sup 4+} ion adjacent to an oxygen vacancy and that the [V{sup 4+}]{sub B} centre is a V{sup 4+} ion substituting for a Y{sup 3+} ion (i.e. a vanadium antisite defect). The [V{sup 4+}]{sub C} centre is assigned to a V{sup 4+} ion at a regular vanadium site with a nearby stabilizing defect, possibly a Zr{sup 4+} on a Y{sup 3+} site. In as-grown crystals, there is a correlation between the number of [V{sup 4+}]{sub A} centres and the intensity (at 380 nm) of a broad near-edge optical absorption band. This band, now associated with oxygen vacancies, gives YVO{sub 4} a 'yellow' appearance.

  14. Investigation of the 34S(p,γ)35Cl reaction and resonant absorption applied to the excitation of bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The yield curve of the reaction 34 S(p,γ) 35 Cl has been measured over the energy range Esub(p) = 1.95 - 2.91 MeV. Proton energies and strengths of 84 resonances are given. The decay schemes of 38 selected resonances have been studied, and for these branching ratios and spin limits are presented. Angular distributions have been measured at four 34 S(p,γ) 35 Cl resonances, at Esub(x) = 8.63, 8.64, 8.95 and 9.08 MeV, giving spin-parity assignments Jsup(π) = 7/2 - , (3/2,5/2), 3/2 + and 5/2, respectively. Spins and parities have been determined for bound states at Esub(x) = 3.92, 4.11, 4.85 and 5.16 MeV, as Jsup(π) = 3/2 + , 7/2 + , (1/2,3/2), 7/2 - , respectively. Branching and mixing ratios have been obtained for the decay of the states at Esub(x) = 3.92, 4.11, 4.35 and 5.16 MeV. Transition strengths are presented for the first three of these. A resonant absorption experiment at the Esub(p) = 2.79 MeV resonance gives for the resonance width GAMMA = 65 +- 20 eV, and also determines the partial widths GAMMAsub(γ), GAMMAsub(p) and GAMMAsub(p1). The level at 7064.3 +- 0.5 keV in 208 Pb has been excited in a resonant absorption experiment by Doppler shifted γ-radiation from the 34 S(p,γ) 35 Cl reaction at Esub(p) = 1974 keV. (Auth.)

  15. Calculation of self-absorption coefficients of calcium resonance lines in the case of a CaCl2-water plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph.; Gleizes, A.; Lakhdar, Z. Ben

    2008-01-01

    The resonance escape factors for the lines emitted by a neutral calcium atom Ca I at 4226.73 A and of ionic calcium Ca II at 3933.66 A and at 3968.47 A are calculated assuming a Voigt profile and in the case of CaCl 2 -water plasma. The dependence of the escape factor on the optical thickness f 0 from the line center which itself depends on the two main spectral line shape broadening mechanisms (pressure and Doppler effects) are considered. The variation of the resonance escape factors with the temperature, the CaCl 2 molar proportion and the size of the plasma are also investigated. This calculation is useful for the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of elemental composition. Its application allows us to reduce the non-linearities in the relation between resonance lines intensities of calcium in our case and its concentration

  16. Study of the dispersion phenomena connected with the absorption by recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence; Etude des phenomenes de dispersion lies a l'absorption resonnante sans recul des noyaux atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence as in the optical field abnormal dispersion curves are related to the absorption lines. It is possible, by using quadrupolar or magnetic splitting of the line in the case of recoilless resonance fluorescence (Moessbauer effect) to obtain differential dispersion effects between the two orthogonal linear or the two inverse circular components of the incident gamma radiation. These effects induce bi-refraction phenomena or Faraday rotation on the gamma beam, which have been studied on Fe-57 enriched absorbers. (author) [French] Comme dans le domaine optique, aux raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante des noyaux atomiques sont associees des courbes de dispersion anormale. Les decompositions des raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante sans recul (raies Moessbauer) par couplage quadrupolaire ou effet Zeeman permettent d'obtenir des effets dispersifs differentiels entre composantes lineaires orthogonales ou circulaires inverses du rayonnement gamma incident. Ces effets se traduisent par des phenomenes de birefringence ou de rotation Faraday, qui ont pu etre etudies sur des milieux enrichis en fer-57. (auteur)

  17. A new generalized exponential rational function method to find exact special solutions for the resonance nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behzad; Inc, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The present paper suggests a novel technique to acquire exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The main idea of the method is to generalize the exponential rational function method. In order to examine the ability of the method, we consider the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation (R-NLSE). Many variants of exact soliton solutions for the equation are derived by the proposed method. Physical interpretations of some obtained solutions is also included. One can easily conclude that the new proposed method is very efficient and finds the exact solutions of the equation in a relatively easy way.

