WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear matter power

  1. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  2. The Coyote Universe II: Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  3. EFFECTS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS SPLITTING ON THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We have performed cosmological N-body simulations which include the effect of the masses of the individual neutrino species. The simulations were aimed at studying the effect of different neutrino hierarchies on the matter power spectrum. Compared to the linear theory predictions, we find that nonlinearities enhance the effect of hierarchy on the matter power spectrum at mildly nonlinear scales. The maximum difference between the different hierarchies is about 0.5% for a sum of neutrino masses of 0.1 eV. Albeit this is a small effect, it is potentially measurable from upcoming surveys. In combination with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments, this opens up the possibility of using the sky to determine if neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions.

  4. Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.

  5. Cosmological leverage from the matter power spectrum in the presence of baryon and nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, Jannis; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the use of higher wavenumbers (smaller scales) in the galaxy clustering power spectrum influences cosmological constraints. We take into account uncertainties from nonlinear density fluctuations, (scale dependent) galaxy bias, and baryonic effects. Allowing for substantially model independent uncertainties through separate fit parameters in each wavenumber bin that also allow for the redshift evolution, we quantify strong gains in dark energy and neutrino mass leverage with increasing maximum wavenumber, despite marginalizing over numerous (up to 125) extra fit parameters. The leverage is due to not only an increased number of modes but, more significantly, breaking of degeneracies beyond the linear regime

  6. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency

  7. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-07-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.

  8. Power-induced evolution and increased dimensionality of nonlinear modes in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Zegadło, Krzysztof B; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the evolution of higher order one-dimensional guided modes into two-dimensional solitary waves in a reorientational medium. The observations, carried out at two different wavelengths in chiral nematic liquid crystals, are in good agreement with a simple nonlocal nonlinear model.

  9. CHAM: a fast algorithm of modelling non-linear matter power spectrum in the sCreened HAlo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Liu, Xue-Wen; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2018-05-01

    We present a fast numerical screened halo model algorithm (CHAM, which stands for the sCreened HAlo Model) for modelling non-linear power spectrum for the alternative models to Λ cold dark matter. This method has three obvious advantages. First of all, it is not being restricted to a specific dark energy/modified gravity model. In principle, all of the screened scalar-tensor theories can be applied. Secondly, the least assumptions are made in the calculation. Hence, the physical picture is very easily understandable. Thirdly, it is very predictable and does not rely on the calibration from N-body simulation. As an example, we show the case of the Hu-Sawicki f(R) gravity. In this case, the typical CPU time with the current parallel PYTHON script (eight threads) is roughly within 10 min. The resulting spectra are in a good agreement with N-body data within a few percentage accuracy up to k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1.

  10. Nuclear matter as a nonlinear optical medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefter, E.F.; Papini, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question whether nuclear matter should be considered as a nonlinear optical medium. Taking, in a pragmatic way, quality and quantity of the results of well-established linear and nonlinear approaches as the main criterion, an affirmative answer is seen to be consistent with long-standing practices adhered to in nuclear physics

  11. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Roshni, E-mail: rbiswas@usc.edu; Povinelli, Michelle L. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  12. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Roshni; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest

  13. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  14. Onset of the nonlinear regime in unified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Copeland, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the onset of the nonlinear regime in the context of unified dark matter models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We show that the transition from dark-matter-like to dark-energy-like behavior will never be smooth. In some regions of space the transition will never take place while in others it may happen sooner or later than naively expected. As a result the linear theory used in previous studies may break down late in the matter dominated era even on large cosmological scales. We study the importance of this effect showing that its magnitude depends on the exact form of the equation of state in the low density regime. We expect that our results will be relevant for other unified dark matter scenarios, particularly those where the quartessence candidate is a perfect fluid

  15. Nonlinear analysis on power reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Hayashi, K.

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the origin of intermittent oscillation observed in a BWR can be ascribed to the couplings among the spatial modes starting from a non-linear center manifold equation with a delay-time and a spatial diffusion. We can reduce the problem to the stochastic coupled van der Pol oscillators with non-linear coupling term. This non-linear coupling term plays an important role to break the symmetry of the system and the non-linear damping of the system. The phenomenological generalization of van der Pol oscillator coupled by the linear diffusion term is not appropriate for describing the nuclear power reactors. However, one must start from the coupled partial differential equations by taking into account the two energy group neutrons, the thermo-hydraulic equations including two-phase flow. In this case, the diffusion constant must be a complex number as is demonstrated in a previous paper. The results will be reported in the near future. (J.P.N.)

  16. Wind Power Prediction Considering Nonlinear Atmospheric Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.

  17. Nonlinear Trend and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    luo, yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...

  18. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. II. Power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Hu, Wayne; Lima, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the inverse mass or Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular, the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the nonlinear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level for models even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. Simple scaling relations that take the linear power spectrum into a nonlinear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications.

  19. Dark matter as a non-linear effect of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.; Capistrano, A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The rotation curves of stars in disk galaxies are calculated with the Newtonian law of motion applied to a scalar potential derived from the geodesic equation, only, under the slow motion condition, the so-called Nearly Newtonian Gravity (NNG). A nearly Newtonian gravitational potential, Φ NN = -1/2 c 2 (1+g 44 ), is obtained, characterized by an exact solution of Einsteins equations, with the non-linear effects present in the component g 44 . This gravitational field lies somewhere between General Relativity and Newtonian Gravity. Therefore, Einsteins equations and the equivalence principle are preserved, but the general covariance is broken. The resulting curves are remarkably close to the observed rotation curves in spiral galaxies, suggesting that a substantial component of dark matter may be explained by the non-linearity of Einsteins equations. (author)

  20. Nonlinear mean field theory for nuclear matter and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguta, J.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear matter properties are studied in a nonlinear relativistic mean field theory. We determine the parameters of the model from bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter and a reasonable value of the effective mass. In this work, we stress the nonrelativistic limit of the theory which is essentially equivalent to a Skyrme hamiltonian, and we show that most of the results can be obtained, to a good approximation, analytically. The strength of the required parameters is determined from the binding energy and density of nuclear matter and the effective nucleon mass. For realistic values of the parameters, the nonrelativistic approximation turns out to be quite satisfactory. Using reasonable values of the parameters, we can account for other key properties of nuclei, such as the spin-orbit coupling, surface energy, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface. Also the energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus optical model is accounted for reasonably well except near the Fermi surface. It is found, in agreement with empirical results, that the Landau parameter F 0 is quite small in normal nuclear matter. Both density dependence and momentum dependence of the NN interaction, but especially the former, are important for nuclear saturation. The required scalar and vector coupling constants agree fairly well with those obtained from analyses of NN scattering phase shifts with one-boson-exchange models. The mean field theory provides a semiquantitative justification for the weak Skyrme interaction in odd states. The strength of the required nonlinear term is roughly consistent with that derived using a new version of the chiral mean field theory in which the vector mass as well as the nucleon mass is generated by the sigma-field. (orig.)

  1. Qualitative analysis of nonlinear power oscillation in NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Shinohara, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the automatic control system of NSRR is investigated experimentally and theoretically in connection with the power oscillation. A subsystem in the automatic control system relevant to the onset of the power oscillation is determined, and it is found that the subsystem possesses nonlinearity. Although the detailed mechanism of the nonlinearity cannot be identified because of lack of signals measured inside the subsystem, the input and output signals imply that the nonlinearity is a sort of backlash. A simplified reactor dynamic model with backlash simulates the dynamics of the NSRR power oscillation. (Author)

  2. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... for such behavior is the interplay of nonstationarity and nonlinearity. In particular, we show that nonlinearity of the data generating process can be asymptotically negligible when the error variance is moderate or large (compared to the "amount of nonlinearity"), rendering the linear test more powerful than...

  3. Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalerandi, M., E-mail: marco.scalerandi@infm.polito.it

    2016-01-28

    Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities. - Highlights: • Several materials exhibit a nontrivial nonlinear elastic behavior which can be ascribed to different physical sources. • The quantitative nonlinear response is dependent on the type of microstructure present in the material. • A nonlinear indicator could be defined which depends on the excitation energy of the sample. • Assuming a power law dependence, the exponent depends on the microstructure of the material and could evolve in time. • Experimental results on concrete are discussed and a theoretical description is proposed.

  4. The losses at power grid caused by small nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between registered active power and spent unregistered power represents the losses at power grid. This paper treats problems related to losses caused by nonlinear loads connected to the power grid. In recent years the load profile of power consumers turned from energy-waster linear to energysaver but non-linear loads. The main cause of the losses appears due to the lack of adequate measurement equipment. Namely, common household power meters register only active energy, while power meters for industrial application register reactive energy as well. This approach does not follow the change of the enduser profile. Tendency of improving energy efficiency brought wide use of switching mode regulators and replace old incandescent light bulb with new energy saving lamps (CFL - compact fluorescent lamp, LED bulb. Therefore, the number of non-linear load drastically increased. Registering only active component of power at consumer’s side does not depict the real profile of the consumption. Therefore, in this paper we analyse and quantify the effects of nonlinear loads at power losses. As a result we suggest an efficient method for measuring the distortion component of power. The method relays on low-cost upgrade of commercial electronic power meters. The presented results of measurements on small non-linear loads confirm the proposed technique. Besides, they prove the importance of measuring all components of apparent power and justified their use in billing policy. The implemented set-up is based on power meter manufactured by EWG of Niš. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32004

  5. An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Maleknejad, Azadeh, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@cea.fr, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark energy both on the matter fields and on the biased tracers. For the specific case of clustering quintessence, we then perturbatively solve to cubic order the resulting non-linear equations and construct the one-loop power spectrum of the total density contrast.

  6. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-12-01

    We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are searching for new second and third harmonic generators among the salts of organic acids and bases. They discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, they summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments

  8. Testing Rastall's theory using matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, C.E.M.; Fabris, J.C.; Daouda, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Rastall's theory is a modification of the General Relativity theory leading to a different expression for the conservation law in the matter sector compared with the usual one. It has been argued recently that such a theory may have applications to the dark energy problem, since a pressureless fluid may lead to an accelerated universe. In the present work we confront Rastall's theory with the power spectrum data. The results indicate a configuration that essentially reduces Rastall's theory to General Relativity, unless the non-usual conservation law refers to a scalar field, situation where other configurations are eventually possible.

  9. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  10. Ageing of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghofraniha, N; Conti, C; Leonardo, R Di; Ruzicka, B; Ruocco, G

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optics response of a colloidal dispersion undergoing dynamics slowing down with age, by using Z-scan and dynamic light scattering measurements. We study the high optical nonlinearity of an organic dye (rhodamine B) dispersed in a water-clay (laponite) suspension. We consider different clay concentrations (2.0-2.6 wt%) experiencing dynamics arrest. We find that (i) the concentration dependent exponential growth of both mean relaxation time and nonlinear absorption coefficient can be individually scaled to a master curve and (ii) the scaling times are the same for the two physical quantities. These findings indicate that the optical nonlinear susceptibility exhibits the same ageing universal scaling behaviour, typical of disordered out of equilibrium systems

  11. REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM: RESTORING INFORMATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC DENSITY MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    We find that nonlinearities in the dark matter power spectrum are dramatically smaller if the density field first undergoes a logarithmic mapping. In the Millennium simulation, this procedure gives a power spectrum with a shape hardly departing from the linear power spectrum for k ∼ -1 at all redshifts. Also, this procedure unveils pristine Fisher information on a range of scales reaching a factor of 2-3 smaller than in the standard power spectrum, yielding 10 times more cumulative signal to noise at z = 0.

  12. Nonlinear Characterization of Half and Full Wavelength Power Ultrasonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cerisola, Niccolò; Cardoni, Andrea

    It is well known that power ultrasonic devices whilst driven under elevated excitation levels exhibit nonlinear behaviors. If no attempt is made to understand and subsequently control these behaviors, these devices can exhibit poor performance or even suffer premature failure. This paper presents an experimental method for the dynamic characterization of a commercial ultrasonic transducer for bone cutting applications (Piezosurgery® Device) operated together with a variety of rod horns that are tuned to operate in a longitudinal mode of vibration. Near resonance responses, excited via a burst sine sweep method were used to identify nonlinear responses exhibited by the devices, while experimental modal analysis was performed to identify the modal parameters of the longitudinal modes of vibration of the assemblies between 0-80 kHz. This study tries to provide an understanding of the effects that geometry and material choices may have on the nonlinear behavior of a tuned device.

  13. Non-linear Matter Spectra in Coupled Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, F; Tetradis, N; Pettorino, V; Robbers, G

    2010-01-01

    We consider cosmologies in which a dark-energy scalar field interacts with cold dark matter. The growth of perturbations is followed beyond the linear level by means of the time-renormalization-group method, which is extended to describe a multi-component matter sector. Even in the absence of the extra interaction, a scale-dependent bias is generated as a consequence of the different initial conditions for baryons and dark matter after decoupling. The effect is greatly enhanced by the extra coupling and can be at the percent level in the range of scales of baryonic acoustic oscillations. We compare our results with N-body simulations, finding very good agreement.

  14. Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained

  15. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K

    2016-01-01

    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  16. Nonlinear cosmological consistency relations and effective matter stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kunz, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We propose a fully nonlinear framework to construct consistency relations for testing generic cosmological scenarios using the evolution of large scale structure. It is based on the covariant approach in combination with a frame that is purely given by the metric, the normal frame. As an example, we apply this framework to the ΛCDM model, by extending the usual first order conditions on the metric potentials to second order, where the two potentials start to differ from each other. We argue that working in the normal frame is not only a practical choice but also helps with the physical interpretation of nonlinear dynamics. In this frame, effective pressures and anisotropic stresses appear at second order in perturbation theory, even for ''pressureless'' dust. We quantify their effect and compare them, for illustration, to the pressure of a generic clustering dark energy fluid and the anisotropic stress in the DGP model. Besides, we also discuss the effect of a mismatch of the potentials on the determination of galaxy bias

  17. Nonlinear Schrödinger equations with single power nonlinearity and harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolatti, R.; de Macedo Lira, Y.; Trallero-Giner, C.

    2018-03-01

    We consider a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLS) with a single power nonlinearity of the form λ ≤ft\\vert \\varphi \\right\\vert p , with p  >  0 and λ\\in{R} , in the presence of a harmonic confinement. We report the conditions that p and λ must fulfill for the existence and uniqueness of ground states of the GNLS. We discuss the Cauchy problem and summarize which conditions are required for the nonlinear term λ ≤ft\\vert \\varphi \\right\\vert p to render the ground state solutions orbitally stable. Based on a new variational method we provide exact formulæ for the minimum energy for each index p and the changing range of values of the nonlinear parameter λ. Also, we report an approximate close analytical expression for the ground state energy, performing a comparative analysis of the present variational calculations with those obtained by a generalized Thomas-Fermi approach, and soliton solutions for the respective ranges of p and λ where these solutions can be implemented to describe the minimum energy.

  18. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Elements of a dialogue between nonlinear models in condensed matter and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Kerr, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    We indicate some of the emerging thematic connections between strongly nonlinear effects in condensed matter and biological materials. These are illustrated with model studies of: (1) structural phase transitions in anisotropic lattices; and (2) finite temperature effects on self-trapped states in vibron-phonon models of α-helix proteins. 13 refs., 8 figs

  1. Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.

    2000-03-01

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)

  2. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  3. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  4. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  5. Power-controlled transition from standard to negative refraction in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Armando; Alberucci, Alessandro; Kravets, Nina; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-25

    Refraction at a dielectric interface can take an anomalous character in anisotropic crystals, when light is negatively refracted with incident and refracted beams emerging on the same side of the interface normal. In soft matter subject to reorientation, such as nematic liquid crystals, the nonlinear interaction with light allows tuning of the optical properties. We demonstrate that in such material a beam of light can experience either positive or negative refraction depending on input power, as it can alter the spatial distribution of the optic axis and, in turn, the direction of the energy flow when traveling across an interface. Moreover, the nonlinear optical response yields beam self-focusing and spatial localization into a self-confined solitary wave through the formation of a graded-index waveguide, linking the refractive transition to power-driven readdressing of copolarized guided-wave signals, with a number of output ports not limited by diffraction.

  6. Nonlinear Fuzzy Model Predictive Control for a PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable power and temperature control in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant is necessary to guarantee high efficiency and plant safety. Since the nuclear plants are quite nonlinear, the paper presents nonlinear fuzzy model predictive control (MPC, by incorporating the realistic constraints, to realize the plant optimization. T-S fuzzy modeling on nuclear power plant is utilized to approximate the nonlinear plant, based on which the nonlinear MPC controller is devised via parallel distributed compensation (PDC scheme in order to solve the nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Improved performance compared to the traditional PID controller for a TMI-type PWR is obtained in the simulation.

  7. Advanced nonlinear control of three phase series active power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouelmahjoub Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of controlling three-phase series active power filter (TPSAPF is addressed in this paper in presence of the perturbations in the voltages of the electrical supply network. The control objective of the TPSAPF is twofold: (i compensation of all voltage perturbations (voltage harmonics, voltage unbalance and voltage sags, (ii regulation of the DC bus voltage of the inverter. A controller formed by two nonlinear regulators is designed, using the Backstepping technique, to provide the above compensation. The regulation of the DC bus voltage of the inverter is ensured by the use of a diode bridge rectifier which its output is in parallel with the DC bus capacitor. The Analysis of controller performances is illustrated by numerical simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  8. Power spectrum of dark matter substructure in strong gravitational lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Rivero, Ana; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2018-01-01

    Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter substructures at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Within the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, the number of low-mass subhalos within lens galaxies is expected to be large, implying that their contribution to the lensing convergence field is approximately Gaussian and could thus be described by their power spectrum. We develop here a general formalism to compute from first principles the substructure convergence power spectrum for different populations of dark matter subhalos. As an example, we apply our framework to two distinct subhalo populations: a truncated Navarro-Frenk-White subhalo population motivated by standard CDM, and a truncated cored subhalo population motivated by self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We study in detail how the subhalo abundance, mass function, internal density profile, and concentration affect the amplitude and shape of the substructure power spectrum. We determine that the power spectrum is mostly sensitive to a specific combination of the subhalo abundance and moments of the mass function, as well as to the average tidal truncation scale of the largest subhalos included in the analysis. Interestingly, we show that the asymptotic slope of the substructure power spectrum at large wave number reflects the internal density profile of the subhalos. In particular, the SIDM power spectrum exhibits a characteristic steepening at large wave number absent in the CDM power spectrum, opening the possibility of using this observable, if at all measurable, to discern between these two scenarios.

  9. High power laser-matter interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mulser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book intended as a guide for scientists and students who have just discovered the field as a new and attractive area of research, and for scientists who have worked in another field and want to join now the subject of laser plasmas. In the first chapter the plasma dynamics is described phenomenologically by a two fluid model and similarity relations from dimensional analysis. Chapter 2 is devoted to plasma optics and collisional absorption in the dielectric and ballistic model. Linear resonance absorption at the plasma frequency and its mild nonlinearities as well as the self-quenching of high amplitude electron plasma waves by wave breaking are discussed in Chapter 3. With increasing laser intensity the plasma dynamics is dominated by radiation pressure, at resonance producing all kinds of parametric instabilities and out of resonance leading to density steps, self-focusing and filamentation, described in Chapters 4 and 5. A self-contained treatment of field ionization of atoms and related phenomena ar...

  10. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  11. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  12. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  13. Nonlinearities and transit times in soil organic matter models: new developments in the SoilR package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    SoilR is an R package for implementing diverse models representing soil organic matter dynamics. In previous releases of this package, we presented the implementation of linear first-order models with any number of pools as well as radiocarbon dynamics. We present here new improvements of the package regarding the possibility to implement models with nonlinear interactions among state variables and the possibility to calculate ages and transit times for nonlinear models with time dependencies. We show here examples on how to implement model structures with Michaelis-Menten terms for explicit microbial growth and resource use efficiency, and Langmuir isotherms for representing adsorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces. These nonlinear terms can be implemented for any number of organic matter pools, microbial functional groups, or mineralogy, depending on user's requirements. Through a simple example, we also show how transit times of organic matter in soils are controlled by the time-dependencies of the input terms.

