WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear reduced gravity

  1. Acoustic-gravity nonlinear structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jovanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions for these nonlinear structures are discussed with respect to the presence of inhomogeneities of the shear flows. The mode-coupling mechanism for the nonlinear generation of shear flows in the presence of linearly unstable acoustic-gravity waves, possibly also leading to intermittency and chaos, is presented.

  2. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  3. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  4. Stochastic inflation and nonlinear gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salopek, D.S.; Bond, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We show how nonlinear effects of the metric and scalar fields may be included in stochastic inflation. Our formalism can be applied to non-Gaussian fluctuation models for galaxy formation. Fluctuations with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a network of Langevin equations for the physical fields. Stochastic noise terms arise from quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing and that then contribute to the background. Using Hamilton-Jacobi methods, we solve the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner constraint equations which allows us to separate the growing modes from the decaying ones in the drift phase following each stochastic impulse. We argue that the most reasonable choice of time hypersurfaces for the Langevin system during inflation is T=ln(Ha), where H and a are the local values of the Hubble parameter and the scale factor, since T is the natural time for evolving the short-wavelength scalar field fluctuations in an inhomogeneous background

  5. Simulation of sediment settling in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Kuhn, Brigitte; Rüegg, Hans-Rudolf; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, Stokes' Law or similar empirical models, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle settling in a gas or liquid, carry the notion of a drag as a property of a particle, rather than a force generated by the flow around the particle. For terrestrial applications, this simplifying assumption is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on other planetary bodies. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks, e.g. on Mars and the search for traces of life. Simulating sediment settling velocities on other planets based on a numeric simulation using Navier-Stokes equations and Computational Fluid Dynamics requires a prohibitive amount of time and lacks measurements to test the quality of the results. The aim of the experiments presented in this study was therefore to quantify the error incurred by using settling velocity models calibrated on Earth at reduced gravities, such as those on the Moon and Mars. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and liquid. However, the use of such analogues creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under reduced gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling velocity measurements within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation, the results

  6. Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.

  7. Failures in sand in reduced gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hurley, Ryan C.; Arthur, Dan; Vlahinic, Ivan; Senatore, Carmine; Iagnemma, Karl; Trease, Brian; Andrade, José E.

    2018-04-01

    The strength of granular materials, specifically sand is important for understanding physical phenomena on other celestial bodies. However, relatively few experiments have been conducted to determine the dependence of strength properties on gravity. In this work, we experimentally investigated relative values of strength (the peak friction angle, the residual friction angle, the angle of repose, and the peak dilatancy angle) in Earth, Martian, Lunar, and near-zero gravity. The various angles were captured in a classical passive Earth pressure experiment conducted on board a reduced gravity flight and analyzed using digital image correlation. The data showed essentially no dependence of the peak friction angle on gravity, a decrease in the residual friction angle between Martian and Lunar gravity, no dependence of the angle of repose on gravity, and an increase in the dilation angle between Martian and Lunar gravity. Additionally, multiple flow surfaces were seen in near-zero gravity. These results highlight the importance of understanding strength and deformation mechanisms of granular materials at different levels of gravity.

  8. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  9. Nonlinear quantum gravity on the constant mean curvature foliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantum gravity is presented based on a nonlinear quantization scheme for canonical field theories with an implicitly defined Hamiltonian. The constant mean curvature foliation is employed to eliminate the momentum constraints in canonical general relativity. It is, however, argued that the Hamiltonian constraint may be advantageously retained in the reduced classical system to be quantized. This permits the Hamiltonian constraint equation to be consistently turned into an expectation value equation on quantization that describes the scale factor on each spatial hypersurface characterized by a constant mean exterior curvature. This expectation value equation augments the dynamical quantum evolution of the unconstrained conformal three-geometry with a transverse traceless momentum tensor density. The resulting quantum theory is inherently nonlinear. Nonetheless, it is unitary and free from a nonlocal and implicit description of the Hamiltonian operator. Finally, by imposing additional homogeneity symmetries, a broad class of Bianchi cosmological models are analysed as nonlinear quantum minisuperspaces in the context of the proposed theory

  10. Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.

  11. A Multiscale Nested Modeling Framework to Simulate the Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave

  12. Improving Realism in Reduced Gravity Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvil, Lauren; Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Since man was first determined to walk on the moon, simulating the lunar environment became a priority. Providing an accurate reduced gravity environment is crucial for astronaut training and hardware testing. This presentation will follow the development of reduced gravity simulators to a final comparison of environments between the currently used systems. During the Apollo program era, multiple systems were built and tested, with several NASA centers having their own unique device. These systems ranged from marionette-like suspension devices where the subject laid on his side, to pneumatically driven offloading harnesses, to parabolic flights. However, only token comparisons, if any, were made between systems. Parabolic flight allows the entire body to fall at the same rate, giving an excellent simulation of reduced gravity as far as the biomechanics and physical perceptions are concerned. While the effects are accurate, there is limited workspace, limited time, and high cost associated with these tests. With all mechanical offload systems only the parts of the body that are actively offloaded feel any reduced gravity effects. The rest of the body still feels the full effect of gravity. The Partial Gravity System (Pogo) is the current ground-based offload system used to training and testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Pogo is a pneumatic type system that allows for offloaded motion in the z-axis and free movement in the x-axis, but has limited motion in the y-axis. The pneumatic system itself is limited by cylinder stroke length and response time. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is a next generation groundbased offload system, currently in development, that is based on modern robotic manufacturing lines. This system is projected to provide more z-axis travel and full freedom in both the x and y-axes. Current characterization tests are underway to determine how the ground-based offloading systems perform, how they compare to parabolic

  13. Thermosyphon Flooding Limits in Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Ljubanovic, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Fission Power Systems have long been recognized as potential multi-kilowatt power solutions for lunar, Martian, and extended planetary surface missions. Current heat rejection technology associated with fission surface power systems has focused on titanium water thermosyphons embedded in carbon composite radiator panels. The thermosyphons, or wickless heat pipes, are used as a redundant and efficient way to spread the waste heat from the power conversion unit(s) over the radiator surface area where it can be rejected to space. It is well known that thermosyphon performance is reliant on gravitational forces to keep the evaporator wetted with the working fluid. One of the performance limits that can be encountered, if not understood, is the phenomenon of condenser flooding, otherwise known as evaporator dry out. This occurs when the gravity forces acting on the condensed fluid cannot overcome the shear forces created by the vapor escaping the evaporator throat. When this occurs, the heat transfer process is stalled and may not re-stabilize to effective levels without corrective control actions. The flooding limit in earth's gravity environment is well understood as experimentation is readily accessible, but when the environment and gravity change relative to other planetary bodies, experimentation becomes difficult. An innovative experiment was designed and flown on a parabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtain empirical data for analysis. The test data is compared to current correlation models for validation and accuracy.

  14. Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Zhang, Hui; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides systematic method for reducing power consumption in reduced gravity systems by adopting minimum velocity required to provide adequate CHF and preclude detrimental effects of reduced gravity . This study proves it is possible to use existing 1 ge flow boiling and CHF correlations and models to design reduced gravity systems provided minimum velocity criteria are met

  15. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  16. Nonlinear massive spin-2 field generated by higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnano, Guido; Sokolowski, Leszek M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic exposition of the Lagrangian field theory for the massive spin-2 field generated in higher-derivative gravity upon reduction to a second-order theory by means of the appropriate Legendre transformation. It has been noticed by various authors that this nonlinear field overcomes the well-known inconsistency of the theory for a linear massive spin-2 field interacting with Einstein's gravity. Starting from a Lagrangian quadratically depending on the Ricci tensor of the metric, we explore the two possible second-order pictures usually called '(Helmholtz-)Jordan frame' and 'Einstein frame'. In spite of their mathematical equivalence, the two frames have different structural properties: in Einstein frame, the spin-2 field is minimally coupled to gravity, while in the other frame it is necessarily coupled to the curvature, without a separate kinetic term. We prove that the theory admits a unique and linearly stable ground state solution, and that the equations of motion are consistent, showing that these results can be obtained independently in either frame (each frame therefore provides a self-contained theory). The full equations of motion and the (variational) energy-momentum tensor for the spin-2 field in Einstein frame are given, and a simple but non-trivial exact solution to these equations is found. The comparison of the energy-momentum tensors for the spin-2 field in the two frames suggests that the Einstein frame is physically more acceptable. We point out that the energy-momentum tensor generated by the Lagrangian of the linearized theory is unrelated to the corresponding tensor of the full theory. It is then argued that the ghost-like nature of the nonlinear spin-2 field, found long ago in the linear approximation, may not be so harmful to classical stability issues, as has been expected

  17. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  18. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity

  19. Reducing gravity takes the bounce out of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Delyle T; Schroeder, Ryan T; Bertram, John E A

    2018-02-13

    In gravity below Earth-normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked 10 subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked centre-of-mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared with running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical take-off velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance the energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower take-off velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher take-off velocity, but less so in reduced gravity). Measured vertical take-off velocity scaled with the square root of gravitational acceleration, following energetic optimality predictions and explaining why ballistic height decreases in lower gravity. The success of work-based costs in predicting this behaviour challenges the notion that gait adaptation in reduced gravity results from an unloading of the stance phase. Only the relationship between take-off velocity and swing cost changes in reduced gravity; the energetic cost of the down-to-up transition for a given vertical take-off velocity does not change with gravity. Because lower gravity allows an elongated swing phase for a given take-off velocity, the motor control system can relax the vertical momentum change in the stance phase, thus reducing ballistic height, without great energetic penalty to leg swing work. Although it may seem counterintuitive, using less 'bouncy' gaits in reduced gravity is a strategy to reduce energetic costs, to which humans seem extremely sensitive. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. f (T) Non-linear Massive Gravity and the Cosmic Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu You; Chen Zu-Cheng; Wei Hao; Wang Jia-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the f (R) non-linear massive gravity, we propose a new kind of modified gravity model, namely f (T) non-linear massive gravity, by adding the dRGT mass term reformulated in the vierbein formalism, to the f (T) theory. We then investigate the cosmological evolution of f (T) massive gravity, and constrain it by using the latest observational data. We find that it slightly favors a crossing of the phantom divide line from the quintessence-like phase (w_d_e > −1) to the phantom-like one (w_d_e < −1) as redshift decreases. (paper)

  1. Conformal symmetry and nonlinear extensions of nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\\rm DE}\\simeq -1.01$, which very closely mimics $\\Lambda$CDM and evolves asymptotically into a de Sitter solution. The model based on the Paneitz operator seems instead excluded by the comparison with observations. We also review some issues about the causality of nonlocal theories, and we point out that these nonlocal models can be modified so to nicely interpolate between Starobinski inflation in the primordia...

  2. Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Linear and non-linear Modified Gravity forecasts with future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Santiago; Kunz, Martin; Martinelli, Matteo; Pettorino, Valeria

    2017-12-01

    Modified Gravity theories generally affect the Poisson equation and the gravitational slip in an observable way, that can be parameterized by two generic functions (η and μ) of time and space. We bin their time dependence in redshift and present forecasts on each bin for future surveys like Euclid. We consider both Galaxy Clustering and Weak Lensing surveys, showing the impact of the non-linear regime, with two different semi-analytical approximations. In addition to these future observables, we use a prior covariance matrix derived from the Planck observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background. In this work we neglect the information from the cross correlation of these observables, and treat them as independent. Our results show that η and μ in different redshift bins are significantly correlated, but including non-linear scales reduces or even eliminates the correlation, breaking the degeneracy between Modified Gravity parameters and the overall amplitude of the matter power spectrum. We further apply a Zero-phase Component Analysis and identify which combinations of the Modified Gravity parameter amplitudes, in different redshift bins, are best constrained by future surveys. We extend the analysis to two particular parameterizations of μ and η and consider, in addition to Euclid, also SKA1, SKA2, DESI: we find in this case that future surveys will be able to constrain the current values of η and μ at the 2-5% level when using only linear scales (wavevector k < 0 . 15 h/Mpc), depending on the specific time parameterization; sensitivity improves to about 1% when non-linearities are included.

  4. Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.

  5. Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, Jim; Ljubanovic, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The condenser flooding phenomenon associated with gravity aided two-phase thermosyphons was studied using parabolic flights to obtain the desired reduced gravity environment (RGE). The experiment was designed and built to test a total of twelve titanium water thermosyphons in multiple gravity environments with the goal of developing a model that would accurately explain the correlation between gravitational forces and the maximum axial heat transfer limit associated with condenser flooding. Results from laboratory testing and parabolic flights are included in this report as part I of a two part series. The data analysis and correlations are included in a follow on paper.

  6. Centrifuges for Microgravity Simulation. The Reduced Gravity Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2016-01-01

    Due to the cumbersome nature of performing real microgravity—spaceflight research scientists have been searching for alternatives to perform simulated microgravity or partial gravity experiments on Earth. For more than a century one uses the slow rotating clinostat as developed by von Sachs at the end of the nineteenth century. Since then, the fast rotating clinostat, the 3D clinostat or the random positioning machine, the rotating wall vessels, tail suspension and bed rest head down tilt and lately the levitating magnets have been introduced. Several of these simulation systems provide some similarities of the responses and phenotypes as seen in real microgravity experiments. However, one should always realize that we cannot reduce gravity on Earth, other than the relative short duration free fall studies in e.g., drop towers or parabolic aircraft. In this paper we want to explore the possibility to apply centrifuges to simulate microgravity or maybe better to simulate hypo-gravity. This Reduced Gravity Paradigm, RGP is based on the premise that adaptations seen going from a hypergravity level to a lower gravity are similar as changes seen going from unit gravity to microgravity.

  7. Centrifuges for Microgravity Simulation. The Reduced Gravity Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, Jack J. W. A. van, E-mail: j.vanloon@vumc.nl [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery / Oral Pathology, Dutch Experiment Support Center, VU University Medical Center and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); TEC-MMG LIS Lab, European Space Agency Technology Center, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2016-07-19

    Due to the cumbersome nature of performing real microgravity—spaceflight research scientists have been searching for alternatives to perform simulated microgravity or partial gravity experiments on Earth. For more than a century one uses the slow rotating clinostat as developed by von Sachs at the end of the nineteenth century. Since then, the fast rotating clinostat, the 3D clinostat or the random positioning machine, the rotating wall vessels, tail suspension and bed rest head down tilt and lately the levitating magnets have been introduced. Several of these simulation systems provide some similarities of the responses and phenotypes as seen in real microgravity experiments. However, one should always realize that we cannot reduce gravity on Earth, other than the relative short duration free fall studies in e.g., drop towers or parabolic aircraft. In this paper we want to explore the possibility to apply centrifuges to simulate microgravity or maybe better to simulate hypo-gravity. This Reduced Gravity Paradigm, RGP is based on the premise that adaptations seen going from a hypergravity level to a lower gravity are similar as changes seen going from unit gravity to microgravity.

  8. Canonical formulations of full nonlinear topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.; Xiang, X.

    1991-01-01

    First-order forms of the complete nonlinear Einstein plus Chern-Simons third-derivative-order action are exhibited in both metric and dreibein forms. The 'hamiltonians' are combinations of diffeomorphism and tangent space rotation generators as expected of generally covariant systems; the pure Chern-Simons hamiltonian has an additional, conformal transformation, term. These constraints reduce the apparent number of degrees of freedom to 1 and 0 respectively. The constraint algebras close, as required by this counting, without second-class constraints. The nature of the noninvariant terms in the Chern-Simons lagrangian density is discussed. For comparison, the linearized limit and the corresponding nonabelian vector action's canonical form are also given. (orig.)

  9. Experiments in reduced gravity sediment settling on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in Reduced Gravity: Sediment Settling on Mars is the first book to be published that reflects experiments conducted on Martian geomorphology in reduced gravity. This brief yet important book on sediment experiments assesses the theoretical and empirical foundation of the models used to analyze the increasing information we have on the past geography on Mars. The book also evaluates the need to develop new methods for analyzing new information by providing a conceptual outline and a case study on how experiments can be used to test current theoretical considerations. The conceptual approach to identifying the need for and role of experiments will be of interest to planetary scientists and geoscientists not necessarily involved with Mars, but those using experiments in their research who can apply the book's concepts. Includes figures, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs to vividly explore experiments and outcomes in reduced gravity Provides an outline of planned experiments and questions relat...

  10. Ground Reaction Forces During Reduced Gravity Running in Parabolic Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter; Rice, Andrea; Glauberman, Molly; Sudduth, Amanda; Cherones, Arien; Davis, Shane; Lewis, Michael; Hanson, Andrea; Wilt, Grier

    2017-08-01

    Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions. On average, stride length increased as gravity decreased. The first and second peaks of the GRFs decreased by 0.156 and 0.196 bodyweights, respectively, per 1/10 g change in ambient gravity. Based on comparisons with previously measured GRF during loaded treadmill running on the International Space Station, we conclude that unloaded treadmill running under lunar and Martian conditions during exploration missions is not likely to be an osteo-protective exercise.Cavanagh P, Rice A, Glauberman M, Sudduth A, Cherones A, Davis S, Lewis M, Hanson A, Wilt G. Ground reaction forces during reduced gravity running in parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):730-736.

  11. Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.

    2002-01-01

    Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.

  12. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  13. Humans running in place on water at simulated reduced gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E Minetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.

  14. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  15. On the nonlinear shaping mechanism for gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Chunchuzov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of shaping of a high vertical wave number spectral tail in the field of a few discrete internal gravity waves in the atmosphere is studied in this paper. The effects of advection of fluid parcels by interacting gravity waves are taken strictly into account by calculating wave field in Lagrangian variables, and performing a variable transformation from Lagrangian to Eulerian frame. The vertical profiles and vertical wave number spectra of the Eulerian displacement field are obtained for both the case of resonant and non-resonant wave-wave interactions. The evolution of these spectra with growing parameter of nonlinearity of the internal wave field is studied and compared to that of a broad band spectrum of gravity waves with randomly independent amplitudes and phases. The calculated vertical wave number spectra of the vertical displacements or relative temperature fluctuations are found to be consistent with the observed spectra in the middle atmosphere.

  16. Thermodynamic instability of nonlinearly charged black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E.; Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Motivated by the violation of Lorentz invariance in quantum gravity, we study black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow in the context of Einstein gravity coupled with various models of nonlinear electrodynamics. We regard an energy dependent spacetime and obtain the related metric functions and electric fields. We show that there is an essential singularity at the origin which is covered by an event horizon. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities and examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability conditions for these black hole solutions in the context of canonical ensemble. We show that the thermodynamical structure of the solutions depends on the choices of nonlinearity parameters, charge, and energy functions. (orig.)

  17. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two systems separately and then considering the interaction effects at the soil–structure interface enforced by a developed iterative scheme. Emphasis has been laid on the study of material nonlinearity of the foundation material in the interaction analysis.

  18. Analytical and numerical investigation of nonlinear internal gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kshevetskii

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of long, weakly nonlinear internal waves in a stratified gas is studied. Hydrodynamic equations for an ideal fluid with the perfect gas law describe the atmospheric gas behaviour. If we neglect the term Ͽ dw/dt (product of the density and vertical acceleration, we come to a so-called quasistatic model, while we name the full hydro-dynamic model as a nonquasistatic one. Both quasistatic and nonquasistatic models are used for wave simulation and the models are compared among themselves. It is shown that a smooth classical solution of a nonlinear quasistatic problem does not exist for all t because a gradient catastrophe of non-linear internal waves occurs. To overcome this difficulty, we search for the solution of the quasistatic problem in terms of a generalised function theory as a limit of special regularised equations containing some additional dissipation term when the dissipation factor vanishes. It is shown that such solutions of the quasistatic problem qualitatively differ from solutions of a nonquasistatic nature. It is explained by the fact that in a nonquasistatic model the vertical acceleration term plays the role of a regularizator with respect to a quasistatic model, while the solution qualitatively depends on the regularizator used. The numerical models are compared with some analytical results. Within the framework of the analytical model, any internal wave is described as a system of wave modes; each wave mode interacts with others due to equation non-linearity. In the principal order of a perturbation theory, each wave mode is described by some equation of a KdV type. The analytical model reveals that, in a nonquasistatic model, an internal wave should disintegrate into solitons. The time of wave disintegration into solitons, the scales and amount of solitons generated are important characteristics of the non-linear process; they are found with the help of analytical and numerical investigations. Satisfactory

  19. Testing universal relations of neutron stars with a nonlinear matter-gravity coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  20. Testing Universal Relations of Neutron Stars with a Nonlinear Matter-Gravity Coupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  1. Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.

  2. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin, E-mail: chienichiang@berkeley.edu, E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  3. A nonlinear scenario for development of vortex layer instability in gravity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    A Hamiltonian version of contour dynamics is formulated for models of constant-vorticity plane flows with interfaces. The proposed approach is used as a framework for a nonlinear scenario for instability development. Localized vortex blobs are analyzed as structural elements of a strongly perturbed wall layer of a vorticity-carrying fluid with free boundary in gravity field. Gravity and vorticity effects on the geometry and velocity of vortex structures are examined. It is shown that compactly supported nonlinear solutions (compactons) are candidates for the role of particle-like vortex structures in models of flow breakdown. An analysis of the instability mechanism demonstrates the possibility of a self-similar collapse. It is found that the vortex shape stabilizes at the final stage of the collapse, while the vortex sheet strength on its boundary increases as (t 0 - t) -1 , where t 0 is the collapse time

  4. A generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer for straightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chienming

    2008-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. However, an interferometer with a displacement measurement accuracy of less than 1 nm is required in nanometrology and in fundamental scientific research. To meet this requirement, a generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer, based on three construction principles has been developed for straightness measurements. These three construction principles have resulted in an interferometer with a highly stable design with reduced periodic nonlinearity. Verifications by a straightness interferometer have demonstrated that the periodic nonlinearity was less than 40 pm. The results also demonstrate that the interferometer design is capable of subnanometer accuracy and is useful in nanometrology

  5. Experimental investigation of gravity wave turbulence and of non-linear four wave interactions..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Using the large basins of the Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France), non-linear interactions of gravity surface waves are experimentally investigated. In a first part we study statistical properties of a random wave field regarding the insights from the Wave Turbulence Theory. In particular freely decaying gravity wave turbulence is generated in a closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonl-inear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, non-linear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated. In a second part, resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin are studied. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory. L. Deike, B. Miquel, P. Gutiérrez, T. Jamin, B. Semin, M. Berhanu, E. Falcon and F. Bonnefoy, Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 781, 196 (2015) F. Bonnefoy, F. Haudin, G. Michel, B. Semin, T. Humbert, S. Aumaître, M. Berhanu and E. Falcon, Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (Rapids) 805, R3 (2016)

  6. Fast nonlinear gravity inversion in spherical coordinates with application to the South American Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the relief of the Moho from gravity data is a computationally intensive nonlinear inverse problem. What is more, the modelling must take the Earths curvature into account when the study area is of regional scale or greater. We present a regularized nonlinear gravity inversion method that has a low computational footprint and employs a spherical Earth approximation. To achieve this, we combine the highly efficient Bott's method with smoothness regularization and a discretization of the anomalous Moho into tesseroids (spherical prisms). The computational efficiency of our method is attained by harnessing the fact that all matrices involved are sparse. The inversion results are controlled by three hyperparameters: the regularization parameter, the anomalous Moho density-contrast, and the reference Moho depth. We estimate the regularization parameter using the method of hold-out cross-validation. Additionally, we estimate the density-contrast and the reference depth using knowledge of the Moho depth at certain points. We apply the proposed method to estimate the Moho depth for the South American continent using satellite gravity data and seismological data. The final Moho model is in accordance with previous gravity-derived models and seismological data. The misfit to the gravity and seismological data is worse in the Andes and best in oceanic areas, central Brazil and Patagonia, and along the Atlantic coast. Similarly to previous results, the model suggests a thinner crust of 30-35 km under the Andean foreland basins. Discrepancies with the seismological data are greatest in the Guyana Shield, the central Solimões and Amazonas Basins, the Paraná Basin, and the Borborema province. These differences suggest the existence of crustal or mantle density anomalies that were unaccounted for during gravity data processing.

  7. On weakly singular and fully nonlinear travelling shallow capillary–gravity waves in the critical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-25

    In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.