  18. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  19. Anomaly in shape of resonance absorption lines of atoms with large fine-structure splitting of levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; yachev, S.P."" >Podyachev, S.P.; Privalov, T.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Absorption line of monochromatic radiation by atoms nonselective excitation by velocities under conditions of optical excitation of components of superfine structure of the basic electron state is considered. It is shown that the absorption line has unusual substructures for certain values of the basic state superfine desintegration. These substructures in the absorption spectrum may be pointed out by accounting the superfine structure of the electron excited state. The absorption spectra of monochromatic radiation close tot he D 1 - and D 2 -lines of the atomic rubidium are calculated

  20. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  1. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  2. Molecular speciation of phosphorus in organic amendments and amended soils using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibove, B.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) in organic amendments is essential for environmentally sustainable fertilization of agricultural soils. The sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique commonly used for P characterization does not provide any direct molecular information about P species. Studies were conducted to characterize P species in organic amendments and amended soils at a molecular level. The SCE was used to fractionate P in organic amendments including biosolids, hog, dairy and beef cattle manures, and poultry litter. The extracts were analyzed for total P and P species using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The relative proportions of P species in intact organic amendments and residues after each extraction, and calcareous soils amended with organic amendments and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were estimated using the synchrotron-based P 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solution 31 P NMR provided a detailed characterization of organic P in the non-labile NaOH and HCl fractions of organic amendments, but was limited in characterizing the labile fractions of most of these organic amendments due to their proneness to alkaline hydrolysis. The XANES analysis, however, identified the actual chemical species constituting the labile P that was only characterized as inorganic P or orthophosphates by sequential extraction and solution 31 P NMR. In the amended Vertisolic and Chernozemic soils, XANES analysis estimated 'soluble and adsorbed P' as the dominant P species. For the Vertisolic soil, both the unamended and soil amended with biosolids and MAP contained hydroxyapatite (HAP). In addition, soil amended with biosolids, hog and dairy manures contained β-tricalcium phosphate (TRICAL), a more soluble CaP than HAP. TRICAL was found in all amended soils except in that amended with hog manure, while HAP was present

  3. Mode-locking peculiarities in an all-fiber erbium-doped ring ultrashort pulse laser with a highly-nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sazonkin, Stanislav G.; Kudelin, Igor S.; Orekhov, Ilya O.; Pnev, Alexey B.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Denisov, Lev K.

    2017-12-01

    Today ultrashort pulse (USP) fiber lasers are in great demand in a frequency metrology field, THz pulse spectroscopy, optical communication, quantum optics application, etc. Therefore mode-locked (ML) fiber lasers have been extensively investigated over the last decade due the number of scientific, medical and industrial applications. It should be noted, that USP fiber lasers can be treated as an ideal platform to expand future applications due to the complex ML nonlinear dynamics in a laser resonator. Up to now a series of novel ML regimes have been investigated e.g. self-similar pulses, noise-like pulses, multi-bound solitons and soliton rain generation. Recently, we have used a highly nonlinear germanosilicate fiber (with germanium oxides concentration in the core 50 mol. %) inside the resonator for more reliable and robust launching of passive mode-locking based on the nonlinear polarization evolution effect in fibers. In this work we have measured promising and stable ML regimes such as stretched pulses, soliton rain and multi-bound solitons formed in a highly-nonlinear ring laser and obtained by intracavity group velocity dispersion (GVD) variation in slightly negative region. As a result, we have obtained the low noise ultrashort pulse generation with duration 59 dB) and relative intensity noise <-101 dBc / Hz.

  4. Geometrically nonlinear resonance of higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite annular sector plates excited by harmonic transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an attempt to study the nonlinear resonance of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) annular sector plates excited by a uniformly distributed harmonic transverse load. To this purpose, first, the extended rule of mixture including the efficiency parameters is employed to approximately obtain the effective material properties of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates. Then, the focus is on presenting the weak form of discretized mathematical formulation of governing equations based on the variational differential quadrature (VDQ) method and Hamilton's principle. The geometric nonlinearity and shear deformation effects are considered based on the von Kármán assumptions and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, respectively. The discretization process is performed via the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method together with numerical differential and integral operators. Then, an efficient multi-step numerical scheme is used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the FG-CNTRC annular sector plates near their primary resonance as the frequency-response curve. The accuracy of the present results is first verified and then a parametric study is presented to show the impacts of CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution pattern, geometry of annular sector plate and sector angle on the nonlinear frequency-response curve of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates with different edge supports.