  14. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...

  15. Nonlinear power spectrum from resummed perturbation theory: a leap beyond the BAO scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Stefano; Pietroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    A new computational scheme for the nonlinear cosmological matter power spectrum (PS) is presented. Our method is based on evolution equations in time, which can be cast in a form extremely convenient for fast numerical evaluations. A nonlinear PS is obtained in a time comparable to that needed for a simple 1-loop computation, and the numerical implementation is very simple. Our results agree with N-body simulations at the percent level in the BAO range of scales, and at the few-percent level up to k ≅ 1 h/Mpc at z∼>0.5, thereby opening the possibility of applying this tool to scales interesting for weak lensing. We clarify the approximations inherent to this approach as well as its relations to previous ones, such as the Time Renormalization Group, and the multi-point propagator expansion. We discuss possible lines of improvements of the method and its intrinsic limitations by multi streaming at small scales and low redshifts

  16. Axion as a Cold Dark Matter Candidate: Proof to Fully Nonlinear Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyerim [Center for Large Telescope, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan-Gyung [Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    We present proof of the axion as a cold dark matter (CDM) candidate to the fully nonlinear order perturbations based on Einstein’s gravity. We consider the axion as a coherently oscillating massive classical scalar field without interaction. We present the fully nonlinear and exact, except for ignoring the transverse-tracefree tensor-type perturbation, hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid in Einstein’s gravity. We show that the axion has the characteristic pressure and anisotropic stress; the latter starts to appear from the second-order perturbation. But these terms do not directly affect the hydrodynamic equations in our axion treatment. Instead, what behaves as the effective pressure term in relativistic hydrodynamic equations is the perturbed lapse function and the relativistic result coincides exactly with the one known in the previous non-relativistic studies. The effective pressure term leads to a Jeans scale that is of the solar-system scale for conventional axion mass. As the fully nonlinear and relativistic hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid coincide exactly with the ones of a zero-pressure fluid in the super-Jeans scale, we have proved the CDM nature of such an axion in that scale.

  17. Nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant components: research status and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoykovich, M [Burns and Roe, Inc., New York (USA)

    1978-10-01

    This paper encompasses nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant facilities. The history of plasticity as a science is briefly discussed, and nonlinear cases of special interest are described. Approaches to some of the nonlinear problems are presented. These include the nonlinearity due to foundation-structure interaction associated with the base slab uplift during seismic disturbances, the nonlinear base-isolation system for the reduction of earthquake-generated forces and deformations of superstructures, nonlinear systems having restoring-force functions in case of gaps and liift-off conditions, and nonlinearity of viscoelastic systems due to inelastic deformations. Available computer programs information for the solution of various types of nonlinear problems are provided. Advantages and disadvantages of some of the nonlinear and linear analyses are discussed. Comparison of some nonlinear and linear results of analyses are presented. Conclusions are reached with regard to research status and recommendations for further studies and for performing non-linear analyses associated with the problems of nonlinearity are presented.

  18. Nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant components: research status and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper encompasses nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant facilities. The history of plasticity as a science is briefly discussed, and nonlinear cases of special interest are described. Approaches to some of the nonlinear problems are presented. These include the nonlinearity due to foundation-structure interaction associated with the base slab uplift during seismic disturbances, the nonlinear base-isolation system for the reduction of earthquake-generated forces and deformations of superstructures, nonlinear systems having restoring-force functions in case of gaps and liift-off conditions, and nonlinearity of viscoelastic systems due to inelastic deformations. Available computer programs information for the solution of various types of nonlinear problems are provided. Advantages and disadvantages of some of the nonlinear and linear analyses are discussed. Comparison of some nonlinear and linear results of analyses are presented. Conclusions are reached with regard to research status and recommendations for further studies and for performing non-linear analyses associated with the problems of nonlinearity are presented. (Auth.)

  19. Universal Critical Power for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations with a Symmetric Double Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Here we consider stationary states for nonlinear Schroedinger equations in any spatial dimension n with symmetric double well potentials. These states may bifurcate as the strength of the nonlinear term increases and we observe two different pictures depending on the value of the nonlinearity power: a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, and a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation with two asymmetric branches occurring as the result of saddle-node bifurcations. We show that in the semiclassical limit, or for a large barrier between the two wells, the first kind of bifurcation always occurs when the nonlinearity power is less than a critical value; in contrast, when the nonlinearity power is larger than such a critical value then we always observe the second scenario. The remarkable fact is that such a critical value is a universal constant in the sense that it does not depend on the shape of the double well potential and on the dimension n.

  20. Linear and nonlinear analysis of high-power rf amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1983-01-01

    After a survey of the state variable analysis method the final amplifier for the CBA is analyzed taking into account the real beam waveshape. An empirical method for checking the stability of a non-linear system is also considered

  1. Optimization of Nonlinear Figure-of-Merits of Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art power semiconductor industry uses figure-of-merits (FOMs) for technology-to-technology and/or device-to-device comparisons. However, the existing FOMs are fundamentally nonlinear due to the nonlinearities of the parameters such as the gate charge and the output charge versus...

  2. Stability of the static solitons in a pure spinor theory with fractional power nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, K.G.; Tezgor, G.; Barut, A.O.; Kalayci, J.; Okan, S.E.

    1988-08-01

    Soliton solutions are obtained in a pure fermionic model with fractional power nonlinear self-interactions. The stability properties of the minimum solutions have also been investigated within the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. (author). 10 refs

  3. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-01-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  4. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  5. Concept for power scaling second harmonic generation using a cascade of nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2015-01-01

    for efficient power scaling of single-pass SHG beyond such limits using a cascade of nonlinear crystals, in which the first crystal is chosen for high nonlinear efficiency and the subsequent crystal(s) are chosen for power handling ability. Using this highly efficient singlepass concept, we generate 3.7 W...... successfully combines the high efficiency of the first stage with the good power handling properties of the subsequent stages. The concept is generally applicable and can be expanded with more stages to obtain even higher efficiency, and extends also to other combinations of nonlinear media suitable for other......Within the field of high-power second harmonic generation (SHG), power scaling is often hindered by adverse crystal effects such as thermal dephasing arising from the second harmonic (SH) light, which imposes limits on the power that can be generated in many crystals. Here we demonstrate a concept...

  6. Nonlinear dynamics and damage induced properties of soft matter with application in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimark, O.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular-morphological signs of oncogenesis could be linked to multiscale collective effects in molecular, cell and tissue related to defects (damage) dynamics. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of biological systems can be linked to the existence of characteristic collective open state modes providing the coherent expression dynamics. New type of criticality in nonequilibrium systems with defects—structural-scaling transition allows the definition of the `driving force' for a biological soft matter related to consolidated open states. The set of collective open states (breathers, autosolitons and blow-up modes) in the molecular ensembles provides the collective expression dynamics to attract the entire system (cell, tissue) toward a few preferred global states. The co-existence of three types of collective modes determines the multifractal scenario of biological soft matter dynamics. The appearance of `globally convergent' dynamics corresponding to the coherent behavior of multiscale blow-up open states (blow-up gene expression) leads to anomalous localized softening (blow-up localized damage) and the subjection of the cells (or tissue) to monofractal dynamics. This dynamics can be associated with cancer progression.

  7. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  8. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  9. Nonlinear Disturbance Attenuation Controller for Turbo-Generators in Power Systems via Recursive Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Shen, T.L.; Song, Y.H.; Mei, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a nonlinear robust controller for steam governor control in power systems. Based on dissipation theory, an innovative recursive design method is presented to construct the storage function of single machine infinite bus (SMIB) and multi-machine power systems. Furthermore, the

  10. Harmonic balance finite element method applications in nonlinear electromagnetics and power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Junwei; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2016-01-01

    The first book applying HBFEM to practical electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems * Examines and solves wide aspects of practical electrical and electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems presented by HBFEM * Combines the latest research work with essential background knowledge, providing an all-encompassing reference for researchers, power engineers and students of applied electromagnetics analysis * There are very few books dealing with the solution of nonlinear electric- power-related problems * The contents are based on the authors' many years' research and industry experience; they approach the subject in a well-designed and logical way * It is expected that HBFEM will become a more useful and practical technique over the next 5 years due to the HVDC power system, renewable energy system and Smart Grid, HF magnetic used in DC/DC converter, and Multi-pulse transformer for HVDC power supply * HBFEM can provide effective and economic solutions to R&D product development * Includes Matlab e...

  11. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula

  12. Parameter Identification for Nonlinear Circuit Models of Power BAW Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINESCU, F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The large signal operation of the bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators is characterized by the amplitude-frequency effect and the intermodulation effect. The measurement of these effects, together with that of the small signal frequency characteristic, are used in this paper for the parameter identification of the nonlinear circuit models developed previously by authors. As the resonator has been connected to the measurement bench by wire bonding, the parasitic elements of this connection have been taken into account, being estimated solving some electrical and magnetic field problems.

  13. Non-linear adjustment to purchasing power parity: an analysis using Fourier approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín; M. Dolores Robles Fernández

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the dynamics of adjustment to long run purchasing power parity (PPP) using data for 18 mayor bilateral US dollar exchange rates, over the post-Bretton Woods period, in a non-linear framework. We use new unit root and cointegration tests that do not assume a specific non-linear adjustment process. Using a first-order Fourier approximation, we find evidence of non-linear mean reversion in deviations from both absolute and relative PPP. This first-order Fourier approximation...

  14. Testing universal relations of neutron stars with a nonlinear matter-gravity coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  15. Testing Universal Relations of Neutron Stars with a Nonlinear Matter-Gravity Coupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  16. Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.; Valla, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.

  17. Nonlinear decentralized robust governor control for hydroturbine-generator sets in multi-machine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang Lu; Yusong Sun; Yuanzhang Sun [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Felix F Wu; Yixin Ni [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Yokoyama, Akihiko [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Goto, Masuo; Konishi, Hiroo [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Power System Div.

    2004-06-01

    A novel nonlinear decentralized robust governor control for hydroturbine-generator sets in multi-machine power systems is suggested in this paper. The nonelastic water hammer effect and disturbances are considered in the modeling. The advanced differential geometry theory, nonlinear robust control theory and the dynamic feedback method are combined to solve the problem. The nonlinear decentralized robust control law for the speed governor of hydroturbine-generators has been derived. The input signals to the proposed controller are all local measurements and independent to the system parameters. The derived control law guarantees the integrated system stability with disturbance attenuation, which is significant to the real power system application. Computer tests on an 8-machine, 36-bus power system show clearly the effectiveness of the new control strategy in transient stability enhancement and disturbance attenuation. The computer test results based on the suggested controller are compared favorably with those based on the conventional linear governor control. (author)

  18. Modal analysis and nonlinear characterization of an airborne power ultrasonic transducer with rectangular plate radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R R; Acosta, V M; Lucas, M; Riera, E

    2018-01-01

    Some industrial processes like particle agglomeration or food dehydration among others can be enhanced by the use of power ultrasonic technologies. These technologies are based on an airborne power ultrasonic transducer (APUT) constituted by a pre-stressed Langevin-type transducer, a mechanical amplifier and an extensive plate radiator. In order to produce the desired effects in industrial processing, the transducer has to vibrate in an extensional mode driving an extensive radiator in the desired flexural mode with high amplitude displacements. Due to the generation of these high amplitude displacements in the radiator surfaces, non-linear effects like frequency shifts, hysteresis or modal interactions, among others, may be produced in the transducer behavior. When any nonlinear effect appears, when applying power, the stability and efficiency of this ultrasonic technology decreases, and the transducer may be damaged depending on the excitation power level and the nature of the nonlinearity. In this paper, an APUT with flat rectangular radiator is presented, as the active part of an innovative system with stepped reflectors. The nonlinear behavior of the APUT has been characterized numerically and experimentally in case of the modal analysis and experimentally in the case of dynamic analysis. According to the results obtained after the experiments, no modal interactions are expected, nor do other nonlinear effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Polynomial Nonlinearity with Applications to RF Power Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tong Zhou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the nonlinearity in a communication system is attributed to the power amplifier (PA present at the final stage of the transmitter chain. In this paper, we consider Gaussian distributed input signals (such as OFDM, and PAs that can be modeled by memoryless or memory polynomials. We derive closed-form expressions of the PA output power spectral density, for an arbitrary nonlinear order, based on the so-called Leonov-Shiryaev formula. We then apply these results to answer practical questions such as the contribution of AM/PM conversion to spectral regrowth and the relationship between memory effects and spectral asymmetry.

  20. Nonlinear and Asymmetric Adjustment to Purchasing Power Parity in East-Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chi Liu

    2014-01-01

    This study applies a simple and powerful nonlinear unit root test to test the validity of long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) in a sample of 10 East-Asian countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand) over the period of March 1985 to September 2008. The empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for half of these 10 East-Asian countries under study, and the adjustment toward PPP is found to be nonlinear and in ...

  1. Nonlinear Power Flow Control Design Utilizing Exergy, Entropy, Static and Dynamic Stability, and Lyapunov Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett III, Rush D

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear Powerflow Control Design presents an innovative control system design process motivated by renewable energy electric grid integration problems. The concepts developed result from the convergence of three research and development goals: • to create a unifying metric to compare the value of different energy sources – coal-burning power plant, wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, etc. – to be integrated into the electric power grid and to replace the typical metric of costs/profit; • to develop a new nonlinear control tool that applies power flow control, thermodynamics, and complex adaptive systems theory to the energy grid in a consistent way; and • to apply collective robotics theories to the creation of high-performance teams of people and key individuals in order to account for human factors in controlling and selling power into a distributed, decentralized electric power grid. All three of these goals have important concepts in common: exergy flow, limit cycles, and balance between compe...

  2. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

  3. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-01-01

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology

  4. The IAEA stopping power database, following the trends in stopping power of ions in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, C. C.; Dimitriou, P.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present an overview of the state of art of the energy loss of ions in matter, based on the new developments in the stopping power database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This exhaustive collection of experimental data, graphs, programs and comparisons, is the legacy of Helmut Paul, who made it accessible to the global scientific community, and has been extensively employed in theoretical and experimental research during the last 25 years. The field of stopping power in matter is evolving, with new trends in materials of interest, including oxides, nitrides, polymers, and biological targets. Our goal is to identify areas of interest and emerging data needs to meet the requirements of a continuously developing user community.

  5. Simulation and measurement of nonlinear behavior in a high-power test cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    High-power ultrasound has many diverse uses in process applications in industries ranging from food to pharmaceutical. Because cavitation is frequently a desirable effect within many high-power, low-frequency systems, these systems are commonly expected to feature highly nonlinear acoustic propagation because of the high input levels employed. This generation of harmonics significantly alters the field profile compared with that of a linear system, making accurate field modeling difficult. However, when the short propagation distances involved are considered, it is not unreasonable to assume that these systems may remain largely linear until the onset of cavitation, in terms of classical acoustic propagation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible nonlinear effects within such systems before the onset of cavitation. A theoretical description of nonlinear propagation will be presented and the merits of common analytical models will be discussed. Following this, a numerical model of nonlinearity will be outlined and the advantages it presents for representing nonlinear effects in bounded fields will be discussed. Next, the driving equipment and transducers will be evaluated for linearity to disengage any effects from those formed in the transmission load. Finally, the linearity of the system will be measured using an acoustic hydrophone and compared with finite element analysis to confirm that nonlinear effects are not prevalent in such systems at the onset of cavitation. © 2011 IEEE

  6. Empirical investigation of purchasing power parity for Turkey: Evidence from recent nonlinear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilem Yıldırım

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis between Turkey and its four major trading partners, the European Union, Russia, China and the US. Accounting for the nonlinear nature of real exchange rates, we employ a battery of recently developed nonlinear unit root tests. Our empirical results reveal that nonlinear unit root tests deliver stronger evidence in favour of the PPP hypothesis when compared to the conventional unit root tests only if nonlinearities in real exchange rates are correctly specified. Furthermore, it emerges from our findings that the real exchange rates of the countries having a free trade agreement are more likely to behave as linear stationary processes.

  7. Threshold effect under nonlinear limitation of the intensity of high-power light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, S A; Podgaetskii, V M; Gerasimenko, A Yu; Savel'ev, M S

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the properties of limiters of high-power laser radiation, which takes into account the threshold character of nonlinear interaction of radiation with the working medium of the limiter. The generally accepted non-threshold model is a particular case of the threshold model if the threshold radiation intensity is zero. Experimental z-scan data are used to determine the nonlinear optical characteristics of media with carbon nanotubes, polymethine and pyran dyes, zinc selenide, porphyrin-graphene and fullerene-graphene. A threshold effect of nonlinear interaction between laser radiation and some of investigated working media of limiters is revealed. It is shown that the threshold model more adequately describes experimental z-scan data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI

  9. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI.

  10. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedar, Ashutosh; Kataria, N D

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T c superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO 3 substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis

  11. Nonlinear analysis techniques of block masonry walls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.A.; Harris, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Concrete masonry walls have been used extensively in nuclear power plants as non-load bearing partitions serving as pipe supports, fire walls, radiation shielding barriers, and similar heavy construction separations. When subjected to earthquake loads, these walls should maintain their structural integrity. However, some of the walls do not meet design requirements based on working stress allowables. Consequently, utilities have used non-linear analysis techniques, such as the arching theory and the energy balance technique, to qualify such walls. This paper presents a critical review of the applicability of non-linear analysis techniques for both unreinforced and reinforced block masonry walls under seismic loading. These techniques are critically assessed in light of the performance of walls from limited available test data. It is concluded that additional test data are needed to justify the use of nonlinear analysis techniques to qualify block walls in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  12. Harmonic Domain Modelling of Transformer Core Nonlinearities Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results of implementation and verification of an already existing algorithm that allows for calculating saturation characteristics of singlephase power transformers. The algorithm was described for the first time in 1993. Now this algorithm has been implemented using...... the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) as an external script in the harmonic domain calculations of a power system analysis tool PowerFactory [10]. The algorithm is verified by harmonic measurements on a single-phase power transformer. A theoretical analysis of the core nonlinearities phenomena...... in single and three-phase transformers is also presented. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the method can be applied for modelling nonlinearities of three-phase autotransformers....

  13. Intrinsic Nonlinearities and Layout Impacts of 100 V Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    Parasitic capacitances of power semiconductors are a part of the key design parameters of state-of-the-art very high frequency (VHF) power supplies. In this poster, four 100 V integrated power MOSFETs with different layout structures are designed, implemented, and analyzed in a 0.18 ȝm partial...... Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) process with a die area 2.31 mm2.  A small-signal model of power MOSFETs is proposed to systematically analyze the nonlinear parasitic capacitances in different transistor states: off-state, sub-threshold region, and on-state in the linear region. 3D plots are used to summarize...

  14. High Power, Pulsed, RF Generation from Nonlinear Lumped Element Transmission Lines (NLETLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    in order to focus on the primary technology tinder consideration. Their practicality at very high powers and frequencies is questionable due to...also possessed suitably large CXL ratios. Measuring capacitive nonlinearity tinder high voltage proved to be more tricky than first imagi- ned

  15. Purchasing power parity in OECD countries: nonlinear unit root tests revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Paulo José Regis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence on the purchasing power parity empirical fulfillment in a pool of OECD countries. We apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the Kruse (2010) nonlinear unit root test. The results point to the fact that the purchasing power parity theory holds in a greater number of countries than has been reported in previous studies.