  8. Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extraterrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Omaly, P.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of the ongoing exploration of Mars and the several unmanned and manned missions planned for the future, increased attention has been given to the use of the natural resources of the planet for rocket propellant production and energy generation. Since the atmosphere of Mars consists of approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), this gas is the resource of choice to be employed for these purposes. Unfortunately, CO2 is also a final product in most combustion reactions, requiring further processing to extract useful reactants such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), and hydrocarbons. An exception is the use Of CO2 as an oxidizer reacting directly with metal fuel. Since many metals burn vigorously with CO2, these may be used as an energy source and as propellants for an ascent/descent vehicle in sample-collection missions on Mars. In response to NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise to search for appropriate in-situ resource utilization techniques, this investigation will study the burning characteristics of promising metal/CO2 combinations. The use of reduced gravity is essential to eliminate the intrusive buoyant flows that plague the high-temperature metal reactions, to remove the destructive effect of gravity on the shape of molten metal samples, and to study the influence of radiative heat transfer from solid oxides undisturbed by natural convection. In studies with large metal specimens, the burning process is invariably influenced by strong convective currents that accelerate the reaction and shorten the burning times. Although these currents are nearly absent from small burning particles, the high emissivity of the flames, rapid reaction, small length scales, and intermittent explosions make the gathering of any useful information on burning rates and flame structure very difficult. This investigation has the ultimate goal of providing a careful probing of flame structure and dynamics by taking advantage of large, free

  9. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

  10. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

  11. The evolution of a localized nonlinear wave of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazzo, Annagrazia; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2012-11-01

    At the interface between two fluids of different density and in the presence of gravity, there are well known periodic surface waves which can propagate for long distances with little attenuation, as it is for instance the case at the surface of the sea. If wind is present, these waves progressively accumulate energy as they propagate and grow to large sizes—this is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the other hand, we show in this paper that for a given wind strength, there is potential for the growth of a localized nonlinear wave. This wave can reach a size such that the hydrostatic pressure drop from top to bottom equals the stagnation pressure of the wind. This process for the disruption of the flat interface is localized and nonlinear. We study the properties of this wave using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  12. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4

  13. Spectral energy transfer of atmospheric gravity waves through sum and difference nonlinear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)

  14. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  15. The role of collective self-gravity in the nonlinear evolution of viscous overstability in Saturn's rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the influence of collective self-gravity forces on the nonlinear evolution of the viscous overstability in Saturn's dense rings. Local N-body simulations, incorporating vertical and radial collective self-gravity are performed. Vertical self-gravity is mimicked through an increased frequency of vertical oscillations, while radial self-gravity is approximated by solving the Poisson equation for a thin disk in Fourier space. Direct particle-particle forces are omitted, while the magnitude of radial self gravity is controlled by assigning a variable surface mass density to the system's homogeneous ground state. We compare our simulations with large-scale isothermal and non-isothermal hydrodynamic model calculations, including radial self-gravity and employing transport coefficients derived in Salo et al. (2001). We concentrate on optical depths τ=1.5-2, appropriate to model Saturn's dense rings. Our isothermal and non isothermal hydrodynamic results in the limit of vanishing self-gravity compare very well with the studies of Latter&Ogilvie (2010) and Rein&latter (2013), respectively.With non-vanishing radial self-gravity we find that the wavelengths of saturated overstable wave trains are located in close vicinity of the local minimum of the nonlinear dispersion relation for a particular surface density. Good agreement is found between non-isothermal hydrodynamics and N-body simulations for disks with strong radial self-gravity, while the largest deviations occur for a weak but non-vanishing self-gravity.The resulting saturation wavelengths of the viscous overstability for moderate and strong radial self-gravity (λ~ 200-300m) agree reasonably well with the length scale of periodic micro structure in Saturn's inner A and B ring, as found by Cassini.

  16. New standards for reducing gravity data: The North American gravity database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Aiken, C.; Brozena, J.; Coakley, B.; Dater, D.; Flanagan, G.; Forsberg, R.; Hildenbrand, T.; Keller, Gordon R.; Kellogg, J.; Kucks, R.; Li, X.; Mainville, A.; Morin, R.; Pilkington, M.; Plouff, D.; Ravat, D.; Roman, D.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Veronneau, M.; Webring, M.; Winester, D.

    2005-01-01

    The North American gravity database as well as databases from Canada, Mexico, and the United States are being revised to improve their coverage, versatility, and accuracy. An important part of this effort is revising procedures for calculating gravity anomalies, taking into account our enhanced computational power, improved terrain databases and datums, and increased interest in more accurately defining long-wavelength anomaly components. Users of the databases may note minor differences between previous and revised database values as a result of these procedures. Generally, the differences do not impact the interpretation of local anomalies but do improve regional anomaly studies. The most striking revision is the use of the internationally accepted terrestrial ellipsoid for the height datum of gravity stations rather than the conventionally used geoid or sea level. Principal facts of gravity observations and anomalies based on both revised and previous procedures together with germane metadata will be available on an interactive Web-based data system as well as from national agencies and data centers. The use of the revised procedures is encouraged for gravity data reduction because of the widespread use of the global positioning system in gravity fieldwork and the need for increased accuracy and precision of anomalies and consistency with North American and national databases. Anomalies based on the revised standards should be preceded by the adjective "ellipsoidal" to differentiate anomalies calculated using heights with respect to the ellipsoid from those based on conventional elevations referenced to the geoid. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, J. G.; Hochstein, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced strong evidence that a magnetic positioning system may be a feasible alternative technology for use in the management of cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft. The results of these preliminary studies have indicated that further investigation of the physical processes and potential reliability of such a system is required. The utility of magnetic fields as an alternative method in cryogenic propellant management is dependent on its reliability and flexibility. Simulations and experiments have previously yielded evidence in support of the magnetic positive positioning (MPP) process to predictably reorient LOX for a variety of initial conditions. Presently, though, insufficient evidence has been established to support the use of magnetic fields with respect to the long-term storage of cryogenic propellants. Current modes of propellant storage have met with a moderate level of success and are well suited for short duration missions using monopropellants. However, the storage of cryogenic propellants warrants additional consideration for long-term missions. For example, propellant loss during storage is due to vaporization by incident solar radiation and the vaporized ullage must be vented to prevent excessive pressurization of the tank. Ideally, positioning the fluid in the center of the tank away from the tank wall will reduce vaporization by minimizing heat transfer through the tank wall to the liquid. A second issue involves the capability of sustaining a stable fluid configuration at tank center under varying g-levels or perturbations propellant storage. Results presented herein include comparisons illustrating the influence of gravity, fluid volume, and the magnetic field on a paramagnetic fluid, LOX. The magnetic Bond number is utilized as predictive correlating parameter for investigating these processes. A dimensionless relationship between the Bom and Bo was sought with the goal of

  18. Two-phase reduced gravity experiments for a space reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-08-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. New flow regime maps, models, and correlations are required if the codes are to be successfully applied to reduced-gravity flow and heat transfer. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Because these reduced-gravity experiments will be very basic, and will employ small test loops of simple geometry, a large measure of commonality exists between them and experiments planned by other organizations. It is recommended that a committee be formed, to coordinate all ongoing and planned reduced gravity flow experiments

  19. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  20. Reduced Complexity Volterra Models for Nonlinear System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacıoğlu Rıfat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A broad class of nonlinear systems and filters can be modeled by the Volterra series representation. However, its practical use in nonlinear system identification is sometimes limited due to the large number of parameters associated with the Volterra filter′s structure. The parametric complexity also complicates design procedures based upon such a model. This limitation for system identification is addressed in this paper using a Fixed Pole Expansion Technique (FPET within the Volterra model structure. The FPET approach employs orthonormal basis functions derived from fixed (real or complex pole locations to expand the Volterra kernels and reduce the number of estimated parameters. That the performance of FPET can considerably reduce the number of estimated parameters is demonstrated by a digital satellite channel example in which we use the proposed method to identify the channel dynamics. Furthermore, a gradient-descent procedure that adaptively selects the pole locations in the FPET structure is developed in the paper.

  1. Magnetic branes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with nonlinear electrodynamics: correction of magnetic branes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, Shahram; Panah, Behzad Eslam [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we consider two first order corrections to both the gravity and the gauge sides of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity: Gauss-Bonnet gravity and quadratic Maxwell invariant as corrections. We obtain horizonless magnetic solutions by implying a metric representing a topological defect. We analyze the geometric properties of the solutions and investigate the effects of both corrections, and find that these solutions may be interpreted as magnetic branes. We study the singularity condition and find a nonsingular spacetime with a conical geometry. We also investigate the effects of different parameters on the deficit angle of spacetime near the origin. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic branes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with nonlinear electrodynamics: correction of magnetic branes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Panahiyan, Shahram; Panah, Behzad Eslam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two first order corrections to both the gravity and the gauge sides of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity: Gauss-Bonnet gravity and quadratic Maxwell invariant as corrections. We obtain horizonless magnetic solutions by implying a metric representing a topological defect. We analyze the geometric properties of the solutions and investigate the effects of both corrections, and find that these solutions may be interpreted as magnetic branes. We study the singularity condition and find a nonsingular spacetime with a conical geometry. We also investigate the effects of different parameters on the deficit angle of spacetime near the origin. (orig.)

  3. Nonlinear thermal reduced model for Microwave Circuit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Christophe; Sommet, Raphael; Quéré, Raymond; Dueme, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    With the constant increase of transistor power density, electro thermal modeling is becoming a necessity for accurate prediction of device electrical performances. For this reason, this paper deals with a methodology to obtain a precise nonlinear thermal model based on Model Order Reduction of a three dimensional thermal Finite Element (FE) description. This reduced thermal model is based on the Ritz vector approach which ensure the steady state solution in every case. An equi...

  4. Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.

  5. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  6. Combustion of Methanol Droplets in Air-Diluent Environments with Reduced and Normal Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced and normal gravity combustion experiments were performed with fiber-supported methanol droplets with initial diameters in the 1 mm size range. Experiments were performed with air-diluent mixtures at about 0.101 MPa and 298 K, where carbon dioxide, helium, or xenon was separately used as the diluent gas. Results indicate that ambient gas transport properties play an important role in determining flammability and combustion behaviors including burning rates and radiant heat output histories of the droplets. Droplets would burn with significantly higher mole fractions of xenon than helium or carbon dioxide. In reduced gravity, droplets would burn steadily with a xenon mole fraction of 0.50 but would not burn steadily if helium or carbon dioxide mole fractions were 0.50. Comparison with previous experimental data shows that ignitability and combustion characteristics of droplets are influenced by the fuel type and also the gravitational level. Burning rates were about 40% to 70% higher in normal gravity than in reduced gravity. Methanol droplets also had burning rates that were typically larger than 1-propanol burning rates by about 20% in reduced gravity. In normal gravity, however, burning rate differences between the two fuels were significantly smaller.

  7. Open FRW universes and self-acceleration from nonlinear massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    In the context of a recently proposed nonlinear massive gravity with Lorentz-invariant mass terms, we investigate open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes driven by arbitrary matter source. While the flat FRW solutions were recently shown to be absent, the proof does not extend to the open universes. We find three independent branches of solutions to the equations of motion for the Stückelberg scalars. One of the branches does not allow any nontrivial FRW cosmologies, as in the previous no-go result. On the other hand, both of the other two branches allow general open FRW universes governed by the Friedmann equation with the matter source, the standard curvature term and an effective cosmological constant Λ ± = c ± m g 2 . Here, m g is the graviton mass, + and - represent the two branches, and c ± are constants determined by the two dimensionless parameters of the theory. Since an open FRW universe with a sufficiently small curvature constant can approximate a flat FRW universe but there is no exactly flat FRW solution, the theory exhibits a discontinuity at the flat FRW limit

  8. Hybrid upwind discretization of nonlinear two-phase flow with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Efendiev, Y.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2015-08-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is described by coupled nonlinear mass conservation laws. For immiscible Darcy flow of multiple fluid phases, whereby capillary effects are negligible, the transport equations in the presence of viscous and buoyancy forces are highly nonlinear and hyperbolic. Numerical simulation of multiphase flow processes in heterogeneous formations requires the development of discretization and solution schemes that are able to handle the complex nonlinear dynamics, especially of the saturation evolution, in a reliable and computationally efficient manner. In reservoir simulation practice, single-point upwinding of the flux across an interface between two control volumes (cells) is performed for each fluid phase, whereby the upstream direction is based on the gradient of the phase-potential (pressure plus gravity head). This upwinding scheme, which we refer to as Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU), is combined with implicit (backward-Euler) time discretization to obtain a Fully Implicit Method (FIM). Even though FIM suffers from numerical dispersion effects, it is widely used in practice. This is because of its unconditional stability and because it yields conservative, monotone numerical solutions. However, FIM is not unconditionally convergent. The convergence difficulties are particularly pronounced when the different immiscible fluid phases switch between co-current and counter-current states as a function of time, or (Newton) iteration. Whether the multiphase flow across an interface (between two control-volumes) is co-current, or counter-current, depends on the local balance between the viscous and buoyancy forces, and how the balance evolves in time. The sensitivity of PPU to small changes in the (local) pressure distribution exacerbates the problem. The common strategy to deal with these difficulties is to cut the timestep and try again. Here, we propose a Hybrid-Upwinding (HU) scheme for the phase fluxes, then HU is combined with implicit

  9. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall technical objective of the Phase I effort is to develop a nonlinear aeroelastic solver utilizing the FUN3D generated nonlinear aerodynamic Reduced Order...

  10. Wormholes in higher dimensions with non-linear curvature terms from quantum gravity corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nabulsi, Ahmad Rami [Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan (China)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we discuss a 7-dimensional universe in the presence of a static traversable wormhole and a decaying cosmological constant and dominated by higher-order curvature effects expected from quantum gravity corrections. We confirmed the existence of wormhole solutions in the form of the Lovelock gravity. Many interesting and attractive features are discussed in some detail.

  11. Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Marchetti, R.; Vitali, V.; Cristiani, I.; Giuliani, G.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Minzioni, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show the results of an experimental analysis dedicated to investigate the impact of optical non linear effects, such as two-photon absorption (TPA), free-carrier absorption (FCA) and free-carrier dispersion (FCD), on the performance of integrated micro-resonator based filters for application in WDM telecommunication systems. The filters were fabricated using SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) technology by CEA-Leti, in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous Project, which aims to develop low-cost and high-performance integrated optical devices to be used in new generation passive optical- networks (NG-PON2). Different designs were tested, including both ring-based structures and racetrack-based structures, with single-, double- or triple- resonator configuration, and using different waveguide cross-sections (from 500 x 200 nm to 825 x 100 nm). Measurements were carried out using an external cavity tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth, using both continuous wave signals and 10 Gbit/s modulated signals. Results show that the use 100-nm high waveguide allows reducing the impact of non-linear losses, with respect to the standard waveguides, thus increasing by more than 3 dB the maximum amount of optical power that can be injected into the devices before causing significant non-linear effects. Measurements with OOK-modulated signals at 10 Gbit/s showed that TPA and FCA don't affect the back-to-back BER of the signal, even when long pseudo-random-bit-sequences (PRBS) are used, as the FCD-induced filter-detuning increases filter losses but "prevents" excessive signal degradation.

  12. The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.

    2015-01-01

    Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.

  13. Canonical path integral measures for Holst and Plebanski gravity: I. Reduced phase space derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, Jonathan; Han Muxin; Thiemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect in defining a path integral quantum theory is the determination of the correct measure. For interacting theories and theories with constraints, this is non-trivial, and is normally not the heuristic 'Lebesgue measure' usually used. There have been many determinations of a measure for gravity in the literature, but none for the Palatini or Holst formulations of gravity. Furthermore, the relations between different resulting measures for different formulations of gravity are usually not discussed. In this paper we use the reduced phase technique in order to derive the path-integral measure for the Palatini and Holst formulation of gravity, which is different from the Lebesgue measure up to local measure factors which depend on the spacetime volume element and spatial volume element. From this path integral for the Holst formulation of general relativity we can also give a new derivation of the Plebanski path integral and discover a discrepancy with the result due to Buffenoir, Henneaux, Noui and Roche whose origin we resolve. This paper is the first in a series that aims at better understanding the relation between canonical loop quantum gravity and the spin-foam approach.

  14. A solution of nonlinear equation for the gravity wave spectra from Adomian decomposition method: a first approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gledson Goulart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equation for the gravity wave spectra in mean atmosphere is analytically solved without linearization by the Adomian decomposition method. As a consequence, the nonlinear nature of problem is preserved and the errors found in the results are only due to the parameterization. The results, with the parameterization applied in the simulations, indicate that the linear solution of the equation is a good approximation only for heights shorter than ten kilometers, because the linearization the equation leads to a solution that does not correctly describe the kinetic energy spectra.

  15. Dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow with a nonlinear source: the effects of thermal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes in the context of gravity's rainbow with two cases: (1) by considering the usual entropy, (2) in the presence of first order logarithmic correction of the entropy. First, exact black hole solutions of dilatonic Born-Infeld gravity with an energy dependent Liouville-type potential are obtained. Then, thermodynamic properties of the mentioned cases are studied, separately. It will be shown that although mass, entropy and the heat capacity are modified due to the presence of a first order correction, the temperature remains independent of it. Furthermore, it will be shown that divergences of the heat capacity, hence phase transition points are also independent of a first order correction, whereas the stability conditions are highly sensitive to variation of the correction parameter. Except for the effects of a first order correction, we will also present a limit on the values of the dilatonic parameter and show that it is possible to recognize AdS and dS thermodynamical behaviors for two specific branches of the dilatonic parameter. In addition, the effects of nonlinear electromagnetic field and energy functions on the thermodynamical behavior of the solutions will be highlighted and dependency of critical behavior, on these generalizations will be investigated. (orig.)

  16. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  17. Dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow with a nonlinear source: the effects of thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Panah, B.E.; Panahiyan, S.; Momennia, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes in the context of gravity's rainbow with two cases: (1) by considering the usual entropy, (2) in the presence of first order logarithmic correction of the entropy. First, exact black hole solutions of dilatonic Born-Infeld gravity with an energy dependent Liouville-type potential are obtained. Then, thermodynamic properties of the mentioned cases are studied, separately. It will be shown that although mass, entropy and the heat capacity are modified due to the presence of a first order correction, the temperature remains independent of it. Furthermore, it will be shown that divergences of the heat capacity, hence phase transition points are also independent of a first order correction, whereas the stability conditions are highly sensitive to variation of the correction parameter. Except for the effects of a first order correction, we will also present a limit on the values of the dilatonic parameter and show that it is possible to recognize AdS and dS thermodynamical behaviors for two specific branches of the dilatonic parameter. In addition, the effects of nonlinear electromagnetic field and energy functions on the thermodynamical behavior of the solutions will be highlighted and dependency of critical behavior, on these generalizations will be investigated. (orig.)

  18. Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)

  19. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  20. Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extra Terrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, M.C.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Daily, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    The combustion of metals is a field with important practical applications in rocket propellants, high-temperature flames, and material synthesis. Also, the safe operation of metal containers in high-pressure oxygen systems and with cryogenic fuels and oxidizers remains an important concern in industry. The increasing use of metallic components in spacecraft and space structures has also raised concerns about their flammability properties and fire suppression mechanisms. In addition, recent efforts to embark on unmanned and manned planetary exploration, such as on Mars, have also renewed the interest in metal/carbon-dioxide combustion as an effective in situ resource utilization technology. In spite of these practical applications, the understanding of the combustion properties of metals remains far behind that of the most commonly used fuels such as hydrocarbons. The lack of understanding is due to the many problems unique to metal- oxidizer reactions such as: low-temperature surface oxidation prior to ignition, heterogeneous reactions, very high combustion temperatures, product condensation, high emissivity of products, and multi-phase interactions. Very few analytical models (all neglecting the influence of gravity) have been developed to predict the burning characteristics and the flame structure details. Several experimental studies attempting to validate these models have used small metal particles to recreate gravity-free conditions. The high emissivity of the flames, rapid reaction, and intermittent explosions experienced by these particles have made the gathering of any useful information on burning rates and flame structure very difficult. The use of a reduced gravity environment is needed to clarify some of the complex interactions among the phenomena described above. First, the elimination of the intrusive buoyant flows that plague all combustion phenomena is of paramount importance in metal reactions due to the much higher temperatures reached during

  1. Development of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment for a Reduced Gravity Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric; Gotti, Daniel; Owens, Jay; Gilkey, Kelly; Pham, Nang; Stehno, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The recent hardware development and testing of a reduced gravity aircraft flight experiment has provided valuable insights for the future design of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment (TPFSE). The TPFSE is scheduled to fly within the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2020. The TPFSE studies the operational limits of gas and liquid separation of passive cyclonic separators. A passive cyclonic separator utilizes only the inertia of the incoming flow to accomplish the liquid-gas separation. Efficient phase separation is critical for environmental control and life support systems, such as recovery of clean water from bioreactors, for long duration human spaceflight missions. The final low gravity aircraft flight took place in December 2015 aboard NASA's C9 airplane.

  2. The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.

    2017-10-01

    Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1 g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1 g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.

  3. Gravity Dual for Reggeon Field Theory and Non-linear Quantum Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Nakayama

    2009-01-01

    We study scale invariant but not necessarily conformal invariant deformations of non-relativistic conformal field theories from the dual gravity viewpoint. We present the corresponding metric that solves the Einstein equation coupled with a massive vector field. We find that, within the class of metric we study, when we assume the Galilean invariance, the scale invariant deformation always preserves the non-relativistic conformal invariance. We discuss applications to scaling regime of Reggeo...

  4. [Perinatal model of human transition from hypogravity to the earth's gravity based on the electromyogram nonlinear characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meĭgal, A Iu; Voroshilov, A S

    2009-01-01

    Interferential electromyogram (iEMG) was analyzed in healthy newborn infants (n=29) during the first 24 hours of life as a model of transition from hypogravity (intrauterine immersion) to the Earth's gravity (postnatal period). Nonlinear instruments of iEMG analysis (correlation dimension, entropy and fractal dimension) reflected the complexity, chaotic character and predictability of signals from the leg and arm antagonistic muscles. Except for m. gastrocnemius, in all other musles iEMG fractal dimension was shown to grow as the postnatal period extended. Low fractal and correlation dimensions and entropy marked flexor muscles, particularly against low iEMG amplitude suggesting a better congenital programming for the flexors as compared to the extensors. It is concluded that the early ontogenesis model can be practicable in studying the evolution and states of antigravity functions.

  5. Reduced-order modelling of parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear dynamic partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A A; Xing, W W; Triantafyllidis, V

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.

  6. Numerical Simulation of cardiovascular deconditioning in different reduced gravity exposure scenarios. Parabolic flight validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with

  7. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  8. On the Nonlinear Structural Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades using Reduced Degree-of-Freedom Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2008-01-01

    , modelling geometrical and inertial nonlinear couplings in the fundamental flap and edge direction. The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of such a reduced-degree-of-freedom model in predicting the nonlinear response and stability of a blade by comparison to a full model based...... on a nonlinear co-rotating FE formulation. By use of the reduced-degree-of-freedom model it is shown that under strong resonance excitation of the fundamental flap or edge modes, significant energy is transferred to higher modes due to parametric or nonlinear coupling terms, which influence the response...... of the small number of included modes. The qualitative erratic response and stability prediction of the reduced order models take place at frequencies slightly above normal operation. However, for normal operation of the wind turbine without resonance excitation 4 modes in the reduced-degree-of-freedom model...

  9. Nonlinear internal gravity waves and their interaction with the mean wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, R.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of a wave packet of internal gravity waves with the mean wind is investigated, for the case when there is a region of wind shear and hence a critical level. The principal equations are the Doppler-shifted dispersion relation, the equation for conservation of wave action and the mean momentum equation, in which the mean wind is accelerated by a 'radiation stress' tensor, due to the waves. These equations are integrated numerically to study the behaviour of a wave packet approaching a critical level, where the horizontal phase speed matches the mean wind. The results demonstrate the exchange of energy from the waves to the mean wind in the vicinity of the critical level. The interaction between the waves and the mean wind is also studied in the absence of any initial wind shear. (author)

  10. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (nikolaus.kuhn@unibas.ch), (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  11. On the relation between reduced quantisation and quantum reduction for spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodendorfer, N; Zipfel, A

    2016-01-01

    Building on a recent proposal for a quantum reduction to spherical symmetry from full loop quantum gravity, we investigate the relation between a quantisation of spherically symmetric general relativity and a reduction at the quantum level. To this end, we generalise the previously proposed quantum reduction by dropping the gauge fixing condition on the radial diffeomorphisms, thus allowing us to make direct contact with previous work on reduced quantisation. A dictionary between spherically symmetric variables and observables with respect to the reduction constraints in the full theory is discussed, as well as an embedding of reduced quantum states to a subsector of the quantum symmetry reduced full theory states. On this full theory subsector, the quantum algebra of the mentioned observables is computed and shown to qualitatively reproduce the quantum algebra of the reduced variables in the large quantum number limit for a specific choice of regularisation. Insufficiencies in recovering the reduced algebra quantitatively from the full theory are attributed to the oversimplified full theory quantum states we use. (paper)

  12. Flow-Boiling Critical Heat Flux Experiments Performed in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Mudawar, Issam

    2005-01-01

    Poor understanding of flow boiling in microgravity has recently emerged as a key obstacle to the development of many types of power generation and advanced life support systems intended for space exploration. The critical heat flux (CHF) is perhaps the most important thermal design parameter for boiling systems involving both heatflux-controlled devices and intense heat removal. Exceeding the CHF limit can lead to permanent damage, including physical burnout of the heat-dissipating device. The importance of the CHF limit creates an urgent need to develop predictive design tools to ensure both the safe and reliable operation of a two-phase thermal management system under the reduced-gravity (like that on the Moon and Mars) and microgravity environments of space. At present, very limited information is available on flow-boiling heat transfer and the CHF under these conditions.