  5. Refractive index of ternary and quaternary compound semiconductors below the fundamental absorption edge: Linear and nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.; Torabi, A.

    1985-01-01

    The index of refraction n is calculated as a function of frequency and mole fraction x for the following compounds: Hg/sub l-x/Cd/sub x/Te, Al/sub x/Ga/sub l-x/As, and In/sub l-x/Ga/sub x/As/sub y/P/sub l-y/ lattice matched to InP. Lattice matching of In/sub l-x/Ga/sub x/As/sub y/P/sub l-y/ to InP requires that x = 0.466 y. The theoretical result for the refractive index is obtained from a quantum mechanical calculation of the dielectric constant of a compound semiconductor. It is given in terms of the basic material parameters of band gap energy, effective electron mass m/sub n/, effective heavy hole mass m/sub rho/, spin orbit splitting energy, lattice constant, and carrier concentration n/sub e/ or rho for n-type or rho-type materials, respectively. If these quantities are known as functions of mole fraction x, there are no adjustable parameters involved. A negative change in the refractive index near the fundamental absorption edge is predicted on passing radiation through a crystal if the change in carrier concentration of the initially unoccupied conduction band is assumed proportional to internal intensity I. Comparison of theory with experimental data is given

  6. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br metamagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A.; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Zaharko, O.

    2016-05-01

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  7. Nonlinear-optical generation of short-wavelength radiation controlled by laser-induced interference structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A K; Kimberg, V V

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported of the combined influence of laser-induced resonances in the energy continuum, of splitting of discrete resonances in the field of several strong radiations, and of absorption of the initial and generated radiations on totally resonant parametric conversion to the short-wavelength range. It is shown that the radiation power can be increased considerably by interference processes involving quantum transitions. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  8. Resonance absorption measurements of atom concentrations in reacting gas mixtures. II. Calibration of microwave sources over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.; Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to calibrate three different microwave discharge lamps for analysis for D or H atoms, using Lyman-α absorption. Known concentrations of D atoms were produced in a shock tube by the reaction of 0.05--4 ppm D 2 with N 2 O in argon at 1800--3000 K. H atoms were produced by dissociation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (10 ppm in argon) at 980--1140 K. These absorption data were compared with the absorption calculated from Lyman-α line shapes reported in an earlier paper, good agreement being found. These experiments provide a sound basis for obtaining the temperature and concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient over a wide temperature range, for H and D concentrations between 10 -12 and 10 -10 mole/cc

  9. X-ray detected magnetic resonance of YIG thin films in the nonlinear regime of spin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulon, J., E-mail: goulon@esrf.f [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Goujon, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brouder, Ch. [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR-CNRS 7590, Universite Paris VI-VII, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yaresko, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS FRE 2697, UFR Sciences et Techniques, F-29328 Brest Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    We discuss the information content of element/edge resolved X-ray detected magnetic resonance (XDMR) experiments carried out on yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films. Starting with a phenomenological approach, it is shown that the photoionisation of deep atomic core levels by circularly polarized X-rays can be used to probe the precession dynamics of spin or orbital magnetization components in empty final states of proper symmetry. Crude estimates of the opening angle of the uniform precession mode were tentatively deduced from the ratio of the XDMR and XMCD absorption cross-sections either at the iron or yttrium absorbing sites. The implications of the most recent experimental results collected at the ESRF are analyzed, keeping in mind that: (i) the Fe K-edge XDMR signal is largely dominated by the precession of orbital magnetization components at the tetrahedral iron sites; (ii) the Y L-edges XDMR signal essentially describes the precession of induced spin magnetization involving the 4d states of yttrium. In the magnetostatic regime, we produce clear experimental evidence of collective excitations of orbital magnetization waves, especially under high pumping power. Several coupling mechanisms could explain our observations, starting with pseudo-dipolar interactions in ferromagnetic systems. In ferrimagnetic systems in which orbital degeneracy and orbital ordering make the excitation of orbitons possible, one may envisage additional modes of excitation or relaxation of orbital magnetization waves. This interpretation looks fully consistent with the results of band structure calculations carried out recently on YIG with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods.