  16. Tunable rotary orbits of matter-wave nonlinear modes in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y J; Wang, H Z; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that by spatially modulating the Bessel optical lattice where a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded, we get tunable rotary orbits of nonlinear lattice modes. We show that the radially expanding or shrinking Bessel lattice can drag the nonlinear localized modes to orbits of either larger or smaller radii and the rotary velocity of nonlinear modes can be changed accordingly. The localized modes can even be transferred to the Bessel lattice core when the localized modes' rotations are stopped. Effects beyond the quasi-particle approximation such as destruction of the nonlinear modes by nonadiabatic dragging are also explored

  17. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  18. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  19. A nonlinear dynamics approach for incorporating wind-speed patterns into wind-power project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray; Bittelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wind-energy production may be expanded beyond regions with high-average wind speeds (such as the Midwest U.S.A.) to sites with lower-average speeds (such as the Southeast U.S.A.) by locating favorable regional matches between natural wind-speed and energy-demand patterns. A critical component of wind-power evaluation is to incorporate wind-speed dynamics reflecting documented diurnal and seasonal behavioral patterns. Conventional probabilistic approaches remove patterns from wind-speed data. These patterns must be restored synthetically before they can be matched with energy-demand patterns. How to accurately restore wind-speed patterns is a vexing problem spurring an expanding line of papers. We propose a paradigm shift in wind power evaluation that employs signal-detection and nonlinear-dynamics techniques to empirically diagnose whether synthetic pattern restoration can be avoided altogether. If the complex behavior of observed wind-speed records is due to nonlinear, low-dimensional, and deterministic system dynamics, then nonlinear dynamics techniques can reconstruct wind-speed dynamics from observed wind-speed data without recourse to conventional probabilistic approaches. In the first study of its kind, we test a nonlinear dynamics approach in an application to Sugarland Wind-the first utility-scale wind project proposed in Florida, USA. We find empirical evidence of a low-dimensional and nonlinear wind-speed attractor characterized by strong temporal patterns that match up well with regular daily and seasonal electricity demand patterns.

  20. Transition to Δ matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Zhuo, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, G.; Zhuo, Y.; Mao, G.; Greiner, W.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the transition to Δ matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Δ-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m * and K, the Δ isomer exists at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 if β=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Δ, the Δ density at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 and temperature ∼0.4 0.5 fm -1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. The Mira-Titan Universe. II. Matter Power Spectrum Emulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Upadhye, Amol; Bingham, Derek; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Pope, Adrian; Finkel, Hal; Frontiere, Nicholas

    2017-09-20

    We introduce a new cosmic emulator for the matter power spectrum covering eight cosmological parameters. Targeted at optical surveys, the emulator provides accurate predictions out to a wavenumber k similar to 5 Mpc(-1) and redshift z <= 2. In addition to covering the standard set of Lambda CDM parameters, massive neutrinos and a dynamical dark energy of state are included. The emulator is built on a sample set of 36 cosmological models, carefully chosen to provide accurate predictions over the wide and large parameter space. For each model, we have performed a high-resolution simulation, augmented with 16 medium-resolution simulations and TimeRG perturbation theory results to provide accurate coverage over a wide k-range; the data set generated as part of this project is more than 1.2Pbytes. With the current set of simulated models, we achieve an accuracy of approximately 4%. Because the sampling approach used here has established convergence and error-control properties, follow-up results with more than a hundred cosmological models will soon achieve similar to 1% accuracy. We compare our approach with other prediction schemes that are based on halo model ideas and remapping approaches.

  2. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  3. Nonlinear integrated resource strategic planning model and case study in China's power sector planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Kang, Junjie; Zhang, Xingping; Hu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we expand the IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) model by including the external cost of TPPs (traditional power plants) and popularization cost of EPPs (efficiency power plants) with nonlinear functions. Case studies for power planning in China during 2011–2021 are conducted to show the efficacy of the model. Scenarios are compiled to compare the pathways of power planning under different policies. Results show that: 1) wind power will become competitive with technical learning, but its installation is undesirable when the external cost of coal power is not internalized; 2) the existence of popularization cost will hinder EPPs' (efficiency power plants) deployment and pure market mechanism is not enough to deliver EPPs at socially desirable scale; 3) imposition of progressive emission tax on coal power at an average of 0.15–0.20 RMB/KWh can remedy the market distortion and promote the development of wind power by a significant margin; 4) nuclear power will grow stably when its external cost is set no more than 0.187 RMB per KWh, or 87% of its internal cost. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for decision support in the process of power planning and policy formulation for national government. - Highlights: • Improve IRSP model by adding nonlinear external and popularization cost. • The model is used to conduct China's power sector planning in 2011–2021. • Simulate the impacts of alternative energy policies on planning results. • The model can be used for joint power sector planning and policy design

  4. Nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with an electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with a plasma consisting of two groups of electrons and immobile ions has been studied. It is shown that the interaction is governed by a nonlinear equation for the electromagnetic wave envelope and a driven nonlinear equation for the low-frequency electron fluctuations. The driver for the latter depends explicitly on the spatio-temporal evolution of the electromagnetic wave flux. It is found that, depending on the cold-to-hot electron density ratio, the localized pulse can propagate with sub- as well as supersonic velocities accompanied by compressional or rarefactional density perturbations. The conditions of existence for the different types of solitary pulses are obtained. The present investigation may be relevant to the study of wave-plasma interaction devices such as inertial fusion confinement as well as to ionospheric modification experiments. (author)

  5. Determining the magnetically nonlinear characteristics of a three phase core-type power transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinar, Matjaz; Stumberger, Gorazd; Polajzer, Bostjan; Dolinar, Drago

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear iron core model of a three-phase, three-limb power transformer which is given by the current-dependant characteristics of flux linkages. The magnetically nonlinear characteristics are determined by controlled magnetic excitation of all three limbs which allows to take into account the variable magnetic-cross couplings between different coils placed on limbs, caused by saturation. The corresponding partial derivatives of measured flux linkage characteristics are used in the transformer circuit model as a magnetically nonlinear iron core model in order to analyze the behaviour of a nonsymmetrically excited transformer. Numerical results using transformer model with the determined iron core model agree very well with the measured results

  6. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-14

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  7. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-01

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  8. The Effect of Friction on the Nonlinear Vibration of the Cracked One-Stage Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available : The gear systems are widely used in industry to transmit the power or change the direction of the torque. Due to the extensive usage of the gears, the detailed designing and the subsequent maintenance of these systems are more and more evident. System recognition can be achieved through modeling the system, investigating the system behavior, and comparing the results obtained through the model with the actual system behavior. Up to now, the effect of dry friction has not been taken into account in nonlinear vibration analysis and modeling of a cracked one-stage gear power transmission system. In this paper, the nonlinear vibration of a pair of cracked spur-gear system in presence of dry friction, static transmission error, clearance and time-variant mesh stiffness is investigated. To this end, the time-variant mesh stiffness of an intact tooth is calculated analytically. Then, the tooth root crack is modeled as a cracked cantilever beam. The governing nonlinear equation of motion is extracted accordingly, and in order to consider the effect of dry friction, the governing equation solved by Rung- Kutta method in three separate time spans. Finally, the frequency response and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the effect of the friction and tooth root crack on the nonlinear vibration behavior of the system.

  9. Dynamic bounds for power and efficiency of non-ideal energy converters under nonlinear transfer laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2009-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic approach to simulation and modeling of nonlinear energy converters, in particular radiation engines. Novel results are obtained especially for dynamical engines when the temperature of the propelling medium decreases in time due to a continual decrease of the medium's internal energy caused by the power production. Basic thermodynamic principles determine the converter's efficiency and work limits in terms of the entropy production. The real work is a cumulative effect obtained in a system of a resource fluid, a sequence of engines, and an infinite bath. Nonlinear modeling involves dynamic optimization in which the classical expression for efficiency at maximum power is generalized to endoirreversible machines and nonlinear transfer laws. The primary result is a finite-rate generalization of the classical, reversible work potential (exergy). The generalized work function depends on thermal coordinates and a dissipation index, h, i.e. a Hamiltonian of the minimum entropy production problem. This generalized work function implies stronger bounds on work delivered or supplied than the reversible work potential. The role of the nonlinear analyses and dynamic optimization is shown especially for radiation engines. As an example of the kinetic work limit, generalized exergy of radiation fluid is estimated in terms of finite rates, quantified by the Hamiltonian h

  10. TCSC Nonlinear Adaptive Damping Controller Design Based on RBF Neural Network to Enhance Power System Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wei; Fang, Jiakun; Zhao, Ping

    2013-01-01

    the characteristics of the conventional PID, but adjust the parameters of PID controller online using identified Jacobian information from RBFNN. Hence, it has strong adaptability to the variation of the system operating condition. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is tested on a two-machine five-bus power...... system and a four-machine two-area power system under different operating conditions in comparison with the lead-lag damping controller tuned by evolutionary algorithm (EA). Simulation results show that the proposed damping controller achieves good robust performance for damping the low frequency......In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive damping controller based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), which can infinitely approximate to nonlinear system, is proposed for thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). The proposed TCSC adaptive damping controller can not only have...

  11. Performance analysis for minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerators at finite cooling power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) for general refrigerators at finite cooling power have been systematically researched through the minimally nonlinear irreversible model, and its lower and upper bounds in different operating regions have been proposed. Under the tight coupling conditions, we have calculated the universal COP bounds under the χ figure of merit in different operating regions. When the refrigerator operates in the region with lower external flux, we obtained the general bounds (0 present large values, compared to a relative small loss from the maximum cooling power. If the cooling power is the main objective, it is desirable to operate the refrigerator at a slightly lower cooling power than at the maximum one, where a small loss in the cooling power induces a much larger COP enhancement.

  12. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power Scaling of Nonlinear Frequency Converted Tapered Diode Lasers for Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Diode lasers have proven to be versatile light sources for a wide range of applications. Nonlinear frequency conversion of high brightness diode lasers has recently resulted in visible light power levels in the watts range enabling an increasing number of applications within biophotonics. This re...... and efficiency are included. Application examples within pumping of mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers and implementation of such lasers in optical coherence tomography are presented showing the application potential of these lasers....

  14. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  15. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  16. The use of induction linacs with nonlinear magnetic drive as high average power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Cook, E.G.; Hawkins, S.A.; Newton, M.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.A.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The marriage of induction linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/m, and with power efficiences approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to allow us to demonstrate some of these concepts. Progress on this project is reported here. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear and linear wave equations for propagation in media with frequency power law losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Thomas L.

    2003-10-01

    The Burgers, KZK, and Westervelt wave equations used for simulating wave propagation in nonlinear media are based on absorption that has a quadratic dependence on frequency. Unfortunately, most lossy media, such as tissue, follow a more general frequency power law. The authors first research involved measurements of loss and dispersion associated with a modification to Blackstock's solution to the linear thermoviscous wave equation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 1312 (1967)]. A second paper by Blackstock [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2050 (1985)] showed the loss term in the Burgers equation for plane waves could be modified for other known instances of loss. The authors' work eventually led to comprehensive time-domain convolutional operators that accounted for both dispersion and general frequency power law absorption [Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491 (1994)]. Versions of appropriate loss terms were developed to extend the standard three nonlinear wave equations to these more general losses. Extensive experimental data has verified the predicted phase velocity dispersion for different power exponents for the linear case. Other groups are now working on methods suitable for solving wave equations numerically for these types of loss directly in the time domain for both linear and nonlinear media.

  18. Reactor noise analysis based on nonlinear dynamic theory - application to power oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, Tomoaki

    1993-01-01

    The information dimension is one of the simplest quantities that can be used to determine the asymptotic motion of the time evolution of a nonlinear system. The application of this quantity to reactor noise analysis is proposed, and the possibility of its application to power oscillation analysis is examined. The information dimension of this regime is equal to the number of independent oscillating modes, which is an intuitive physical variable. Time series data from computer experiments and experiments with an actual physical system are used for the analysis. The results indicate that the method is useful for a detailed analysis of reactor power oscillation

  19. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively

  20. Large Banks of Negative Differential Resistance Nonlinear Loads: A Hidden Threat to Power System Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM (Demand Side Management is a short term and comparatively low cost solution for energy starved countries. Replacement of IB (Incandescent Bulbs with CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps has proved its success throughout the world. The same solution, at larger scale, was proposed to Pakistan to mitigate power shortage on short term basis. Accordingly in year 2008, ADB (Asian Development Bank conducted a study and it was found that replacement of conventional IB with 30 million CFL will result into series of benefits for the stake holders and above all the Environment. The study, unfortunately didn’t take enough consideration of effect of CFLs on the power system being nonlinear device and so the power quality issues remained a secondary consideration. The focus of this paper remains on the effect of such non-linear load on consumers, it also envisages the erratic behaviour of such large penetration of CFLs on direct single phase, three phase, digital as well as electromechanical energy meters, under different loading conditions e.g. resistive load, SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply, half and full-wave rectifiers. It also reflects harmonic pollution caused by CFLs, their effect on power system quality and the registration ability of electromechanical as well as digital energy meters. To this end Harmonic spectrum was recorded up to the 31st harmonic.

  1. Nonlinear Control Synthesis for Electrical Power Systems Using Controllable Series Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarekar, N S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector $g(x)$ in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stab...

  2. Nonlinear Slewing Spacecraft Control Based on Exergy, Power Flow, and Static and Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new nonlinear control methodology for slewing spacecraft, which provides both necessary and sufficient conditions for stability by identifying the stability boundaries, rigid body modes, and limit cycles. Conservative Hamiltonian system concepts, which are equivalent to static stability of airplanes, are used to find and deal with the static stability boundaries: rigid body modes. The application of exergy and entropy thermodynamic concepts to the work-rate principle provides a natural partitioning through the second law of thermodynamics of power flows into exergy generator, dissipator, and storage for Hamiltonian systems that is employed to find the dynamic stability boundaries: limit cycles. This partitioning process enables the control system designer to directly evaluate and enhance the stability and performance of the system by balancing the power flowing into versus the power dissipated within the system subject to the Hamiltonian surface (power storage). Relationships are developed between exergy, power flow, static and dynamic stability, and Lyapunov analysis. The methodology is demonstrated with two illustrative examples: (1) a nonlinear oscillator with sinusoidal damping and (2) a multi-input-multi-output three-axis slewing spacecraft that employs proportional-integral-derivative tracking control with numerical simulation results.

  3. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  4. Thinking outside the box: effects of modes larger than the survey on matter power spectrum covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Mena, Olga; Percival, Will J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate power spectrum (or correlation function) covariance matrices are a crucial requirement for cosmological parameter estimation from large scale structure surveys. In order to minimize reliance on computationally expensive mock catalogs, it is important to have a solid analytic understanding of the different components that make up a covariance matrix. Considering the matter power spectrum covariance matrix, it has recently been found that there is a potentially dominant effect on mildly non-linear scales due to power in modes of size equal to and larger than the survey volume. This beat coupling effect has been derived analytically in perturbation theory and while it has been tested with simulations, some questions remain unanswered. Moreover, there is an additional effect of these large modes, which has so far not been included in analytic studies, namely the effect on the estimated average density which enters the power spectrum estimate. In this article, we work out analytic, perturbation theory based expressions including both the beat coupling and this local average effect and we show that while, when isolated, beat coupling indeed causes large excess covariance in agreement with the literature, in a realistic scenario this is compensated almost entirely by the local average effect, leaving only ∼ 10% of the excess. We test our analytic expressions by comparison to a suite of large N-body simulations, using both full simulation boxes and subboxes thereof to study cases without beat coupling, with beat coupling and with both beat coupling and the local average effect. For the variances, we find excellent agreement with the analytic expressions for k −1 at z = 0.5, while the correlation coefficients agree to beyond k = 0.4 hMpc −1 . As expected, the range of agreement increases towards higher redshift and decreases slightly towards z = 0. We finish by including the large-mode effects in a full covariance matrix description for arbitrary survey

  5. Application of power series to the solution of the boundary value problem for a second order nonlinear differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V.N.

    2016-01-01

    A boundary value problem for a nonlinear second order differential equation has been considered. A numerical method has been proposed to solve this problem using power series. Results of numerical experiments have been presented in the paper [ru

  6. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar, Ashutosh [RADL Division, Electronics and Radar Development Establishment, C V Raman Nagar, Bangalore-560093 (India); Kataria, N D [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

    2005-08-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis.

  7. Application of H∞ control theory to power control of a nonlinear reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Shimazaki, Junya; Shinohara, Yoshikuni

    1993-01-01

    The H∞ control theory is applied to the compensator design of a nonlinear nuclear reactor model, and the results are compared with standard linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control. The reactor model is assumed to be provided with a control rod drive system having the compensation of rod position feedback. The nonlinearity of the reactor model exerts a great influence on the stability of the control system, and hence, it is desirable for a power control system of a nuclear reactor to achieve robust stability and to improve the sensitivity of the feedback control system. A computer simulation based on a power control system synthesized by LQG control was performed revealing that the control system has some stationary offset and less stability. Therefore, here, attention is given to the development of a methodology for robust control that can withstand exogenous disturbances and nonlinearity in view of system parameter changes. The developed methodology adopts H∞ control theory in the feedback system and shows interesting features of robustness. The results of the computer simulation indicate that the feedback control system constructed by the developed H∞ compensator possesses sufficient robustness of control on the stability and disturbance attenuation, which are essential for the safe operation of a nuclear reactor

  8. Using Power to Influence Outcomes: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mary; Ingols, Cynthia; Blake-Beard, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    The conventional definitions of power and masculinity are tightly conflated. The same words that are often used to describe power, such as authority, control, and decisiveness, are also often used to define masculinity. Where does that leave women in building and using power? Even as feminist scholars attempt to decouple the definition of power…

  9. Tritium in organic matter around Krsko Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Romana; Zorko, Benjamin; Kozar Logar, Jasmina; Kosenina, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to obtain first results of tritium in the organic matter of environmental samples in the vicinity of Krsko NPP. The emphasis was on the layout of suitable sampling network of crops and fruits in nearby agricultural area. Method for determination of tritium in organic matter in the form of Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) has been implemented. Capabilities of the methods were tested on real environmental samples and its findings were compared to modeled activities of tritium from atmospheric releases and literature based results of TFWT and OBT. (author)

  10. Nonlinear control synthesis for electrical power systems using controllable series capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarekar, N.S.; Banavar, Ravi N. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Systems and Control Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector g(x) in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stabilizing controllers for power systems, where the CSC dynamics are included as a first order system. Next, we consider a different control methodology, immersion and invariance (I and I), to synthesize an asymptotically stabilizing control law for the SMIB system with a CSC. The CSC is described by a first order system. As a generalization of I and I, we incorporate the power balance algebraic constraints in the load bus to the SMIB swing equation, and extend the design philosophy to a class of differential algebraic systems. The proposed result is then demonstrated on another example: a two-machine system with two load buses and a CSC. The controller performances are validated through simulations for all cases.

  11. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  12. Clutch pressure estimation for a power-split hybrid transmission using nonlinear robust observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Jianwu; Gao, Ji; Yu, Haisheng; Liu, Dong

    2018-06-01

    For a power-split hybrid transmission, using the brake clutch to realize the transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode is an available strategy. Since the pressure information of the brake clutch is essential for the mode transition control, this research designs a nonlinear robust reduced-order observer to estimate the brake clutch pressure. Model uncertainties or disturbances are considered as additional inputs, thus the observer is designed in order that the error dynamics is input-to-state stable. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are expressed as the lookup tables in the observer. Moreover, the gain matrix of the observer is solved by two optimization procedures under the constraints of the linear matrix inequalities. The proposed observer is validated by offline simulation and online test, the results have shown that the observer achieves significant performance during the mode transition, as the estimation error is within a reasonable range, more importantly, it is asymptotically stable.

  13. Nonlinear Robust Disturbance Attenuation Control Design for Static Var Compensator in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of designing an adaptive backstepping controller for nonlinear static var compensator (SVC system is addressed adopting two perspectives. First, instead of artificially assuming an upper bound or inequality scaling, the minimax theory is used to treat the external unknown disturbances. The system is insensitive to effects of large disturbances due to taking into account the worst case disturbance. Second, a parameter projection mechanism is introduced in adaptive control to force the parameter estimate within a prior specified interval. The proposed controller handles the nonlinear parameterization without compromising control smoothness and at the same time the parameter estimate speed is improved and the robustness of system is strengthened. Considering the short-circuit ground fault and mechanical power perturbation, a simulation study is carried out. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  14. Nonlinear quenches of power-law confining traps in quantum critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the coherent quantum evolution of a quantum many-body system with a time-dependent power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous potential is driven in time along a nonlinear ramp which crosses a critical point. Using Kibble-Zurek-like scaling arguments we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations and energy excess generated during the nonlinear sweep of the confining potential. It is shown that, with respect to the sweeping rate, the densities follow algebraic laws with exponents that depend on the space-time properties of the potential and on the scaling dimensions of the densities. We support our scaling predictions with both analytical and numerical results on the Ising quantum chain with an inhomogeneous transverse field varying in time.