  13. The non-Gaussian joint probability density function of slope and elevation for a nonlinear gravity wave field. [in ocean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.; Tung, C.-C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the mapping method developed by Huang et al. (1983), an analytic expression for the non-Gaussian joint probability density function of slope and elevation for nonlinear gravity waves is derived. Various conditional and marginal density functions are also obtained through the joint density function. The analytic results are compared with a series of carefully controlled laboratory observations, and good agreement is noted. Furthermore, the laboratory wind wave field observations indicate that the capillary or capillary-gravity waves may not be the dominant components in determining the total roughness of the wave field. Thus, the analytic results, though derived specifically for the gravity waves, may have more general applications.

  14. Cycling the Representer Algorithm for Variational Data Assimilation with a Nonlinear Reduced Gravity Ocean Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngodock, Hans E; Smith, Scott R; Jacobs, Gregg A

    2007-01-01

    ... (LCE) in the Gulf of Mexico. It was reported that the representer method was more accurate than its ensemble counterparts, yet it had difficulties fitting the data in the last month of the 4-month assimilation window...

  15. Reduced-gravity Environment Hardware Demonstrations of a Prototype Miniaturized Flow Cytometer and Companion Microfluidic Mixing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z.; Bishara, Andrew M.; Nelson, Emily S.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L.; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described. PMID:25490614

  16. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Agostinho, Luewton L. F.; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R. Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschläger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  17. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  18. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Woisetschlaeger, Jakob, E-mail: elmar.fuchs@wetsus.nl [Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 25A, Graz (Austria)

    2011-01-19

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  19. Space-DRUMS trade mark sign experimental development using parabolic reduced gravity flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigne, J.Y.; Millan, D.; Davidson, R.

    2000-01-01

    Space-DRUMS trade mark sign is a microgravity containerless-processing facility that uses acoustic beams to position large diameter liquid or solid samples within a gas-filled chamber. Its capacity to control the position of large diameter (6 cm) low density solid materials was successfully demonstrated on NASA's DC-9 parabolic aircraft in July 1996; two subsequent flights occurred in 1998 using the KC-135 and A-300 aircraft to further refine the technology used in the system. The working environment for the Space-DRUMS trade mark sign facility is the Space Shuttle/Space Station where long duration microgravity experimentation can take place. Since the reduced gravity environment of an A-300 or a KC-135 parabolic flight is much harsher than that of the Space Shuttle in terms of residual acceleration magnitudes experienced by the samples to be held in position; this more extreme environment allows for most Space-DRUMS trade mark sign technical payload functionality tests to be conducted. In addition to flight hardware shakedowns, parabolic flights continue to be extensively used to study and evaluate the behavior of candidate-advanced materials proposed for ISS Space-DRUMS trade mark sign campaigns. The first samples to be processed in 2001 involve combustion synthesis (also known as SHS - Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of large glass-ceramic and of porous ceramic spheres. Upmassing Space-DRUMS trade mark sign for the International Space Station is scheduled for early 2001

  20. Active Response Gravity Offload and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, Larry K. (Inventor); Valle, Paul S. (Inventor); Bankieris, Derek R. (Inventor); Lieberman, Asher P. (Inventor); Redden, Lee (Inventor); Shy, Cecil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable gravity field simulator can be utilized to provide three dimensional simulations for simulated gravity fields selectively ranging from Moon, Mars, and micro-gravity environments and/or other selectable gravity fields. The gravity field simulator utilizes a horizontally moveable carriage with a cable extending from a hoist. The cable can be attached to a load which experiences the effects of the simulated gravity environment. The load can be a human being or robot that makes movements that induce swinging of the cable whereby a horizontal control system reduces swinging energy. A vertical control system uses a non-linear feedback filter to remove noise from a load sensor that is in the same frequency range as signals from the load sensor.

  1. Nonlinear Parameter-Varying AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Aerostructural Sensing and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV),...

  2. An Efficient Reduced-Order Model for the Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2014-08-17

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools that typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. We plot and compare the expanded form of the electrostatic force to the exact form and found that at least twenty terms are needed to capture accurately the strong nonlinear form of the force over the full range of motion. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler–Bernoulli beam model to study the static and dynamic behavior of CNTs. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. We found that the use of the new expanded form of the electrostatic force enables avoiding the cumbersome evaluation of the spatial integrals involving the electrostatic force during the modal projection procedure in the Galerkin method, which needs to be done at every time step. Hence, the new method proves to be much more efficient computationally.

  3. Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi

    2011-01-01

    We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g μν =C(R)g μν with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.

  4. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattachraya, S.; Maiti, R.; Das, A. C.; Saha, S.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-07-07

    Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3}-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm{sup 2}) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm{sup 2} to 302 GW/cm{sup 2}). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO, and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm{sup 2} for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm{sup 2} for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.

  5. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachraya, S.; Maiti, R.; Das, A. C.; Saha, S.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Datta, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp"2-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp"2 and sp"3-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm"2) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm"2 to 302 GW/cm"2). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO, and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm"2 for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm"2 for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.

  6. New proposal for non-linear ghost-free massive F(R) gravity: Cosmic acceleration and Hamiltonian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusoň, Josef; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We propose new version of massive F(R) gravity which is natural generalization of convenient massive ghost-free gravity. Its Hamiltonian formulation in scalar-tensor frame is developed. We show that such F(R) theory is ghost-free. The cosmological evolution of such theory is investigated. Despite the strong Bianchi identity constraint the possibility of cosmic acceleration (especially, in the presence of cold dark matter) is established. Ghost-free massive F(R,T) gravity is also proposed

  7. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption of reduced graphene oxide by chemical reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongfei; Wang, Can; Sun, Zhipei; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Redfern, Simon A T; Yang, Guozhen

    2014-08-11

    Reduced graphene oxides with varying degrees of reduction have been produced by hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of both graphene oxide as well as the reduced graphene oxides have been measured by single beam Z-scan measurement in the picosecond region. The results reveal both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption, strongly dependent on the intensity of the pump pulse: saturable absorption occurs at lower pump pulse intensity (~1.5 GW/cm2 saturation intensity) whereas two-photon absorption dominates at higher intensities (≥5.7 GW/cm2). Intriguingly, we find that the two-photon absorption coefficient (from 1.5 cm/GW to 4.5cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (from 1 GW/cm2 to 2 GW/cm2) vary with chemical reduction, which is ascribed to the varying concentrations of sp2 domains and sp2 clusters in the reduced graphene oxides. Our results not only provide an insight into the evolution of the nonlinear optical coefficient in reduced graphene oxide, but also suggest that chemical engineering techniques may usefully be applied to tune the nonlinear optical properties of various nano-materials, including atomically thick graphene sheets.

  8. Newtonian quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.R.W.

    1995-01-01

    We develop a nonlinear quantum theory of Newtonian gravity consistent with an objective interpretation of the wavefunction. Inspired by the ideas of Schroedinger, and Bell, we seek a dimensional reduction procedure to map complex wavefunctions in configuration space onto a family of observable fields in space-time. Consideration of quasi-classical conservation laws selects the reduced one-body quantities as the basis for an explicit quasi-classical coarse-graining. These we interpret as describing the objective reality of the laboratory. Thereafter, we examine what may stand in the role of the usual Copenhagen observer to localise this quantity against macroscopic dispersion. Only a tiny change is needed, via a generically attractive self-potential. A nonlinear treatment of gravitational self-energy is thus advanced. This term sets a scale for all wavepackets. The Newtonian cosmology is thus closed, without need of an external observer. Finally, the concept of quantisation is re-interpreted as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. To illustrate, we exhibit an elementary family of gravitationally self-bound solitary waves. Contrasting this theory with its canonically quantised analogue, we find that the given interpretation is empirically distinguishable, in principle. This result encourages deeper study of nonlinear field theories as a testable alternative to canonically quantised gravity. (author). 46 refs., 5 figs

  9. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  10. Nonlinear Microstructured Material to Reduce Noise and Vibrations at Low Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavazec, Deborah; Cumunel, Gwendal; Duhamel, Denis; Soize, Christian; Batou, Anas

    2016-01-01

    At low frequencies, for which the wavelengths are wide, the acoustic waves and the mechanical vibrations cannot easily be reduced in the structures at macroscale by using dissipative materials, contrarily to the middle- and high-frequency ranges. The final objective of this work is to reduce the vibrations and the induced noise on a broad low-frequency band by using a microstructured material by inclusions that are randomly arranged in the material matrix. The dynamical regimes of the inclusions will be imposed in the nonlinear domain in order that the energy be effectively pumped over a broad frequency band around the resonance frequency, due to the nonlinearity. The first step of this work is to design and to analyze the efficiency of an inclusion, which is made up of a hollow frame including a point mass centered on a beam. This inclusion is designed in order to exhibit nonlinear geometric effects in the low-frequency band that is observed. For this first step, the objective is to develop the simplest mechanical model that has the capability to roughly predict the experimental results that are measured. The second step, which is not presented in the paper, will consist in developing a more sophisticated nonlinear dynamical model of the inclusion. In this paper, devoted to the first step, it is proved that the nonlinearity induces an attenuation on a broad frequency band around the resonance, contrarily to its linear behavior for which the attenuation is only active in a narrow frequency band around the resonance. We will present the design in terms of geometry, dimension and materials for the inclusion, the experimental manufacturing of this system realized with a 3D printing system, and the experimental measures that have been performed. We compare the prevision given by the stochastic computational model with the measurements. The results obtained exhibit the physical attenuation over a broad low-frequency band, which were expected. (paper)

  11. Reduced, three-dimensional, nonlinear equations for high-β plasmas including toroidal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.

    1980-11-01

    The resistive MHD equations for toroidal plasma configurations are reduced by expanding to the second order in epsilon, the inverse aspect ratio, allowing for high β = μsub(o)p/B 2 of order epsilon. The result is a closed system of nonlinear, three-dimensional equations where the fast magnetohydrodynamic time scale is eliminated. In particular, the equation for the toroidal velocity remains decoupled. (orig.)

  12. 2D gravity and random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods

  13. Jacobian projection reduced-order models for dynamic systems with contact nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Chiara; Zucca, Stefano; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2018-02-01

    In structural dynamics, the prediction of the response of systems with localized nonlinearities, such as friction dampers, is of particular interest. This task becomes especially cumbersome when high-resolution finite element models are used. While state-of-the-art techniques such as Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis are employed to generate reduced order models, the interface (nonlinear) degrees of freedom must still be solved in-full. For this reason, a new generation of specialized techniques capable of reducing linear and nonlinear degrees of freedom alike is emerging. This paper proposes a new technique that exploits spatial correlations in the dynamics to compute a reduction basis. The basis is composed of a set of vectors obtained using the Jacobian of partial derivatives of the contact forces with respect to nodal displacements. These basis vectors correspond to specifically chosen boundary conditions at the contacts over one cycle of vibration. The technique is shown to be effective in the reduction of several models studied using multiple harmonics with a coupled static solution. In addition, this paper addresses another challenge common to all reduction techniques: it presents and validates a novel a posteriori error estimate capable of evaluating the quality of the reduced-order solution without involving a comparison with the full-order solution.

  14. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  15. An Improved Model of Cryogenic Propellant Stratification in a Rotating, Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justin; Kirk, Daniel R.; Schallhorn, Paul A.; Piquero, Jorge L.; Campbell, Mike; Chase, Sukhdeep

    2007-01-01

    This paper builds on a series of analytical literature models used to predict thermal stratification within rocket propellant tanks. The primary contribution to the literature is to add the effect of tank rotation and to demonstrate the influence of rotation on stratification times and temperatures. This work also looks levels of thermal stratification for generic propellant tanks (cylindrical shapes) over a parametric range of upper-stage coast times, heating levels, rotation rates, and gravity levels.

  16. Two-Phase Annular Flow in Helical Coil Flow Channels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshock, Edward G.; Lin, Chin S.

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of both single- and two-phase flow studies in curved and coiled flow geometries is first presented. Some of the complexities of two-phase liquid-vapor flow in curved and coiled geometries are discussed, and serve as an introduction to the advantages of observing such flows under a low-gravity environment. The studies proposed -- annular two-phase air-water flow in helical coil flow channels are described. Objectives of the studies are summarized.

  17. Parametric reduced models for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlim, John; Li, Xiantao

    2015-05-01

    Reduced models for the (defocusing) nonlinear Schrödinger equation are developed. In particular, we develop reduced models that only involve the low-frequency modes given noisy observations of these modes. The ansatz of the reduced parametric models are obtained by employing a rational approximation and a colored-noise approximation, respectively, on the memory terms and the random noise of a generalized Langevin equation that is derived from the standard Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The parameters in the resulting reduced models are inferred from noisy observations with a recently developed ensemble Kalman filter-based parametrization method. The forecasting skill across different temperature regimes are verified by comparing the moments up to order four, a two-time correlation function statistics, and marginal densities of the coarse-grained variables.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator: Experimental investigation and reduced-order modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device consisting of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected, the first four experimental natural frequencies are identified and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. Several backward and forward frequency sweeps are acquired. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the nonresonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is also capable of capturing the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Non-intrusive reduced order modeling of nonlinear problems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesthaven, J. S.; Ubbiali, S.

    2018-06-01

    We develop a non-intrusive reduced basis (RB) method for parametrized steady-state partial differential equations (PDEs). The method extracts a reduced basis from a collection of high-fidelity solutions via a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and employs artificial neural networks (ANNs), particularly multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), to accurately approximate the coefficients of the reduced model. The search for the optimal number of neurons and the minimum amount of training samples to avoid overfitting is carried out in the offline phase through an automatic routine, relying upon a joint use of the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. This guarantees a complete offline-online decoupling, leading to an efficient RB method - referred to as POD-NN - suitable also for general nonlinear problems with a non-affine parametric dependence. Numerical studies are presented for the nonlinear Poisson equation and for driven cavity viscous flows, modeled through the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both physical and geometrical parametrizations are considered. Several results confirm the accuracy of the POD-NN method and show the substantial speed-up enabled at the online stage as compared to a traditional RB strategy.

  20. Reduced-order modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with nonlinear circuits under complex conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Fei; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    A fully coupled modeling approach is developed for piezoelectric energy harvesters in this work based on the use of available robust finite element packages and efficient reducing order modeling techniques. At first, the harvester is modeled using finite element packages. The dynamic equilibrium equations of harvesters are rebuilt by extracting system matrices from the finite element model using built-in commands without any additional tools. A Krylov subspace-based scheme is then applied to obtain a reduced-order model for improving simulation efficiency but preserving the key features of harvesters. Co-simulation of the reduced-order model with nonlinear energy harvesting circuits is achieved in a system level. Several examples in both cases of harmonic response and transient response analysis are conducted to validate the present approach. The proposed approach allows to improve the simulation efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the parameters used in the equivalent circuit model can be conveniently obtained by the proposed eigenvector-based model order reduction technique. More importantly, this work establishes a methodology for modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with any complicated mechanical geometries and nonlinear circuits. The input load may be more complex also. The method can be employed by harvester designers to optimal mechanical structures or by circuit designers to develop novel energy harvesting circuits.

  1. Results and Lessons Learned from Performance Testing of Humans in Spacesuits in Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program has plans to return to the Moon within the next 10 years. Although reaching the Moon during the Apollo Program was a remarkable human engineering achievement, fewer than 20 extravehicular activities (EVAs) were performed. Current projections indicate that the next lunar exploration program will require thousands of EVAs, which will require spacesuits that are better optimized for human performance. Limited mobility and dexterity, and the position of the center of gravity (CG) are a few of many features of the Apollo suit that required significant crew compensation to accomplish the objectives. Development of a new EVA suit system will ideally result in performance close to or better than that in shirtsleeves at 1 G, i.e., in "a suit that is a pleasure to work in, one that you would want to go out and explore in on your day off." Unlike the Shuttle program, in which only a fraction of the crew perform EVA, the Constellation program will require that all crewmembers be able to perform EVA. As a result, suits must be built to accommodate and optimize performance for a larger range of crew anthropometry, strength, and endurance. To address these concerns, NASA has begun a series of tests to better understand the factors affecting human performance and how to utilize various lunar gravity simulation environments available for testing.

  2. A non-linear reduced order methodology applicable to boiling water reactor stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, Dennis Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic coupling between power, flow rate and density, intensified by neutronics feedback are the main drivers of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability behavior. High-power low-flow conditions in connection with unfavorable power distributions can lead the BWR system into unstable regions where power oscillations can be triggered. This important threat to operational safety requires careful analysis for proper understanding. Analyzing an exhaustive parameter space of the non-linear BWR system becomes feasible with methodologies based on reduced order models (ROMs), saving computational cost and improving the physical understanding. Presently within reactor dynamics, no general and automatic prediction of high-dimensional ROMs based on detailed BWR models are available. In this thesis a systematic self-contained model order reduction (MOR) technique is derived which is applicable for several classes of dynamical problems, and in particular to BWRs of any degree of details. Expert knowledge can be given by operational, experimental or numerical transient data and is transfered into an optimal basis function representation. The methodology is mostly automated and provides the framework for the reduction of various different systems of any level of complexity. Only little effort is necessary to attain a reduced version within this self-written code which is based on coupling of sophisticated commercial software. The methodology reduces a complex system in a grid-free manner to a small system able to capture even non-linear dynamics. It is based on an optimal choice of basis functions given by the so-called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Required steps to achieve reliable and numerical stable ROM are given by a distinct calibration road-map. In validation and verification steps, a wide spectrum of representative test examples is systematically studied regarding a later BWR application. The first example is non-linear and has a dispersive character

  3. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A., E-mail: omar_olverag@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  4. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A.

    2016-09-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  5. Sparse-grid, reduced-basis Bayesian inversion: Nonaffine-parametric nonlinear equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng, E-mail: peng@ices.utexas.edu [The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, 201 East 24th Street, Stop C0200, Austin, TX 78712-1229 (United States); Schwab, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.schwab@sam.math.ethz.ch [Seminar für Angewandte Mathematik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Römistrasse 101, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We extend the reduced basis (RB) accelerated Bayesian inversion methods for affine-parametric, linear operator equations which are considered in [16,17] to non-affine, nonlinear parametric operator equations. We generalize the analysis of sparsity of parametric forward solution maps in [20] and of Bayesian inversion in [48,49] to the fully discrete setting, including Petrov–Galerkin high-fidelity (“HiFi”) discretization of the forward maps. We develop adaptive, stochastic collocation based reduction methods for the efficient computation of reduced bases on the parametric solution manifold. The nonaffinity and nonlinearity with respect to (w.r.t.) the distributed, uncertain parameters and the unknown solution is collocated; specifically, by the so-called Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM). For the corresponding Bayesian inversion problems, computational efficiency is enhanced in two ways: first, expectations w.r.t. the posterior are computed by adaptive quadratures with dimension-independent convergence rates proposed in [49]; the present work generalizes [49] to account for the impact of the PG discretization in the forward maps on the convergence rates of the Quantities of Interest (QoI for short). Second, we propose to perform the Bayesian estimation only w.r.t. a parsimonious, RB approximation of the posterior density. Based on the approximation results in [49], the infinite-dimensional parametric, deterministic forward map and operator admit N-term RB and EIM approximations which converge at rates which depend only on the sparsity of the parametric forward map. In several numerical experiments, the proposed algorithms exhibit dimension-independent convergence rates which equal, at least, the currently known rate estimates for N-term approximation. We propose to accelerate Bayesian estimation by first offline construction of reduced basis surrogates of the Bayesian posterior density. The parsimonious surrogates can then be employed for online data

  6. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian

    2016-07-26

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  7. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian; Yang, Chao; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  8. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics...

  9. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  10. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

    2009-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  11. The renormalization-group flux of the conformally reduced quantum gravity; Der Renormierungsgruppen-Fluss der konform-reduzierten Quantengravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Holger

    2010-12-17

    We analyze the conceptual role of background independence in the application of the effective average action to quantum gravity. Insisting on a background independent nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) flow the coarse graining operation must be defined in terms of an unspecified variable metric since no rigid metric of a fixed background spacetime is available. This leads to an extra field dependence in the functional RG equation and a significantly different RG ow in comparison to the standard flow equation with a rigid metric in the mode cutoff. The background independent RG flow can possess a non-Gaussian fixed point, for instance, even though the corresponding standard one does not. We demonstrate the importance of this universal, essentially kinematical effect by computing the RG flow of Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) in the ''conformally reduced'' theory which discards all degrees of freedom contained in the metric except the conformal one. The conformally reduced Einstein-Hilbert approximation has exactly the same qualitative properties as in the full Einstein-Hilbert truncation. In particular it possesses the non-Gaussian fixed point which is necessary for asymptotic safety. Without the extra field dependence the resulting RG flow is that of a simple {phi}{sup 4}-theory. We employ the Local Potential Approximation for the conformal factor to generalize the RG flow on an infinite dimensional theory space. Again we find a Gaussian as well as a non-Gaussian fixed point which provides further evidence for the viability of the asymptotic safety scenario. The analog of the invariant cubic in the curvature which spoils perturbative renormalizability is seen to be unproblematic for the asymptotic safety of the conformally reduced theory. The scaling fields and dimensions of both fixed points are obtained explicitly and possible implications for the predictivity of the theory are discussed. Since the RG flow depends on the topology of the

  12. Measurement of the thermophysical properties of industrial liquid metallic alloys by non-contact calorimetry under reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: The numerical modeling of casting and solidification is becoming of increased importance in industrial process design. While the numerical algorithms have made large progress towards real process design and optimization, there is a pronounced lack of precise thermophysical input data. This lack is caused by the high chemical reactivity of many metallic alloys in the liquid phase making conventional measurement techniques such as differential thermal analysis difficult if at all possible to apply. In this contribution we report about a project planning to use containerless electromagnetic processing under reduced gravity conditions for thermophysical property measurement of industrially relevant alloys. Alloys of interest are, among others, Ti-alloys, Ni-base superalloys, and steels. In preparation of this project, a survey among leading European industries was conducted revealing properties such as melting range, fraction solid/liquid, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, as well as density, viscosity and surface tension as properties most in need. Non-contact calorimetry of electromagnetically levitated specimens was developed for an investigation of the thermophysical properties of Zr-alloys in the liquid phase. These methods have been applied successfully under reduced gravity conditions on board spacelab to the measurement of the specific heat capacity by modulation calorimetry, the enthalpy of fusion, the total hemispherical emissivity and for an effective thermal conductivity. Specific examples from these experiments demonstrating the applicability of these methods for quantitative calorimetry as well as application at higher Biot numbers will be discussed. New developments include modulation calorimetry in the two phase region for the measurement of the fraction solid. (author)

  13. On the kinematic criterion for the inception of breaking in surface gravity waves: Fully nonlinear numerical simulations and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khait, A.; Shemer, L.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of unidirectional wave trains containing a wave that gradually becomes steep is evaluated experimentally and numerically using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The boundary conditions for the nonlinear numerical simulations corresponded to the actual movements of the wavemaker paddle as recorded in the physical experiments, allowing direct comparison between the measured in experiments' characteristics of the wave train and the numerical predictions. The high level of qualitative and quantitative agreement between the measurements and simulations validated the kinematic criterion for the inception of breaking and the location of the spilling breaker, on the basis of the BEM computations and associated experiments. The breaking inception is associated with the fluid particle at the crest of the steep wave that has been accelerated to match and surpass the crest velocity. The previously observed significant slow-down of the crest while approaching breaking is verified numerically; both narrow-/broad-banded wave trains are considered. Finally, the relative importance of linear and nonlinear contributions is analyzed.

  14. Advanced Cookware and Techniques for Food Preparation at Reduced Pressure and Gravity, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and Cornell University propose to develop a galley architecture taking into account the design constraints of the space habitat, such as reduced...

  15. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  16. Cosmology of Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2011-08-01

    We discuss the cosmology of recently proposed Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity. In particular, we derive the modified Hubble equation that reduces to the standard HL gravity case in appropriate limit. We show how the bounce solutions in this theory are modified due to nonlinear effect of f(R) gravity. In addition we find that the solutions exist when the Universe can make turn around for large scale-factor. Therefore, in principle, the Universe in this set-up can show cyclic behavior. (orig.)

  17. Cosmology of Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K. [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sen, Anjan A. [Centre of Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Dehli (India)

    2011-08-15

    We discuss the cosmology of recently proposed Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity. In particular, we derive the modified Hubble equation that reduces to the standard HL gravity case in appropriate limit. We show how the bounce solutions in this theory are modified due to nonlinear effect of f(R) gravity. In addition we find that the solutions exist when the Universe can make turn around for large scale-factor. Therefore, in principle, the Universe in this set-up can show cyclic behavior. (orig.)