  10. Nonlinear absorbing cationic iridium(III) complexes bearing benzothiazolylfluorene motif on the bipyridine (N∧N) ligand: synthesis, photophysics and reverse saturable absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Dandu, Naveen; Liu, Rui; Hu, Lei; Kilina, Svetlana; Sun, Wenfang

    2013-07-24

    Four new heteroleptic cationic Ir(III) complexes bearing benzothiazolylfluorene motif on the bipyridine (N∧N) (1 and 2) and phenylpyridine (C∧N) (3 and 4) ligands are synthesized and characterized. The influence of the position of the substituent and the extent of π-conjugation on the photophysics of these complexes is systematically investigated by spectroscopic methods and simulated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The complexes exhibit ligand-centered (1)π,π* transitions with admixtures of (1)ILCT (π(benzothiazolylfluorene) → π*(bpy)) and (1)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) characters below 475 nm, and very weak (1,3)MLCT and (1,3)LLCT (ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) transitions above 475 nm. The emission of these complexes at room temperature in CH2Cl2 solutions is ascribed to be predominantly from the (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT states for 1 and from the (3)π,π* state for 2, while the emitting state of 3 and 4 are assigned to be an admixture of (3)MLCT, (3)LLCT, and (3)π,π* characters. The variations of the photophysical properties of 1-4 are attributed to different degrees of π-conjugation in the bipyridine and phenylpyridine ligands induced by different positions of the benzothiazolylfluorenyl substituents on the bipyridine ligand and different extents of π-conjugation in the phenylpyridine ligands, which alters the energy and lifetime of the lowest singlet and triplet excited states. 1-4 all possess broadband transient absorption (TA) upon nanosecond laser excitation, which extends from the visible to the NIR region. Therefore, 1-4 all exhibit strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at 532 nm for ns laser pulses. However, the TA of complexes 1, 2, and 3 are much stronger than that of 4. This feature, combined with the difference in ground-state absorption and triplet excited-state quantum yield, result in the difference in RSA strength, which follows this trend: 1 ≈ 2 ≈ 3 > 4. Therefore, complexes 1-3 are strong

  11. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Fermi's theory for the acceleration of cosmic rays [2] as- sumes that the ... The most well-known example goes back to the Lorentz–. Einstein .... inside and reflecting from the boundary according to ..... Here the chaotic layers of different.

  12. Numerical studies of radiofrequency of the electromagnetic radiation power absorption in paediatrics undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Subaar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging current operating frequencies are above 100 kHz which is converted to heat through resistive tissue losses during imaging. The imaging is coupled with a concurring increase in temperature in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has seen a rising clinical request during diagnosis and therefore become imperative that its safety issues be assessed. This study modelled Pennes' classical bio-heat equation using Finite Difference Method (FDM approach and with the help of MATLAB programming language, predicted three dimensional steady state temperature distributions in patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-four paediatric patients' referred for (head brain magnetic resonance imaging scan at 37 Military Hospital and the Diagnostic Center Limited, Ghana, pre-scan and post-scan temperatures were measured at the right tympanic. The numerically steady state temperature distribution during magnetic resonance imaging shows that there is excessive temperature elevation at the skin surface of the patients. The resulting skin heating during magnetic resonance imaging can reach dangerous level which suggests that the ohmic heating of tissue is greatest at the surface and minimal at the center of the patient's brain. Though the experimental results show that patients brain temperature increase after imaging, all measured temperatures were within acceptable safe levels.

  13. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  14. The effect of Se/Te ratio on transient absorption behavior and nonlinear absorption properties of CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) amorphous semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatay, Ahmet; Küçüköz, Betül; Çankaya, Güven; Ates, Aytunc; Elmali, Ayhan

    2017-11-01

    The characterization of the CuInSe2 (CIS), CuInGaSe (CIGS) and CuGaSe2 (CGS) based semiconductor thin films are very important role for solar cell and various nonlinear optical applications. In this paper, the amorphous CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 semiconductor thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were prepared with 60 nm thicknesses by using vacuum evaporation technique. The nonlinear absorption properties and ultrafast transient characteristics were investigated by using open aperture Z-scan and ultrafast pump-probe techniques. The energy bandgap values were calculated by using linear absorption spectra. The bandgap values are found to be varying from 0.67 eV to 1.25 eV for CuIn0.7Ga0.3Te2, CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se1.6Te0.4, CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se0.4Te1.6 and CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se2 thin films. The energy bandgap values decrease with increasing telluride (Te) doping ratio in mixed CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 films. This affects nonlinear characteristics and ultrafast dynamics of amorphous thin films. Ultrafast pump-probe experiments indicated that decreasing of bandgap values with increasing the Te amount switches from the excited state absorption signals to ultrafast bleaching signals. Open aperture Z-scan experiments show that nonlinear absorption properties enhance with decreasing bandgaps values for 65 ps pulse duration at 1064 nm. Highest nonlinear absorption coefficient was found for CuIn0.7Ga0.3Te2 thin film due to having the smallest energy bandgap.