  15. What matters to women in science? Gender, power and bureaucracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linková, Marcela; Červinková, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 215-230 ISSN 1350-5068 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender * science policy * modes of mattering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.216, year: 2011

  16. Complete elimination of nonlinear light-matter interactions with broadband ultrafast laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    optical effects, however, the probability of pure single-photon absorption is usually very low, which is particularly pertinent in the case of strong ultrafast laser pulses with broad bandwidth. Here we demonstrate theoretically a counterintuitive coherent single-photon absorption scheme by eliminating...... nonlinear interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with quantum systems. That is, a completely linear response of the system with respect to the spectral energy density of the incident light at the transition frequency can be obtained for all transition probabilities between 0 and 100% in multilevel quantum...... systems. To that end, a multiobjective optimization algorithm is developed to find an optimal spectral phase of an ultrafast laser pulse, which is capable of eliminating all possible nonlinear optical responses while maximizing the probability of single-photon absorption between quantum states. This work...

  17. A new nonlinear mean-field model of neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2005-01-01

    A new relativistic mean-field model of neutron star matter is developed. It is a generalization of the Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model based on the constituent quark picture of baryons. The renormalized meson-hyperon coupling constants in medium are uniquely determined in contrast to the naive extention of ZM model and so the application of the model to high-density neutron star (NS) matter is possible. Our results of the particle composition and the mass-radius relation of NSs agree well with those obtained from the phenomenologically-determined realistic equation-of-state.

  18. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Model of Power Plants with Single-Phase Coolant Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, H.

    1968-12-01

    The traditional way of developing dynamic models for a specific nuclear power plant and for specific purpose seems rather uneconomical, as much of the information often can not be utilized if the plant design or the required accuracy of the calculation is desired to be changed. It is therefore suggested that the model development may be made more systematic, general and flexible by - applying the 'box of bricks' system, where the main components of a nuclear power plant are treated separately and combined afterwards according to a given flow scheme, - a dynamic determination of the components which is as general as possible without taking into account those details which have a minor influence on the overall dynamics, - providing approximations of the more rigorous solution sufficient to meet the user s requirements on accuracy, - proper use of computers. A dynamic model for single-phase coolant reactor plants is established along these lines. By separation of the nonlinear and linear parts of the system, application of Laplace transformation and proper approximations, and the use of a hybrid computer it seems possible to determine the (nonlinear) dynamic behaviour of such a plant for perturbations which are not so large that phase changes of physical parameters occur, e. g. fuel does not melt. The model is applied to a steam cooled fast reactor power plant

  20. Convergent Power Series of sech⁡(x and Solutions to Nonlinear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Al Khawaja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that power series expansion of certain functions such as sech⁡(x diverges beyond a finite radius of convergence. We present here an iterative power series expansion (IPS to obtain a power series representation of sech⁡(x that is convergent for all x. The convergent series is a sum of the Taylor series of sech⁡(x and a complementary series that cancels the divergence of the Taylor series for x≥π/2. The method is general and can be applied to other functions known to have finite radius of convergence, such as 1/(1+x2. A straightforward application of this method is to solve analytically nonlinear differential equations, which we also illustrate here. The method provides also a robust and very efficient numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear differential equations numerically. A detailed comparison with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and extensive analysis of the behavior of the error and CPU time are performed.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Model of Power Plants with Single-Phase Coolant Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, H

    1968-12-15

    The traditional way of developing dynamic models for a specific nuclear power plant and for specific purpose seems rather uneconomical, as much of the information often can not be utilized if the plant design or the required accuracy of the calculation is desired to be changed. It is therefore suggested that the model development may be made more systematic, general and flexible by - applying the 'box of bricks' system, where the main components of a nuclear power plant are treated separately and combined afterwards according to a given flow scheme, - a dynamic determination of the components which is as general as possible without taking into account those details which have a minor influence on the overall dynamics, - providing approximations of the more rigorous solution sufficient to meet the user s requirements on accuracy, - proper use of computers. A dynamic model for single-phase coolant reactor plants is established along these lines. By separation of the nonlinear and linear parts of the system, application of Laplace transformation and proper approximations, and the use of a hybrid computer it seems possible to determine the (nonlinear) dynamic behaviour of such a plant for perturbations which are not so large that phase changes of physical parameters occur, e. g. fuel does not melt. The model is applied to a steam cooled fast reactor power plant.

  2. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

  3. A demonstration of the improved efficiency of the canonical coordinates method using nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the optimal output from a number of electricity generation facilities to meet the system load while providing power. As such, it represents one of the main optimization problems in the operation of electrical power systems. This article presents techniques to substantially improve the efficiency of the canonical coordinates method (CCM) algorithm when applied to nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problems. The improvement is to eliminate the need to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations, which appears in the line search process in the CCM algorithm. The modified algorithm was tested and the analytical solution was verified using nonlinear CHPED optimization problems, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm. The CCM methods proved numerically stable and, in the case of nonlinear programs, produced solutions with unprecedented accuracy within a reasonable time.

  4. A new hybrid nonlinear congruential number generator based on higher functional power of logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecen, Songul; Demirer, R. Murat; Bayrak, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator consisting of summation of higher order composition of random logistic maps under certain congruential mappings. We change both bifurcation parameters of logistic maps in the interval of U=[3.5599,4) and coefficients of the polynomials in each higher order composition of terms up to degree d. This helped us to obtain a perfect random decorrelated generator which is infinite and aperiodic. It is observed from the simulation results that our new PRNG has good uniformity and power spectrum properties with very flat white noise characteristics. The results are interesting, new and may have applications in cryptography and in Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. The study on the non-linear soil structure interaction for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsuya Hagiwara; Yoshio Kitada

    2005-01-01

    1. Introduction: JNES is planning a new project to study non-linear soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect under large earthquake ground motions equivalent to and/or over a design earthquake ground motion of S2(The extreme design earthquake). Concerning the SSI test, it is pointed out that handling of the scale effect of the specimen together with the surrounding soil on the earthquake response evaluation of the actual structure is essential issue for the scaled model test. Thus, for the test, the largest specimen possible and the biggest input motion possible are necessary. Taking into account the above issues, new test methodology, which utilizes artificial earthquake ground motion, is considered desirable if it can be performed at a realistic cost. Under this motivation, we have studied the test methodology which applying blasting power as for a big earthquake ground motion. The information from a coal mine company in the U.S.A. indicates that the works performed in the surface coal mine to blast a rock covering a coal layer generates a big artificial ground motion, which is similar to earthquake ground motion. Application of this artificial earthquake ground motion for the SSI test is considered very promising because the blasting work is carried out periodically for mining coal so that we can apply artificial motions generated by the work if we construct a building model at a closed point to the blasting work area. The major purposes of the test will be to understand (a) basic earthquake response characteristics of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor building when a large earthquake strikes the NPP site and (b) nonlinear characteristics of SSI phenomenon during a big earthquake. In the paper, we introduce the test method and basic characteristics of measured artificial ground motions generated by the blasting works on an actual site. 2. Conclusion: It was confirmed that the artificial ground motions generated by blasting works have enough acceleration level

  6. An oscillating wave energy converter with nonlinear snap-through Power-Take-Off systems in regular waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei

    2016-07-01

    Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.

  7. The coyote universe extended: Precision emulation of the matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Lawrence, Earl; Higdon, David

    2014-01-01

    Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ∼ 1 Mpc –1 and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ∼ 10 h Mpc –1 , a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ∼5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.

  8. Feedback-Equivalence of Nonlinear Systems with Applications to Power System Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Riccardo

    The key concept of the dissertation is feedback equivalence among systems affine in control. Feedback equivalence to linear systems in Brunovsky canonical form and the construction of the corresponding feedback transformation are used to: (i) design a nonlinear regulator for a detailed nonlinear model of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus; (ii) establish which power system network structures enjoy the feedback linearizability property and design a stabilizing control law for these networks with a constraint on the control space which comes from the use of d.c. lines. It is also shown that the feedback linearizability property allows the use of state feedback to contruct a linear controllable system with a positive definite linear Hamiltonian structure for the uncontrolled part if the state space is even; a stabilizing control law is derived for such systems. Feedback linearizability property is characterized by the involutivity of certain nested distributions for strongly accessible analytic systems; if the system is defined on a manifold M diffeomorphic to the Euclidean space, it is established that the set where the property holds is a submanifold open and dense in M. If an analytic output map is defined, a set of nested involutive distributions can be always defined and that allows the introduction of an observability property which is the dual concept, in some sense, to feedback linearizability: the goal is to investigate when a nonlinear system affine in control with an analytic output map is feedback equivalent to a linear controllable and observable system. Finally a nested involutive structure of distributions is shown to guarantee the existence of a state feedback that takes a nonlinear system affine in control to a single input one, both feedback equivalent to linear controllable systems, preserving one controlled vector field.

  9. Advantage of nonlinear relativistic mean-field model in studying neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2006-01-01

    We test the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model of relativistic nuclear matter for reproducing the density dependence of the symmetry energy, the direct URCA constraint M_{G}^{DU} \\geq 1.5M_{\\odot} on the gravitational mass of neutron star (NS), the large radii of NSs in RX J1856.5-3754 and qLMXB X7, the massive NSs in PSR J0751+1807 and 4U1700-37, and the baryonic mass of J0737-3039B. The two sets of NN\\rho coupling constant are considered. The first (EZM1) is the same as the Bonn A potential. The second (EZM2) is chosen so as to reproduce the symmetry energy E_s=32MeV of nuclear matter. The EZM1 can pass 6 tests among 7, while the EZM2 passes 5 tests. We can therefore conclude that the EZM model has unique and excellent features and is the most prospective one for studying the dense baryonic matter.

  10. High-z objects and cold dark matter cosmogonies - Constraints on the primordial power spectrum on small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.

  11. Power, politics, and top management team characteristics: do they matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerowitz, M B

    1998-01-01

    This study assesses the contributions of the leader power and top management team characteristics to perceived strategic capability. Low age heterogeneity and low tenure heterogeneity were found to have a positive association with perceived adaptability. High diversity in educational specialization was also found to be positively associated with adaptability. Top management perceptions of CEO power were, however, lower among high adaptors. Implications for leadership research, senior management recruitment, and the design of management development for top management teams are discussed.

  12. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  13. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ∼30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64 C long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  14. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Sudhakar, Y. N.; SelvaKumar, M.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He-Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of βeff, n2 and χ(3) were found to be of the order of 10-2 cm W-1, 10-5 esu and 10-7 esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications.

  15. Dynamic behaviors for a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the power-law nonlinearity in a non-Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong; Liu, De-Yin

    2017-04-01

    Effects of quantic nonlinearity on the propagation of the ultrashort optical pulses in a non-Kerr medium, like an optical fiber, can be described by a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the power law nonlinearity, which is studied in this paper from a planar-dynamic-system view point. We obtain the equivalent two-dimensional planar dynamic system of such an equation, for which, according to the bifurcation theory and qualitative theory, phase portraits are given. Through the analysis of those phase portraits, we present the relations among the Hamiltonian, orbits of the dynamic system and types of the analytic solutions. Analytic expressions of the periodic-wave solutions, kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions are derived, and we find that the periodic-wave solutions can be reduced to the kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions.

  16. High Power Amplifiers Chain nonlinearity influence on the accelerating beam stability in free electron laser (FLASH)

    CERN Document Server

    Cichalewski, w

    2010-01-01

    The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.

  17. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. M., E-mail: jared.johnson@ttu.edu; Reale, D. V.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Krile, J. T. [Department of Electromagnetics and Sensor Systems, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  18. Time-Domain Voltage Sag State Estimation Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter for Power Systems with Nonlinear Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cisneros-Magaña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a time-domain methodology based on the unscented Kalman filter to estimate voltage sags and their characteristics, such as magnitude and duration in power systems represented by nonlinear models. Partial and noisy measurements from the electrical network with nonlinear loads, used as data, are assumed. The characteristics of voltage sags can be calculated in a discrete form with the unscented Kalman filter to estimate all the busbar voltages; being possible to determine the rms voltage magnitude and the voltage sag starting and ending time, respectively. Voltage sag state estimation results can be used to obtain the power quality indices for monitored and unmonitored busbars in the power grid and to design adequate mitigating techniques. The proposed methodology is successfully validated against the results obtained with the time-domain system simulation for the power system with nonlinear components, being the normalized root mean square error less than 3%.

  19. Stopping powers of energetic electrons penetrating condensed matter-theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhenyu; Xia Yueyuan

    2004-01-01

    In this review article, the motivation of studying inelastic energy loss for energetic electrons penetrating through matter and the corresponding technological importance have been outlined. The theoretical development and method for the calculation of stopping powers are described. The stopping power data tables for a group of polymers and bioorganic compounds are presented, and the application aspects of the stopping power data are briefly discussed. (authors)

  20. Ecosystem Services Flows: Why Stakeholders' Power Relationships Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Lucia, María R; Martín-López, Berta; Lavorel, Sandra; Berraquero-Díaz, Luis; Escalera-Reyes, Javier; Comín, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework has enabled the broader public to acknowledge the benefits nature provides to different stakeholders. However, not all stakeholders benefit equally from these services. Rather, power relationships are a key factor influencing the access of individuals or groups to ecosystem services. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the "cascade" framework for ecosystem services to integrate the analysis of ecological interactions among ecosystem services and stakeholders' interactions, reflecting power relationships that mediate ecosystem services flows. We illustrate its application using the floodplain of the River Piedra (Spain) as a case study. First, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to model the dependence relationships among ecosystem services. Second, we performed semi-structured interviews to identify formal power relationships among stakeholders. Third, we depicted ecosystem services according to stakeholders' ability to use, manage or impair ecosystem services in order to expose how power relationships mediate access to ecosystem services. Our results revealed that the strongest power was held by those stakeholders who managed (although did not use) those keystone ecosystem properties and services that determine the provision of other services (i.e., intermediate regulating and final services). In contrast, non-empowered stakeholders were only able to access the remaining non-excludable and non-rival ecosystem services (i.e., some of the cultural services, freshwater supply, water quality, and biological control). In addition, land stewardship, access rights, and governance appeared as critical factors determining the status of ecosystem services. Finally, we stress the need to analyse the role of stakeholders and their relationships to foster equal access to ecosystem services.

  1. Ecosystem Services Flows: Why Stakeholders’ Power Relationships Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Lucia, María R.; Martín-López, Berta; Lavorel, Sandra; Berraquero-Díaz, Luis; Escalera-Reyes, Javier; Comín, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework has enabled the broader public to acknowledge the benefits nature provides to different stakeholders. However, not all stakeholders benefit equally from these services. Rather, power relationships are a key factor influencing the access of individuals or groups to ecosystem services. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the “cascade” framework for ecosystem services to integrate the analysis of ecological interactions among ecosystem services and stakeholders’ interactions, reflecting power relationships that mediate ecosystem services flows. We illustrate its application using the floodplain of the River Piedra (Spain) as a case study. First, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to model the dependence relationships among ecosystem services. Second, we performed semi-structured interviews to identify formal power relationships among stakeholders. Third, we depicted ecosystem services according to stakeholders’ ability to use, manage or impair ecosystem services in order to expose how power relationships mediate access to ecosystem services. Our results revealed that the strongest power was held by those stakeholders who managed (although did not use) those keystone ecosystem properties and services that determine the provision of other services (i.e., intermediate regulating and final services). In contrast, non-empowered stakeholders were only able to access the remaining non-excludable and non-rival ecosystem services (i.e., some of the cultural services, freshwater supply, water quality, and biological control). In addition, land stewardship, access rights, and governance appeared as critical factors determining the status of ecosystem services. Finally, we stress the need to analyse the role of stakeholders and their relationships to foster equal access to ecosystem services. PMID:26201000

  2. Nonlinear Power-Level Control of the MHTGR Only with the Feedback Loop of Helium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power-level control is a crucial technique for the safe, stable and efficient operation of modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (MHTGRs, which have strong inherent safety features and high outlet temperatures. The current power-level controllers of the MHTGRs need measurements of both the nuclear power and the helium temperature, which cannot provide satisfactory control performance and can even induce large oscillations when the neutron sensors are in error. In order to improve the fault tolerance of the control system, it is important to develop a power-level control strategy that only requires the helium temperature. The basis for developing this kind of control law is to give a state-observer of the MHTGR a relationship that only needs the measurement of helium temperature. With this in mind, a novel nonlinear state observer which only needs the measurement of helium temperature is proposed. This observer is globally convergent if there is no disturbance, and has the L2 disturbance attenuation performance if the disturbance is nonzero. The separation principle of this observer is also proven, which denotes that this observer can recover the performance of both globally asymptotic stabilizers and L2 disturbance attenuators. Then, a new dynamic output feedback power-level control strategy is established, which is composed of this observer and the well-built static state-feedback power-level control based upon iterative dissipation assignment (IDA-PLC. Finally, numerical simulation results show the high performance and feasibility of this newly-built dynamic output feedback power-level controller.

  3. Ensemble Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous Artificial Neural Networks for Short-Term Wind Speed and Power Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Zhongxian; Yee, Eugene; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yang, Zhiling; Liu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Short-term wind speed and wind power forecasts (for a 72 h period) are obtained using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (ANN) methodology which incorporates either numerical weather prediction or high-resolution computational fluid dynamics wind field information as an exogenous input. An ensemble approach is used to combine the predictions from many candidate ANNs in order to provide improved forecasts for wind speed and power, along with the associated uncertainties in these forecasts. More specifically, the ensemble ANN is used to quantify the uncertainties arising from the network weight initialization and from the unknown structure of the ANN. All members forming the ensemble of neural networks were trained using an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results of the proposed methodology are validated using wind speed and wind power data obtained from an operational wind farm located in Northern China. The assessment demonstrates that this methodology for wind speed and power forecasting generally provides an improvement in predictive skills when compared to the practice of using an "optimal" weight vector from a single ANN while providing additional information in the form of prediction uncertainty bounds.

  4. Non-linear behaviour of power density and exposure time of argon laser on ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, E M; Talaat, M S; Salem, E F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In ophthalmology, the thermal effect of argon laser is the most widely used category of laser- tissue interaction. The rise in tissue temperature has to exceed a threshold value for photo coagulation of retinal blood vessels. This value mainly depends on the laser. The most suitable argon laser power P and exposure time (t) which would be more effective for thermal and electrical behaviour of chicken eye was studied. This was achieved by measuring the variations in ocular temperature in electroretinogram (ERG) records under the effect of argon experiment, while power density (P) and exposure time (t) were varied in four different ways for each dose (pt). Results indicated that for the same laser dose, the temperature distribution of the eye, using low power density and high exposure time was higher than that high power density and low exposure time, indicating non-linearity of the laser dose. This finding was confirmed by ERG records which showed similar variations in b-wave latency, amplitude and duration, for the laser exposure conditions. This indicates variations in retinal function due to laser-dependent temperature variations. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Nonlinear control for core power of pressurized water nuclear reactors using constant axial offset strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Ansarifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operations in nuclear power plants is load following, in which an imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation is considered to be a constraint for the load following operation. In this paper, the design of a sliding mode control (SMC, which is a robust nonlinear controller, is presented. SMC is a means to control pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR power for the load following operation problem in a way that ensures xenon oscillations are kept bounded within acceptable limits. The proposed controller uses constant axial offset (AO strategy to ensure xenon oscillations remain bounded. The constant AO is a robust state constraint for the load following problem. The reactor core is simulated based on the two-point nuclear reactor model with a three delayed neutron groups. The stability analysis is given by means of the Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the SMC exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness, and stability. Results show that the proposed controller for the load following operation is so effective that the xenon oscillations are kept bounded in the given region.