  18. Support-Vector-Machine-Based Reduced-Order Model for Limit Cycle Oscillation Prediction of Nonlinear Aeroelastic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy for the system identification-based reduced-order model (ROM and even eigenmode based reduced-order model to predict the limit cycle oscillation generated by the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics. Most of these traditional ROMs are sensitive to the flow parameter variation. In order to deal with this problem, a support vector machine- (SVM- based ROM was investigated and the general construction framework was proposed. The two-DOF aeroelastic system for the NACA 64A010 airfoil in transonic flow was then demonstrated for the new SVM-based ROM. The simulation results show that the new ROM can capture the LCO behavior of the nonlinear aeroelastic system with good accuracy and high efficiency. The robustness and computational efficiency of the SVM-based ROM would provide a promising tool for real-time flight simulation including nonlinear aeroelastic effects.

  19. An Efficient Reduced-Order Model for the Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction

  20. Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  1. Columnar and Equiaxed Solidification of Al-7 wt.% Si Alloys in Reduced Gravity in the Framework of the CETSOL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Li, Y. Z.; Gandin, C.-A.; Fleurisson, R.; Guillemot, G.; McFadden, S.; Mooney, R. P.; Voorhees, P.; Roosz, A.; Ronaföldi, A.; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Warnken, N.; Saad, A.; Grün, G.-U.; Grohn, M.; Poitrault, I.; Pehl, T.; Nagy, I.; Todt, D.; Minster, O.; Sillekens, W.

    2017-08-01

    During casting, often a dendritic microstructure is formed, resulting in a columnar or an equiaxed grain structure, or leading to a transition from columnar to equiaxed growth (CET). The detailed knowledge of the critical parameters for the CET is important because the microstructure affects materials properties. To provide unique data for testing of fundamental theories of grain and microstructure formation, solidification experiments in microgravity environment were performed within the European Space Agency Microgravity Application Promotion (ESA MAP) project Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL). Reduced gravity allows for purely diffusive solidification conditions, i.e., suppressing melt flow and sedimentation and floatation effects. On-board the International Space Station, Al-7 wt.% Si alloys with and without grain refiners were solidified in different temperature gradients and with different cooling conditions. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the grain structure showed purely columnar growth for nonrefined alloys. The CET was detected only for refined alloys, either as a sharp CET in the case of a sudden increase in the solidification velocity or as a progressive CET in the case of a continuous decrease of the temperature gradient. The present experimental data were used for numerical modeling of the CET with three different approaches: (1) a front tracking model using an equiaxed growth model, (2) a three-dimensional (3D) cellular automaton-finite element model, and (3) a 3D dendrite needle network method. Each model allows for predicting the columnar dendrite tip undercooling and the growth rate with respect to time. Furthermore, the positions of CET and the spatial extent of the CET, being sharp or progressive, are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  2. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila; Manohar, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Mutual information and phase dependencies: measures of reduced nonlinear cardiorespiratory interactions after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Leder, Uwe; Hoyer, Heike; Pompe, Bernd; Sommer, Michael; Zwiener, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is related to several mechanisms of the complex autonomic functioning such as respiratory heart rate modulation and phase dependencies between heart beat cycles and breathing cycles. The underlying processes are basically nonlinear. In order to understand and quantitatively assess those physiological interactions an adequate coupling analysis is necessary. We hypothesized that nonlinear measures of HRV and cardiorespiratory interdependencies are superior to the standard HRV measures in classifying patients after acute myocardial infarction. We introduced mutual information measures which provide access to nonlinear interdependencies as counterpart to the classically linear correlation analysis. The nonlinear statistical autodependencies of HRV were quantified by auto mutual information, the respiratory heart rate modulation by cardiorespiratory cross mutual information, respectively. The phase interdependencies between heart beat cycles and breathing cycles were assessed basing on the histograms of the frequency ratios of the instantaneous heart beat and respiratory cycles. Furthermore, the relative duration of phase synchronized intervals was acquired. We investigated 39 patients after acute myocardial infarction versus 24 controls. The discrimination of these groups was improved by cardiorespiratory cross mutual information measures and phase interdependencies measures in comparison to the linear standard HRV measures. This result was statistically confirmed by means of logistic regression models of particular variable subsets and their receiver operating characteristics.

  4. Nonlinear numerical analysis and experimental testing for an electrothermal SU-8 microgripper with reduced out-of-plane displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina; Zandi, Muaiyd Al; Müller, Raluca; Wang, Changhai

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of numerical nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical analysis and experimental testing of a polymeric microgripper designed using electrothermal actuators. The simulation work was carried out using a finite element method (FEM) and a commercial software (Coventorware 2014). The biocompatible SU-8 polymer was used as structural material for the fabrication of the microgripper. The metallic micro-heater was encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgripper to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the microgripper tips, and to electrically isolate the micro-heater, and to reduce the mechanical stress as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. The electro- thermo-mechanical analysis of the actuator considers the nonlinear temperature-dependent properties of the SU-8 polymer and the gold thin film layers used for the micro-heater fabrication. An optical characterisation of the microgripper based on an image tracking approach shows the thermal response and the good repeatability. The average deflection is ~11 µm for an actuation current of ~17 mA. The experimentally obtained tip deflection and the heater temperature at different currents are both shown to be in good agreement with the nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical simulation results. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the microgripper by capture and manipulation of cotton fibres.

  5. The Myosuit: Bi-articular Anti-gravity Exosuit That Reduces Hip Extensor Activity in Sitting Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kai; Duarte, Jaime E; Grimmer, Martin; Sancho-Puchades, Alejandro; Wei, Haiqi; Easthope, Chris S; Riener, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Muscle weakness-which can result from neurological injuries, genetic disorders, or typical aging-can affect a person's mobility and quality of life. For many people with muscle weakness, assistive devices provide the means to regain mobility and independence. These devices range from well-established technology, such as wheelchairs, to newer technologies, such as exoskeletons and exosuits. For assistive devices to be used in everyday life, they must provide assistance across activities of daily living (ADLs) in an unobtrusive manner. This article introduces the Myosuit, a soft, wearable device designed to provide continuous assistance at the hip and knee joint when working with and against gravity in ADLs. This robotic device combines active and passive elements with a closed-loop force controller designed to behave like an external muscle (exomuscle) and deliver gravity compensation to the user. At 4.1 kg (4.6 kg with batteries), the Myosuit is one of the lightest untethered devices capable of delivering gravity support to the user's knee and hip joints. This article presents the design and control principles of the Myosuit. It describes the textile interface, tendon actuators, and a bi-articular, synergy-based approach for continuous assistance. The assistive controller, based on bi-articular force assistance, was tested with a single subject who performed sitting transfers, one of the most gravity-intensive ADLs. The results show that the control concept can successfully identify changes in the posture and assist hip and knee extension with up to 26% of the natural knee moment and up to 35% of the knee power. We conclude that the Myosuit's novel approach to assistance using a bi-articular architecture, in combination with the posture-based force controller, can effectively assist its users in gravity-intensive ADLs, such as sitting transfers.

  6. The Myosuit: Bi-articular Anti-gravity Exosuit That Reduces Hip Extensor Activity in Sitting Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness—which can result from neurological injuries, genetic disorders, or typical aging—can affect a person's mobility and quality of life. For many people with muscle weakness, assistive devices provide the means to regain mobility and independence. These devices range from well-established technology, such as wheelchairs, to newer technologies, such as exoskeletons and exosuits. For assistive devices to be used in everyday life, they must provide assistance across activities of daily living (ADLs in an unobtrusive manner. This article introduces the Myosuit, a soft, wearable device designed to provide continuous assistance at the hip and knee joint when working with and against gravity in ADLs. This robotic device combines active and passive elements with a closed-loop force controller designed to behave like an external muscle (exomuscle and deliver gravity compensation to the user. At 4.1 kg (4.6 kg with batteries, the Myosuit is one of the lightest untethered devices capable of delivering gravity support to the user's knee and hip joints. This article presents the design and control principles of the Myosuit. It describes the textile interface, tendon actuators, and a bi-articular, synergy-based approach for continuous assistance. The assistive controller, based on bi-articular force assistance, was tested with a single subject who performed sitting transfers, one of the most gravity-intensive ADLs. The results show that the control concept can successfully identify changes in the posture and assist hip and knee extension with up to 26% of the natural knee moment and up to 35% of the knee power. We conclude that the Myosuit's novel approach to assistance using a bi-articular architecture, in combination with the posture-based force controller, can effectively assist its users in gravity-intensive ADLs, such as sitting transfers.

  7. Stochastic change detection in uncertain nonlinear systems using reduced-order models: classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Masri, Sami F

    2009-01-01

    A reliable structural health monitoring methodology (SHM) is proposed to detect relatively small changes in uncertain nonlinear systems. A total of 4000 physical tests were performed using a complex nonlinear magneto-rheological (MR) damper. With the effective (or 'genuine') changes and uncertainties in the system characteristics of the semi-active MR damper, which were precisely controlled with known means and standard deviation of the input current, the tested MR damper was identified with the restoring force method (RFM), a non-parametric system identification method involving two-dimensional orthogonal polynomials. Using the identified RFM coefficients, both supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition techniques (including support vector classification and k-means clustering) were employed to detect system changes in the MR damper. The classification results showed that the identified coefficients with orthogonal basis function can be used as reliable indicators for detecting (small) changes, interpreting the physical meaning of the detected changes without a priori knowledge of the monitored system and quantifying the uncertainty bounds of the detected changes. The classification errors were analyzed using the standard detection theory to evaluate the performance of the developed SHM methodology. An optimal classifier design procedure was also proposed and evaluated to minimize type II (or 'missed') errors

  8. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  9. Covalent functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with porphyrin by means of diazonium chemistry for nonlinear optical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijian; Yu, Wang; Huang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Feng; Song, Jingbao; Song, Yinglin; Long, Lingliang; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G.; Zhang, Long; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-porphyrin (TPP) nanohybrids (RGO-TPP 1 and RGO-TPP 2) were prepared by two synthetic routes that involve functionalization of the RGO using diazonium salts. The microscopic structures, morphology, photophysical properties and nonlinear optical performance of the resultant RGO-TPP nanohybrids were investigated. The covalent bonding of the porphyrin-functionalized-RGO nanohybrid materials was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Attachment of the porphyrin units to the surface of the RGO by diazotization significantly improves the solubility and ease of processing of these RGO-based nanohybrid materials. Ultraviolet/visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence studies indicate considerable π-π interactions and effective photo-induced electron and/or energy transfer between the porphyrin moieties and the extended π-system of RGO. The nonlinear optical properties of RGO-TPP 1 and RGO-TPP 2 were investigated by open-aperture Z-scan measurements at 532 nm with both 4 ns and 21 ps laser pulses, the results showing that the chemical nanohybrids exhibit improved nonlinear optical properties compared to those of the benchmark material C60, and the constituent RGO or porphyrins.

  10. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  11. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  12. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel, E-mail: ingcastro.7@gmail.com [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politecnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico); Martínez-Guerra, Rafael, E-mail: rguerra@ctrl.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Control Automático CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, D.F., México C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano, E-mail: juancrescenciano.cruz@uptlax.edu.mx [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  13. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system

  14. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe_2O_4 were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe_2O_4-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe_2O_4 decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe_2O_4. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10"−"1"0 m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp"3) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe_2O_4 along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable properties which are exceedingly required in both optoelectronics and photothermal therapy

  15. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C., E-mail: sabarigirisun@bdu.ac.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10{sup −10} m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp{sup 3}) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable

  16. Reducing NIR prediction errors with nonlinear methods and large populations of intact compound feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Ahumada, E; Gómez, A; Vallesquino, P; Guerrero, J E; Pérez-Marín, D; Garrido-Varo, A; Fearn, T

    2008-01-01

    According to the current demands of the authorities, the manufacturers and the consumers, controls and assessments of the feed compound manufacturing process have become a key concern. Among others, it must be assured that a given compound feed is well manufactured and labelled in terms of the ingredient composition. When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) together with linear models were used for the prediction of the ingredient composition, the results were not always acceptable. Therefore, the performance of nonlinear methods has been investigated. Artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) have been applied to a large (N = 20 320) and heterogeneous population of non-milled feed compounds for the NIR prediction of the inclusion percentage of wheat and sunflower meal, as representative of two different classes of ingredients. Compared to partial least squares regression, results showed considerable reductions of standard error of prediction values for both methods and ingredients: reductions of 45% with ANN and 49% with LS-SVM for wheat and reductions of 44% with ANN and 46% with LS-SVM for sunflower meal. These improvements together with the facility of NIRS technology to be implemented in the process make it ideal for meeting the requirements of the animal feed industry

  17. Seismic response of uplifting concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Sauve, G.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    The foundation interaction effects on the seismic response of dam-foundation systems have generally been studied using the linear elastic finite element models. In reality, the foundation can not develop effective tensile stresses to a significant degree along the interface. A two-dimensional finite element model, in which nonlinear gap elements are used at the dam-foundation interface to determine the uplift response of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic loads, is presented. Time domain analyses were performed for a wide range of modelling assumptions such as dam height, interface uplift pressure, interface mesh density, and earthquake input motions, that were systematically varied to find their influence on the seismic response. The nonlinear interface behavior generally reduces the seismic response of dam-foundation systems acting as a seismic isolation mechanism, and may increase the safety against sliding by reducing the base shear transmitted to the foundation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Solution of large nonlinear time-dependent problems using reduced coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mish, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    This research is concerned with the idea of reducing a large time-dependent problem, such as one obtained from a finite-element discretization, down to a more manageable size while preserving the most-important physical behavior of the solution. This reduction process is motivated by the concept of a projection operator on a Hilbert Space, and leads to the Lanczos Algorithm for generation of approximate eigenvectors of a large symmetric matrix. The Lanczos Algorithm is then used to develop a reduced form of the spatial component of a time-dependent problem. The solution of the remaining temporal part of the problem is considered from the standpoint of numerical-integration schemes in the time domain. All of these theoretical results are combined to motivate the proposed reduced coordinate algorithm. This algorithm is then developed, discussed, and compared to related methods from the mechanics literature. The proposed reduced coordinate method is then applied to the solution of some representative problems in mechanics. The results of these problems are discussed, conclusions are drawn, and suggestions are made for related future research

  19. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  20. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  1. z -Weyl gravity in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial, E-mail: dpproject@skku.edu, E-mail: ploh@skku.edu [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    We consider higher dimensional gravity in which the four dimensional spacetime and extra dimensions are not treated on an equal footing. The anisotropy is implemented in the ADM decomposition of higher dimensional metric by requiring the foliation preserving diffeomorphism invariance adapted to the extra dimensions, thus keeping the general covariance only for the four dimensional spacetime. The conformally invariant gravity can be constructed with an extra (Weyl) scalar field and a real parameter z which describes the degree of anisotropy of conformal transformation between the spacetime and extra dimensional metrics. In the zero mode effective 4D action, it reduces to four-dimensional scalar-tensor theory coupled with nonlinear sigma model described by extra dimensional metrics. There are no restrictions on the value of z at the classical level and possible applications to the cosmological constant problem with a specific choice of z are discussed.

  2. Stochastic parameterizing manifolds and non-Markovian reduced equations stochastic manifolds for nonlinear SPDEs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chekroun, Mickaël D; Wang, Shouhong

    2015-01-01

    In this second volume, a general approach is developed to provide approximate parameterizations of the "small" scales by the "large" ones for a broad class of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). This is accomplished via the concept of parameterizing manifolds (PMs), which are stochastic manifolds that improve, for a given realization of the noise, in mean square error the partial knowledge of the full SPDE solution when compared to its projection onto some resolved modes. Backward-forward systems are designed to give access to such PMs in practice. The key idea consists of representing the modes with high wave numbers as a pullback limit depending on the time-history of the modes with low wave numbers. Non-Markovian stochastic reduced systems are then derived based on such a PM approach. The reduced systems take the form of stochastic differential equations involving random coefficients that convey memory effects. The theory is illustrated on a stochastic Burgers-type equation.

  3. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  4. A reduced-order vortex model of three-dimensional unsteady non-linear aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid, large-amplitude maneuvers of low aspect ratio wings are inherent to biologically-inspired flight. These give rise to unsteady phenomena associated with the interactions among the coherent structures shed from wing edges. The objective of this work is to distill these phenomena into a low-order physics-based dynamical model. The model is based on interconnected vortex loops, composed of linear segments between a small number of vertices. Thus, the dynamics of the fluid are reduced to tracking the evolution of the vertices, whose motions are determined from the velocity field induced by the loops and wing motion. The feature that distinguishes this method from previous treatments is that the vortex loops, analogous to point vortices in our two-dimensional model, have time-varying strength. That is, the flux of vorticity from the wing is concentrated in the constituent segments. Chains of interconnected loops can be shed from any edge of the wing. The evolution equation for the loop vertices is based on the impulse matching principle developed in previous work. We demonstrate the model in various maneuvers, including impulse starts of low aspect ratio wings, oscillatory pitching, etc., and compare with experimental results and high-fidelity simulations where applicable. This work was supported by AFOSR under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.

  5. Black hole production in particle collisions and higher curvature gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of black hole production in trans-Planckian particle collisions is revisited, in the context of large extra dimensions scenarios of TeV-scale gravity. The validity of the standard description of this process (two colliding Aichelburg-Sexl shock waves in classical Einstein gravity) is questioned. It is observed that the classical spacetime has large curvature along the transverse collision plane, as signaled by the curvature invariant (R μνλσ ) 2 . Thus quantum gravity effects, and in particular higher curvature corrections to the Einstein gravity, cannot be ignored. To give a specific example of what may happen, the collision is reanalyzed in the Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock gravity theory, which modifies the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian by adding a particular 'Gauss-Bonnet' combination of curvature squared terms. The analysis uses a series of approximations, which reduce the field equations to a tractable second order nonlinear PDE of the Monge-Ampere type. It is found that the resulting spacetime is significantly different from the pure Einstein case in the future of the transverse collision plane. These considerations cast serious doubts on the geometric cross section estimate, which is based on the classical Einstein gravity description of the black hole production process

  6. Nonlinear Geometric Warping of the Mask Image: A New Method for Reducing Misregistration Artifacts in Digital Subtraction Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nobushige; Sakai, Toyohiko; Kitagawa, Manabu; Inagaki, Rika; Sadato, Norihiro; Ishii, Yasushi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masato; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Komuro, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Hisakazu; Kobayashi, Hidenori; Kubota, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Misregistration artifact is the major cause of image degradation in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly developed nonlinear geometric warping method to reduce misregistration artifact in DSA. Methods: The processing of the images was carried out on a workstation with a fully automatic computerized program. After making differential images with a lapracian filter, 49 regions of interest (ROIs) were set in the image to be processed. Each ROI of the live image scanned the corresponding ROI of the mask image searching for the best position to match itself. Each pixel of the mask image was shifted individually following the data calculated from the shifts of the ROIs. Five radiologists compared the images produced by the conventional parallel shift technique and those processed with this new method in 16 series of cerebral DSA. Results: In 14 of 16 series (88%), more radiologists judged the images processed with the new method to be better in quality. Small arteries near the skull base and veins of low density were clearly visualized in the images processed by the new method. Conclusion: This newly proposed method could be a simple and practical way to automatically reduce misregistration artifacts in DSA

  7. On the role of numerical simulations in studies of reduced gravity-induced physiological effects in humans. Results from NELME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numercial Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular archi-tecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electrical-like model of this control system, using inexpensive development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate long-term effects and gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairement which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. . Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying continuosly from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobic ex-ercise and thermal stress simulating an extra

  8. Reduced Order Extended Luenberger Observer Based Sensorless Vector Control Fed by Matrix Converter with Non-linearity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new sensorless vector control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with non-linearity compensation. The nonlinear voltage distortion that is caused by commutation delay and on-state voltage drop in switching device is corrected by a new...

  9. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  10. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  11. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  12. New insights on the matter-gravity coupling paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsate, Térence; Steinhoff, Jan

    2012-07-13

    The coupling between matter and gravity in general relativity is given by a proportionality relation between the stress tensor and the geometry. This is an oriented assumption driven by the fact that both the stress tensor and the Einstein tensor are divergenceless. However, general relativity is in essence a nonlinear theory, so there is no obvious reason why the coupling to matter should be linear. On another hand, modified theories of gravity usually affect the vacuum dynamics, yet keep the coupling to matter linear. In this Letter, we address the implications of consistent nonlinear gravity-matter coupling. The Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory recently introduced by Bañados and Ferreira provides an enlightening realization of such coupling modifications. We find that this theory coupled to a perfect fluid reduces to general relativity coupled to a nonlinearly modified perfect fluid, leading to an ambiguity between modified coupling and modified equation of state. We discuss observational consequences of this degeneracy and argue that such a completion of general relativity is viable from both an experimental and theoretical point of view through energy conditions, consistency, and singularity-avoidance perspectives. We use these results to discuss the impact of changing the coupling paradigm.

  13. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  14. Comments about the use of a Zig-Zag transformer to reduce the neutral current created by unbalanced nonlinear loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, L.; Hance, R.; Kristalinski, A.; Visser, A.

    1993-09-01

    The subject of AC line currents with high harmonic content and the potential for overloaded neutral wires caused by the non-linear loading of electronic power supplies has become one of the most popular and at the same time a very complex topic among electrical engineers. Different solutions are offered for this problem. Some examples are specially designed K-rated AC distribution transformers, delta connected primary windings, and L-C tuned filters. All of the above methods have some limitations. For instance, a K-rated transformer does not eliminate harmonics, but transmits them into the feeder. Neutral currents that flow from various loads to the K-rated transformer are still very high. These K-rated transformers are more expensive and are larger in physical size than conventional transformers. The delta connected primary of a power distribution transformer can only eliminate triplen harmonics for balanced loads. Neutral currents caused by the loads are not eliminated. The primary side circuit breaker may also not protect a transformer against overcurrents because the circuit breaker will not see the triplen harmonic current that is circulating in the primary of the transformer. L-C filters can create undesirable resonances, which will lead to an increase in harmonic currents. Another solution is to use a number of small Zig-Zag transformers to reduce the neutral current. This is attractive for the following reasons: relatively low cost, simplicity, ease of installation on existing distribution systems, ability to keep neutral currents local thus eliminating the need for larger neutral wires, and the ability to improve the fundamental load current balance as well

  15. The relativistic gravity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max

    2018-05-01

    The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.

  16. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  17. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  18. Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...

  19. Radion and holographic brane gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The low energy effective theory for the Randall-Sundrum two-brane system is investigated with an emphasis on the role of the nonlinear radion in the brane world. The equations of motion in the bulk are solved using a low energy expansion method. This allows us, through the junction conditions, to deduce the effective equations of motion for gravity on the brane. It is shown that the gravity on the brane world is described by a quasi-scalar-tensor theory with a specific coupling function ω(Ψ)=3Ψ/2(1-Ψ) on the positive tension brane and ω(Φ)=-3Φ/2(1+Φ) on the negative tension brane, where Ψ and Φ are nonlinear realizations of the radion on the positive and negative tension branes, respectively. In contrast with the usual scalar-tensor gravity, the quasi-scalar-tensor gravity couples with two kinds of matter; namely, the matter on both positive and negative tension branes, with different effective gravitational coupling constants. In particular, the radion disguised as the scalar fields Ψ and Φ couples with the sum of the traces of the energy-momentum tensor on both branes. In the course of the derivation, it is revealed that the radion plays an essential role in converting the nonlocal Einstein gravity with generalized dark radiation to local quasi-scalar-tensor gravity. For completeness, we also derive the effective action for our theory by substituting the bulk solution into the original action. It is also shown that quasi-scalar-tensor gravity works as a hologram at low energy in the sense that the bulk geometry can be reconstructed from the solution of quasi-scalar-tensor gravity

  20. On inappropriately used neuronal circuits as a possible basis of the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour of fish under reduced gravity: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    One hypothesis for the explanation of the so-called ``loop-swimming'' behaviour in fish when being subjected to reduced gravity assumes that the activities of the differently weighted otoliths of the two labyrinths are well compensated on ground but that a functional asymmetry is induced in weightlessness, resulting in a tonus asymmetry of the body and by this generating the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour. The basis of this abnormal behaviour has to be searched for in the central nervous system (cns), where the signal-transduction from the inner ear- related signal internalisation to the signal response takes place. Circuits within the CNS of fish, that could possibly generate the ``loop-swimming'', might be as follows: An asymmetric activation of vestibulospinal circuits would directly result in a tonus asymmetry of the body. An asymmetric activation of the oculomotor nucleus would generate an asymmetrical rotation of the eyes. This would cause in its turn asymmetric images on the two retinas, which were forwarded to the diencephalic accessory optic system (AOS). It is the task of the AOS to stabilize retinal images, thereby involving the cerebellum, which is the main integration center for sensory and motor modalities. With this, the cerebellar output would generate a tonus asymmetry of the body in order to make the body of the fish follow its eyes. Such movements (especially when assuming an open loop control) would end up in the aforementioned ``loop-swimming'' behaviour.