  15. Optical absorptions of an exciton in a quantum ring: Effect of the repulsive core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenfang

    2013-01-01

    We study the optical absorptions of an exciton in a quantum ring. The quantum ring is described as a circular quantum dot with a repulsive core. The advantage of our methodology is that one can investigate the influence of the repulsive core by varying two parameters in the confinement potential. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients have been examined with the change of the confinement potential. The results show that the optical absorptions are strongly affected by the repulsive core. Moreover, the repulsive core can influence the oscillation in the resonant peak of the absorption coefficients.

  16. Three-in-one approach towards efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells: aggregation suppression, panchromatic absorption and resonance energy transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Patwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX and squarine (SQ2 have been used in a co-sensitized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC to apply their high absorption coefficients in the visible and NIR region of the solar spectrum and to probe the possibility of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET between the two dyes. FRET from the donor PPIX to acceptor SQ2 was observed from detailed investigation of the excited-state photophysics of the dye mixture, using time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements. The electron transfer time scales from the dyes to TiO2 have also been characterized for each dye. The current–voltage (I–V characteristics and the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements of the co-sensitized DSSCs reveal that FRET between the two dyes increase the photocurrent as well as the efficiency of the device. From the absorption spectra of the co-sensitized photoanodes, PPIX was observed to be efficiently acting as a co-adsorbent and to reduce the dye aggregation problem of SQ2. It has further been proven by a comparison of the device performance with a chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA added to a SQ2-sensitized DSSC. Apart from increasing the absorption window, the FRET-induced enhanced photocurrent and the anti-aggregating behavior of PPIX towards SQ2 are crucial points that improve the performance of the co-sensitized DSSC.

  17. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  18. Absorption spectra of localized surface plasmon resonance observed in an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell fabricated by a near ultraviolet femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    Absorption spectra based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were obtained with an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell. The spectrometer cell was fabricated into an optical glass fiber by focusing a near UV (NUV) femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 400 nm with an energy of 30 μJ. The laser beam was focused from two directions opposite to each other to fabricate a through-hole spectrometer cell. A diameter of the cell was approximately 3 μm, and the length was approximately 62.5 μm, which was nearly equal to the core diameter of the optical fiber. Liquid solution of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with a diameter of 5-10 nm was injected into the spectrometer cell with its volume of 0.4 pL. The absorption peak centered at 518 nm was observed. An increase of absorption associated with the increase of the number of nanoparticles was in agreement with the numerical calculation based on the Lambert-Beer law.

  19. Effects of conjugation length and resonance enhancement on two-photon absorption in phenylene–vinylene oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Mette; Paterson, M.J.; Arnbjerg, J.

    2008-01-01

    . This phenomenon of the so-called resonance enhancement allows for greater control in obtaining an optimal response when using existing two-photon chromophores, and provides a much-needed guide for the systematic development and efficient use of two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers....

  20. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, S., E-mail: stefan.klingler@wmi.badw.de; Maier-Flaig, H.; Weiler, M. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gross, R.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Munich (Germany); Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of g{sub eff} /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  1. Nonlinear optical rectification and optical absorption in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs asymmetric double quantum wells: Combined effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, I.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The intersubband electron-related nonlinear optical absorption and nonlinear optical rectification in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As asymmetric double quantum wells are studied, under the influence of combined or independent applied electric and magnetic fields as well as hydrostatic pressure. The outcome of the density matrix formalism and the effective mass, and parabolic-band approximations have been considered as main theoretical tools for the description. It is obtained that under particular geometrical conditions, with or without electric and/or magnetic field strength, the optical rectification is null and, simultaneously, in such circumstances the optical absorption has a relative maximum. It is also detected that the influence of the hydrostatic pressure leads to increasing or decreasing behaviors of the nonlinear optical absorption in dependence of the particular regime of pressure values considered, with significant distinction of the cases of opposite electric field orientations. - Highlights: → Maxima of the NOA correspond to zero in the NOR. → Electric fields can couple the double quantum wells. → Hydrostatic pressure can couple the double quantum wells. → NOA can increase/decrease with hydrostatic pressure. → Overlap between wave functions depends on the magnetic field.