  6. Performance improvement of shunt active power filter based on non-linear least-square approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terriche, Yacine

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the shunt active power filters (SAPFs) have become a popular solution for power quality issues. A crucial issue in controlling the SAPFs which is highly correlated with their accuracy, flexibility and dynamic behavior, is generating the reference compensating current (RCC). The synchron......Nowadays, the shunt active power filters (SAPFs) have become a popular solution for power quality issues. A crucial issue in controlling the SAPFs which is highly correlated with their accuracy, flexibility and dynamic behavior, is generating the reference compensating current (RCC......). The synchronous reference frame (SRF) approach is widely used for generating the RCC due to its simplicity and computation efficiency. However, the SRF approach needs precise information of the voltage phase which becomes a challenge under adverse grid conditions. A typical solution to answer this need....... This paper proposes an improved open loop strategy which is unconditionally stable and flexible. The proposed method which is based on non-linear least square (NLS) approach can extract the fundamental voltage and estimates its phase within only half cycle, even in the presence of odd harmonics and dc offset...

  7. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ∼12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ∼30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  8. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  9. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  10. Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Huang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Li-Jun; Guo, Qi; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Lan, Sheng; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Trofimov, Vyacheslav A

    2008-11-15

    We investigate the dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in a colloidal liquid that was employed to construct an all-optical switch. It is revealed that the switching-on process can be characterized by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function, while the switching-off process can be described by a steady state followed by a single exponential decay. The phase transition times exhibit a strong dependence on trapping power. With an increasing trapping power, while the switching-on time decreases rapidly, the switch-off time increases significantly, indicating the effects of optical binding and van der Waals force on the lifetime of the optical matter.

  11. Power corrections in QCD: A matter of energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhoury, R.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    We consider powerlike corrections in QCD which can be viewed as power suppressed infrared singularities. We argue that the presence of these singularities depends crucially on the energy resolution. In the case of poor energy resolution, i.e., inclusive cross sections, there are constraints on infrared singularities expressed by the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg (KLN) theorem. We rewrite the theorem in covariant notations and argue that the KLN theorem implies the extension of the Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of logarithmic singularities to the case of linear corrections. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Study on the near-field non-linearity (SMILE) of high power diode laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyou; Jia, Yangtao; Li, Changxuan; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power laser diodes have been found a wide range of industrial, space, medical applications, characterized by high conversion efficiency, small size, light weight and a long lifetime. However, due to thermal induced stress, each emitter in a semiconductor laser bar or array is displaced along p-n junction, resulting of each emitter is not in a line, called Near-field Non-linearity. Near-field Non-linearity along laser bar (also known as "SMILE") determines the outcome of optical coupling and beam shaping [1]. The SMILE of a laser array is the main obstacle to obtain good optical coupling efficiency and beam shaping from a laser array. Larger SMILE value causes a larger divergence angle and a wider line after collimation and focusing, respectively. In this letter, we simulate two different package structures based on MCC (Micro Channel Cooler) with Indium and AuSn solders, including the distribution of normal stress and the SMILE value. According to the theoretical results, we found the distribution of normal stress on laser bar shows the largest in the middle and drops rapidly near both ends. At last, we did another experiment to prove that the SMILE value of a laser bar was mainly affected by the die bonding process, rather than the operating condition.

  13. Nonlinear 3-D dynamic time history analysis in the reracking modifications for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    An independent seismic response evaluation of spent fuel storage racks was performed on the reracking modifications for a typical operating pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant using nonlinear dynamic time history analysis methods per the U. S. nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) criteria. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to fluid-structure-interaction effects using potential theory. Three dimensional (3-D) single rack and whole pool multiple rack finite element models were developed with features that allow the consideration of geometrically and materially nonlinearities including (1) the impact of a fuel bundle to a rack cell, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to a pool floor; (2) the hydrodynamic coupling of a fuel assembly with a rack and of a rack with adjacent racks or pool walls; and (3) the tilting and frictional sliding of the rack supports. The methodologies and typical results using a 3-D single rack model as well as a 3-D whole pool multiple rack model developed herein are presented. (orig.)

  14. Variable Parameter Nonlinear Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking Considering Mitigation of Drive-train Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaiyu; Chen; Minghui; Yin; Lianjun; Zhou; Yaping; Xia; Jiankun; Liu; Yun; Zou

    2017-01-01

    Since mechanical loads exert a significant influence on the life span of wind turbines, the reduction of transient load on drive-train shaft has received more attention when implementing a maximum power point tracking(MPPT) controller.Moreover, a trade-off between the efficiency of wind energy extraction and the load level of drive-train shaft becomes a key issue. However, for the existing control strategies based on nonlinear model of wind turbines, the MPPT efficiencies are improved at the cost of the intensive fluctuation of generator torque and significant increase of transient load on drive train shaft. Hence, in this paper, a nonlinear controller with variable parameter is proposed for improving MPPT efficiency and mitigating transient load on drive-train simultaneously. Then,simulations on FAST(Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) code and experiments on the wind turbine simulator(WTS) based test bench are presented to verify the efficiency improvement of the proposed control strategy with less cost of drive-train load.

  15. Variable Parameter Nonlinear Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking Considering Mitigation of Drive-train Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaiyu Chen; Minghui Yin; Lianjun Zhou; Yaping Xia; Jiankun Liu; Yun Zou

    2017-01-01

    Since mechanical loads exert a significant influence on the life span of wind turbines,the reduction of transient load on drive-train shaft has received more attention when implementing a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller.Moreover,a trade-off between the efficiency of wind energy extraction and the load level of drive-train shaft becomes a key issue.However,for the existing control strategies based on nonlinear model of wind turbines,the MPPT efficiencies are improved at the cost of the intensive fluctuation of generator torque and significant increase of transient load on drive train shaft.Hence,in this paper,a nonlinear controller with variable parameter is proposed for improving MPPT efficiency and mitigating transient load on drive-train simultaneously.Then,simulations on FAST (Fatigue,Aerodynamics,Structures,and Turbulence) code and experiments on the wind turbine simulator (WTS) based test bench are presented to verify the efficiency improvement of the proposed control strategy with less cost of drive-train load.

  16. Determination of power system component parameters using nonlinear dead beat estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Lakshmi

    Power systems are considered the most complex man-made wonders in existence today. In order to effectively supply the ever increasing demands of the consumers, power systems are required to remain stable at all times. Stability and monitoring of these complex systems are achieved by strategically placed computerized control centers. State and parameter estimation is an integral part of these facilities, as they deal with identifying the unknown states and/or parameters of the systems. Advancements in measurement technologies and the introduction of phasor measurement units (PMU) provide detailed and dynamic information of all measurements. Accurate availability of dynamic measurements provides engineers the opportunity to expand and explore various possibilities in power system dynamic analysis/control. This thesis discusses the development of a parameter determination algorithm for nonlinear power systems, using dynamic data obtained from local measurements. The proposed algorithm was developed by observing the dead beat estimator used in state space estimation of linear systems. The dead beat estimator is considered to be very effective as it is capable of obtaining the required results in a fixed number of steps. The number of steps required is related to the order of the system and the number of parameters to be estimated. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of dead beat estimator and nonlinear finite difference methods to create an algorithm which is user friendly and can determine the parameters fairly accurately and effectively. The proposed algorithm is based on a deterministic approach, which uses dynamic data and mathematical models of power system components to determine the unknown parameters. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested by implementing it to identify the unknown parameters of a synchronous machine. MATLAB environment is used to create three test cases for dynamic analysis of the system with assumed known parameters. Faults are

  17. Analysis of the Nonlinear Characteristics of Microwave Power Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, Apostolos

    A physical basis for large-signal HBT modeling was established in terms of transit times using a Monte Carlo analysis of AlGaAs/GaAs and GaInP/GaAs designs. Static carriers located in the collector-subcollector interface were found to prohibit accurate evaluation of transit times from electron velocity profiles. These carriers also influence the bias dependence of device capacitances. Analytical parameter extraction techniques for DC, thermal and high frequency HBT parameters were developed and applied to HBT large-signal modeling. The "impedance block" conditioned optimization technique was introduced to facilitate parameter extraction. Physical analysis of HBTs by means of Volterra Series techniques showed that C_{bc } dominates nonlinear distortion in high gain amplifiers. Designs with that C_{bc }-V_{cb} characteristics i.e. p -n collector HBTs lead to more than 10 dB IP3 improvement over n-collector HBTs. Nonlinear current cancellation was found to improve intermodulation distortion. A Gummel -Poon-based HBT large-signal model incorporating self-heating effects was developed and applied to AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs. Maximum power drive was shown to occur using constant V _{be} father than I_ {b} bias. The device temperature of constant I_{b} biased HBTs decreases at increased rf-drive levels ensuring in this case safer device operation. A large-signal model incorporating "soft" -breakdown effects typical of InP/InGaAs HBTs was developed and found to model succesfully the power characteristics of OEICs built with them. The effective large-signal transimpedance of a cascode transimpedance preamplifier was evaluated using this model and found to degrade by 3dBOmega for a variation of P_{in} from -65 to -5 dBm. Self-bias of individual transistors was studied and found to be related to variations of the amplifier characteristics at higher rf-drive levels. The power characteristics of CE and CB AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs were investigated using an on -wafer source/load pull setup

  18. Possible factors determining the non-linearity in the VO2-power output relationship in humans: theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2003-08-01

    At low power output exercise (below lactate threshold), the oxygen uptake increases linearly with power output, but at high power output exercise (above lactate threshold) some additional oxygen consumption causes a non-linearity in the overall VO(2) (oxygen uptake rate)-power output relationship. The functional significance of this phenomenon for human exercise tolerance is very important, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unknown. In the present work, a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously is used to examine the background of this relationship in different modes of exercise. Our simulations demonstrate that the non-linearity in the VO(2)-power output relationship and the difference in the magnitude of this non-linearity between incremental exercise mode and square-wave exercise mode (constant power output exercise) can be generated by introducing into the model some hypothetical factor F (group of associated factors) that accumulate(s) in time during exercise. The performed computer simulations, based on this assumption, give proper time courses of changes in VO(2) and [PCr] after an onset of work of different intensities, including the slow component in VO(2), well matching the experimental results. Moreover, if it is assumed that the exercise terminates because of fatigue when the amount/intensity of F exceed some threshold value, the model allows the generation of a proper shape of the well-known power-duration curve. This fact suggests that the phenomenon of the non-linearity of the VO(2)-power output relationship and the magnitude of this non-linearity in different modes of exercise is determined by some factor(s) responsible for muscle fatigue.

  19. Dark matter-baryon segregation in the nonlinear evolution of coupled dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The growth and virialization of spherical top-hat fluctuations, in coupled dark energy models, causes segregation between dark matter (DM) and baryons, as the gravitational infall into the potential well proceeds more slowly for the baryons than for DM. As a consequence, after attaining their turnaround and before full virialization, halos have outer layers rich of baryons. Accordingly, a natural ambiguity exists on the definition of the virial density contrast. In fact, when the outer baryon layers infall onto the DM-richer core, they carry with them DM materials outside the original fluctuation; hence, no time exists when all materials originally belonging to the fluctuation--and only they--have virialized. Baryon-DM segregation can have various astrophysical consequences on different length scales. The smallest halos may loose up to 50% of the original baryonic contents and become hardly visible. Subhalos in cluster-size halos may loose much baryonic materials, which could then be observed as intracluster light. Isolated halos, in general, can be expected to have a baryon component richer than the cosmological proportions, due to the cosmic enrichement of baryons lost in small halo encounters

  20. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this

  1. Effects of indirect lightning strokes on lossy power distribution lines in the presence of nonlinear loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimian, M. S.; Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Moini, R.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning strokes can include dangerous overvoltage on power distribution overhead lines. In this paper, a new algorithm is propagated within a distribution network including nonlinear apparatus. The coupling between the lightning channel and the overhead line is based on an antenna theory model and employs the method of moment for solving the governing electric field integral equation. The computed induced overvoltage is then used in the electromagnetic transient program to analyze its propagation within the distribution network. In this regard, the accuracy of the new coupling method is demonstrated by comparing the calculated induced over voltages using the new method and those obtained using the conventional methods. Simulation results are presented to show how the induced overvoltage is penetrated in a typical distribution network, consisting of overhead lines and underground cables, a distribution transformer protected by surge arresters and a three-phase resistive load

  2. Design of a Low-Power VLSI Macrocell for Nonlinear Adaptive Video Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A VLSI macrocell for edge-preserving video noise reduction is proposed in the paper. It is based on a nonlinear rational filter enhanced by a noise estimator for blind and dynamic adaptation of the filtering parameters to the input signal statistics. The VLSI filter features a modular architecture allowing the extension of both mask size and filtering directions. Both spatial and spatiotemporal algorithms are supported. Simulation results with monochrome test videos prove its efficiency for many noise distributions with PSNR improvements up to 3.8 dB with respect to a nonadaptive solution. The VLSI macrocell has been realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology using a standard-cells library; it allows for real-time processing of main video formats, up to 30 fps (frames per second 4CIF, with a power consumption in the order of few mW.

  3. Identification of nonlinear dynamics in power plant components using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Fernandez, B.; Tsai, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in digital computer technology have enabled widespread implementation of closed-loop digital control systems in a variety of industries. In some instances, however, the complexity of the plant and the uncertainty associated with the parameters involved in the mathematical modeling narrow the range of applicability of most systematic control system design methodologies. A multiyear project has been initiated to assess the feasibility of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) technology for computerized enhanced diagnostics and control of nuclear power plant components. At this stage of the project, a new methodology, based on backpropagation learning, has been developed for identifying the nonlinear dynamic systems from a set of input-output data known as the training set

  4. A nonlinear 3D real-time model for simulation of BWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Y.

    1982-02-01

    A nonlinear transient model for BWR nuclear power plants which consists of a 3D-core (subdivided into a number of superboxes, and with parallel flow and subcooled boiling), a top plenum, steam removal and feed water systems and main coolant recirculation pumps is given. The model describes the local core and global plant transient situation as dependent on both the inherent core dynamics and external control actions, i.e., disturbances such as motions of control rod banks, changes of mass flow rates of coolant, feed water and steam outlet. The case of a pressure-controlled reactor operation is also considered. The model which forms the basis for the digital code GARLIC-B (Er et al. 82) is aimed to be used on an on-site process computer in parallel to the actual reactor process (or even in predictive mode). Thus, special measures had to be taken into account in order to increase the computational speed and reduce the necessary computer storage. This could be achieved by - separating the neutron and power kinetics from the xenon-iodine dynamics, - treating the neutron kinetics and most of the thermodynamics and hydrodynamics in a pseudostationary way, - developing a special coupling coefficient concept to describe the neutron diffusion, calculating the coupling coefficients from a basic neutron kinetics code, - combining coarse mesh elements into superboxes, taking advantage of the symmetry properties of the core and - applying a sparse matrix technique for solving the resulting algebraic power equation system. (orig.) [de

  5. Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ DM−γ ≤ 8 × 10 −31 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ DM−γ ≤ 6 × 10 −40 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature

  6. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheerin, J. P., E-mail: jsheerin@emich.edu [Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI 48197 (United States); Cohen, Morris B., E-mail: mcohen@gatech.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 – 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 – 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 – 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP’s unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 – 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 – 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth

  7. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  8. Power-level regulation and simulation of nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillation using H-infinity loop shaping control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to solve the power-level control issue of a nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillations. A nonlinear pressurized water reactor core is modeled using the lumped parameter method, and a linear model of the core is then obtained through the small perturbation linearization way. The H∞loop shapingcontrolis utilized to design a robust controller of the linearized core model.The calculated H∞loop shaping controller is applied to the nonlinear core model. The nonlinear core model and the H∞ loop shaping controller build the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system.Finally, the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system is simulatedconsidering two typical load processes that are a step load maneuver and a ramp load maneuver, and simulation results show that the nonlinear control system is effective.

  9. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  10. H∞ Excitation Control Design for Stochastic Power Systems with Input Delay Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.

  11. Nonlinear Synergetic Governor Controllers for Steam Turbine Generators to Enhance Power System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbao Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized nonlinear synergetic governor controller (NSGC for turbine generators to enhance power system stability by using synergetic control theory and the feedback linearization technique. The precise feedback linearization model of a turbine-generator with a steam valve control is obtained, at first, by using a feedback linearization technique. Then based on this model, a manifold is defined as a linear combination of the deviation of the rotor angle, speed deviation, and speed derivative. The control law of the proposed NSGC is deduced and the stability condition of the whole closed-loop system is subsequently analyzed. According to the requirement of the primary frequency regulation, an additional proportional integral (PI controller is designed to dynamically track the steady-state value of the rotor angle. Case studies are undertaken based on a single-machine infinite-bus system and the New England system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed NSGC can suppress the power oscillations and improve transient stability more effectively in comparison with the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID governor controller. Moreover, the proposed NSGC is robust to the variations of the system operating conditions.

  12. Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution - although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

  13. Nonlinear gyrokinetics: a powerful tool for the description of microturbulence in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John A

    2010-01-01

    Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and difficulties) of deriving nonlinear gyrofluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution-although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

  14. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  15. Matter power spectrum in hidden neutrino interacting dark matter models: a closer look at the collision term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Tobias; Covi, Laura [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Georg-August University Göttingen,Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Göttingen, D-37077 (Germany); Kamada, Ayuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University,Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Naoki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency,4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-11-21

    Dark Matter (DM) models providing possible alternative solutions to the small-scale crisis of the standard cosmology are nowadays of growing interest. We consider DM interacting with light hidden fermions via well-motivated fundamental operators showing the resultant matter power spectrum is suppressed on subgalactic scales within a plausible parameter region. Our basic description of the evolution of cosmological perturbations relies on a fully consistent first principles derivation of a perturbed Fokker-Planck type equation, generalizing existing literature. The cosmological perturbation of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented for the first time in two different gauges, where the results transform into each other according to the rules of gauge transformation. Furthermore, our focus lies on a derivation of a broadly applicable and easily computable collision term showing important phenomenological differences to other existing approximations. As one of the main results and concerning the small-scale crisis, we show the equal importance of vector and scalar boson mediated interactions between the DM and the light fermions.

  16. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramodini, S; Poornesh, P; Sudhakar, Y N; SelvaKumar, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He–Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of β eff , n 2 and χ (3) were found to be of the order of 10 −2  cm W −1 , 10 -5  esu and 10 −7  esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications. (paper)

  17. Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.

  18. Analysis of the power flow in nonlinear oscillators driven by random excitation using the first Wiener kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, D. H.; Langley, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Random excitation of mechanical systems occurs in a wide variety of structures and, in some applications, calculation of the power dissipated by such a system will be of interest. In this paper, using the Wiener series, a general methodology is developed for calculating the power dissipated by a general nonlinear multi-degree-of freedom oscillatory system excited by random Gaussian base motion of any spectrum. The Wiener series method is most commonly applied to systems with white noise inputs, but can be extended to encompass a general non-white input. From the extended series a simple expression for the power dissipated can be derived in terms of the first term, or kernel, of the series and the spectrum of the input. Calculation of the first kernel can be performed either via numerical simulations or from experimental data and a useful property of the kernel, namely that the integral over its frequency domain representation is proportional to the oscillating mass, is derived. The resulting equations offer a simple conceptual analysis of the power flow in nonlinear randomly excited systems and hence assist the design of any system where power dissipation is a consideration. The results are validated both numerically and experimentally using a base-excited cantilever beam with a nonlinear restoring force produced by magnets.

  19. Nonlinear seismic soil-structure interaction analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, J.K.; Setlur, A.V.; Pathak, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The heterogeneous and nonlinear soil medium and the detailed three-dimensional structure are synthesized to determine the seismic response to soil-structure systems. The approach is particularly attractive in a design office environment since it: a) leads to interactive motion at the soil-structure interface; b) uses existing public domain programs such as SAPIV, LUSH and FLUSH with marginal modifications; and c) meets current regulatory requirements for soil-structure interaction analysis. Past methods differ from each other depending on the approach adopted for soil and structure representations and procedures for solving the governing differential equations. Advantages and limitations of these methods are reviewed. In the current approach, the three-dimensional structure is represented by the dynamic characteristics of its fixed base condition. This representation is ideal when structures are designed to be within elastic range. An important criterion is the design of the nuclear power plant structures. Model damping coefficients are varied to reflect the damping properties of different structural component materials. The detailed structural model is systematically reduced to reflect important dynamic behavior with simultaneous storing of intermediate information for retrieval of detailed structural response. Validity of the approach has been established with simple numerical experiments. (Auth.)