  1. Exact Solutions in Three-Dimensional Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Alberto A.

    2017-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Point particles; 3. Dust solutions; 4. AdS cyclic symmetric stationary solutions; 5. Perfect fluid static stars; 6. Static perfect fluid stars with Λ; 7. Hydrodynamic equilibrium; 8. Stationary perfect fluid with Λ; 9. Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies; 10. Dilaton-inflaton FRW cosmologies; 11. Einstein–Maxwell solutions; 12. Nonlinear electrodynamics black hole; 13. Dilaton minimally coupled to gravity; 14. Dilaton non-minimally coupled to gravity; 15. Low energy 2+1 string gravity; 16. Topologically massive gravity; 17. Bianchi type spacetimes in TMG; 18. Petrov type N wave metrics; 19. Kundt spacetimes in TMG; 20. Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes; References; Index.

  2. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila, E-mail: oindrila@civil.iisc.ernet.in; Manohar, C.S., E-mail: manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations. - Highlights: • The distance minimizing control forces minimize a bound on the sampling variance. • Establishing Girsanov controls via solution of a two-point boundary value problem. • Girsanov controls via Volterra's series representation for the transfer functions.

  3. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  4. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  5. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Brie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading

  6. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  7. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  8. Equivalent model construction for a non-linear dynamic system based on an element-wise stiffness evaluation procedure and reduced analysis of the equivalent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euiyoung; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-11-01

    In most non-linear analyses, the construction of a system matrix uses a large amount of computation time, comparable to the computation time required by the solving process. If the process for computing non-linear internal force matrices is substituted with an effective equivalent model that enables the bypass of numerical integrations and assembly processes used in matrix construction, efficiency can be greatly enhanced. A stiffness evaluation procedure (STEP) establishes non-linear internal force models using polynomial formulations of displacements. To efficiently identify an equivalent model, the method has evolved such that it is based on a reduced-order system. The reduction process, however, makes the equivalent model difficult to parameterize, which significantly affects the efficiency of the optimization process. In this paper, therefore, a new STEP, E-STEP, is proposed. Based on the element-wise nature of the finite element model, the stiffness evaluation is carried out element-by-element in the full domain. Since the unit of computation for the stiffness evaluation is restricted by element size, and since the computation is independent, the equivalent model can be constructed efficiently in parallel, even in the full domain. Due to the element-wise nature of the construction procedure, the equivalent E-STEP model is easily characterized by design parameters. Various reduced-order modeling techniques can be applied to the equivalent system in a manner similar to how they are applied in the original system. The reduced-order model based on E-STEP is successfully demonstrated for the dynamic analyses of non-linear structural finite element systems under varying design parameters.

  9. Euler–Chern–Simons gravity from Lovelock–Born–Infeld gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Izaurieta, F.; Rodriguez, E.; Salgado, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of a gauge theoretical formulation, higher dimensional gravity invariant under the AdS group is dimensionally reduced to Euler-Chern-Simons gravity. The dimensional reduction procedure of Grignani-Nardelli [Phys. Lett. B 300, 38 (1993)] is generalized so as to permit reducing D-dimensional Lanczos Lovelock gravity to d=D-1 dimensions.

  10. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  11. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  12. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An improved gravity compensation method for high-precision free-INS based on MEC–BP–AdaBoost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid improvement of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), gravity compensation has become more important for improving navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper proposes a mind evolutionary computation (MEC) back propagation (BP) AdaBoost algorithm neural-network-based gravity compensation method that estimates the gravity disturbance on the track based on measured gravity data. A MEC–BP–AdaBoost network-based gravity compensation algorithm used in the training process to establish the prediction model takes the carrier position (longitude and latitude) provided by INS as the input data and the gravity disturbance as the output data, and then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the INS’s error equations to restrain the position error propagation. The MEC–BP–AdaBoost algorithm can not only effectively avoid BP neural networks being trapped in local extrema, but also perfectly solve the nonlinearity between the input and output data that cannot be solved by traditional interpolation methods, such as least-square collocation (LSC) interpolation. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed interpolation method are verified through numerical tests. A comparison of several other compensation methods applied in field experiments, including LSC interpolation and traditional BP interpolation, highlights the superior performance of the proposed method. The field experiment results show that the maximum value of the position error can reduce by 28% with the proposed gravity compensation method. (paper)

  14. White light Z-scan measurements of ultrafast optical nonlinearity in reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in the 400–700 nm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumbilavil, Sreekanth; Sankar, Pranitha; Priya Rose, T.; Philip, Reji

    2015-01-01

    Wavelength dispersion of optical power limiting is an important factor to be considered while designing potential optical limiters for laser safety applications. We report the observation of broadband, ultrafast optical limiting in reduced graphene oxide (rGO), measured by a single open aperture Z-scan using a white light continuum (WLC) source. WLC Z-scan is fast when the nonlinearity is to be measured over broad wavelength ranges, and it obviates the need for an ultrafast tunable laser making it cost-economic compared to conventional Z-scan. The nonlinearity arises from nondegenerate two-photon absorption, owing mostly to the crystallinity and extended π conjugation of rGO

  15. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  16. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  17. Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property also controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.

  18. Minimal theory of massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than) −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.

  19. Minimal theory of massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Felice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.

  20. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  1. Classical gravity with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelle, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inclusion of the four-derivative terms ∫Rsub(μν) Rsup(μν)(-g)sup(1/2) and ∫R 2 (-g)sup(1/2) into the gravitational action gives a class of effectively multimass models of gravity. In addition to the usual massless excitations of the field, there are now, for general amounts of the two new terms, massive spin-two and massive scalar excitations, with a total of eight degrees of freedom. The massive spin-two part of the field has negative energy. Specific ration of the two new terms give models with either the massive tensor or the massive scalar missing, with correspondingly fewer degrees of freedom. The static, linearized solutions of the field equations are combinations of Newtonian and Yukawa potentials. Owing to the Yukawa form of the corrections, observational evidence sets only very weak restrictions on the new masses. The acceptable static metric solutions in the full nonlinear theory are regular at the origin. The dynamical content of the linearized field is analyzed by reducing the fourth-order field equations to separated second-order equations, related by coupling to external sources in a fixed ratio. This analysis is carried out into the various helicity components using the transverse-traceless decomposition of the metric. (author)

  2. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  4. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M.; Bertoldi, A.; Bodart, Q.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Angelis, M. de; Prevedelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.

  6. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tsvelodub, O

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. Weakly nonlinear steady-state traveling solutions of the equation with wave numbers in a vicinity of neutral wave numbers are constructed analytically. The nature of the wave branching from the undisturbed solution is investigated. Steady-state traveling solutions, whose wave numbers within the instability area are far from neutral wave numbers, are found numerically. (paper)

  7. Large-distance and long-time asymptotic behavior of the reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2010-12-15

    Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear Parameter-Varying AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Aerostructural Sensing and Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate parameter-varying (PV), aeroservoelastic (ASE)...

  9. Stochastic quantization and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)

  10. Noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)

  11. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  13. Topological gravity from a transgression gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.; Valdivia, O.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a topological action for gravity in even dimensions can be obtained from a gravity theory whose Lagrangian is given by a transgression form invariant under the Poincare group. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  14. Southern Africa Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...

  15. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  16. Statistical mechanics, gravity, and Euclidean theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursaev, Dmitri V.

    2002-01-01

    A review of computations of free energy for Gibbs states on stationary but not static gravitational and gauge backgrounds is given. On these backgrounds wave equations for free fields are reduced to eigenvalue problems which depend non-linearly on the spectral parameter. We present a method to deal with such problems. In particular, we demonstrate how some results of the spectral theory of second-order elliptic operators, such as heat kernel asymptotics, can be extended to a class of non-linear spectral problems. The method is used to trace down the relation between the canonical definition of the free energy based on summation over the modes and the covariant definition given in Euclidean quantum gravity. As an application, high-temperature asymptotics of the free energy and of the thermal part of the stress-energy tensor in the presence of rotation are derived. We also discuss statistical mechanics in the presence of Killing horizons where canonical and Euclidean theories are related in a non-trivial way

  17. Emergent universe with wormholes in massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B. C.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    An emergent universe (EU) scenario is proposed to obtain a universe free from big-bang singularity. In this framework the present universe emerged from a static Einstein universe phase in the infinite past. A flat EU scenario is found to exist in Einstein’s gravity with a non-linear equation of state (EoS). It has been shown subsequently that a physically realistic EU model can be obtained considering cosmic fluid composed of interacting fluids with a non-linear equation of state. It results a viable cosmological model accommodating both early inflation and present accelerating phases. In the present paper, the origin of an initial static Einstein universe needed in the EU model is explored in a massive gravity theory which subsequently emerged to be a dynamically evolving universe. A new gravitational instanton solution in a flat universe is obtained in the massive gravity theory which is a dynamical wormhole that might play an important role in realizing the origin of the initial state of the emergent universe. The emergence of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean gravity is understood by a Wick rotation τ = i t . A universe with radiation at the beginning finally transits into the present observed universe with a non-linear EoS as the interactions among the fluids set in. Thus a viable flat EU scenario where the universe stretches back into time infinitely, with no big bang is permitted in a massive gravity.

  18. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  19. Towards the map of quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we point out some possible links between different approaches to quantum gravity and theories of the Planck scale physics. In particular, connections between loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulations, Hořava-Lifshitz gravity, asymptotic safety scenario, Quantum Graphity, deformations of relativistic symmetries and nonlinear phase space models are discussed. The main focus is on quantum deformations of the Hypersurface Deformations Algebra and Poincaré algebra, nonlinear structure of phase space, the running dimension of spacetime and nontrivial phase diagram of quantum gravity. We present an attempt to arrange the observed relations in the form of a graph, highlighting different aspects of quantum gravity. The analysis is performed in the spirit of a mind map, which represents the architectural approach to the studied theory, being a natural way to describe the properties of a complex system. We hope that the constructed graphs (maps) will turn out to be helpful in uncovering the global picture of quantum gravity as a particular complex system and serve as a useful guide for the researchers.

  20. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvelodub, O. Yu; Bocharov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. The paper studies nonlinear waves on a liquid film, flowing under the action of gravity in a known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. The periodic and soliton steady-state traveling solutions of this equation have been numerically found. The analysis of branching of new families of steady-state traveling solutions has been performed. In particular, it is shown that this model equation has solutions in the form of solitons-humps.

  1. Lunar Gravity-Assist Maneuver As a Way of Reducing the Orbit Amplitude in the Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, I. D.; Eismont, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) is a space observatory designed to observe astrophysical objects in the X-ray range of the electromagnetic spectrum. SRG is planned to be launched in 2019 by a Proton-M launch vehicle with a DM3 upper stage. The spacecraft will be delivered to an orbit around the Sun-Earth collinear libration point L2 located at a distance of 1.5 million km from the Earth. Although the SRG launch scheme has already been determined at present, in this paper we consider an alternative spacecraft transfer scenario using a lunar gravity-assist maneuver. The proposed scenario allows a oneimpulse transfer from a low Earth orbit to a small-amplitude orbit around the libration point to be performed while fulfilling the technical constraints and the scientific requirements of the mission.

  2. BRS invariant stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-11-01

    We study stochastic quantization of gravity in terms of a BRS invariant canonical operator formalism. By introducing artificially canonical momentum variables for the original field variables, a canonical formulation of stochastic quantization is proposed in the sense that the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian is the generator of the fictitious time translation. Then we show that there exists a nilpotent BRS symmetry in an enlarged phase space of the first-class constrained systems. The phase space is spanned by the dynamical variables, their canonical conjugate momentum variables, Faddeev-Popov ghost and anti-ghost. We apply the general BRS invariant formulation to stochastic quantization of gravity which is described as a second-class constrained system in terms of a pair of Langevin equations coupled with white noises. It is shown that the stochastic action of gravity includes explicitly the De Witt's type superspace metric which leads to a geometrical interpretation of quantum gravity analogous to nonlinear σ-models. (author)

  3. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  4. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  5. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, B. S.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, A.; Singh, B. K.; Kiran, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  6. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadauria B.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  7. Turning on gravity with the Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how a Higgs mechanism could be responsible for the emergence of gravity in extensions of Einstein theory, with a suitable low energy limit. In this scenario, at high energies, symmetry restoration could ‘turn off’ gravity, with dramatic implications for cosmology and quantum gravity. The sense in which gravity is muted depends on the details of the implementation. In the most extreme case gravity’s dynamical degrees of freedom would only be unleashed after the Higgs field acquires a non-trivial vacuum expectation value, with gravity reduced to a topological field theory in the symmetric phase. We might also identify the Higgs and the Brans–Dicke fields in such a way that in the unbroken phase Newton’s constant vanishes, decoupling matter and gravity. We discuss the broad implications of these scenarios. (letter)

  8. Tests of chameleon gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade classical fifth-force searches, and there has been an intense effort towards designing new and novel tests to probe them, both in the laboratory and using astrophysical objects, and by reinterpreting existing datasets. The results of these searches are often presented using different parametrizations, which can make it difficult to compare constraints coming from different probes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present state-of-the-art searches for screened scalars coupled to matter, and to translate the current bounds into a single parametrization to survey the state of the models. Presently, commonly studied chameleon models are well-constrained but less commonly studied models have large regions of parameter space that are still viable. Symmetron models are constrained well by astrophysical and laboratory tests, but there is a desert separating the two scales where the model is unconstrained. The coupling of chameleons to photons is tightly constrained but the symmetron coupling has yet to be explored. We also summarize the current bounds on f( R) models that exhibit the chameleon mechanism (Hu and Sawicki models). The simplest of these are well constrained by astrophysical probes, but there are currently few reported bounds for theories with higher powers of R. The review ends by discussing the future prospects for constraining screened modified gravity models further using upcoming and planned experiments.

  9. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  10. a Perturbation Approach to Translational Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julve, J.; Tiemblo, A.

    2013-05-01

    Within a gauge formulation of 3+1 gravity relying on a nonlinear realization of the group of isometries of space-time, a natural expansion of the metric tensor arises and a simple choice of the gravity dynamical variables is possible. We show that the expansion parameter can be identified with the gravitational constant and that the first-order depends only on a diagonal matrix in the ensuing perturbation approach. The explicit first-order solution is calculated in the static isotropic case, and its general structure is worked out in the harmonic gauge.

  11. Galaxy clustering in 3D and modified gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, D.; Pratten, G.; Valageas, P.; Coles, P.; Brax, P.

    2016-02-01

    We study Modified Gravity (MG) theories by modelling the redshifted matter power spectrum in a spherical Fourier-Bessel basis. We use a fully non-linear description of the real-space matter power spectrum and include the lowest order redshift-space correction (Kaiser effect), taking into account some additional non-linear contributions. Ignoring relativistic corrections, which are not expected to play an important role for a shallow survey, we analyse two different MG scenarios, namely the generalized Dilaton scalar-tensor theories and the f (R) models in the large curvature regime. We compute the 3D power spectrum C^s_{ℓ}(k_1,k_2) for various such MG theories with and without redshift-space distortions, assuming precise knowledge of background cosmological parameters. Using an all-sky spectroscopic survey with Gaussian selection function \\varphi (r)∝ exp (-{r^2/r^2_0}), r_0=150h^{-1} Mpc, and number density of galaxies bar{N} =10^{-4}Mpc^{-3}, we use a χ2 analysis, and find that the lower order (ℓ ≤ 25) multipoles of C^s_ℓ (k,k^' }) (with radial modes restricted to k 25 modes can further reduce the error bars and thus in principle make cosmological gravity constraints competitive with Solar system tests. However this will require an accurate modelling of non-linear redshift-space distortions. Using a tomographic β(a)-m(a) parametrization we also derive constraints on specific parameters describing the Dilaton models of MG.

  12. Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci–Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. -- Highlights: •The perturbative quantum gravity is treated as gauge theory. •BRST and anti-BRST transformations are developed in linear and non-linear gauges. •BRST transformation is generalized by making it finite and field dependent. •Connection between linear and non-linear gauges is established. •Using BV formulation the results are established at quantum level also

  13. A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1976-12-01

    We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics

  14. Three-Dimensional Coupled NLS Equations for Envelope Gravity Solitary Waves in Baroclinic Atmosphere and Modulational Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.

  15. Quantum W3 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1991-11-01

    We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  17. Cadiz, California Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...

  18. Andes 1997 Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...

  19. DNAG Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...

  20. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  1. Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...

  2. Idaho State Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  3. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  4. Rotating Dilaton Black Strings Coupled to Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black string solutions coupled to dilaton and exponential nonlinear electrodynamic fields with cylindrical or toroidal horizons in the presence of a Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field. Due to the presence of the dilaton field, the asymptotic behaviors of these solutions are neither flat nor (AdS. We analyze the physical properties of the solutions in detail. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions and verify the first law of thermodynamics on the black string horizon. When the nonlinear parameter β2 goes to infinity, our results reduce to those of black string solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity.

  5. Strings and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)

  6. Elliptic solutions of generalized Brans-Dicke gravity with a non-universal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimi, J.M.; Reverdy, V. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Golubtsova, A.A. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    We study a model of the generalized Brans-Dicke gravity presented in both the Jordan and in the Einstein frames, which are conformally related. We show that the scalar field equations in the Einstein frame are reduced to the geodesics equations on the target space of the nonlinear sigma model. The analytical solutions in elliptical functions are obtained when the conformal couplings are given by reciprocal exponential functions. The behavior of the scale factor in the Jordan frame is studied using numerical computations. For certain parameters the solutions can describe an accelerated expansion. We also derive an analytical approximation in exponential functions. (orig.)

  7. Gravitational waves from quasicircular black-hole binaries in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-12-21

    Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity cannot be strongly constrained with current experiments because it reduces to general relativity in the weak-field limit. This theory, however, introduces modifications in the nonlinear, dynamical regime, and thus it could be greatly constrained with gravitational waves from the late inspiral of black-hole binaries. We complete the first self-consistent calculation of such gravitational waves in this theory. For favorable spin orientations, advanced ground-based detectors may improve existing solar system constraints by 6 orders of magnitude.

  8. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  9. Covariant w∞ gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.

  10. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  11. Quantum Gravity Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"

  12. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  13. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  14. Nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic nonlinear stability analysis using a novel BWR reduced order model. Pt. 1. The effects of using drift flux versus homogeneous equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokhane, A.; Henning, D.; Chawla, R.; Rizwan-Uddin

    2003-01-01

    BWR stability analysis at PSI, as at other research centres, is usually carried out employing complex system codes. However, these do not allow a detailed investigation of the complete manifold of all possible solutions of the associated nonlinear differential equation set. A novel analytical, reduced order model for BWR stability has been developed at PSI, in several successive steps. In the first step, the thermal-hydraulic model was used for studying the thermal-hydraulic instabilities. A study was then conducted of the one-channel nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic dynamics in a BWR by adding a simple point kinetic model for neutron kinetics and a model for the fuel heat conduction dynamics. In this paper, a two-channel nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic model is introduced to simulate the out-of phase oscillations in a BWR. This model comprises three parts: spatial mode neutron kinetics with the fundamental and fist azimuthal modes; fuel heat conduction dynamics; and thermal-hydraulics model. This present model is an extension of the Karve et al. model i.e., a drift flux model is used instead of the homogeneous equilibrium model for two-phase flow, and lambda modes are used instead of the omega modes for the neutron kinetics. This two-channel model is employed in stability and bifurcation analyses, carried out using the bifurcation code BIFDD. The stability boundary (SB) and the nature of the Poincare-Andronov-Hopf bifurcation (PAF-B) are determined and visualized in a suitable two-dimensional parameter/state space. A comparative study of the homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) and the drift flux model (DFM) is carried out to investigate the effects of the DFM parameters the void distribution parameter C 0 and the drift velocity V gi -on the SB, the nature of PAH bifurcation, and on the type of oscillation mode (in-phase or out-of-phase). (author)

  15. Acceleration from Modified Gravity: Lessons from Worked Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    I examine how two specific examples of modified gravity explanations of cosmic acceleration help us understand some general problems confronting cosmological tests of gravity: how do we distinguish modified gravity from dark energy if they can be made formally equivalent? how do we parameterize deviations according to physical principles with sufficient generality, yet focus cosmological tests into areas that complement our existing knowledge of gravity? how do we treat the dynamics of modifications which necessarily involve non-linearities that preclude superposition of forces? The modified action f(R) and DGP braneworld models provide insight on these question as fully-worked examples whose expansion history, linear perturbation theory, and most recently, non-linear N-body and force-modification field dynamics of cosmological simulations are available for study.

  16. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  17. Lectures on W algebras and W gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    We give a review of the extended conformal algebras, known as W algebras, which contain currents of spins higher than 2 in addition to the energy-momentum tensor. These include the non-linear W N algebras; the linear W ∞ and W 1+∞ algebras; and their super-extensions. We discuss their applications to the construction of W-gravity and W-string theories. (author). 46 refs

  18. Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action

  19. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  20. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  1. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  2. Lower dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant

  3. Gravity interpretation via EULDPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, V.

    2003-01-01

    Euler's homogeneity equation for determining the coordinates of the source body especially to estimate the depth (EULDPH) is discussed at this paper. This method is applied to synthetic and high-resolution real data such as gradiometric or microgravity data. Low-quality gravity data especially in the areas with a complex geology structure has rarely been used. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are computed from absolute gravity data after the required corrections. Bouguer anomaly is transferred to residual gravity anomaly. The gravity gradients are estimated from residual anomaly values. Bouguer anomaly is the gravity gradients, using EULDPH. The coordinates of the perturbing body will be determined. Two field examples one in the east of Tehran (Mard Abad) where we would like to determine the location of the anomaly (hydrocarbon) and another in the south-east of Iran close to the border with Afghanistan (Nosrat Abad) where we are exploring chromite are presented

  4. Anomalies and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed

  5. influence of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Mukherjee

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.

  6. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  7. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  9. Two-dimensional coherence analysis of magnetic and gravity data from the Casper Quadrangle, Wyoming. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Volume II contains the following: gravity station location map; complete Bouguer gravity map; total magnetic map; gravity data copper area detrended continued 1 km; magnetic data Casper Wyoming continued 1 km; upward continued coherent gravity maps; magnetic field reduced to the pole/pseudo gravity map; geology map-Casper Quadrangle; magnetic interpretation map-Casper Quadrangle; gravity interpretation map; magnetic interpretation cross section; magnetic profiles; flight line map and uranium occurrences

  10. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  11. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  12. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  13. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  14. Reduced Gravity Landing Research Vehicle Design

    OpenAIRE

    Isert, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Human and robotic missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) are key components of NASA's currently emerging strategy for space exploration. These missions will inevitably include humancrewed lunar and planetary surface landings. Trips to near-earth asteroids are also in the incipient planning stages. A permanent presence on the surface of an extra terrestrial body like Mars or the Moon will require many landings by both human-crewed and robotic spacecraft. Planetary and lunar surface landings ...

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  16. Gsolve, a Python computer program with a graphical user interface to transform relative gravity survey measurements to absolute gravity values and gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbine, Jack; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Stagpoole, Vaughan; Smith, Euan; O'Brien, Grant

    2018-01-01

    A Python program (Gsolve) with a graphical user interface has been developed to assist with routine data processing of relative gravity measurements. Gsolve calculates the gravity at each measurement site of a relative gravity survey, which is referenced to at least one known gravity value. The tidal effects of the sun and moon, gravimeter drift and tares in the data are all accounted for during the processing of the survey measurements. The calculation is based on a least squares formulation where the difference between the absolute gravity at each surveyed location and parameters relating to the dynamics of the gravimeter are minimized with respect to the relative gravity observations, and some supplied gravity reference site values. The program additionally allows the user to compute free air gravity anomalies, with respect to the GRS80 and GRS67 reference ellipsoids, from the determined gravity values and calculate terrain corrections at each of the surveyed sites using a prism formula and a user supplied digital elevation model. This paper reviews the mathematical framework used to reduce relative gravimeter survey observations to gravity values. It then goes on to detail how the processing steps can be implemented using the software.

  17. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  18. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  19. Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge, E-mail: ryanm@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: jorpega@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.

  20. Human manual control performance in hyper-gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Merfeld, Daniel M; Oman, Charles M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-05-01

    Hyper-gravity provides a unique environment to study how misperceptions impact control of orientation relative to gravity. Previous studies have found that static and dynamic roll tilts are perceptually overestimated in hyper-gravity. The current investigation quantifies how this influences control of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study manual control performance in hyper-gravity. In the dark, subjects were tasked with nulling out a pseudo-random roll disturbance on the cab of the centrifuge using a rotational hand controller to command their roll rate in order to remain perceptually upright. The task was performed in 1, 1.5, and 2 G's of net gravito-inertial acceleration. Initial performance, in terms of root-mean-square deviation from upright, degraded in hyper-gravity relative to 1 G performance levels. In 1.5 G, initial performance degraded by 26 % and in 2 G, by 45 %. With practice, however, performance in hyper-gravity improved to near the 1 G performance level over several minutes. Finally, pre-exposure to one hyper-gravity level reduced initial performance decrements in a different, novel, hyper-gravity level. Perceptual overestimation of roll tilts in hyper-gravity leads to manual control performance errors, which are reduced both with practice and with pre-exposure to alternate hyper-gravity stimuli.