  2. Magnetization dynamics in La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial films probed with resonant and non-resonant microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwal, Rajni; Pant, R. P.; Budhani, R. C., E-mail: rcb@iitk.ac.in [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2015-01-07

    Temperature (T) dependent microwave absorption measurements are performed on La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) epitaxial thin films of thickness 100 and 200 nm in an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer operating in X-band. The resonant absorption peak is monitored for out-of-plane (H{sup ⊥}) and in-plane (H{sup ∥}) dc magnetic field (H) as the system goes through magnetic ordering. These data suggest a resilient transformation to the ferromagnetic (FM) phase in the vicinity of the Curie temperature (T{sub C}), indicative of a phase separation, which is dominant in the thinner film. The saturation magnetization is calculated from SQUID magnetometry on the same film. A pronounced zero-field absorption is seen in H{sup ∥} geometry displaying anomalous growth in 100 nm film at T < T{sub C}. This feature is correlated with the magneto-conductivity of the manganite which is colossal in the vicinity of T{sub C} in the well-ordered film of thickness 200 nm. Signature of standing spin wave modes is seen in H{sup ⊥} measurements which are analyzed to calculate the spin wave stiffness constant D(T) in the limit of zero temperature. The same is also inferred from the decay of equilibrium magnetization in the framework of Bloch law. These studies reveal that a bulk like LCMO is obtained in the fully relaxed thicker films.

  3. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  4. Nickel complexes of o-amidochalcogenophenolate(2-)/o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonate(1-) pi-radical: synthesis, structures, electron spin resonance, and x-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Hsu, I-Jui; Lee, Chien-Ming; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Wang, Tze-Yuan; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2003-06-16

    The preparation of complexes trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (1), cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (2), trans-[Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (3), and [Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-S-)(2)](-) (4) by oxidative addition of 2-aminophenyl dichalcogenides to anionic [Ni(CO)(SePh)(3)](-) proves to be a successful approach in this direction. The cis arrangement of the two tellurium atoms in complex 2 is attributed to the intramolecular Te.Te contact interaction (Te.Te contact distance of 3.455 A). The UV-vis electronic spectra of complexes 1 and 2 exhibit an intense absorption at 936 and 942 nm, respectively, with extinction coefficient epsilon > 10000 L mol(-)(1) cm(-)(1). The observed small g anisotropy, the principal g values at g(1) = 2.036, g(2) = 2.062, and g(3) = 2.120 for 1 and g(1) = 2.021, g(2) = 2.119, and g(3) = 2.250 for 2, respectively, indicates the ligand radical character accompanied by the contribution of the singly occupied d orbital of Ni(III). The X-ray absorption spectra of all four complexes show L(III) peaks at approximately 854.5 and approximately 853.5 eV. This may indicate a variation of contribution of the Ni(II)-Ni(III) valence state. According to the DFT calculation, the unpaired electron of complex 1 and 2 is mainly distributed on the 3d(xz)() orbital of the nickel ion and on the 4p(z)() orbital of selenium (tellurium, 5p(z)()) as well as the 2p(z)() orbital of nitrogen of the ligand. On the basis of X-ray structural data, UV-vis absorption, electron spin resonance, magnetic properties, DFT computation, and X-ray absorption (K- and L-edge) spectroscopy, the monoanionic trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) and cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) complexes are appositely described as a resonance hybrid form of Ni(III)-bis(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-)) and Ni(II)-(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-))-(o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonato(1-) pi-radical; i.e., complexes 1 and 2 contain delocalized oxidation levels of the nickel ion and ligands.

  5. Nonlinearity, Viscosity and Air-Compressibility Effects on the Helmholtz Resonant Wave Motion Generated by an Oscillating Twin Body in a Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2012-11-01

    The problem is of practical relevance in determining the motion response of multi-hull and air-cushion vehicles in high seas and in littoral waters. The linear inviscid problem without surface pressure has been well studied in the past. In the present work, the nonlinear wave-body interaction problem is solved using finite-difference methods based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The inviscid nonlinear problem is tackled using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the viscous problem using a fractional-step method. The pressure variation in the air cushion is modeled using the isentropic gas equation pVγ = Constant. Results show that viscosity and free-surface nonlinearity significantly affect the hydrodynamic force and the wave motion at the resonant Helmholtz frequency (at which the primary wave motion is the vertical oscillation of the mean surface in between the bodies). Air compressibility suppresses the Helmholtz oscillation and enhances the wave radiation. Work supported by the ONR under the grant N00014-98-1-0151.