  20. High-power laser radiation in atmospheric aerosols: Nonlinear optics of aerodispersed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. E.; Zemlianov, A. A.; Kopytin, Iu. D.; Kuzikovskii, A. V.

    The bulk of this book contains the results of investigations carried out at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, USSR Academy of Science with the participation of the authors. The microphysical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols are considered, taking into account light scattering by a single aerosol particle, light scattering by a system of particles, the scattering phase matrix, light scattering by clouds and fogs, light scattering by hazes, and scattering phase functions of polydispersed aerosols. Other topics studies are related to low-energy (subexplosive) effects of radiation on individual particles, the formation of clear zones in clouds and fogs due to the vaporization of droplets under regular regimes, self-action of a wave beam in a water aerosol under conditions of regular droplet vaporization, laser beam propagation through an explosively evaporating water-droplet aerosol, the propagation of high-power laser radiation through hazes, the ionization and optical breakdown in aerosol media, and laser monitoring of a turbid atmosphere using nonlinear effects.

  1. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  2. A Note on the Invariance Properties and Conservation Laws of the Kadomstev—Petviashvili Equation with Power Law Nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari A H; Zaman F D; Fakhar K; Kara A H

    2011-01-01

    First, we studied the invariance properties of the Kadomstev—Petviashvili equation with power law nonlinearity. Then, we determined the complete class of conservation laws and stated the corresponding conserved densities which are useful in finding the conserved quantities of the equation. The point symmetry generators were also used to reduce the equation to an exact solution and to verify the invariance properties of the conserved flows. (general)

  3. Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP. Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed. This approach linearizes the non-linear characteristics in PV systems and DC/DC converters, for tracking and optimizing the PV system operation. It also reduces the dependency of the designed controller on linearized models, to provide global stability. A complete model of the PV system is simulated. The existing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT and DC/DC boost-converter controller techniques are compared with the proposed ANN method. Two case studies, which simulate realistic circumstances, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. The AFL with ANN controller can provide good dynamic operation, faster convergence speed, and fewer operating-point oscillations around the MPP. It also tracks the global maxima under different conditions, especially irradiance-mutating situations, more effectively than the conventional methods. Detailed mathematical models and a control approach for a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system are proposed using MATLAB/Simulink.

  4. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Carlos; Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Alves, Rui; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Sorribas, Albert

    2011-08-25

    Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  5. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  6. Dark matter statistics for large galaxy catalogs: power spectra and covariance matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale surveys of galaxies require accurate theoretical predictions of the dark matter clustering for thousands of mock galaxy catalogs. We demonstrate that this goal can be achieve with the new Parallel Particle-Mesh (PM) N-body code GLAM at a very low computational cost. We run ˜22, 000 simulations with ˜2 billion particles that provide ˜1% accuracy of the dark matter power spectra P(k) for wave-numbers up to k ˜ 1hMpc-1. Using this large data-set we study the power spectrum covariance matrix. In contrast to many previous analytical and numerical results, we find that the covariance matrix normalised to the power spectrum C(k, k΄)/P(k)P(k΄) has a complex structure of non-diagonal components: an upturn at small k, followed by a minimum at k ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 hMpc-1, and a maximum at k ≈ 0.5 - 0.6 hMpc-1. The normalised covariance matrix strongly evolves with redshift: C(k, k΄)∝δα(t)P(k)P(k΄), where δ is the linear growth factor and α ≈ 1 - 1.25, which indicates that the covariance matrix depends on cosmological parameters. We also show that waves longer than 1h-1Gpc have very little impact on the power spectrum and covariance matrix. This significantly reduces the computational costs and complexity of theoretical predictions: relatively small volume ˜(1h-1Gpc)3 simulations capture the necessary properties of dark matter clustering statistics. As our results also indicate, achieving ˜1% errors in the covariance matrix for k < 0.50 hMpc-1 requires a resolution better than ɛ ˜ 0.5h-1Mpc.

  7. Comparison of simulated and measured response of load rejection on A hydro power plant model with mixed mode nonlinear controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babunski, Darko; Tuneski, Atanasko; Zaev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Revised Hydro Power Plant model of the IEEE working group recommended converted to state space model is used for simulation of transient response of hydro turbine, and verification was made using measurements of transients from real Hydro Power Plant (HPP). Nonlinear mixed model controller was designed and implemented into complete HPP simulation model and compared with PID with real parameters used in HPP, and with adjusted PID parameters with consideration of smallest frequency error. Verification of performance of the model was made comparing model response with measured load rejection, which is worst case of HPP operation. (Author)

  8. Nonlinear effects on the rotor driven by a motor with limited power

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 603-612 ISSN 1802-680X. [Computational Mechanics 2007. Hrad Nečtiny, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rotor dynamics * nonlinear oscillations * weak energy source * nonlinear magnetic flux Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with a spatially modulated nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices. By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite number of exact soliton solutions in terms of the Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite bandgap of the optical-lattice-induced spectrum. Starting from the exact solutions, we employ the relaxation met...

  10. Nonlinear and Synchronous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Streams Across an Agriculture Land Use and Climate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenopoulos, M. A.; Vogt, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is now increasing evidence that non-linearity is a common response in ecological systems to pressures caused by human activities. There is also increasing evidence that exogenous environmental drivers, such as climate, induce spatial and temporal synchrony in a wide range of ecological variables. Using Moran's I and Pearson's correlation, we quantified the synchrony of dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and quality (DOM; e.g., specific UV absorbance, Fluorescence Index, PARAFAC), nutrients, discharge and temperature in 40 streams that span an agriculture gradient (0 to >70% cropland), over 10 years. We then used breakpoint regression, 2D-Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and significant zero crossings (SiZer) analyses to quantify the prevalence of nonlinearity and ecological thresholds (breakpoints) where applicable. There was a high degree of synchrony in DOM quality (r > 0.7) but not DOC (r < 0.4). The degree of synchrony was driven in part by the catchment's land use. With respect to the nonlinear analyses we found non-linearity in ~50% of bivariate datasets analyzed. Non-linearity was also driven in part by the catchment's land use. Breakpoints defined different DOM properties. Nonlinearity and synchronous behaviour in DOM are intimately linked to land use.

  11. Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...

  12. Response analysis and energy transmissibility of a vibration isolation system with real-power nonlinearities under a NMPPF controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. • The primary resonance, dynamical stability and energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. • The sensitivity of the controller parameters on the responses has been analyzed. • In order to suppress the amplitude peak, the feedback parameters have been determined by the frequency response. • The energy transmissibility is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, the nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. Based on the method of multiple scales, the frequency response, the stability and the energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. It is found that the controlled isolation system exhibits a softening behavior for sub-linear restoring force, while it exhibits the two peak response characteristic rather than a hardening behavior for over-linear restoring force. Further, the sensitivity of the feedback parameters on the responses is discussed. The results, compared to the conventional PPF and IRC methods, show that the proposed method is significantly more effective in controlling the steady-state response, and slightly advantageous for the steady-state dynamics control. The effectiveness of this method is also verified by time domain analysis. Then, the suitable feedback and controller parameters are derived by simulation results in which the amplitude peak is suppressed and the resonance stability is maintained. Finally, the energy transmissibility of the vibration isolation system is investigated. The results show that the feedback gain can reduce the whole transmissibility level and greatly suppress vibration

  13. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  14. Plasma Electronics. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Plasma Nonlinearity in the Powerful Microwave Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Yu.P.

    2001-01-01

    During more than 50 years of Plasma Electronics development a great number of experimental and theoretical results have been achieved. These results allow understanding of physical processes which originate under charged particles beams interaction with a plasma. However, one essential aspect of such interaction remains insufficiently studied. The question is about a correlation between conditions of microwave excitation by a beam in plasma and plasma parameters. Each of these effects, namely the influence of plasma parameters on conditions of microwave excitation by a beam and plasma parameters variations under the influence of propagating microwave radiation are well known and investigated enough. However their common action under beam-plasma instability (BPI) development were not studied systematically, although the role of such reciprocal influence on character of these processes may be very large. The aim of this report is a review of recent theoretical and experimental investigations of such plasma nonlinearity in plasma-filled trawling-wave tubes. N.M.Zemlyansky and E.A.Kornilov have done experiments in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KhPhTI). Development of the theoretical model was started in KhPhTI (Yu.P.Bliokh, Ya.B.Fainberg, M.G.Lyubarsky, and V.O.Podobinsky) and continues by author in Technion. The developed theory takes into account two main reasons of the plasma density redistribution: high frequency pressure (HFP) force which ''push out'' plasma from the regions with increased microwave amplitude, or microwave discharge, which appears in the region where amplitude is large enough. Displaced (under HFP action) or additionally originating (under (BPD) development) plasma propagates from the disturbance source in the form of slow plasma waves (for example, ion-sound or magneto-sound waves), and the BPI develops in the nonhomogeneous plasma. It changes both magnitude and longitudinal distribution of excited microwave amplitude. As a result

  15. The generation of high-power charge particle micro beams and its interaction with condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, N.; Skvortsov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    As has been observed experimentally, the action of a picosecond laser beam on an Al-target in air gives rise to the generation and acceleration of high-power micro electron and ion beams. An original theoretical model for describing the generation and particle acceleration of such micro beams as a result of the micro channeling effect is presented. It was found that extreme states of matter, with compression in the Gbar pressure range, can be produced by such micro beams. (author). 3 figs., 12 refs

  16. Basic experimental preparation for the measurement of the stopping power of heavy ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Brito Brum, H. de.

    1976-02-01

    To measure the stopping power of heavy ions in solid matter one must develop both an experimental apparatus and a data analysis program. This thesis discusses these preparatory works and the methods to be employed. The design, building and testing of a scattering chamber with many detectors; the preparation of thin solid films, their analysis by electron diffraction and their thickness measurements; the testing of the electronic system; the calibration of the 4 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator at PUC/RJ; and the development of an original data analysis computer program are presented. (Author) [pt

  17. Nonlinear instabilities induced by the F coil power amplifier at FTU: Modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccarian, L.; Boncagni, L.; Cascone, D.; Centioli, C.; Cerino, S.; Gravanti, F.; Iannone, F.; Mecocci, F.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Vitale, V.; Vitelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the instabilities caused by the nonlinear behavior of the F coil current amplifier at FTU. This behavior induces closed-loop instability of the horizontal position stabilizing loop whenever the requested current is below the circulating current level. In the paper we first illustrate a modeling phase where nonlinear dynamics are derived and identified to reproduce the open-loop responses measured by the F coil current amplifier. The derived model is shown to successfully reproduce the experimental behavior by direct comparison with experimental data. Based on this dynamic model, we then reproduce the closed-loop scenario of the experiment and show that the proposed nonlinear model successfully reproduces the nonlinear instabilities experienced in the experimental sessions. Given the simulation setup, we next propose a nonlinear control solution to this instability problem. The proposed solution is shown to recover stability in closed-loop simulations. Experimental tests are scheduled for the next experimental campaign after the FTU restart.

  18. Robust nonlinear model predictive control for nuclear power plants in load following operations with bounded xenon oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasi, H.; Menhaj, M.B.; Davilu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this work, a robust nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is developed. → This algorithm is applied to control the power level for load following. → The state constraints are imposed on the predicted trajectory during optimization. → The xenon oscillations are the main constraint for the load following problem. → In this algorithm, xenon oscillations are bounded within acceptable limits. - Abstract: One of the important operations in nuclear power plants is load-following in which imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation considered to be a constraint for the load-following operation. In this paper, a robust nonlinear model predictive control for the load-following operation problem is proposed that ensures xenon oscillations are kept bounded within acceptable limits. The proposed controller uses constant axial offset (AO) strategy to maintain xenon oscillations to be bounded. The constant AO is a robust state constraint for load-following problem. The controller imposes restricted state constraints on the predicted trajectory during optimization which guarantees robust satisfaction of state constraints without restoring to a min-max optimization problem. Simulation results show that the proposed controller for the load-following operation is so effective so that the xenon oscillations kept bounded in the given region.

  19. High-accuracy power series solutions with arbitrarily large radius of convergence for the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, U. Al; Al-Refai, M.; Shchedrin, Gavriil; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-06-01

    Fractional nonlinear differential equations present an interplay between two common and important effective descriptions used to simplify high dimensional or more complicated theories: nonlinearity and fractional derivatives. These effective descriptions thus appear commonly in physical and mathematical modeling. We present a new series method providing systematic controlled accuracy for solutions of fractional nonlinear differential equations, including the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation. The method relies on spatially iterative use of power series expansions. Our approach permits an arbitrarily large radius of convergence and thus solves the typical divergence problem endemic to power series approaches. In the specific case of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation we find fractional generalizations of cnoidal waves of Jacobi elliptic functions as well as a fractional bright soliton. For the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation we find the combination of fractional and nonlinear effects results in a more strongly localized solution which nevertheless still exhibits power law tails, albeit at a much lower density.

  20. Nonlinear oscillations of a coupled autoparametrical system with ideal and nonideal sources of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal and nonideal autoparametrical system excited by DC motor with unbalanced mass is presented in this work. The system consists of the body of mass M which is hung on a nonlinear spring with a nonlinear damper, and a pendulum of the length l and mass m mounted to the body of mass M. It is assumed that the motion of the pendulum is damped by nonlinear resistive forces. Vibrations of both models (ideal and nonideal are researched. Solutions for the system response are presented for specific values of the parameters of system and the energy transfer between modes of vibrations is studied. Next excited vibrations for both models have been examined analytically and numerically. Except different kinds of periodic vibrations, there may also appear chaotic vibrations.

  1. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  2. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Meng Jianping; Wu Lei; Li Yishen; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  3. Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.

  4. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave-plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra.

  5. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave–plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra. (paper)

  6. Calculation of the stopping power and the path of charged particles in matter. Application example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand; Du Lieu, Pierre

    1969-05-01

    The path of a charged particle in matter is calculated by integrating the stopping power of the medium against this particle. Depending on the energy of the particle, stopping powers are calculated using Lindhard, Bethe, or semi-empirical smoothing solutions. After exposing recent theories in this field, the authors present a Fortran subroutine which performs these various operations, and covers all energy domains. This routine is available for operation on IBM 360; it uses a magnetic tape library that can take into account experimental results. The subprogram presentation, leaving the user the option of entering the data and using the results at his discretion, allows a particularly flexible use. At the end of this note, some considerations on possible further improvements in the program, and a bibliography of the articles that have dealt with the question from a theoretical or an experimental point of view are discussed [fr

  7. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  8. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  9. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  10. A hybrid filter to mitigate harmonics caused by nonlinear load and resonance caused by power factor correction capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, N. F.; Soomro, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Power factor correction capacitor (PFCC) is commonly installed in industrial applications for power factor correction (PFC). With the expanding use of non-linear equipment such as ASDs, power converters, etc., power factor (PF) improvement has become difficult due to the presence of harmonics. The resulting capacitive impedance of the PFCC may form a resonant circuit with the source inductive reactance at a certain frequency, which is likely to coincide with one of the harmonic frequency of the load. This condition will trigger large oscillatory currents and voltages that may stress the insulation and cause subsequent damage to the PFCC and equipment connected to the power system (PS). Besides, high PF cannot be achieved due to power distortion. This paper presents the design of a three-phase hybrid filter consisting of a single tuned passive filter (STPF) and shunt active power filter (SAPF) to mitigate harmonics and resonance in the PS through simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC software. SAPF was developed using p-q theory. The hybrid filter has resulted in significant improvement on both total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV) and total demand distortion for current (TDDI) with maximum values of 2.93% and 9.84% respectively which were within the recommended IEEE 519-2014 standard limits. Regarding PF improvement, the combined filters have achieved PF close to desired PF at 0.95 for firing angle, α values up to 40°.

  11. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0310; Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446; License Nos. NPF-87 and NPF-89] In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units... Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (CPNPP), and its Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation Facility...

  12. Lectures on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, U.

    2001-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  13. Lectures on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljak, U [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  14. Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.

  15. Combined effects of traveling seismic waves and soil nonlinearity on nuclear power plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ground motion nonuniformity on the seismic input have been actively studied in recent years by considering the passage of traveling seismic waves. These studies gave rise to a new class of soil-structure interaction problems in which the seismic input is modified as a result of the spatial variations of ground motion. The phenomena were usually studied by using the elastic half-space simulation or discrete spring-models for modeling the soil medium. Finite element methods were also used recently on a limited scope. Results obtained from these investigations are often manifested by an attenuation of translational excitation along with an addition of rotational ground motion input. The decrease in structural response resulting from the input loss in the translational component was often insignificant since the response reduction tends to be offset by the effects from rotational input. The traveling wave effects have, so far, been investigated within the framework of linear theory with soil nonlinearity ignored. Conversely, the incorporation of soil nonlinearity in soil-structure interaction analyses has been done without including wave effect. Seismic analyses considering the hysteretic behavior of soil have been performed using highly idealized models for steady-state solution. More elaborate nonlinear seismic models deal with only the strain-dependent soil modulus rather than the transient unloading-reloading type of hysteretic characteristics of soil under a time-function input of earthquake trace. Apparently, the traveling wave effect and soil nonlinearity have been separately treated in the past. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these two major effects can be combined in one model such that the influence of wave passage is reflected through the hysteretic behavior of soil particles, and thereby achieving significant reduction in seismic loads. (orig./RW)

  16. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-linear multi-objective model for planning water-energy modes of Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsova, O. K.; Artamonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a non-linear multi-objective model for planning and optimizing of water-energy modes for the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant (HPP) operation. There is a very important problem of developing a strategy to improve the scheme of water-power modes and ensure the effective operation of hydropower plants. It is necessary to determine the methods and criteria for the optimal distribution of water resources, to develop a set of models and to apply them to the software implementation of a DSS (decision-support system) for managing Novosibirsk HPP modes. One of the possible versions of the model is presented and investigated in this paper. Experimental study of the model has been carried out with 2017 data and the task of ten-day period planning from April to July (only 12 ten-day periods) was solved.

  18. Non-linear relationship between oxygen uptake and power output in the Astrand nomogram-old data revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Szkutnik, Z; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Pedersen, P K

    2007-06-01

    For the last decade there have been considerable discussion concerning the linearity / non-linearity of the oxygen uptake (V(O2)) - power output (W) relationship with strong experimental evidence of non-linearity provided mainly by breath-by-breath measurements. In this study, we attempted to answer the question whether the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand nomogram, as presented in the Textbook of Work Physiology, P.-O. Astrand et al. (2003), page 281, based on the Douglas bag method, is indeed linear, as stated by the authors before, or if a change point in V(O2), described by Zoladz et al. (1998) Eur J Appl Physiol 78: 369-377, can possibly be detected in those data. The V(O2) - W data were taken from the Astrand nomogram referenced above and from the Table 9.5 on page 282 in the same reference and tested for the presence of the change point in V(O2), using our two-phase model (see the reference above). In the first phase, a linear V(O2) - W relationship was assumed, whereas in the second one (above the so-called change point) an additional increase in V(O2) above the values expected from the linear model was allowed. It was found that in the data taken from the Astrand nomogram (data for men), as well as in the data taken from the Table 9.5, statistically significant change points in V(O2) were present at the power output of 150 W. The documentation of the presence of a change point in the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand data provides further evidence for the existence of a non-linearity in the V(O2) - W relationship in incremental exercise tests of humans, also in V(O2) data based upon the Douglas bag method.