  1. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related

  2. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  3. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, seismic fracture behavior of the concrete gravity dam using finite element (2D) theory has been studied. Bazant model which is non-linear fracture mechanics criteria as a measure of growth and smeared crack was chosen to develop profiles of the crack. Behavior of stress - strain curves of concrete as a ...

  4. f(R) gravity: scalar perturbations in the late Universe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eingorn, M.; Novák, Jan; Zhuk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 8 (2014), s. 3005 ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlinear f(R) gravity * scalar cosmological perturbations * scalaron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjc/s10052-014-3005-1

  5. whistler oscillitons and capillary-gravity generalized solitons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonlinear stationary waveforms in two completely different systems, namely, electromagnetic-fluid waves in a magnetic plasma and capillary-gravity water waves, are compared and contrasted. These systems display common features and are amenable to a Hamiltonian description. More importantly, however, is the fact ...

  6. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  7. A gauge-theoretic approach to gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2012-08-08

    Einstein's general relativity (GR) is a dynamical theory of the space-time metric. We describe an approach in which GR becomes an SU(2) gauge theory. We start at the linearized level and show how a gauge-theoretic Lagrangian for non-interacting massless spin two particles (gravitons) takes a much more simple and compact form than in the standard metric description. Moreover, in contrast to the GR situation, the gauge theory Lagrangian is convex. We then proceed with a formulation of the full nonlinear theory. The equivalence to the metric-based GR holds only at the level of solutions of the field equations, that is, on-shell. The gauge-theoretic approach also makes it clear that GR is not the only interacting theory of massless spin two particles, in spite of the GR uniqueness theorems available in the metric description. Thus, there is an infinite-parameter class of gravity theories all describing just two propagating polarizations of the graviton. We describe how matter can be coupled to gravity in this formulation and, in particular, how both the gravity and Yang-Mills arise as sectors of a general diffeomorphism-invariant gauge theory. We finish by outlining a possible scenario of the ultraviolet completion of quantum gravity within this approach.

  8. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  9. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  10. Lattice gravity and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.

    1985-01-01

    We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)

  11. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  12. Scaling in quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ambjørn

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.

  13. The affine quantum gravity programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, John R

    2002-01-01

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix { g-hat ab (x)} composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that still retain some basic characteristics of gravity, specifically a partial second-class constraint operator structure. Although perturbatively nonrenormalizable, gravity may possibly be understood nonperturbatively from a hard-core perspective that has proved valuable for specialized models. Finally, developing a procedure to pass to the genuine physical Hilbert space involves several interconnected steps that require careful coordination

  14. New 'phase' of quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-12-15

    The emergence of loop quantum gravity over the past two decades has stimulated a great resurgence of interest in unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics. Among a number of appealing features of this approach is the intuitive picture of quantum geometry using spin networks and powerful mathematical tools from gauge field theory. However, the present form of loop quantum gravity suffers from a quantum ambiguity, owing to the presence of a free (Barbero-Immirzi) parameter. Following the recent progress on conformal decomposition of gravitational fields, we present a new phase space for general relativity. In addition to spin-gauge symmetry, the new phase space also incorporates conformal symmetry making the description parameter free. The Barbero-Immirzi ambiguity is shown to occur only if the conformal symmetry is gauge fixed prior to quantization. By withholding its full symmetries, the new phase space offers a promising platform for the future development of loop quantum gravity. This paper aims to provide an exposition, at a reduced technical level, of the above theoretical advances and their background developments. Further details are referred to cited references.

  15. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhorn, Martin B. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall,University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Jones, D.R. Timothy [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall,University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Peach Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-31

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass){sup 2} from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  16. The physics of orographic gravity wave drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A C Teixeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.

  17. Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region

  18. Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chalikov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.

  19. Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2005-06-01

    A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.

  20. Nonlinear effects in water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1989-05-01

    This set of lecture notes on nonlinear effects in water waves was written on the occasion of the first ICTP course on Ocean Waves and Tides held from 26 September until 28 October 1988 in Trieste, Italy. It presents a summary and unification of my knowledge on nonlinear effects of gravity waves on an incompressible fluid without vorticity. The starting point of the theory is the Hamiltonian for water waves. The evolution equations of both weakly nonlinear, shallow water and deep water gravity waves are derived by suitable approximation of the energy of the waves, resulting in the Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Zakharov equation, respectively. Next, interesting properties of the KdV equation (solitons) and the Zakharov equation (instability of a finite amplitude wave train) are discussed in some detail. Finally, the evolution of a homogeneous, random wave field due to resonant four wave processes is considered and the importance of this process for ocean wave prediction is pointed out. 38 refs, 21 figs

  1. Asymptotic expansion of unsteady gravity flow of a power-law fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a paper on the asymptotic expansion of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The asymptotic expansion is employed to obtain solution of the nonlinear problem. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the ...

  2. Existence of relativistic stars in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, Amol; Hu, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    We refute recent claims in the literature that stars with relativistically deep potentials cannot exist in f(R) gravity. Numerical examples of stable stars, including relativistic (GM * /r * ∼0.1), constant density stars, are studied. As a star is made larger, nonlinear 'chameleon' effects screen much of the star's mass, stabilizing gravity at the stellar center. Furthermore, we show that the onset of this chameleon screening is unrelated to strong gravity. At large central pressures P>ρ/3, f(R) gravity, like general relativity, does have a maximum gravitational potential, but at a slightly smaller value: GM * /r * | max =0.345<4/9 for constant density and one choice of parameters. This difference is associated with negative central curvature R under general relativity not being accessed in the f(R) model, but does not apply to any known astrophysical object.

  3. Quantum dilaton gravity in two dimensions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumiller, D.M.L.

    2001-05-01

    One of the main goals of 20 th century physics was the quantization of gravity. Despite of 70 years of research a comprehensive theory fulfilling this task could not be obtained. There are various explanations for this failure: gravity is a non-linear theory and as opposed to other field theories which are defined on a fixed background manifold, geometry becomes dynamical in general relativity. It is perturbatively non-renormalizable in contrast to the Standard Model of particle physics. Experimental evidence for quantum gravity is scarce due to its sheer weakness. Therefore, physicists have considered various toy models -- among them the so-called dilaton models in two dimensions -- in order to separate technical problems from conceptual ones. Unfortunately, most of them lack a certain feature present in ordinary gravity: they contain no continuous physical degrees of freedom. One way to overcome this without leaving the comfortable realm of two dimensions is the inclusion of matter. In this thesis special emphasis is put on the spherically reduced Einstein-massless-Klein-Gordon model using a first order approach for geometric quantities, because phenomenologically it is probably the most relevant of all dilaton models with matter. After a Hamiltonian BRST analysis path integral quantization is performed using temporal gauge for the Cartan variables. Retrospectively, the simpler Faddeev-Popov approach turns out to be sufficient. It is possible to eliminate all unphysical and geometric quantities establishing a non-local and non-polynomial action depending solely on the scalar field and on some integration constants, fixed by suitable boundary conditions on the asymptotic effective line element. Then, attention is turned to the evaluation of the (two) lowest order tree vertices, explicitly assuming a perturbative expansion in the scalar field being valid. Each of them diverges, but unexpected cancellations yield a finite 'S'-matrix element when both contributions

  4. Gravity Data for Egypt

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...

  5. New massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.

  6. DMA Antarctic Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...

  7. Gravity Data for Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...

  8. Stability in designer gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed

  9. Carroll versus Galilei gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-30

    We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.

  10. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  11. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  12. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  13. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  14. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  15. What Is Gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George

    2004-01-01

    Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

  16. Galileon as a local modification of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Trincherini, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, the 'self-accelerating' solution is plagued by a ghost instability, which makes the solution untenable. This fact, as well as all interesting departures from general relativity (GR), are fully captured by a four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, valid at distances smaller than the present Hubble scale. The 4D effective theory involves a relativistic scalar π, universally coupled to matter and with peculiar derivative self-interactions. In this paper, we study the connection between self-acceleration and the presence of ghosts for a quite generic class of theories that modify gravity in the infrared. These theories are defined as those that at distances shorter than cosmological, reduce to a certain generalization of the DGP 4D effective theory. We argue that for infrared modifications of GR locally due to a universally coupled scalar, our generalization is the only one that allows for a robust implementation of the Vainshtein effect--the decoupling of the scalar from matter in gravitationally bound systems--necessary to recover agreement with solar-system tests. Our generalization involves an internal Galilean invariance, under which π's gradient shifts by a constant. This symmetry constrains the structure of the π Lagrangian so much so that in 4D there exist only five terms that can yield sizable nonlinearities without introducing ghosts. We show that for such theories in fact there are ''self-accelerating'' de Sitter solutions with no ghostlike instabilities. In the presence of compact sources, these solutions can support spherically symmetric, Vainshtein-like nonlinear perturbations that are also stable against small fluctuations. We investigate a possible infrared completion of these theories at scales of order of the Hubble horizon, and larger. There are however some features of our theories that may constitute a problem at the theoretical or phenomenological level: the presence of superluminal excitations; the

  17. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  18. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  19. An analog model for quantum lightcone fluctuations in nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.; De Lorenci, V.A.; Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an analog model for quantum gravity effects using nonlinear dielectrics. Fluctuations of the spacetime lightcone are expected in quantum gravity, leading to variations in the flight times of pulses. This effect can also arise in a nonlinear material. We propose a model in which fluctuations of a background electric field, such as that produced by a squeezed photon state, can cause fluctuations in the effective lightcone for probe pulses. This leads to a variation in flight times analogous to that in quantum gravity. We make some numerical estimates which suggest that the effect might be large enough to be observable. - Highlights: ► Lightcone fluctuations, quantum fluctuations of the effective speed of light, are a feature of quantum gravity. ► Nonlinear dielectrics have a variable speed of light, analogous to the effects of gravity. ► Fluctuating electric fields create the effect of lightcone fluctuations in a nonlinear material. ► We propose to use squeezed light in a nonlinear material as an analog model of lightcone fluctuations. ► Variation in the speed of propagation of pulses is the observational signature of lightcone fluctuations.

  20. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  1. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  2. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail: clampitt@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  3. The Black Hole Radiation in Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Arraut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Bogoliubov transformations in order to connect two different vacuums, one located at past infinity and another located at future infinity around a black hole inside the scenario of the nonlinear theory of massive gravity. The presence of the extra degrees of freedom changes the behavior of the logarithmic singularity and, as a consequence, the relation between the two Bogoliubov coefficients. This has an effect on the number of particles, or equivalently, on the black hole temperature perceived by observers defining the time arbitrarily.

  4. Gravity changes in mid-west Greenland from GOCE gravity model and gradient data using ground and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....

  5. Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2009-01-01

    Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.

  6. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: symmetron and dilaton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in the dilaton and symmetron models of modified gravity using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of scenarios using only a few parameters, such as the coupling between the scalar field and the matter, and the range of the scalar force on very large scales. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ECOSMOG, which is a variant of RAMSES working in modified gravity scenarios, to perform a set of 110 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a large portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM template cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc −1 . Our results show the full effect of screening on nonlinear structure formation and the associated deviation from ΛCDM. We also investigate how differences in the force mediated by the scalar field in modified gravity models lead to qualitatively different features for the nonlinear power spectrum and the halo mass function, and how varying the individual model parameters changes these observables. The differences are particularly large in the nonlinear power spectra whose shapes for f(R), dilaton and symmetron models vary greatly, and where the characteristic bump around 1 hMpc −1 of f(R) models is preserved for symmetrons, whereas an increase on much smaller scales is particular to symmetrons. No bump is present for dilatons where a flattening of the power spectrum takes place on small scales. These deviations from ΛCDM and the differences between modified gravity models, such as dilatons and symmetrons, could be tested with future surveys

  7. Noise Reduction, Atmospheric Pressure Admittance Estimation and Long-Period Component Extraction in Time-Varying Gravity Signals Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying gravity signals, with their nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics, record the physical responses of various geodynamic processes and consist of a blend of signals with various periods and amplitudes, corresponding to numerous phenomena. Superconducting gravimeter (SG records are processed in this study using a multi-scale analytical method and corrected for known effects to reduce noise, to study geodynamic phenomena using their gravimetric signatures. Continuous SG (GWR-C032 gravity and barometric data are decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, which is proposed to alleviate some unresolved issues (the mode mixing problem and the end effect of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD. Further analysis of the variously scaled signals is based on a dyadic filter bank of the IMFs. The results indicate that removing the high-frequency IMFs can reduce the natural and man-made noise in the data, which are caused by electronic device noise, Earth background noise and the residual effects of pre-processing. The atmospheric admittances based on frequency changes are estimated from the gravity and the atmospheric pressure IMFs in various frequency bands. These time- and frequency-dependent admittance values can be used effectively to improve the atmospheric correction. Using the EEMD method as a filter, the long-period IMFs are extracted from the SG time-varying gravity signals spanning 7 years. The resulting gravity residuals are well correlated with the gravity effect caused by the _ polar motion after correcting for atmospheric effects.

  8. Noether's stars in f (R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2018-05-01

    The Noether Symmetry Approach can be used to construct spherically symmetric solutions in f (R) gravity. Specifically, the Noether conserved quantity is related to the gravitational mass and a gravitational radius that reduces to the Schwarzschild radius in the limit f (R) → R. We show that it is possible to construct the M- R relation for neutron stars depending on the Noether conserved quantity and the associated gravitational radius. This approach enables the recovery of extreme massive stars that could not be stable in the standard Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff based on General Relativity. Examples are given for some power law f (R) gravity models.

  9. Quantum Gravity Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.

  10. Solitons in Newtonian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)

  11. Stochastic quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1987-01-01

    We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)

  12. No slip gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2018-03-01

    A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.

  13. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN08 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...

  2. Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)

  3. Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.

  4. Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  6. Towards a quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, B.; Barrau, A.; Vidotto, F.; Le Meur, H.; Noui, K.

    2011-01-01

    The loop quantum gravity is the only theory that proposes a quantum description of space-time and therefore of gravitation. This theory predicts that space is not infinitely divisible but that is has a granular structure at the Planck scale (10 -35 m). Another feature of loop quantum gravity is that it gets rid of the Big-Bang singularity: our expanding universe may come from the bouncing of a previous contracting universe, in this theory the Big-Bang is replaced with a big bounce. The loop quantum theory predicts also the huge number of quantum states that accounts for the entropy of large black holes. (A.C.)

  7. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  8. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc −1 , since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future

  9. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Winther, Hans A. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.

  10. Damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    High frequency electrostatic plasma oscillations described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the presence of damping, collisional or Landau, are considered. At early times, Landau damping of an initial soliton profile results in a broader, but smaller amplitude soliton, while collisional damping reduces the soliton size everywhere; soliton speeds at early times are unchanged by either kind of damping. For collisional damping, soliton speeds are unchanged for all time

  11. Gravity Data for South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (152,624 records) were compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters...

  12. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  13. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  14. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  15. E11 and the non-linear dual graviton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The non-linear dual graviton equation of motion as well as the duality relation between the gravity and dual gravity fields are found in E theory by carrying out E11 variations of previously found equations of motion. As a result the equations of motion in E theory have now been found at the full non-linear level up to, and including, level three, which contains the dual graviton field. When truncated to contain fields at levels three and less, and the spacetime is restricted to be the familiar eleven dimensional space time, the equations are equivalent to those of eleven dimensional supergravity.

  16. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielczarek, Jakub, E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Trześniewski, Tomasz, E-mail: tbwbt@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-08-10

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  17. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  18. Gravity- and non-gravity-mediated couplings in multiple-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardeau, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for the generation of primordial non-Gaussian metric fluctuations in the context of multiple-field inflation are reviewed. As long as kinetic terms remain canonical, it appears that nonlinear couplings inducing non-Gaussianities can be split into two types. The extension of the one-field results to multiple degrees of freedom leads to gravity-mediated couplings that are ubiquitous but generally modest. Multiple-field inflation offers however the possibility of generating non-gravity-mediated coupling in isocurvature directions that can eventually induce large non-Gaussianities in the metric fluctuations. The robustness of the predictions of such models is eventually examined in view of a case study derived from a high-energy physics construction.

  19. Principal facts of gravity stations with gravity and magnetic profiles from the southwest Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, as of January 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, P.E.; Snyder, D.B.; Ponce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Three gravity profiles and principal facts of 2604 gravity stations in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site are documented in this data report. The residual gravity profiles show the gravity measurements and the smoothed curves derived from these points that were used in geophysical interpretations. The principal facts include station label, latitude, longitude, elevation, observed gravity value, and terrain correction for each station as well as the derived complete Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, reduced at 2.67 g/cm 3 . Accuracy codes, where available, further document the data

  20. Minimal Liouville gravity correlation numbers from Douglas string equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, Alexander; Dubrovin, Boris; Mukhametzhanov, Baur

    2014-01-01

    We continue the study of (q,p) Minimal Liouville Gravity with the help of Douglas string equation. We generalize the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(91)90548-Chttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/42/30/304004, where Lee-Yang series (2,2s+1) was studied, to (3,3s+p 0 ) Minimal Liouville Gravity, where p 0 =1,2. We demonstrate that there exist such coordinates τ m,n on the space of the perturbed Minimal Liouville Gravity theories, in which the partition function of the theory is determined by the Douglas string equation. The coordinates τ m,n are related in a non-linear fashion to the natural coupling constants λ m,n of the perturbations of Minimal Lioville Gravity by the physical operators O m,n . We find this relation from the requirement that the correlation numbers in Minimal Liouville Gravity must satisfy the conformal and fusion selection rules. After fixing this relation we compute three- and four-point correlation numbers when they are not zero. The results are in agreement with the direct calculations in Minimal Liouville Gravity available in the literature http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.66.2051http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-005-0003-3http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-006-0075-8

  1. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  2. Infrared lessons for ultraviolet gravity: the case of massive gravity and Born-Infeld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2014-11-01

    We generalize the ultraviolet sector of gravitation via a Born-Infeld action using lessons from massive gravity. The theory contains all of the elementary symmetric polynomials and is treated in the Palatini formalism. We show how the connection can be solved algebraically to be the Levi-Civita connection of an effective metric. The non-linearity of the algebraic equations yields several branches, one of which always reduces to General Relativity at low curvatures. We explore in detail a minimal version of the theory, for which we study solutions in the presence of a perfect fluid with special attention to the cosmological evolution. In vacuum we recover Ricci-flat solutions, but also an additional physical solution corresponding to an Einstein space. The existence of two physical branches remains for non-vacuum solutions and, in addition, the branch that connects to the Einstein space in vacuum is not very sensitive to the specific value of the energy density. For the branch that connects to the General Relativity limit we generically find three behaviours for the Hubble function depending on the equation of state of the fluid, namely: either there is a maximum value for the energy density that connects continuously with vacuum, or the energy density can be arbitrarily large but the Hubble function saturates and remains constant at high energy densities, or the energy density is unbounded and the Hubble function grows faster than in General Relativity. The second case is particularly interesting because it could offer an interesting inflationary epoch even in the presence of a dust component. Finally, we discuss the possibility of avoiding certain types of singularities within the minimal model.

  3. Massive Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.

  4. Colossal creations of gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skielboe, Andreas

    Gravity governs the evolution of the universe on the largest scales, and powers some of the most extreme objects at the centers of galaxies. Determining the masses and kinematics of galaxy clusters provides essential constraints on the large-scale structure of the universe, and act as direct probes...

  5. A Trick of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.

  6. Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loll, R.

    2000-01-01

    Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated

  7. Loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Loop quantum gravity is one of the approaches that are being studied to apply the rules of quantum mechanics to the gravitational field described by the theory of General Relativity . We present an introductory summary of the main ideas and recent results. (Author)

  8. A finite quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, A.

    1984-05-01

    In case the graviton has a very small non-zero mass, the existence of six additional massive gravitons with very big masses leads to a finite quantum gravity. There is an acausal behaviour on the scales that is determined by the masses of additional gravitons. (author)

  9. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  10. Torsion induces gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Contreras, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work the Poincare-Chern-Simons and anti-de Sitter-Chern-Simons gravities are studied. For both, a solution that can be cast as a black hole with manifest torsion is found. Those solutions resemble Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS solutions, respectively

  11. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction to Regge calculus, some examples of its application is quantum gravity are described in this paper. In particular, the earliest such application, by Ponzano and Regge, is discussed in some detail and it is shown how this leads naturally to current work on invariants of three-manifolds

  12. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  13. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  14. Gravity Matching Aided Inertial Navigation Technique Based on Marginal Robust Unscented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the topic of gravity matching aided inertial navigation technology using Kalman filter. The dynamic state space model for Kalman filter is constructed as follows: the error equation of the inertial navigation system is employed as the process equation while the local gravity model based on 9-point surface interpolation is employed as the observation equation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed to address the nonlinearity of the observation equation. The filter is refined in two ways as follows. The marginalization technique is employed to explore the conditionally linear substructure to reduce the computational load; specifically, the number of the needed sigma points is reduced from 15 to 5 after this technique is used. A robust technique based on Chi-square test is employed to make the filter insensitive to the uncertainties in the above constructed observation model. Numerical simulation is carried out, and the efficacy of the proposed method is validated by the simulation results.

  15. Gravity and Zero Point Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, U. W.

    When Planck introduced the 1/2 hv term to his 1911 black body equation he showed that there is a residual energy remaining at zero degree K after all thermal energy ceased. Other investigators, including Lamb, Casimir, and Dirac added to this information. Today zero point energy (ZPE) is accepted as an established condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the density of the ZPE is given by the gravity constant (G) and the characteristics of its particles are revealed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Eddies of ZPE particles created by flow around mass bodies reduce the pressure normal to the eddy flow and are responsible for the force of gravity. Helium atoms resonate with ZPE particles at low temperature to produce superfluid helium. High velocity micro vortices of ZPE particles about a basic particle or particles are responsible for electromagnetic forces. The speed of light is the speed of the wave front in the ZPE and its value is a function of the temperature and density of the ZPE.

  16. Competitive nonlinear pricing and bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of multiproduct nonlinear pricing on profit, consumer surplus and welfare in a duopoly. When consumers buy all their products from one firm (the one-stop shopping model), nonlinear pricing leads to higher profit and welfare, but often lower consumer surplus, than linear pricing. By contrast, in a unit-demand model where consumers may buy one product from one firm and another product from another firm, bundling generally acts to reduce profit and welfare and to boost cons...

  17. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find

  18. Launch Opportunities for Jupiter Missions Using the Gravity Assist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary trajectories using the gravity assists are studied for future Korean interplanetary missions. Verifications of the developed softwares and results were performed by comparing data from ESA's Mars Express mission and previous results. Among the Jupiter exploration mission scenarios, multi-planet gravity assist mission to Jupiter (Earth-Mars-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist, EMEJGA trajectory requires minimum launch energy (C3 of 29.231 km2/s2 with 4.6 years flight times. Others, such as direct mission and single-planet(Mars gravity assist mission, requires launch energy (C3 of 75.656 km^2/s^2 with 2.98 years flight times and 63.590 km2/s2 with 2.33 years flight times, respectively. These results show that the planetary gravity assists can reduce launch energy, while EMEJGA trajectory requires the longer flight time than the other missions.

  19. A study on multi-point gravity compensation of mirror bending system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuquan; Fu Yuan; Zhu Wanqian; Xue Song

    2011-01-01

    The sag of mirror due to gravity induces unacceptable slope errors in beamline mirror-bending system of a synchrotron radiation facility, and approaches must be found to eliminate the unwanted gravity effect. According to the beam bending theory, the multi-point gravity compensation method is applicable. Taking an example of the bent collimating mirror for the XAFS beam-line (BL14W) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), the best position and value of the equilibrant were calculated through minimizing the gravity effect. With two, three and four points gravity compensation, slope errors were 0.179, 0.067 and 0.032 μrad,respectively, i.e.the multi-point gravity compensation is better than the two-point gravity compensation, which is used for the Phase I beamlines of SSRF. The four-point gravity compensation method reduces more slope error and stress due to four support points. (authors)

  20. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  1. Chaotic Darcy-Brinkman convection in a fluid saturated porous layer subjected to gravity modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moli Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Darcy-Brinkman model, the chaotic convection in a couple stress fluid saturated porous media under gravity modulation is investigated using the nonlinear stability analyses. The transition from steady convection to chaos is analysed with the effect of Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation. The results show that the chaotic behavior is connected with the critical value of Rayleigh number which is dependent upon the oscillation frequency and the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. If the oscillation frequency Ω is not zero, the Rayleigh number value R of the chaotic behavior increases with the increase of the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. The Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation decrease the rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Darcy-Brinkman model, Gravity modulation, Nonlinear stability, Chaotic convection

  2. Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungjai; Yang, Hyunseok

    2014-01-01

    We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.

  3. Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jungjai [Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyunseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.

  4. The gravity field and GGOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...

  5. The affine quantum gravity programme

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, J R

    2002-01-01

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix left brace g-hat sub a sub b (x)right brace composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that sti...