  6. 3rd harmonic electron cyclotron resonant heating absorption enhancement by 2nd harmonic heating at the same frequency in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Decker, J; Peysson, Y; Mazon, D

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms responsible for the interplay and synergy between the absorption dynamics of extraordinary-mode electron cyclotron waves at two different harmonic resonances (the 2nd and 3rd) are investigated in the TCV tokamak. An enhanced 3rd harmonic absorption in the presence of suprathermal electrons generated by 2nd harmonic heating is predicted by Fokker–Planck simulations, subject to complex alignment requirements in both physical space and momentum space. The experimental signature for the 2nd/3rd harmonic synergy is sought through the suprathermal bremsstrahlung emission in the hard x-ray range of photon energy. Using a synthetic diagnostic, the emission variation due to synergy is calculated as a function of the injected power and of the radial transport of suprathermal electrons. It is concluded that in the present experimental setup a synergy signature has not been unambiguously detected. The detectability of the synergy is then discussed with respect to variations and uncertainties in the plasma density and effective charge in view of future optimized experiments. (paper)

  7. Nonlinear response of a forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J.C.; Zhang, N.

    2009-01-01

    Non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two may appear in the controlled van der Pol-Duffing oscillator when two critical time delays corresponding to a double Hopf bifurcation have the same value. With the aid of centre manifold theorem and the method of multiple scales, the non-resonant response and two types of primary resonances of the forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two are investigated by studying the possible solutions and their stability of the four-dimensional ordinary differential equations on the centre manifold. It is shown that the non-resonant response of the forced oscillator may exhibit quasi-periodic motions on a two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) torus. The primary resonant responses admit single and mixed solutions and may exhibit periodic motions or quasi-periodic motions on a 2D torus. Illustrative examples are presented to interpret the dynamics of the controlled system in terms of two dummy unfolding parameters and exemplify the periodic and quasi-periodic motions. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results of numerical integration of the original delay differential equation.

  8. Ultra-fast dynamics in the nonlinear optical response of silver nanoprism ordered arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Esquivel, Héctor; Raygoza-Sanchez, Karen Y; Rangel-Rojo, Raúl; Kalinic, Boris; Michieli, Niccolò; Cesca, Tiziana; Mattei, Giovanni

    2018-03-15

    In this work we present the study of the ultra-fast dynamics of the nonlinear optical response of a honeycomb array of silver triangular nanoprisms, performed using a femtosecond pulsed laser tuned with the dipolar surface plasmon resonance of the nanoarray. Nonlinear absorption and refraction, and their time-dependence, were explored using the z-scan and time-resolved excite-probe techniques. Nonlinear absorption is shown to change sign with the input irradiance and the behavior was explained on the basis of a three-level model. The response time was determined to be in the picosecond regime. A technique based on a variable frequency chopper was also used in order to discriminate the thermal and electronic contributions to the nonlinearity, which were found to have opposite signs. All these findings propel the investigated nanoprism arrays as good candidates for applications in advanced ultra-fast nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  9. The Role of Nonlinearity in Computing Graph-Theoretical Properties of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan; Mantini, D.; Corbetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2011), art.no 013119 ISSN 1054-1500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complex network * fMRI * brain connectivity * nonlinear * mutual information * correlation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2011

  10. Heterocyclic Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Composed of Phenothiazine or Carbazole Donor and 2-Cyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5- trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran Acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Min Ju; Kim, Ja Youn; Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Dalton, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    We prepared the new nonlinear optical chromophores that show fairly high microscopic nonlinearity through intramolecular charge transfer. Phenothiazine and carbazole units played an important role to contribute high electron donability and connect the resonance pathway via conjugative effect in the cyclized ring beside the aromatic ring. Theoretical calculation, electrochemical analysis, and absorption spectroscopic study gave us useful information about the energy states and microscopic nonlinearities of two serial chromophores. We compared the microscopic nonlinearities of four chromophores with the conjugation length and electron donability in the push-pull type NLO chromophores. The effect of gradient donability and lengthening the conjugation were investigated on the electronic state and microscopic nonlinearity

  11. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. II. Hybrid cumulant expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    We develop a hybrid cumulant expansion method to account for the system-bath entanglement in the emission spectrum in the multi-chromophoric Förster transfer rate. In traditional perturbative treatments, the emission spectrum is usually expanded with respect to the system-bath coupling term in both real and imaginary time. This perturbative treatment gives a reliable absorption spectrum, where the bath is Gaussian and only the real-time expansion is involved. For the emission spectrum, the initial state is an entangled state of the system plus bath. Traditional perturbative methods are problematic when the excitations are delocalized and the energy gap is larger than the thermal energy, since the second-order expansion cannot predict the displacement of the bath. In the present method, the real-time dynamics is carried out by using the 2nd-order cumulant expansion method, while the displacement of the bath is treated more accurately by utilizing the exact reduced density matrix of the system. In a sense, the hybrid cumulant expansion is based on a generalized version of linear response theory with entangled initial states.