  19. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  20. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C R D [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Geissel, M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gregori, G, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  1. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Gregori, G

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  2. Bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions and soliton interactions for a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation in condensed-matter physics and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Liu, Li-Cai; Qin, Bo; Lü, Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the dynamics of a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction in condensed-matter physics as well as the alpha helical proteins with higher-order excitations and interactions in biophysics. Beyond the existing constraint, upon the introduction of an auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions are constructed with the Hirota method. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the soliton interactions are elastic. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Bound-state solitons can also exist under certain conditions. Period of a bound-state soliton is inversely correlated to the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Interactions among the three solitons are all pairwise elastic

  3. Harmonic Domain Modelling of Transformer Core Nonlinearities Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory Software

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Claus Leth; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results of implementation and verification of an already existing algorithm that allows for calculating saturation characteristics of singlephase power transformers. The algorithm was described for the first time in 1993. Now this algorithm has been implemented using the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) as an external script in the harmonic domain calculations of a power system analysis tool PowerFactory [10]. The algorithm is verified by harmonic measurements ...

  4. Experimental study of ion stopping power in warm dense matter: charge-state distribution measurements of ions leaving warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-01

    The determination if the ion slowing down process (or stopping power) in warm dense matter is essential especially in the frame of inertial confinement fusion. During my thesis, our interest was driven by the modification of the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter, this quantity playing a major role in ion stopping power calculation. We took advantage of the properties exhibited by ion beams produced by high intensity short pulse lasers to study during two experiments performed at ELFIE and TITAN facilities, the charge state modification of a carbon and helium ion beams emerging from an aluminum foil isochorically heated by an energetic proton beam. In the first two chapters are presented the major challenges regarding the subject from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. Here are exposed the different simulation tools used during the thesis. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the property of laser-produced ion beams in the scope of our experiments aiming at studying the stopping power. We have studied in particular ion beams generated using lower-than-solid density targets during two experiments: helium gas jet and laser-exploded target. In the last chapter are presented the set-ups and results of the two experiments on the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter. The data we measured in solid-density cold aluminum are successfully compared with the results already obtained in conventional accelerators. (author) [fr

  5. Performance improvement of shunt active power filter based on non-linear least-square approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terriche, Yacine

    2018-01-01

    . This paper proposes an improved open loop strategy which is unconditionally stable and flexible. The proposed method which is based on non-linear least square (NLS) approach can extract the fundamental voltage and estimates its phase within only half cycle, even in the presence of odd harmonics and dc offset......). The synchronous reference frame (SRF) approach is widely used for generating the RCC due to its simplicity and computation efficiency. However, the SRF approach needs precise information of the voltage phase which becomes a challenge under adverse grid conditions. A typical solution to answer this need...

  6. Self-consistent nonlinear simulations of high-power free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.P.; Jackson, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Two 3-D nonlinear formulations of FEL amplifiers are described which treat both planar and helical wiggler geometries. For convenience, the authors refer to the planar (helical) formulation and simulation code as WIGGLIN (ARACHNE). These formulations are slow-time-scale models for FEL amplifiers in which the electron dynamics are treated using the complete 3-D Lorentz force equations without recourse to a wiggler period average. The application of these codes to the description of a collective reversed-field FEL experiment and to random wiggler field errors is described

  7. The matter power spectrum in redshift space using effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca de la Bella, Lucía; Regan, Donough; Seery, David; Hotchkiss, Shaun

    2017-11-01

    The use of Eulerian 'standard perturbation theory' to describe mass assembly in the early universe has traditionally been limited to modes with k lesssim 0.1 h/Mpc at z=0. At larger k the SPT power spectrum deviates from measurements made using N-body simulations. Recently, there has been progress in extending the reach of perturbation theory to larger k using ideas borrowed from effective field theory. We revisit the computation of the redshift-space matter power spectrum within this framework, including for the first time the full one-loop time dependence. We use a resummation scheme proposed by Vlah et al. to account for damping of baryonic acoustic oscillations due to large-scale random motions and show that this has a significant effect on the multipole power spectra. We renormalize by comparison to a suite of custom N-body simulations matching the MultiDark MDR1 cosmology. At z=0 and for scales k lesssim 0.4 h/Mpc we find that the EFT furnishes a description of the real-space power spectrum up to ~ 2%, for the l = 0 mode up to ~ 5%, and for the l = 2, 4 modes up to ~ 25%. We argue that, in the MDR1 cosmology, positivity of the l=0 mode gives a firm upper limit of k ≈ 0.74 h/Mpc for the validity of the one-loop EFT prediction in redshift space using only the lowest-order counterterm. We show that replacing the one-loop growth factors by their Einstein-de Sitter counterparts is a good approximation for the l=0 mode, but can induce deviations as large as 2% for the l=2, 4 modes. An accompanying software bundle, distributed under open source licenses, includes Mathematica notebooks describing the calculation, together with parallel pipelines capable of computing both the necessary one-loop SPT integrals and the effective field theory counterterms.

  8. Impact of Distribution System’s Non-Linear Loads with Constant Power on Grid Voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Today’s electrical appliances are more and more built with and controlled by power electronics and processors, and their number is growing. This development can bring both advantages and disadvantages for the power quality of the electricity supply system. An advantage for example is the growing

  9. Spectral, spatial and temporal control of high-power diode lasers through nonlinear optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A high-power diode laser offers multi-Watt output power from a small and efficient device, which makes them an interesting source for numerous applications. The spatial and spectral output however, are of reduced quality which limits the applicability. This limited quality is connected to the design

  10. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  11. Impact of distribution System's nonlinear loads with constant power on grid voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Today's electrical appliances are more and more built with and controlled by power electronics and processors, and their number is growing. This development can bring both advantages and disadvantages for the power quality of the electricity supply system. An advantage, for example is the growing

  12. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  13. Method to improve near-field nonlinearity of a high-power diode laser array on a microchannel cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyou; Jia, Yangtao; Cai, Wanshao; Tao, Chunhua; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-03-01

    Due to thermal stress, each emitter in a semiconductor laser bar or array is vertically displaced along the p-n junction; the result is that each emitter is not in a line, called near-field nonlinearity. Near-field nonlinearity along a laser bar (also known as "SMILE" effect) degrades the laser beam brightness, which causes an adverse effect on optical coupling and beam shaping. A large SMILE value causes a large divergence angle after collimation and a wider line after collimation and focusing. We simulate the factors affecting the SMILE value of a high-power diode laser array on a microchannel cooler (MCC). According to the simulation results, we have fabricated a series of laser bars bonded on MCCs with lower SMILE value. After simulation and experiment analysis, we found the key factor to affect SMILE is the deformation of the thin MCC because of the distribution of strain and stress in it. We also decreased the SMILE value of 1-cm-wide full bar AuSn bonded on MCCs from 12 to 1 μm by balancing force on MCC to minimize the deformation.

  14. 75 FR 70042 - In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos (Redacted), License Nos (Redacted), EA (Redacted); NRC- 2010-0351] In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent Nuclear Fuel; Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I. The licensees identified in...

  15. 75 FR 79423 - In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. (Redacted), License Nos.: (Redacted), EA (Redacted); NRC- 2010-0351] In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent Nuclear Fuel; Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I The licensees identified in...

  16. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 05000271; License No. DPR-28; EA-10-034; NRC-2010-0089] In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for... this Demand for Information, the following information, in writing, and under oath or affirmation: 1...

  17. 78 FR 29158 - In the Matter of Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... and DPR-48] In the Matter of Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order... formed for the purpose of acquiring ES, Inc. and is held by certain investment fund entities organized by... Environmental Management Programs, in writing, of such receipt no later than one (1) business day prior to the...

  18. Design of compact dispersion interferometer with a high efficiency nonlinear crystal and a low power CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yoshimura, S.; Tomita, K.; Shirai, N.; Murakami, T.; Urabe, K.

    2017-12-01

    When the electron density of a plasma generated in high pressure environment is measured by a conventional interferometer, the phase shifts due to changes of the neutral gas density cause significant measurement errors. A dispersion interferometer, which measures the phase shift that arises from dispersion of medium between the fundamental and the second harmonic wavelengths of laser light, can suppress the measured phase shift due to the variations of neutral gas density. In recent years, the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been applied to the atmospheric pressure plasmas and its feasibility has been demonstrated. By combining a low power laser and a high efficiency nonlinear crystal for the second harmonic component generation, a compact dispersion interferometer can be designed. The optical design and preliminary experiments are conducted.

  19. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  20. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  1. Application of Power Geometry and Normal Form Methods to the Study of Nonlinear ODEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edneral, Victor

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes power transformations of degenerate autonomous polynomial systems of ordinary differential equations which reduce such systems to a non-degenerative form. Example of creating exact first integrals of motion of some planar degenerate system in a closed form is given.

  2. Application of Power Geometry and Normal Form Methods to the Study of Nonlinear ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edneral Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes power transformations of degenerate autonomous polynomial systems of ordinary differential equations which reduce such systems to a non-degenerative form. Example of creating exact first integrals of motion of some planar degenerate system in a closed form is given.

  3. Nonlinear Parasitic Capacitance Modelling of High Voltage Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    : off-state, sub-threshold region, and on-state in the linear region. A high voltage power MOSFET is designed in a partial Silicon on Insulator (SOI) process, with the bulk as a separate terminal. 3D plots and contour plots of the capacitances versus bias voltages for the transistor summarize...

  4. New series active power filter for computers loads and small non-linear loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnini, M.Y. [Hariri Canadian Univ., Meshref (Lebanon)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposed the use of a single-phase series active power filter to reduce voltage total harmonic distortion and provide improved power quality. Control schemes were developed using simple control algorithms and a reduced number of current transducers. The circuit was comprised of a power supply and zero crossing detector; a hall-effect current sensor and signal conditioning circuit; a microcontroller circuit; a driving circuit; and an inverter bridge. The filter corrected fundamental and sinusoidal voltage amplitudes. The amplitude of the fundamental current in the series filter was controlled using a microcontroller placed between the load voltage and a pre-established reference point. Experiments were conducted to test the source voltage and source current after compensation using a prototype of the filter. The control system provided effective correction of the power factor and harmonic distortion, and reached steady state in approximately 2 cycles. It was concluded that the compensator can also be adapted for use in 3-phase systems. 13 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  5. Does price efficiency increase with trading volume? Evidence of nonlinearity and power laws in ETFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caginalp, Gunduz; DeSantis, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Whether efficiency increases with increasing volume is an important issue that may illuminate trader strategies and distinguish between market theories. This relationship is tested using 124,236 daily observations comprising 68 large and liquid U.S. equity exchange traded funds (ETFs). ETFs have the advantage that efficiency can be measured in terms of the deviation between the trading price and the underlying net asset value that is reported each day. Our findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between volume and efficiency is nonlinear. Indeed, efficiency increases as volume increases from low to moderately high levels, but then decreases as volume increases further. The first part tends to support the idea that higher volume simply facilitates transactions and maintains efficiency, while the latter part, i.e., even higher volumes, supports the ansatz that increased volume is associated with increased speculation that ignores valuation and decreases efficiency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that valuation is only part of the motivation for traders. Our methodology accounts for fund heterogeneity and contemporaneous correlations. Similar results are obtained when daily price volatility is introduced as an additional independent variable.

  6. Nonlinear Robust Control for Low Voltage Direct-Current Residential Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Antonio Rodríguez-Licea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A Direct Current (DC microgrid is a concept derived from a smart grid integrating DC renewable sources. The DC microgrids have three particularities: (1 integration of different power sources and local loads through a DC link; (2 on-site power source generation; and (3 alternating loads (on-off state. This kind of arrangement achieves high efficiency, reliability and versatility characteristics. The key device in the development of the DC microgrid is the power electronic converter (PEC, since it allows an efficient energy conversion between power sources and loads. However, alternating loads with strictly-controlled PECs can provide negative impedance behavior to the microgrid, acting as constant power loads (CPLs, such that the overall closed-loop system becomes unstable. Traditional CPL compensation techniques rely on a damping increment by the adaptation of the source or load voltage level, adding external circuitry or by using some advanced control technique. However, none of them provide a simple and general solution for the CPL problem when abrupt changes in parameters and/or in alternating loads/sources occur. This paper proposes a mathematical modeling and a robust control for the basic PECs dealing with CPLs in continuous conduction mode. In particular, the case of the low voltage residential DC microgrid with CPLs is taken as a benchmark. The proposed controller can be easily tuned for the desired response even by the non-expert. Basic converters with voltage mode control are taken as a basis to show the feasibility of this analysis, and experimental tests on a 100-W testbed include abrupt parameter changes such as input voltage.

  7. Using the full power of the cosmic microwave background to probe axion dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, Renée; Marsh, David J. E.; Grin, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) places stringent constraints on models of dark matter (DM), and on the initial conditions of the Universe. The full Planck data set is used to test the possibility that some fraction of the DM is composed of ultralight axions (ULAs). This represents the first use of CMB lensing to test the ULA model. We find no evidence for a ULA component in the mass range 10-33 ≤ ma ≤ 10-24 eV. We put percent-level constraints on the ULA contribution to the DM, improving by up to a factor of two compared using temperature anisotropies alone. Axion DM also provides a low-energy window on to the physics of inflation through isocurvature perturbations. We perform the first systematic investigation into the parameter space of ULA isocurvature, using an accurate isocurvature transfer function at all ma values. We precisely identify a `window of co-existence' for 10-25 eV ≤ ma ≤ 10-24 eV where the data allow, simultaneously, a {˜ }10 {per cent} contribution of ULAs to the DM, and {˜ } 1 {per cent} contributions of isocurvature and tensor modes to the CMB power. ULAs in this window (and all lighter ULAs) are shown to be consistent with a large inflationary Hubble parameter, HI ˜ 1014 GeV. The window of co-existence will be fully probed by proposed CMB Stage-IV observations with increased accuracy in the high-ℓ lensing power and low-ℓ E- and B-mode polarizations. If ULAs in the window exist, this could allow for two independent measurements of HI in the CMB using isocurvature, and the tensor contribution to B modes.

  8. Warm dense matter study and pulsed-power developments for X-pinch equipment in Nagaoka University of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Miki, Yasutoshi; Tachinami, Fumitaka; Saito, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Takuya; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore high energy density physics, we have performed WDM experiment by using several pulsed-power devices. To generate well-defined warm dense state for evaluating electrical conductivity and its properties, we have proposed an isochoric heating of foamed metal by using pulsed-power discharge. The proposed technique yields the electrical conductivity of warm dense matter with a well-defined temperature. To observe the warm dense matter, a pulsed-power generator based on a pulse-forming-network (PFN) was studied toward generating an intense point-spot-like X-ray source from X-pinch technique. From comparison of the designing and the actual inductances of the X-pinch system, the actual inductance of X-pinch system is 3.5 times higher than the designing inductance. To reduce the total inductance of X-pinch system, we will modify the gap switch system such as multi spake gap

  9. Globalisation and local power: influences on health matters in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tal; Gilbert, Leah

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews some of the multiple influences on health issues in South Africa, placing them in the context of globalisation. By examining the complexity of factors, both domestic and global, which impact on these issues, it questions the extent to which global patterns in areas such as health policy, HIV/AIDS, health care pluralism, and neo-liberal macroeconomic policy have played out in South Africa. The identification of some of the multiple and complex forces in each case reveals a relatively consistent story of global pressures interacting with domestic realities, with some recognizably local results. There is no doubt that a full and nuanced understanding of health in South Africa requires an appreciation of developments in the global political economy, international organizations such as the WHO and World Bank, and forces which operate outside of institutions. In each case, however, the specific opportunities available to actors within the country, as well as the relative power of those actors, should be given their due consideration in analysing their potential impact on health matters.

  10. Supercluster simulations: impact of baryons on the matter power spectrum and weak lensing forecasts for Super-CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Aaron; Brown, Michael L.; Kay, Scott T.; Barnes, David J.

    2018-03-01

    We use a combination of full hydrodynamic and dark matter only simulations to investigate the effect that supercluster environments and baryonic physics have on the matter power spectrum, by re-simulating a sample of supercluster sub-volumes. On large scales we find that the matter power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has at least twice as much power as that measured from our random sample. Our investigation of the effect of baryonic physics on the matter power spectrum is found to be in agreement with previous studies and is weaker than the selection effect over the majority of scales. In addition, we investigate the effect of targeting a cosmologically non-representative, supercluster region of the sky on the weak lensing shear power spectrum. We do this by generating shear and convergence maps using a line-of-sight integration technique, which intercepts our random and supercluster sub-volumes. We find the convergence power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has a larger amplitude than that measured from the random sample at all scales. We frame our results within the context of the Super-CLuster Assisted Shear Survey (Super-CLASS), which aims to measure the cosmic shear signal in the radio band by targeting a region of the sky that contains five Abell clusters. Assuming the Super-CLASS survey will have a source density of 1.5 galaxies arcmin-2, we forecast a detection significance of 2.7^{+1.5}_{-1.2}, which indicates that in the absence of systematics the Super-CLASS project could make a cosmic shear detection with radio data alone.

  11. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  12. High-performance sensorless nonlinear power control of a flywheel energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodeo, S.J.; Chiacchiarini, H.G.; Solsona, J.A.; Busada, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) can be used to store and release energy in high power pulsed systems. Based on the use of a homopolar synchronous machine in a FESS, a high performance model-based power flow control law is developed using the feedback linearization methodology. This law is based on the voltage space vector reference frame machine model. To reduce the magnetic losses, a pulse amplitude modulation driver for the armature is more adequate. The restrictions in amplitude and phase imposed by the driver are also included. A full order Luenberger observer for the torque angle and rotor speed is developed to implement a sensorless control strategy. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance.

  13. Linear modeling of nonlinear systems using artificial neural networks based on I/O data and its application in power plant boiler modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffari, A.; Nikkhah Bahrami, M.; Mohammadzaheri, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a new method for linear modeling of nonlinear systems is presented. The method is based on the design of an artificial neural network with two layers. The network is trained only according to the input-output data of the system. The weights of connections in this network, represents the coefficients of the transfer function. For systems with linear behavior the method of least square error represents the best linear model of the system. However, for nonlinear systems, such as some subsystems in power plants boilers LSE does not represent the best linear approximation of the system, necessarily. In this paper a new linear modeling method is presented and applied to some subsystems in a power plant boiler. Comparison between the transfer function obtained in this way and by least square error method,shows that the neural network method gives better linear models for these nonlinear systems

  14. External Economies Evaluation of Wind Power Engineering Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ze Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external economies of wind power engineering project may affect the operational efficiency of wind power enterprises and sustainable development of wind power industry. In order to ensure that the wind power engineering project is constructed and developed in a scientific manner, a reasonable external economies evaluation needs to be performed. Considering the interaction relationship of the evaluation indices and the ambiguity and uncertainty inherent, a hybrid model of external economies evaluation designed to be applied to wind power engineering project was put forward based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and matter-element extension model in this paper. The AHP was used to determine the weights of indices, and the matter-element extension model was used to deduce final ranking. Taking a wind power engineering project in Inner Mongolia city as an example, the external economies evaluation is performed by employing this hybrid model. The result shows that the external economies of this wind power engineering project are belonged to the “strongest” level, and “the degree of increasing region GDP,” “the degree of reducing pollution gas emissions,” and “the degree of energy conservation” are the sensitive indices.