  6. Cosmological Tests of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.

  7. Antimatter gravity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development

  8. Lectures on Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The 2002 Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute School on Quantum Gravity was held at the Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS),Valdivia, Chile, January 4-14, 2002. The school featured lectures by ten speakers, and was attended by nearly 70 students from over 14 countries. A primary goal was to foster interaction and communication between participants from different cultures, both in the layman’s sense of the term and in terms of approaches to quantum gravity. We hope that the links formed by students and the school will persist throughout their professional lives, continuing to promote interaction and the essential exchange of ideas that drives research forward. This volume contains improved and updated versions of the lectures given at the School. It has been prepared both as a reminder for the participants, and so that these pedagogical introductions can be made available to others who were unable to attend. We expect them to serve students of all ages well.

  9. Topics in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-06-29

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem

  10. Tensor Galileons and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Khoo, Fech Scen [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Schupp, Peter [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2017-03-13

    The particular structure of Galileon interactions allows for higher-derivative terms while retaining second order field equations for scalar fields and Abelian p-forms. In this work we introduce an index-free formulation of these interactions in terms of two sets of Grassmannian variables. We employ this to construct Galileon interactions for mixed-symmetry tensor fields and coupled systems thereof. We argue that these tensors are the natural generalization of scalars with Galileon symmetry, similar to p-forms and scalars with a shift-symmetry. The simplest case corresponds to linearised gravity with Lovelock invariants, relating the Galileon symmetry to diffeomorphisms. Finally, we examine the coupling of a mixed-symmetry tensor to gravity, and demonstrate in an explicit example that the inclusion of appropriate counterterms retains second order field equations.

  11. Topics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we

  12. Simplicial quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Simplicial approximation and the ideas associated with the Regge calculus provide a concrete way of implementing a sum over histories formulation of quantum gravity. A simplicial geometry is made up of flat simplices joined together in a prescribed way together with an assignment of lengths to their edges. A sum over simplicial geometries is a sum over the different ways the simplices can be joined together with an integral over their edge lengths. The construction of the simplicial Euclidean action for this approach to quantum general relativity is illustrated. The recovery of the diffeomorphism group in the continuum limit is discussed. Some possible classes of simplicial complexes with which to define a sum over topologies are described. In two dimensional quantum gravity it is argued that a reasonable class is the class of pseudomanifolds

  13. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  14. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  15. Instantons and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problems of application of nonperturbative quantization methods in the theories of the gauge fields and gravity are discussed. Unification of interactions is considered in the framework of the geometrical gauge fields theory. Vacuum conception in the unified theory of interactions and instantons role in the vacuum structure are analyzed. The role of vacuum solutions of Einstein equations in definition of the gauge field vacuum is demonstrated

  16. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  17. Spontaneously generated gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-01-01

    We show, following a recent suggestion of Adler, that gravity may arise as a consequence of dynamical symmetry breaking in a scale- and gauge-invariant world. Our calculation is not tied to any specific scheme of dynamical symmetry breaking. A representation for Newton's coupling constant in terms of flat-space quantities is derived. The sign of Newton's coupling constant appears to depend on infrared details of the symmetry-breaking mechanism

  18. Loop Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime , is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i) The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii) A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler's "spacetime foam" intuition. (iii) Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy. (v) Low-energy calculations, yielding n -point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  19. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  20. Semiclassical unimodular gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, Bartomeu; Garriga, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Classically, unimodular gravity is known to be equivalent to General Relativity (GR), except for the fact that the effective cosmological constant Λ has the status of an integration constant. Here, we explore various formulations of unimodular gravity beyond the classical limit. We first consider the non-generally covariant action formulation in which the determinant of the metric is held fixed to unity. We argue that the corresponding quantum theory is also equivalent to General Relativity for localized perturbative processes which take place in generic backgrounds of infinite volume (such as asymptotically flat spacetimes). Next, using the same action, we calculate semiclassical non-perturbative quantities, which we expect will be dominated by Euclidean instanton solutions. We derive the entropy/area ratio for cosmological and black hole horizons, finding agreement with GR for solutions in backgrounds of infinite volume, but disagreement for backgrounds with finite volume. In deriving the above results, the path integral is taken over histories with fixed 4-volume. We point out that the results are different if we allow the 4-volume of the different histories to vary over a continuum range. In this ''generalized'' version of unimodular gravity, one recovers the full set of Einstein's equations in the classical limit, including the trace, so Λ is no longer an integration constant. Finally, we consider the generally covariant theory due to Henneaux and Teitelboim, which is classically equivalent to unimodular gravity. In this case, the standard semiclassical GR results are recovered provided that the boundary term in the Euclidean action is chosen appropriately

  1. Influence of gravity on flutter of cantilevered pipes conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Perez-Saborid, Miguel

    2012-11-01

    We have considered the dynamics of the nonlinear interaction between a flexible pipe and the conveyed fluid in the presence of gravity. The stability of the system (fllutter and buckling) depends on parameters such as the dimensionless fluid flow rate, the gravity to bending stiffness ratio and the fluid to pipe mass ratio and it has been studied in detail both numerically and experimentally. It has also been found that the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of fluid flow depends crucially on the direction of gravity respect to the undeformed midline of the pipe. We have also computed the post-critical behavior of the system by solving the full nonlinear equations of the problem and analyzed the transfer of energy within the system in the nonlinear regime. We have formulated the problem in terms of the angles of the midline of the pipe instead of its transverse displacements, so that we can deal with large deflections without recurring to the quasi-linear approximations concerning the pipe curvature usually made in the literature. Supported by the Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes of Spain under grant DPI 2010-20450 C03-02.

  2. Topologically nontrivial black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangkhah, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present the black hole solutions possessing horizon with nonconstant-curvature and additional scalar restrictions on the base manifold in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics. The asymptotic and near origin behavior of the metric is presented and we analyze different behaviors of the singularity. We find that, in contrast to the case of black hole solutions of BI-Lovelock gravity with constant curvature horizon and Maxwell-Lovelock gravity with non constant horizon which have only timelike singularities, spacelike, and timelike singularities may exist for BI-Lovelock black holes with nonconstant curvature horizon. By calculating the thermodynamic quantities, we study the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics via the Born-Infeld action. Stability analysis shows that black holes with positive sectional curvature, κ , possess an intermediate unstable phase and large and small black holes are stable. We see that while Ricci flat Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes having exotic horizons are stable in the presence of Maxwell field or either Born Infeld field with large born Infeld parameter β , unstable phase appears for smaller values of β , and therefore nonlinearity brings in the instability.

  3. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  4. Venus gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Ananda, M.; Williams, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. S.; Wimberly, R. N.; Ritke, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results of Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations concerning the gravity field of Venus are presented. The gravitational data was obtained from reductions of Doppler radio tracking data for the Orbiter, which is in a highly eccentric orbit with periapsis altitude varying from 145 to 180 km and nearly fixed periapsis latitude of 15 deg N. The global gravity field was obtained through the simultaneous estimation of the orbit state parameters and gravity coefficients from long-period variations in orbital element rates. The global field has been described with sixth degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients, which are capable of resolving the three major topographical features on Venus. Local anomalies have been mapped using line-of-sight accelerations derived from the Doppler residuals between 40 deg N and 10 deg S latitude at approximately 300 km spatial resolution. Gravitational data is observed to correspond to topographical data obtained by radar altimeter, with most of the gravitational anomalies about 20-30 milligals. Simulations evaluating the isostatic states of two topographic features indicate that at least partial isostasy prevails, with the possibility of complete compensation.

  5. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  6. Nonlinear acceleration of transport criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a nonlinear acceleration algorithm for the transport criticality problem. The algorithm combines the well-known nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) with a recently developed, Newton-based, nonlinear criticality acceleration (NCA) algorithm. The algorithm first employs the NDA to reduce the system to scalar flux, then the NCA is applied to the resulting drift-diffusion system. We apply a nonlinear elimination technique to eliminate the eigenvalue from the Jacobian matrix. Numerical results show that the algorithm reduces the CPU time a factor of 400 in a very diffusive system, and a factor of 5 in a non-diffusive system. (author)

  7. BIonic system: Extraction of Lovelock gravity from a Born-Infeld-type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Yaghoob; Sepehri, Alireza; Ghaffary, Tooraj; Ghaforyan, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Majid

    It was shown that both Lovelock gravity and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics can be obtained from low effective limit of string theory. Motivated by the mentioned unique origin of the gauge-gravity theories, we are going to find a close relation between them. In this research, we start from the Lagrangian of a BI-type nonlinear electrodynamics with an exponential form to extract the action of Lovelock gravity. We investigate the origin of Lovelock gravity in a system of branes which are connected with each other by different wormholes through a BIonic system. These wormholes are produced as due to the nonlinear electrodynamics which are emerged on the interacting branes. By approaching branes, wormholes dissolve into branes and Lovelock gravity is generated. Also, throats of some wormholes become smaller than their horizons and they transit to black holes. Generalizing calculations to M-theory, it is found that by compacting Mp-branes, Lovelock gravity changes to nonlinear electrodynamics and thus both of them have the same origin. This result is consistent with the prediction of BIonic model in string theory.

  8. Nonlinear Aerodynamic ROM-Structural ROM Methodology for Inflatable Aeroelasticity in Hypersonic Atmospheric Entry, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an innovative nonlinear structural reduced order model (ROM) - nonlinear aerodynamic ROM methodology for the inflatable...

  9. Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or

  10. Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...

  11. Gravity signatures of terrane accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather; Abbott, Dallas

    1999-01-01

    In modern collisional environments, accreted terranes are bracketed by forearc gravity lows, a gravitational feature which results from the abandonment of the original trench and the initiation of a new trench seaward of the accreted terrane. The size and shape of the gravity low depends on the type of accreted feature and the strength of the formerly subducting plate. Along the Central American trench, the accretion of Gorgona Island caused a seaward trench jump of 48 to 66 km. The relict trench axes show up as gravity lows behind the trench with minimum values of -78 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -49 mgal (S of Gorgona) respectively. These forearc gravity lows have little or no topographic expression. The active trench immediately seaward of these forearc gravity lows has minimum gravity values of -59 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -58 mgal (S of Gorgona), respectively. In the north, the active trench has a less pronounced gravity low than the sediment covered forearc. In the Mariana arc, two Cretaceous seamounts have been accreted to the Eocene arc. The northern seamount is most likely a large block, the southern seamount may be a thrust slice. These more recent accretion events have produced modest forearc topographic and gravity lows in comparison with the topographic and gravity lows within the active trench. However, the minimum values of the Mariana forearc gravity lows are modest only by comparison to the Mariana Trench (-216 mgal); their absolute values are more negative than at Gorgona Island (-145 to -146 mgal). We speculate that the forearc gravity lows and seaward trench jumps near Gorgona Island were produced by the accretion of a hotspot island from a strong plate. The Mariana gravity lows and seaward trench jumps (or thrust slices) were the result of breaking a relatively weak plate close to the seamount edifice. These gravity lows resulting from accretion events should be preserved in older accreted terranes.

  12. Non Newtonian gravity creeping flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, J.; Mahajan, S.M.; Minotti, F.

    1988-11-01

    We derive the governing equations for creeping gravity currents of non Newtonian liquids having a power law rheology, using a lubrication approximation. We consider unidirectional and axisymmetric currents. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. However, many solutions are closely analogous to those for Newtonian rheology; in particular the spreading relations can also be expressed as power laws of time, with exponents that depend on the rheological index. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as the ones describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General travelling wave solutions are given, and analytic formulae for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism, that allows the systematic derivation of self similar solutions, is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. Present results are closely analogous to those for Newtonian liquids; all the solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows. This happens because the power law rheology, like the Newtonian constitutive relation, involves a single dimensional parameter. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self similar. Although the spreading relations are rheology-dependent, in most cases the dependence is rather weak. The present results may be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power law rheology. (author). 17 refs

  13. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  14. Consistent Extension of Hořava Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, D; Sibiryakov, SLPHE, Lausanne

    2010-01-01

    We propose a natural extension of Horava's model for quantum gravity, which is free from the notorious pathologies of the original proposal. The new model endows the scalar graviton mode with a regular quadratic action and remains power-counting renormalizable. At low energies, it reduces to a Lorentz-violating scalar-tensor gravity theory. The deviations with respect to general relativity can be made weak by an appropriate choice of parameters.

  15. Two-phase computer codes for zero-gravity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    This paper discusses the problems existing in the development of computer codes which can analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase fluids especially in low gravity nuclear reactors. The important phenomenon affecting fluid flow and heat transfer in reduced gravity is discussed. The applicability of using existing computer codes for space applications is assessed. Recommendations regarding the use of existing earth based fluid flow and heat transfer correlations are made and deficiencies in these correlations are identified

  16. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear

  17. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  18. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  19. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  20. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  1. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  2. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  3. The nonlinear dynamics of a spacecraft coupled to the vibration of a contained fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.; Hansman, R. John

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of a linear spacecraft mode coupled to a nonlinear low gravity slosh of a fluid in a cylindrical tank is investigated. Coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for the fluid-spacecraft dynamics are derived through an assumed mode Lagrangian method. Unlike linear fluid slosh models, this nonlinear slosh model retains two fundamental slosh modes and three secondary modes. An approximate perturbation solution of the equations of motion indicates that the nonlinear coupled system response involves fluid-spacecraft modal resonances not predicted by either a linear, or a nonlinear, uncoupled slosh analysis. Experimental results substantiate the analytical predictions.

  4. Can chaos be observed in quantum gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Höhn, Philipp A.; Koslowski, Tim A.; Nelson, Mike I.

    2017-01-01

    Full general relativity is almost certainly ‘chaotic’. We argue that this entails a notion of non-integrability: a generic general relativistic model, at least when coupled to cosmologically interesting matter, likely possesses neither differentiable Dirac observables nor a reduced phase space. It follows that the standard notion of observable has to be extended to include non-differentiable or even discontinuous generalized observables. These cannot carry Poisson-algebraic structures and do not admit a standard quantization; one thus faces a quantum representation problem of gravitational observables. This has deep consequences for a quantum theory of gravity, which we investigate in a simple model for a system with Hamiltonian constraint that fails to be completely integrable. We show that basing the quantization on standard topology precludes a semiclassical limit and can even prohibit any solutions to the quantum constraints. Our proposed solution to this problem is to refine topology such that a complete set of Dirac observables becomes continuous. In the toy model, it turns out that a refinement to a polymer-type topology, as e.g. used in loop gravity, is sufficient. Basing quantization of the toy model on this finer topology, we find a complete set of quantum Dirac observables and a suitable semiclassical limit. This strategy is applicable to realistic candidate theories of quantum gravity and thereby suggests a solution to a long-standing problem which implies ramifications for the very concept of quantization. Our work reveals a qualitatively novel facet of chaos in physics and opens up a new avenue of research on chaos in gravity which hints at deep insights into the structure of quantum gravity.

  5. Can chaos be observed in quantum gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Bianca, E-mail: bdittrich@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Höhn, Philipp A., E-mail: p.hoehn@univie.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Koslowski, Tim A., E-mail: koslowski@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Nelson, Mike I., E-mail: mike@aims.edu.gh [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, P.O Box LG 197, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2017-06-10

    Full general relativity is almost certainly ‘chaotic’. We argue that this entails a notion of non-integrability: a generic general relativistic model, at least when coupled to cosmologically interesting matter, likely possesses neither differentiable Dirac observables nor a reduced phase space. It follows that the standard notion of observable has to be extended to include non-differentiable or even discontinuous generalized observables. These cannot carry Poisson-algebraic structures and do not admit a standard quantization; one thus faces a quantum representation problem of gravitational observables. This has deep consequences for a quantum theory of gravity, which we investigate in a simple model for a system with Hamiltonian constraint that fails to be completely integrable. We show that basing the quantization on standard topology precludes a semiclassical limit and can even prohibit any solutions to the quantum constraints. Our proposed solution to this problem is to refine topology such that a complete set of Dirac observables becomes continuous. In the toy model, it turns out that a refinement to a polymer-type topology, as e.g. used in loop gravity, is sufficient. Basing quantization of the toy model on this finer topology, we find a complete set of quantum Dirac observables and a suitable semiclassical limit. This strategy is applicable to realistic candidate theories of quantum gravity and thereby suggests a solution to a long-standing problem which implies ramifications for the very concept of quantization. Our work reveals a qualitatively novel facet of chaos in physics and opens up a new avenue of research on chaos in gravity which hints at deep insights into the structure of quantum gravity.

  6. Two-dimensional coherence analysis of magnetic and gravity data from the Cascer Quadrangle, Wyoming. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QEB, Inc. has completed a two-dimensional coherence analysis of gravity and magnetic data from the Casper, Wyoming NTMS quadrangle. Magnetic data from an airborne survey were reduced to produce a Residual Magnetic map, and gravity data obtained from several sources were reduced to produce a Complete Bouguer Gravity map. Both sets of data were upward continued to a plane one kilometer above the surface; and then, to make the magnetic and gravity data comparable, the magnetic data were transformed to pseudo-gravity data by the application of Poisson's relationship for rocks that are both dense and magnetic relative to the surrounding rocks. A pseudo-gravity map was then produced and an analysis made of the two-dimensional coherence between the upward continued Bouguer gravity and the pseudo-gravity data. Based on the results of the coherence analysis, digital filters were designed to either pass or reject wavelength bands with high coherence

  7. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN05 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  8. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN06 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  9. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES02 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Gulf of Mexico collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN04 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS05 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS07 (2014 & 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 & 2016 over 3 surveys,TX14-2, TX16-1 and TX16-2. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS01 (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS04 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  18. Lovelock gravities from Born–Infeld gravity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a Born–Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  19. Lovelock gravities from Born-Infeld gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, P. K.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2017-02-01

    We present a Born-Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  20. Breeze Gravity Current in a Uniform Flow of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Shokurov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Breeze circulation is often observed nearby the water basin coasts and usually accompanied by a background synoptic wind. One of the basic dynamically important components of the breeze circulation is gravity current. In the present paper the latter is used as the breeze simplified model. The theory of interaction of gravity current and a uniform synoptic wind are developed. The gravity current in the domain of infinite height in a stationary environment and environment with background flow was considered. To solve this problem the law of conservation of mass and universal property of the Froude number was used, which is true in the steady state. It is shown that increase of a tail-wind is followed by growth of the gravity current velocity and decrease of its height. The opposite situation is observed at increase of a head wind: the current velocity reduces and its height increases. Using a Taylor series expansion for small values of the background flow velocity a linear dependence of gravity current velocity on background flow velocity can be obtained. The factor determining the slope of the velocity of gravity current propagation on the background wind speed, which is equal 2/3, is a universal constant. The theory explains the results of numerical simulation previously obtained by numerous authors. A physical interpretation of dependence of the height and velocity of the gravity current on the background flow velocity is presented.

  1. Contravariant gravity on Poisson manifolds and Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi; Muraki, Hisayoshi

    2017-01-01

    A relation between gravity on Poisson manifolds proposed in Asakawa et al (2015 Fortschr. Phys . 63 683–704) and Einstein gravity is investigated. The compatibility of the Poisson and Riemann structures defines a unique connection, the contravariant Levi-Civita connection, and leads to the idea of the contravariant gravity. The Einstein–Hilbert-type action yields an equation of motion which is written in terms of the analog of the Einstein tensor, and it includes couplings between the metric and the Poisson tensor. The study of the Weyl transformation reveals properties of those interactions. It is argued that this theory can have an equivalent description as a system of Einstein gravity coupled to matter. As an example, it is shown that the contravariant gravity on a two-dimensional Poisson manifold can be described by a real scalar field coupled to the metric in a specific manner. (paper)

  2. Aspects of Quadratic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Kounnas, Costas; Lust, Dieter; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-...

  3. Gravity and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    No one has ever dropped a single particle of antimatter. Yet physicists assume that it would fall to the ground just like ordinary matter. Their arguments are based on two well established ideas: the equivalence principle of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical symmetry between matter and antimatter. Today this line of reasoning is being undermined by the possibility that the first of these ideas, the principle of equivalence, may not be true. Indeed all modern attempts to include gravity with the other forces of nature in a consistent, unified quantum theory predict the existence of new gravitational-strength forces, that among other things, will violate the principle. Such effects have been seen already in recent experiments. Hence, an experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter could be of great importance to the understanding of quantum gravity. An international team has been formed to measure the graviational acceleration of antiprotons. Such an experiment would provide an unambiquous test, if new gravitational interactions do exist. 10 figs

  4. Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Leal, L. Gary; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Free drops and bubbles are weakly nonlinear mechanical systems that are relatively simple to characterize experimentally in 1-G as well as in microgravity. The understanding of the details of their motion contributes to the fundamental study of nonlinear phenomena and to the measurement of the thermophysical properties of freely levitated melts. The goal of this Glovebox-based experimental investigation is the low-gravity assessment of the capabilities of a modular apparatus based on ultrasonic resonators and on the pseudo- extinction optical method. The required experimental task is the accurate measurements of the large-amplitude dynamics of free drops and bubbles in the absence of large biasing influences such as gravity and levitation fields. A single-axis levitator used for the positioning of drops in air, and an ultrasonic water-filled resonator for the trapping of air bubbles have been evaluated in low-gravity and in 1-G. The basic feasibility of drop positioning and shape oscillations measurements has been verified by using a laptop-interfaced automated data acquisition and the optical extinction technique. The major purpose of the investigation was to identify the salient technical issues associated with the development of a full-scale Microgravity experiment on single drop and bubble dynamics.

  5. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  6. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  7. Is there a quantum theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns attempts to construct a unitary, renormalizable quantum field theory of gravity. Renormalizability and unitarity in quantum gravity; the 1/N expansion; 1/D expansions; and quantum gravity and particle physics; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Superspace formulation of new nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    The superspace formulation of two classes of supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models are presented. Two alternative N=1 superspace formulations are given for the d=2 supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models with Killing vector potentials: (a) formulation uses an active central charge and, (b) formulation uses a spurion superfield without inducing a classical breakdown of supersymmetry. The N=2 vector multiplet is used to construct a new class of d=4 nonlinear σ-models which when reduced to d=2 possess N=4 supersymmetry. Implications of these two classes of nonlinear σ-models for N>=4 superfield supergravity are discussed. (author)

  9. Nonlinear Preconditioning and its Application in Multicomponent Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-12-07

    The Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. The ASPIN framework, as an option for the outermost solver, successfully handles strong nonlinearities in computational fluid dynamics, but is barely explored for the highly nonlinear models of complex multiphase flow with capillarity, heterogeneity, and complex geometry. In this dissertation, the fully implicit ASPIN method is demonstrated for a finite volume discretization based on incompressible two-phase reservoir simulators in the presence of capillary forces and gravity. Numerical experiments show that the number of global nonlinear iterations is not only scalable with respect to the number of processors, but also significantly reduced compared with the standard inexact Newton method with a backtracking technique. Moreover, the ASPIN method, in contrast with the IMPES method, saves overall execution time because of the savings in timestep size. We consider the additive and multiplicative types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Moreover, we provide the convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under suitable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be

  10. Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Asger Cronberg

    The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...

  11. Topological strings from Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, N.; Li, M.

    1991-01-01

    We study constrained SU(2) WZW models, which realize a class of two-dimensional conformal field theories. We show that they give rise to topological gravity coupled to the topological minimal models when they are coupled to Liouville gravity. (orig.)

  12. Newton-Cartan gravity revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Roel

    2016-01-01

    In this research Newton's old theory of gravity is rederived using an algebraic approach known as the gauging procedure. The resulting theory is Newton's theory in the mathematical language of Einstein's General Relativity theory, in which gravity is spacetime curvature. The gauging procedure sheds

  13. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  14. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    however, in the magnetosphere, electromagnetic forces dominate over gravity : Fgr = mg ~ 10-18 Newton ; Fem = e V B ~ 10-5 Newton; (for a single electron of mass m and charge e ) ; Hence, the electromagnetic force is 1013 times stronger than gravity !!

  15. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.N.; Hassam, A.B.; Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the progress made over the last year in three different areas of research: (a) shear flow generation and reduced transport in fluids and plasma, (b) nonlinear dynamics and visualization of 3D flows, and (c) application of wavelet analysis to the study of fractal dimensions in experimental and numerical data

  17. Effect of Numerical Error on Gravity Field Estimation for GRACE and Future Gravity Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Christopher; Bettadpur, Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, gravity field determination from low Earth orbiting satellites, such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), has become increasingly more effective due to the incorporation of high accuracy measurement devices. Since instrumentation quality will only increase in the near future and the gravity field determination process is computationally and numerically intensive, numerical error from the use of double precision arithmetic will eventually become a prominent error source. While using double-extended or quadruple precision arithmetic will reduce these errors, the numerical limitations of current orbit determination algorithms and processes must be accurately identified and quantified in order to adequately inform the science data processing techniques of future gravity missions. The most obvious numerical limitation in the orbit determination process is evident in the comparison of measured observables with computed values, derived from mathematical models relating the satellites' numerically integrated state to the observable. Significant error in the computed trajectory will corrupt this comparison and induce error in the least squares solution of the gravitational field. In addition, errors in the numerically computed trajectory propagate into the evaluation of the mathematical measurement model's partial derivatives. These errors amalgamate in turn with numerical error from the computation of the state transition matrix, computed using the variational equations of motion, in the least squares mapping matrix. Finally, the solution of the linearized least squares system, computed using a QR factorization, is also susceptible to numerical error. Certain interesting combinations of each of these numerical errors are examined in the framework of GRACE gravity field determination to analyze and quantify their effects on gravity field recovery.