  12. Analysis of the quasiperiodic response of a generalized van der Pol nonlinear system in the resonance zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    -, - (2018), , , --- ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * generalized van der Pol system * quasiperiodic response * synchronization effects * stability of auto-oscillation Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004579491730278X

  13. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10-50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell's equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament

  14. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10 50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell’s equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament.

  15. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  16. Controlling successive ionic layer absorption and reaction cycles to optimize silver nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the paper strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Wansun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates why a silver nanoparticle (SNP)-induced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) paper chip fabricated at low successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) cycles leads to a high SERS enhancement factor (7 × 108) with an inferior nanostructure and without generating a hot spot effect. The multi-layered structure of SNPs on cellulose fibers, verified by magnified scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by a computational simulation method, was hypothesized as the reason. The pattern of simulated local electric field distribution with respect to the number of SILAR cycles showed good agreement with the experimental Raman intensity, regardless of the wavelength of the excitation laser sources. The simulated enhancement factor at the 785-nm excitation laser source (2.8 × 109) was 2.5 times greater than the experimental enhancement factor (1.1 × 109). A 532-nm excitation laser source exhibited the highest maximum local electric field intensity (1.9 × 1011), particularly at the interparticle gap called a hot spot. The short wavelength led to a strong electric field intensity caused by strong electromagnetic coupling arising from the SNP-induced local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects through high excitation energy. These findings suggest that our paper-based SILAR-fabricated SNP-induced LSPR model is valid for understanding SNP-induced LSPR effects.

  17. Application of the Banach Fixed-Point Theorem to the Scattering Problem at a Nonlinear Three-Layer Structure with Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Serov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on the Banach fixed-point theorem is proposed for obtaining certain solutions (TE-polarized electromagnetic waves of the Helmholtz equation describing the reflection and transmission of a plane monochromatic wave at a nonlinear lossy dielectric film situated between two lossless linear semiinfinite media. All three media are assumed to be nonmagnetic and isotropic. The permittivity of the film is modelled by a continuously differentiable function of the transverse coordinate with a saturating Kerr nonlinearity. It is shown that the solution of the Helmholtz equation exists in form of a uniformly convergent sequence of iterations of the equivalent Volterra integral equation. Numerical results are presented.

  18. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. The study of nonlinear two-photon phenomenon in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    A theory of the nonlinear two-photon absorption has been developed in a photonic crystal doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. We have considered that the nanoparticles are interacting with the photonic crystal. An expression of two-photon absorption has been obtained by using the density matrix method. The effect of the dipole-dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation. Interesting new phenomena have been predicted. For example, it is found that the inhibition of two-photon absorption can be turned on and off when the decay resonance energies of the four-level nanoparticles are moved within the energy band.

  20. Ablation and optical third-order nonlinearities in Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Torres-Torres

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Torres-Torres1, Néstor Peréa-López2, Jorge Alejandro Reyes-Esqueda3, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández3, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa3, Juan Carlos Cheang-Wong3, Alicia Oliver31Section of Graduate Studies and Research, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute, Zacatenco, Distrito Federal, Mexico; 2Laboratory for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; 3Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000, MéxicoAbstract: The optical damage associated with high intensity laser excitation of silver nanoparticles (NPs was studied. In order to investigate the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity of a nanocomposite and their relation with its ablation threshold, a high-purity silica sample implanted with Ag ions was exposed to different nanosecond and picosecond laser irradiations. The magnitude and sign of picosecond refractive and absorptive nonlinearities were measured near and far from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Ag NPs with a self-diffraction technique. Saturable optical absorption and electronic polarization related to self-focusing were identified. Linear absorption is the main process involved in nanosecond laser ablation, but nonlinearities are important for ultrashort picosecond pulses when the absorptive process become significantly dependent on the irradiance. We estimated that near the resonance, picosecond intraband transitions allow an expanded distribution of energy among the NPs, in comparison to the energy distribution resulting in a case of far from resonance, when the most important absorption takes place in silica. We measured important differences in the ablation threshold and we estimated that the high selectiveness of the SPR of Ag NPs as well as their corresponding optical nonlinearities can be strongly significant for laser