  18. Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    Deep within giant molecular clouds, hidden by dense gas and dust, stars form. Unprecedented data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the intricate magnetic structureswoven throughout one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way.How Stars Are BornThe Horsehead Nebulasdense column of gas and dust is opaque to visible light, but this infrared image reveals the young stars hidden in the dust. [NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team]Simple theory dictates that when a dense clump of molecular gas becomes massive enough that its self-gravity overwhelms the thermal pressure of the cloud, the gas collapses and forms a star. In reality, however, star formation is more complicated than a simple give and take between gravity and pressure. Thedusty molecular gas in stellar nurseries is permeated with magnetic fields, which are thought to impede the inward pull of gravity and slow the rate of star formation.How can we learn about the magnetic fields of distant objects? One way is by measuring dust polarization. An elongated dust grain will tend to align itself with its short axis parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. This systematic alignment of the dust grains along the magnetic field lines polarizes the dust grains emission perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This allows us to infer the direction of the magnetic field from the direction of polarization.Magnetic field orientations for protostars e2 and e8 derived from Submillimeter Array observations (panels a through c) and ALMA observations (panels d and e). Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Tracing Magnetic FieldsPatrick Koch (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and collaborators used high-sensitivity ALMA observations of dust polarization to learn more about the magnetic field morphology of Milky Way star-forming region W51. W51 is one of the largest star-forming regions in our galaxy, home to high-mass protostars e2, e8, and North.The ALMA observations reveal

  19. Tests and comparisons of gravity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    Optical observations of the GEOS satellites were used to obtain orbital solutions with different sets of geopotential coefficients. The solutions were compared before and after modification to high order terms (necessary because of resonance) and were then analyzed by comparing subsequent observations with predicted trajectories. The most important source of error in orbit determination and prediction for the GEOS satellites is the effect of resonance found in most published sets of geopotential coefficients. Modifications to the sets yield greatly improved orbits in most cases. The results of these comparisons suggest that with the best optical tracking systems and gravity models, satellite position error due to gravity model uncertainty can reach 50-100 m during a heavily observed 5-6 day orbital arc. If resonant coefficients are estimated, the uncertainty is reduced considerably.

  20. Geometric flows in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis; Lust, Dieter; Petropoulos, Marios

    2010-01-01

    We consider instanton solutions of Euclidean Horava-Lifshitz gravity in four dimensions satisfying the detailed balance condition. They are described by geometric flows in three dimensions driven by certain combinations of the Cotton and Ricci tensors as well as the cosmological-constant term. The deformation curvature terms can have competing behavior leading to a variety of fixed points. The instantons interpolate between any two fixed points, which are vacua of topologically massive gravity with Lambda > 0, and their action is finite. Special emphasis is placed on configurations with SU(2) isometry associated with homogeneous but generally non-isotropic Bianchi IX model geometries. In this case, the combined Ricci-Cotton flow reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations whose properties are studied in detail for different couplings. The occurrence and stability of isotropic and anisotropic fixed points are investigated analytically and some exact solutions are obtained. The correspond...

  1. Dark energy from modified gravity with Lagrange multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Matsumoto, Jiro; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2010-01-01

    We study scalar-tensor theory, k-essence and modified gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint which role is to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. Dark Energy cosmology of different types (ΛCDM, unified inflation with DE, smooth non-phantom/phantom transition epoch) is reconstructed in such models. It is demonstrated that presence of Lagrange multiplier simplifies the reconstruction scenario. It is shown that mathematical equivalence between scalar theory and F(R) gravity is broken due to presence of constraint. The cosmological evolution is defined by the second F 2 (R) function dictated by the constraint. The convenient F(R) gravity sector is relevant for local tests. This opens the possibility to make originally non-realistic theory to be viable by adding the corresponding constraint. A general discussion on the role of Lagrange multipliers to make higher-derivative gravity canonical is developed.

  2. Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.

  3. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges

  4. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  5. DBI from gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-22

    We study the dynamics of gravitational lumps. By a lump, we mean a metric configuration that asymptotes to a flat space-time. Such lumps emerge in string theory as strong coupling descriptions of D-branes. We provide a physical argument that the broken global symmetries of such a background, generated by certain large diffeomorphisms, constrain the dynamics of localized modes. These modes include the translation zero modes and any localized tensor modes. The constraints we find are gravitational analogues of those found in brane physics. For the example of a Taub-NUT metric in eleven-dimensional supergravity, we argue that a critical value for the electric field arises from standard gravity without higher derivative interactions.

  6. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  7. Is quantum gravity unpredictable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of Hawking's proposal that the inclusion of topologically non-trivial manifolds in the functional integral of quantum gravity leads to the loss of quantum coherence is carried out. We discuss some of the problems associated with Hawking's Dollar-matrix theory, including the breakdown of the connection between symmetry principles and conservation laws. It is proposed to use Kaluza-Klein theories to study this issue, since these theories contain well-defined euclidean instantons. These can be used to perform explicit semiclassical calculations of the effects of space-time foam. A general method is presented for constructing Kaluza-Klein instantons based on solutions of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. It is argued that none of these will lead to a breakdown of quantum mechanics. The physical effects of space-time foam are discussed in some detail using explicit instantons of a four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. (orig.)

  8. Brane-Localized Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The study of braneworlds has been an area of intense activity over the past decade, with thousands of papers being written, and many important technical advances being made. This book focuses on a particular aspect of braneworlds, namely perturbative gravity in one specific model: the Randall-Sundrum model. The book starts with an overview of the Randall-Sundrum model, discussing anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and the Israel equations in some detail. It then moves on to discuss cosmological branes, focusing on branes with constant curvature. The book then turns to brane gravity, i.e. what do we, as brane observers, perceive the gravitational interaction to be on the brane as derived from the actual five-dimensional gravitational physics? After a derivation of the general brane equations from the Israel equations, the remainder of the book deals with perturbative gravity. This part of the book is extremely detailed, with calculations given explicitly. Overall, the book is quite pedagogical in style, with the aim being to explain in detail the topics it chooses to cover. While it is not unusual to have books written on current and extremely popular research areas, it is unusual to have calculations written so explicitly. This is both a strength and a weakness of this book. It is a strength because the calculations are presented in a detail that students learning the topic will definitely appreciate; however, the narrow focus of the book also means that it lacks perspective and fails to present the broader context. In choosing to focus on one particular aspect of Randall-Sundrum branes, the book has not managed to communicate why a large number of theorists have worked so intensively on this model. In its early stages, the explicit detail of the Randall-Sundrum model would be extremely useful for a student starting out in this research area. In addition, the calculational detail later in the computation of the graviton propagator on the brane would also be welcome not

  9. Duality in linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  10. Gravity mediated preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a mechanism of natural preheating of our universe induced by the inflation field dependent effective mass term for the gravitational wave. For any single field inflationary model, the inflation must go through the oscillatory phase after the end of inflation. As has recently been shown, if the gravitational fluctuation has inflation dependent mass term, there will be a resonant amplification of the amplitude of the gravitational wave during the oscillatory phase of inflation though parametric resonance. Because of this large enhancement of the amplitude of the gravitational wave, we show that universe can be naturally pre-heated through a minimally coupled matter field with gravity. Therefore, during the pre-heating phase, there is no need to introduce any arbitrary coupling between the matter field and the inflation. (author)

  11. Teleparallel Gravity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Teleparallel Gravity (TG) is an alternative theory for gravitation, which is equivalent to General Relativity (GR). However, it is conceptually different. For example in GR geometry replaces the concept of force, and the trajectories are determined by geodesics. TG attributes gravitation to torsion, which accounts for gravitation by acting as a force. TG has already solved some old problems of gravitation (like the energy-momentum density of the gravitational field). The interest in TG has grown in the last few years. The book here proposed will be the first one dedicated exclusively to TG, and will include the foundations of the theory, as well as applications to specific problems to illustrate how the theory works.

  12. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  13. Brane-Localized Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2005-01-01

    This timely and valuable book provides a detailed pedagogical introduction and treatment of the brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, in which gravitational signals are able to localize around our four-dimensional world in the event that it is a brane embedded in an infinitely-sized, higher dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk space. A completely self-contained development of the material needed for brane-world studies is provided for both students and workers in the field, with a significant amount of the material being previously unpublished. Particular attention is given to issues not ordinarily treated in the brane-world literature, such as the completeness of tensor gravitational fluctuation modes, the causality of brane-world propagators, and the status of the massless graviton fluctuation mode in brane worlds in which it is not normalizable.

  14. Isostatic Implications of Different Seismic and Gravity Derived Moho Depths for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Pappa, F.; Ebbing, J.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies with different methods have been performed to investigate the lithospheric structure of Antarctica, in particular the Moho as the crust-mantle boundary. Yet, seismological surveys are regionally limited or suffer from sparse station coverage due to the remoteness and size of the continent. On the other hand, gravity studies are inherently ambiguous and therefore not able to determine both the geometry and the density contrast of the Moho. Existing Moho depth models for Antarctica show large discrepancies, even among different seismological methods, but all the more between seismological and gravity models. As a first step towards a possible reconcilement, we perform non-linear gravity inversions with simultaneous consideration of seismological data. Depending on the seismological input data, different depths and density contrasts yield the best fit. The results, however, are not in line with the pure seismological models. Subsequently, we compute simple Airy-isostatic Moho depth models and evaluate these together with multiple Moho models from previous studies in terms of their gravitational signal, applying different values for the density contrast. The models' responses are checked against observational data: vertical gravity at 50 km altitude from the spherical harmonics expansion model GOCO05s, and the gravity gradient tensor at 225 km altitude from the GOCE gravity gradient grids. While the gravity responses from the seismological models show strong disagreements with the data, the Airy-isostatic models fit better. Yet, differences of up to 10 km in depth exist between the isostatic and the gravity-inverted Moho models. From these differences in vertical gravity, in the gravity gradients and in Moho depth, we identify regions where a simple density contrast is not sufficient to explain the observed gravitational field. We conclude that lateral and vertical density variations must be considered, which might originate from high-density lower

  15. Instantons in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.

    1980-02-01

    The material contained in this thesis is concerned with the functional integral approach to the quantum theory of gravity. It seems to be necessary to work with metrics of positive definite signature (Euclidean metrics) and then analytically continue the result back to the Lorentzian regime. The dominant contributions to the functional integral come from metrics which are stationary points of the action, i.e. classical solutions of the Euclideanized Einstein equations. These are known as Gravitational Instantons. Boundary conditions have to be placed upon the metrics included in the functional integral, and these are determined by the physical problem being considered. Three types of boundary condition have arisen in this context, corresponding to (i) zero temperature physics, and the calculation of particle scattering amplitudes, (ii) finite temperature effects, such as black hole radiance, and (iii) the study of the structure of the gravitational vacuum on Planck length scales. Instantons in the first category are asymptotically flat in all four directions, those in the second are asymptotically flat in three directions and periodic in the fourth, and those which arise in studying the gravitational vacuum are compact without boundaries. Much of the thesis is concerned with considering these various kinds of instanton, and particularly with the effects of their non-trivial topology. One way in which this can be investigated is by means of the various topological index theorems, and these are applied to a variety of situations. Self-dual metrics seem to have particular significance in quantum gravity, and they are discussed in detail. Finally, some recent work on the calculation of the propagation of particles in the gravitational vacuum is described. (author)

  16. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  17. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeredo L Zeredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA, a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF, in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space. Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  18. Analytical and Computational Modeling of Mechanical Waves in Microscale Granular Crystals: Nonlinearity and Rotational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Samuel P.

    Granular media are one of the most common, yet least understood forms of matter on earth. The difficulties in understanding the physics of granular media stem from the fact that they are typically heterogeneous and highly disordered, and the grains interact via nonlinear contact forces. Historically, one approach to reducing these complexities and gaining new insight has been the study of granular crystals, which are ordered arrays of similarly-shaped particles (typically spheres) in Hertzian contact. Using this setting, past works explored the rich nonlinear dynamics stemming from contact forces, and proposed avenues where such granular crystals could form designer, dynamically responsive materials, which yield beneficial functionality in dynamic regimes. In recent years, the combination of self-assembly fabrication methods and laser ultrasonic experimental characterization have enabled the study of granular crystals at microscale. While our intuition may suggest that these microscale granular crystals are simply scaled-down versions of their macroscale counterparts, in fact, the relevant physics change drastically; for example, short-range adhesive forces between particles, which are negligible at macroscale, are several orders of magnitude stronger than gravity at microscale. In this thesis, we present recent advances in analytical and computational modeling of microscale granular crystals, in particular concerning the interplay of nonlinearity, shear interactions, and particle rotations, which have previously been either absent, or included separately at macroscale. Drawing inspiration from past works on phononic crystals and nonlinear lattices, we explore problems involving locally-resonant metamaterials, nonlinear localized modes, amplitude-dependent energy partition, and other rich dynamical phenomena. This work enhances our understanding of microscale granular media, which may find applicability in fields such as ultrasonic wave tailoring, signal processing

  19. Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...

  20. Gravity-matter entanglement in Regge quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about “matter in a point of space” is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional “effective interaction”, which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle. (paper)

  1. Artificial gravity - The evolution of variable gravity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Keefe, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    The development of a space life science research program based on the use of rotational facilities is described. In-flight and ground centrifuges can be used as artificial gravity environments to study the following: nongravitational biological factors; the effects of 0, 1, and hyper G on man; counter measures for deconditioning astronauts in weightlessness; and the development of suitable artificial gravity for long-term residence in space. The use of inertial fields as a substitute for gravity, and the relations between the radius of the centrifuge and rotation rate and specimen height and rotation radius are examined. An example of a centrifuge study involving squirrel monkeys is presented.

  2. Insight into the baryon-gravity relation in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famaey, Benoit; Gentile, Gianfranco; Bruneton, Jean-Philippe; Zhao Hongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Observations of spiral galaxies strongly support a one-to-one analytical relation between the inferred gravity of dark matter at any radius and the enclosed baryonic mass. It is baffling that baryons manage to settle the dark matter gravitational potential in such a precise way, leaving no 'messy' fingerprints of the merging events and 'gastrophysical' feedbacks expected in the history of a galaxy in a concordance Universe. This correlation of gravity with baryonic mass can be interpreted from several nonstandard angles, especially as a modification of gravity called TeVeS, in which no galactic dark matter is needed. In this theory, the baryon-gravity relation is captured by the dieletric-like function μ of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), controlling the transition from 1/r 2 attraction in the strong gravity regime to 1/r attraction in the weak regime. Here, we study this μ-function in detail. We investigate the observational constraints upon it from fitting galaxy rotation curves, unveiling the degeneracy between the stellar mass-to-light ratio and the μ-function as well as the importance of the sharpness of transition from the strong to weak gravity regimes. We also numerically address the effects of nonspherical baryon geometry in the framework of nonlinear TeVeS, and exhaustively examine how the μ-function connects with the free function of that theory. In that regard, we exhibit the subtle effects and wide implications of renormalizing the gravitational constant. We finally present a discontinuity-free transition between quasistatic galaxies and the evolving Universe for the free function of TeVeS, inevitably leading to a return to 1/r 2 attraction at very low accelerations in isolated galaxies

  3. Higher-spin extended conformal algebras and W-gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of classical W 3 gravity is reviewed. It is suggested that the hidden symmetry for quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge is not SL(3, R) but a group contraction of this, ISL(2, R). This is extended to W N gravity, and the case of W 4 gravity is presented in detail. The gauge transformations are realized on D free bosons, with the spin-n conserved current (2 ≤ n ≤ N) taking the form d sub(i i ...i n ) δ + Φ sup(i 1 ) δ + Φ sup(i n ) for some constant tensor d sub(i i ...i n ). The d-tensors must satisfy N-2 non-linear algebraic constraints and these constraints are shown to be satisfied if the d-tensors are taken to be the structure-tensors of an Nth degree Jordan algebra. The relation with Jordan algebras is used to give solutions of the d-tensor constraints for any value of D, N. The free-boson construction of the W N algebras is generalized to give a Sugaware-type construction of a large class of classical extended conformal algebras. The chiral gauging of any classical extended conformal algebra is shown to require only a linear Noether coupling to world-sheet gauge-fields, while gauging a non-chiral algebra in general leads to a non-polynomial action. A number of examples are examined, including W ∞ W-supergravity, Knizhnik-Berschadsky supergravity and 'W N/M ' algebras. Theories of higher-spin W-gravity of the type described are only possible in one and two space-time dimensions, and the one-dimensional cases is briefly discussed. The covariant formulation of W-gravity is briefly discussed and the relation between classical and quantum extended conformal algebras is analyzed. (orig.)

  4. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  5. Model reduction tools for nonlinear structural dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Jongh, de J.; Sauren, A.A.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three mode types are proposed for reducing nonlinear dynamical system equations, resulting from finite element discretizations: tangent modes, modal derivatives, and newly added static modes. Tangent modes are obtained from an eigenvalue problem with a momentary tangent stiffness matrix. Their

  6. Recent advancements in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Moss, Robert J.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing. (paper)

  7. Maglev Facility for Simulating Variable Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Strayer, Donald M.; Israelsson, Ulf E.

    2010-01-01

    An improved magnetic levitation apparatus ("Maglev Facility") has been built for use in experiments in which there are requirements to impose variable gravity (including zero gravity) in order to assess the effects of gravity or the absence thereof on physical and physiological processes. The apparatus is expected to be especially useful for experiments on the effects of gravity on convection, boiling, and heat transfer in fluids and for experiments on mice to gain understanding of bone loss induced in human astronauts by prolonged exposure to reduced gravity in space flight. The maglev principle employed by the apparatus is well established. Diamagnetic cryogenic fluids such as liquid helium have been magnetically levitated for studying their phase transitions and critical behaviors. Biological entities consist mostly of diamagnetic molecules (e.g., water molecules) and thus can be levitated by use of sufficiently strong magnetic fields having sufficiently strong vertical gradients. The heart of the present maglev apparatus is a vertically oriented superconducting solenoid electromagnet (see figure) that generates a static magnetic field of about 16 T with a vertical gradient sufficient for levitation of water in normal Earth gravity. The electromagnet is enclosed in a Dewar flask having a volume of 100 L that contains liquid helium to maintain superconductivity. The Dewar flask features a 66-mm-diameter warm bore, lying within the bore of the magnet, wherein experiments can be performed at room temperature. The warm bore is accessible from its top and bottom ends. The superconducting electromagnet is run in the persistent mode, in which the supercurrent and the magnetic field can be maintained for weeks with little decay, making this apparatus extremely cost and energy efficient to operate. In addition to water, this apparatus can levitate several common fluids: liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, methane, ammonia, sodium, and lithium, all of which are useful

  8. Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bei Lok

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out

  9. Environmental and simulation facility conditions can modulate a behavioral-driven altered gravity response of Drosophila imagoes transcriptome

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Genome-wide transcriptional profiling shows that reducing gravity levels in the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is...

  13. Electrovacuum solutions in nonlocal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita

    2018-05-01

    We consider the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a nonlocal gravity theory comprising of the Einstein-Hilbert action in addition to a nonlocal R □-2R term associated with a mass scale m . We demonstrate that in the case of the minimally coupled electromagnetic field, real corrections about the Reissner-Nordström background only exist between the inner Cauchy horizon and the event horizon of the black hole. This motivates us to consider the modified coupling of electromagnetism to this theory via the Kaluza ansatz. The Kaluza reduction introduces nonlocal terms involving the electromagnetic field to the pure gravitational nonlocal theory. An iterative approach is provided to perturbatively solve the equations of motion to arbitrary order in m2 about any known solution of general relativity. We derive the first-order corrections and demonstrate that the higher order corrections are real and perturbative about the external background of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. We also discuss how the Kaluza reduced action, through the inclusion of nonlocal electromagnetic fields, could also be relevant in quantum effects on curved backgrounds with horizons.

  14. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  15. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  16. Why is gravity so weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Why is gravity weak? Gravity is plagued with this and many other questions. After decades of exhausting work we do not have a clear answer. In view of this fact it will be shown in the following pages that there are reasons for thinking that gravity is just a composite force consisting of the long-range manifestations of short range nuclear forces that are too tiny to be measured at illuminated or long ranges by particle colliders. This is consistent with Einstein's proposal in 1919

  17. Mars - Hellas Planitia gravity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Wimberley, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler radio tracking data from Viking Orbiter 1 has provided new detailed observations of gravity variations over Hellas Planitia. Line-of-sight Bouguer gravity definitely indicates that isostatic adjustment has occurred. Two theoretical models were tested to obtain fits to the gravity data. Results for a surface deficit model, and a model with a surface deficit and a mass excess at depth are displayed. The mass-at-depth model produced very marked improvement in the data fit as compared to the surface deficit model. The optimum depth for the mass excess is 130 km.

  18. Parametrized post-Friedmann framework for modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2007-01-01

    We develop a parametrized post-Friedmann (PPF) framework which describes three regimes of modified gravity models that accelerate the expansion without dark energy. On large scales, the evolution of scalar metric and density perturbations must be compatible with the expansion history defined by distance measures. On intermediate scales in the linear regime, they form a scalar-tensor theory with a modified Poisson equation. On small scales in dark matter halos such as our own galaxy, modifications must be suppressed in order to satisfy stringent local tests of general relativity. We describe these regimes with three free functions and two parameters: the relationship between the two metric fluctuations, the large and intermediate scale relationships to density fluctuations, and the two scales of the transitions between the regimes. We also clarify the formal equivalence of modified gravity and generalized dark energy. The PPF description of linear fluctuation in f(R) modified action and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld models show excellent agreement with explicit calculations. Lacking cosmological simulations of these models, our nonlinear halo-model description remains an ansatz but one that enables well-motivated consistency tests of general relativity. The required suppression of modifications within dark matter halos suggests that the linear and weakly nonlinear regimes are better suited for making a complementary test of general relativity than the deeply nonlinear regime

  19. Gravity Effects in Microgap Flow Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Franklin; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2017-01-01

    Increasing integration density of electronic components has exacerbated the thermal management challenges facing electronic system developers. The high power, heat flux, and volumetric heat generation of emerging devices are driving the transition from remote cooling, which relies on conduction and spreading, to embedded cooling, which facilitates direct contact between the heat-generating device and coolant flow. Microgap coolers employ the forced flow of dielectric fluids undergoing phase change in a heated channel between devices. While two phase microcoolers are used routinely in ground-based systems, the lack of acceptable models and correlations for microgravity operation has limited their use for spacecraft thermal management. Previous research has revealed that gravitational acceleration plays a diminishing role as the channel diameter shrinks, but there is considerable variation among the proposed gravity-insensitive channel dimensions and minimal research on rectangular ducts. Reliable criteria for achieving gravity-insensitive flow boiling performance would enable spaceflight systems to exploit this powerful thermal management technique and reduce development time and costs through reliance on ground-based testing. In the present effort, the authors have studied the effect of evaporator orientation on flow boiling performance of HFE7100 in a 218 m tall by 13.0 mm wide microgap cooler. Similar heat transfer coefficients and critical heat flux were achieved across five evaporator orientations, indicating that the effect of gravity was negligible.

  20. REXUS 16 Low Gravity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoliu, L.; Ciuca, I.; Lupu, E. S.; Ciobanu, I.; Cherciu, C.; Soare, C.; Murensan, C.; Dragomir, D.; Chitu, C.; Nachila, C.

    2015-09-01

    The REXUS/BEXUS is a programme realized under a bilateral agency agreement between the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) (Source: www.rexusbexus.net) . Within this programme, the experiment proposed by LOW Gravity was given the opportunity to fly on board of REXUS 16 from Kiruna, Sweden, in May 2014. Since space settlements are within our reach and material processing in reduced gravity is a key requirement, we aim to improve this field by investigating the melting and welding processes taking place in milligravity on board of a sounding rocket. Our main objective is to analyze the surface deformation and physical properties of titanium and acid core solder alloys welded/melted under miligravity conditions with a 25W LASER diode. The main components of our experiment are the metal samples, the LASER diode and the control electronics. The metal samples are placed in front of an optical system and are shifted during approximately 120 seconds of milligravity. The optical system is connected via an optic fiber to the LASER diode. The electronics consists of two custom-made boards: the mainboard which is connected to the REXUS interface and controls the LASER diode and the sample shifting and the logboard which has an SD card to log all experiment data (sample position, experiment acceleration and rotation rate, pressure and temperature, battery voltage and LASER diode status). During the flight, due to unexpected vibration levels, the fiber optics was damaged at T+70 and the experiment could not fulfill its main objective. A GoPro camera mounted inside the experiment box recorded the experiment operation. Valuable information regarding temperature and battery voltage was also sent remotely to our Ground Station. This data enabled us to perform a thorough failure analysis. Parallel readings of these parameters taken by other experiments and by the REXUS Service Module corroborate our data and increase the accuracy of our analysis