  15. Application of Nonlinear Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis for Identification of Seismic Margins at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Amit H.; Seo, Jungil; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) methods and approaches at nuclear power plants (NPP) were first developed in the 1970s and aspects of them have matured over time as they were applied and incrementally improved. SPRA provides information on risk and risk insights and allows for some accounting for uncertainty and variability. As a result, SPRA is now used as an important basis for risk-informed decision making for both new and operating NPPs in the US and in an increasing number of countries globally. SPRAs are intended to provide best estimates of the various combinations of structural and equipment failures that can lead to a seismic induced core damage event. However, in some instances the current SPRA approach contains large uncertainties, and potentially masks other important events (for instance, it was not the seismic motions that caused the Fukushima core melt events, but the tsunami ingress into the facility). INL has an advanced SPRA research and development (R&D) activity that will identify areas in the calculation process that contain significant uncertainties. One current area of focus is the use of nonlinear soil-structure interaction (NLSSI) analysis methods to accurately capture: 1) nonlinear soil behavior and 2) gapping and sliding between the NPP and soil. The goal of this study is to compare numerical NLSSI analysis results with recorded earthquake ground motions at Fukushima Daichii (Great Tohuku Earthquake) and evaluate the sources of nonlinearity contributing to the observed reduction in peak acceleration. Comparisons are made using recorded data in the free-field (soil column with no structural influence) and recorded data on the NPP basemat (in-structure response). Results presented in this study should identify areas of focus for future R&D activities with the goal of minimizing uncertainty in SPRA calculations. This is not a validation activity since there are too many sources of uncertainty that a numerical analysis would need

  16. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  17. Constructing and analysis of soliton-like solutions of (1 + 1), (2 + 1), (3 + 1)-dimensional Schrodinger equations with the third power nonlinearity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestkov, S.V.; Romanenko, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of existence of soliton-like solutions of (1+1), (2+1), (3+1)-dimensional Schrodinger equations with the third power nonlinearity law is investigated. The numerical-analytical method of constructing solitons is developed. (authors)

  18. A Novel 100 kW Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation Test Bench for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Nonlinear Magnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Richter, Jan; Gommeringer, Mario; Wersal, Thomas; Braun, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high dynamic power hardware-inthe-loop (PHIL) emulation test bench to mimic arbitrary permanent magnet synchronous machines with nonlinear magnetics. The proposed PHIL test bench is composed of a high performance real-time simulation system to calculate the machine behaviour and a seven level modular multiphase multilevel converter to emulate the power flow of the virtual machine. The PHIL test bench is parametrized for an automotive synchronous machine and controlled by...

  19. Impact of Nonlinear Power Amplifier on Link Adaptation Algorithm of OFDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra S.; Tariq, Faisal; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur

    2007-01-01

    The impact of non linear distortion due to High Power Amplifier (HPA) on the performance of Link Adaptation (LA) - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based wireless system is analyzed. The performance of both Forward Error Control Coding (FEC) en-coded and uncoded system is evaluated....... LA maximizes the throughput while maintaining a required Block Error Rate (BLER). It is found that when OFDM signal, which has high PAPR, suffers non linear distortion due to non ideal HPA, the LA fails to meet the target BLER. Detailed analysis of the distortion and effects on LA are presented...

  20. Estimation of coefficients of multivariable power series approximating magnetic nonlinearity of AC machines*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Tadeusz J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy based approach was used in the study to formulate a set of functions approximating the magnetic flux linkages versus independent currents. The simplest power series that approximates field co-energy and linked fluxes for a two winding core of an induction machine are described by a set of common unknown coefficients. The authors tested three algorithms for the coefficient estimation using Weighted Least-Squared Method for two different positions of the coils. The comparison of the approximation accuracy was accomplished in the specified area of the currents. All proposed algorithms of the coefficient estimation have been found to be effective. The algorithm based solely on the magnetic field co-energy values is significantly simpler than the method based on the magnetic flux linkages estimation concept. The algorithm based on the field co-energy and linked fluxes seems to be the most suitable for determining simultaneously the coefficients of power series approximating linked fluxes and field co-energy.

  1. Rationale for nonlinear dose response functions of power greater or less than one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1977-08-01

    Risk estimates and radiation protection standards are generally made using a nonthreshold premise and linear extrapolations from existing data to estimate biological radiation effects at lower doses and at lower dose rates. This seems reasonable in light of the variety of shapes of dose-effect relations which have been observed both in animal studies and in human epidemiological studies. An unexplained observation in several studies was a response which followed a power function of dose with exponent less than one. One explanation offered for this type of response in humans was a postulated population of heterogeneous sensitivity. An alternate, though related, way of considering this question is in terms of multiple-stresses, and this postulate is discussed

  2. Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2013-09-03

    A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.

  3. Finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization of coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions via the double power function nonlinear feedback control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between two different coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions of network nodes. The double power function nonlinear feedback control method is proposed in this paper to guarantee that the state trajectories of the response network converge to the state trajectories of the drive network according to a function matrix in a given finite time. Furthermore, in comparison with the traditional nonlinear feedback control method, the new method improves the synchronization efficiency, and shortens the finite synchronization time. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. (papers)

  4. The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K. [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave Sadashivnagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560080 (India); Das, Subinoy, E-mail: abir@rri.res.in, E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 100 Feet Rd, Madiwala, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560034 (India)

    2017-07-01

    After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc < k < 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup −1}, whose dynamics can be precisely described using linear theory. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using the Silk damping induced CMB spectral distortion as a probe of the small-scale power. We consider four suggested alternative dark matter candidates—Warm Dark Matter (WDM), Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM), Ultra Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y -parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift z {sub f} = 10{sup 5} (7%); WDM for mass m {sub wdm} = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift z {sub decay} = 10{sup 5} (5%); ULA for mass m {sub a} = 10{sup −24} eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y -distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from

  5. Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N -body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important, and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.

  6. Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N -body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important, and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.

  7. Dynamics of a BWR with inclusion of boiling nonlinearity, clad temperature and void-dependent core power removal: Stability and bifurcation characteristics of advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Simplified models with inclusion of the clad temperature are considered. • Boiling nonlinearity and core power removal have been modeled. • Method of multiple time scales has been used for nonlinear analysis to get the nature and amplitude of oscillations. • Incorporation of modeling complexities enhances the stability of system. • We find that reactors with higher nominal power are more desirable from the point of view of global stability. - Abstract: We study the effect of including boiling nonlinearity, clad temperature and void-dependent power removal from the primary loop in the mathematical modeling of a boiling water reactor (BWR) on its dynamic characteristics. The advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) is taken as a case study. Towards this end, we have analyzed two different simplified models with different handling of the clad temperature. Each of these models has the necessary modifications pertaining to boiling nonlinearity and power removal from the primary loop. These simplified models incorporate the neutronics and thermal–hydraulic coupling. The effect of successive changes in the modeling assumptions on the linear stability of the reactor has been studied and we find that incorporation of each of these complexities in the model increases the stable operating region of the reactor. Further, the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) is exploited to carry out the nonlinear analysis with a view to predict the bifurcation characteristics of the reactor. Both subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations are present in each model depending on the choice of operating parameters. These analytical observations from MMTS have been verified against numerical simulations. A parametric study on the effect of changing the nominal reactor power on the regions in the parametric space of void coefficient of reactivity and fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity with sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations has been performed for all

  8. Coherence and chaos in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs

  9. Location matters: The impact of renewable power on transmission congestion and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Many governments offer subsidies for renewable power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the power sector. However, most support schemes for renewable power do not take into account that emissions depend on the location of renewable and conventional power plants within an electricity grid. I simulate optimal power flow in a test grid when 4 renewable power plants connect to the grid across 24 potential sites, amounting to over 10,000 configurations. Each configuration is associated with different levels of emissions and renewable power output. I find that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7 and that curtailment due to transmission congestion is more likely when renewable power plants are concentrated in an area of the grid with low demand. Large cost savings could be obtained by allowing subsidies for renewable power to vary across locations according to abatement potential or by replacing subsidies with a price on emissions. - Highlights: • Analyze the impact of renewable power plant location on congestion and emissions. • Simulate optimal power flow in a test grid for over 10,000 configurations. • Determine that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7. • Find that renewable power is curtailed due to transmission congestion. • Pricing emissions is most efficient since abatement potential varies across locations.

  10. 78 FR 28002 - In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear... Amendment I South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), Entergy... Operating License No. NPF-29. South Mississippi Electric Power Association and SERI are the owners and EOI...

  11. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  12. The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv. K.; Das, Subinoy

    2017-07-01

    After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y-parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift zf = 105 (7%); WDM for mass mwdm = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift zdecay = 105 (5%); ULA for mass ma = 10-24 eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y-distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from the pre-recombination phase.

  13. Late forming dark matter in theories of neutrino dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subinoy; Weiner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of late forming dark matter, where a scalar field, previously trapped in a metastable state by thermal or finite density effects, goes through a phase transition near the era matter-radiation equality and begins to oscillate about its true minimum. Such a theory is motivated generally if the dark energy is of a similar form, but has not yet made the transition to dark matter, and, in particular, arises automatically in recently considered theories of neutrino dark energy. If such a field comprises the present dark matter, the matter power spectrum typically shows a sharp break at small, presently nonlinear scales, below which power is highly suppressed and previously contained acoustic oscillations. If, instead, such a field forms a subdominant component of the total dark matter, such acoustic oscillations may imprint themselves in the linear regime.

  14. Large power microwave nonlinear effects on multifunction amplifier chip for Ka-band T/R module of phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo; Gu, Ling; Wu, Ruowu; Xu, Xiong; Zhou, Taifu; Niu, Xinjian; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Hui; Wei, Yanyu; Guo, Changyong

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear effects of large power millimeter wave on critical chips for the T/R module of phased array radar is experimental studied and analyzed in this paper. A multifunction amplifier chip is selected for our experiments. A solid continuous wave (CW) source and a large power pulsed magnetron are both employed to generate the Ka-band microwave. The input-output characteristics, the degradation and destroy threshold of the chips are obtained through a series of experimental tests. At last, the results are given by figures and analyzed theoretically.

  15. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  16. Nonlinear methods for load and energy forecasting in local energy systems, especially wind power and photovoltaic systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantz, H.; Ragwitz, M.

    2002-05-01

    The investigations were supported by the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Austin, Texas, the Department of Energy and Semiconductor Engineering of Oldenburg University, and Boreas Energietechnik GmbH in Dresden, Germany [de

  17. The Parkinsonian Subthalamic Network: Measures of Power, Linear, and Non-linear Synchronization and their Relationship to L-DOPA Treatment and OFF State Motor Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy; Farmer, Simon; Berthouze, Luc; Jha, Ashwani; Beudel, Martijn; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation. We demonstrate up modulation of alpha-theta (5-12 Hz) band power in response to L-DOPA treatment, whilst low beta band power (15-20 Hz) band-power is suppressed. We also find evidence for significant local connectivity within the region surrounding STN although there was evidence for its modulation via administration of L-DOPA. Further to this we present evidence for a positive correlation between the phase ordering of bilateral STN interactions and the severity of bradykinetic and rigidity symptoms in PD. Although, the ability of non-linear measures to predict clinical state did not exceed standard measures such as beta power, these measures may help identify the connections which play a role in pathological dynamics.

  18. Single-Wire Electric-Field Coupling Power Transmission Using Nonlinear Parity-Time-Symmetric Model with Coupled-Mode Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujian Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The output power and transmission efficiency of the traditional single-wire electric-field coupling power transmission (ECPT system will drop sharply with the increase of the distance between transmitter and receiver, thus, in order to solve the above problem, in this paper, a new nonlinear parity-time (PT-symmetric model for single-wire ECPT system based on coupled-mode theory (CMT is proposed. The proposed model for single-wire ECPT system not only achieves constant output power but also obtains a high constant transmission efficiency against variable distance, and the steady-state characteristics of the single-wire ECPT system are analyzed. Based on the theoretical analysis and circuit simulation, it shows that the transmission efficiency with constant output power remains 60% over a transmission distance of approximately 34 m without the need for any tuning. Furthermore, the application of a nonlinear PT-symmetric circuit based on CMT enables robust electric power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  19. Oh dear, what can the matter be? A commentary on Pratto's 'On power and empowerment'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    In this response, I welcome Pratto's wide ranging and innovative contribution on the social psychology of power. It fulfils an important role in opening up debate around an issue of key importance for our discipline. At the same time (and to further that debate), I take issue with both of her core arguments: First, that power should not be seen as relational but rather about one's ability to reach one's desired ends and, second, that these ends are ultimately about survival. More fundamentally, though, I argue that Pratto's analysis is limited by the fact that she takes the subject of power for granted. This ignores a wealth of research which shows, on the one hand, how power constitutes the nature of subjects and, on the other, how subjects (especially collective subjects - groups) constitute power. It is through exploring these dynamics that we can understand power and its relevance to social life. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Power Matters: Foucault's "Pouvoir/Savoir" as a Conceptual Lens in Information Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Michael; Heizmann, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper advocates Foucault's notion of pouvoir/savoir (power/knowledge) as a conceptual lens that information researchers might fruitfully use to develop a richer understanding of the relationship between knowledge and power. Methods: Three of the authors' earlier studies are employed to illustrate the use of this conceptual lens.…

  1. Condensed Matter Cluster Reactions in LENR Power Cells for a Radical New Type of Space Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews previous theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of nuclear events in multilayer thin film electrodes (Lipson et al., 2004 and 2005; Miley et al., 2007), including the correlation between excess heat and transmutations (Miley and Shrestha, 2003) and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under development at the University of Illinois. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intending to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to create nanostructures on the electrode where the cluster state is formed by electroless deposition of palladium on nickel micro structures. Power units employing these electrodes should offer unique advantages for space applications. This is a fundamental new nuclear energy source that is environmentally compatible with a minimum of radiation involvement, high specific power, very long lifetime, and scalable from micro power to kilowatts.

  2. Condensed Matter Cluster Reactions in LENR Power Cells for a Radical New Type of Space Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoling; Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews previous theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of nuclear events in multilayer thin film electrodes (Lipson et al., 2004 and 2005; Miley et al., 2007), including the correlation between excess heat and transmutations (Miley and Shrestha, 2003) and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under development at the University of Illinois. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intending to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to create nanostructures on the electrode where the cluster state is formed by electroless deposition of palladium on nickel micro structures. Power units employing these electrodes should offer unique advantages for space applications. This is a fundamental new nuclear energy source that is environmentally compatible with a minimum of radiation involvement, high specific power, very long lifetime, and scalable from micro power to kilowatts.

  3. Why power matters: creating a foundation of mutual support in couple relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2013-03-01

    Research shows that equal power helps couples create intimacy and relationship success. However, though couples increasingly desire equal relationships, cultural models of mutual support are not well developed. Clinicians often approach heterosexual couple therapy as though partners are inherently equal, thus reinforcing unacknowledged gender inequities. This article examines research that shows why power imbalances are destructive to intimate relationships and focuses on four gender-related aspects of mutual support: (a) shared relational responsibility, (b) mutual vulnerability, (c) mutual attunement, and (d) shared influence. Case examples illustrate how socio-emotional attunement, interrupting the flow of power, and introducing alternative relational experience help couple therapists identify and address power disparities in these important relational processes. Encouraging the powerful person to take relational initiative and introducing alternative gender discourse are especially important. © FPI, Inc.

  4. MOEA based design of decentralized controllers for LFC of interconnected power systems with nonlinearities, AC-DC parallel tie-lines and SMES units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, S.; Velusami, S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based decentralized controllers for load-frequency control of interconnected power systems with Governor Dead Band and Generation Rate Constraint nonlinearities, AC-DC parallel tie-lines and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) units, is proposed in this paper. The HVDC link is used as system interconnection in parallel with AC tie-line to effectively damp the frequency oscillations of AC system while the SMES unit provides bulk energy storage and release, thereby achieving combined benefits. The proposed controller satisfies two main objectives, namely, minimum Integral Squared Error of the system output and maximum closed-loop stability of the system. Simulation studies are conducted on a two area interconnected power system with nonlinearities, AC-DC tie-lines and SMES units. Results indicate that the proposed controller improves the transient responses and guarantees the closed-loop stability of the overall system even in the presence of system nonlinearities and with parameter changes.

  5. Structure property relationship of a new nonlinear optical organic crystal: 1-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3-fluorophenylprop-2-en-1-one for optical power limiting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghavendra

    Full Text Available A new organic potential nonlinear optical (NLO material 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3-fluorophenylprop-2-en-1-one (DMP3FP is crystallized in acetone. The single crystal X-ray diffraction data shows that material crystallizes into centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 15.6552(6 Å, b = 8.5571(3 Å, c = 20.7697(7 Å. The functional groups in DMP3FP molecule are identified by Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR spectra. The thermal stability and melting point are determined using thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA. Using UV Visible spectral studies direct band gap energy of the crystal is determined to be 3.19 eV. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and optical power limiting of the crystal was studied using Z-scan technique. The crystal exhibits a self-focusing effect at a wavelength of 532 nm showing optical limiting and reverse saturable absorption by having excited state absorption coefficient greater than ground state absorption coefficient. Keywords: Nonlinear, Optical power limiting, Z-scan, Self-focusing

  6. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  7. 76 FR 77022 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... and 72-3] In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2, H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I. Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is...

  8. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Ramana, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  9. A reliable treatment for nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, F.; Hamedi-Nezhad, S.; Molabahrami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Exp-function method is used to find a unified solution of nonlinear wave equation. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations with cubic and power law nonlinearity are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equation

  10. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany); Baldi, Marco, E-mail: casas@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: mail@marcobaldi.it, E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: vollmer@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, I-40127 Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  11. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β 2 , with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications

  12. Lie Symmetries and Solitons in Nonlinear Systems with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves

  13. Nonlinear structure formation with the environmentally dependent dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Bruck, Carsten van de; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas J.; Li, Baojiu

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the nonlinear structure formation of the environmentally dependent dilaton model using N-body simulations. We find that the mechanism of suppressing the scalar fifth force in high-density regions works very well. Within the parameter space allowed by the solar-system tests, the dilaton model predicts small deviations of the matter power spectrum and the mass function from their ΛCDM counterparts. The importance of taking full account of the nonlinearity of the model is also emphasized.

  14. Using active power filter to compensate the current component of asymmetrical non-linear load in the four wire network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Володимирович Власенко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity quality improving is extremely relevant nowadays. With such industrial loads as induction motors, induction furnaces, welding machines, controlled or uncontrolled rectifiers, frequency converters and others reactive power, harmonics and unbalance are generated in power grid. Reactive power, higher harmonic currents and asymmetry loads influence the functioning of electric devices and electrical mains. An effective technical solution is the use of new compensating devices, that is active power filters. The emergence of consumers with a unit capacity of four wire networks requires a new approach to building system control active power filter. When designing the active power filter control system the current flowing in the neutral wire must be taken into account. To assess the power balance in the four wire active power filter, scientists have proposed to apply pqr theory of power based on the Clarke transformation. There are different topologies of three-phase four wire active power filters. A visual simulation of Matlab / Simulink model with an active power filter based on pqr theory of power has been created. A method of pulse width modulation with four control channels was used as pulses forming systems with transistor keys. Operating conditions of three-phase four wire active power filter with asymmetry, non-sinosoidal voltage source and asymmetric load have been studied. The correction taking into account the means improving the active power filter has been offered as pqr theory of power does not take into account non-sinosoidal voltage

  15. Voluntarist theology and early-modern science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Francis

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of early-modern theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.

  16. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  17. Individual Differences in EEG Spectral Power Reflect Genetic Variance in Gray and White Matter Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schnack, H.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The human electroencephalogram (EEG) consists of oscillations that reflect the summation of postsynaptic potentials at the dendritic tree of cortical neurons. The strength of the oscillations (EEG power) is a highly genetic trait that has been related to individual differences in many phenotypes,

  18. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241; Weitzel, G.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of

  19. High-power pulsed light ion beams for applications in fusion- and matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Zieher, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    The foundations of ultrahigh-power pulse techniques are described together with the two pulse generators KALIF (Karlsruhe Light lion Facility) and Pollux of the INR. The physical principles and diagnostics of ion beam production are discussed as well as possible applications in the field of fusion research. (orig./HT) [de

  20. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  1. Visuo-manual tracking: does intermittent control with aperiodic sampling explain linear power and non-linear remnant without sensorimotor noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J; Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D

    2017-11-01

    A human controlling an external system is described most easily and conventionally as linearly and continuously translating sensory input to motor output, with the inevitable output remnant, non-linearly related to the input, attributed to sensorimotor noise. Recent experiments show sustained manual tracking involves repeated refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information for a certain duration), with the temporary 200-500 ms periods of irresponsiveness to sensory input making the control process intrinsically non-linear. This evidence calls for re-examination of the extent to which random sensorimotor noise is required to explain the non-linear remnant. This investigation of manual tracking shows how the full motor output (linear component and remnant) can be explained mechanistically by aperiodic sampling triggered by prediction error thresholds. Whereas broadband physiological noise is general to all processes, aperiodic sampling is associated with sensorimotor decision making within specific frontal, striatal and parietal networks; we conclude that manual tracking utilises such slow serial decision making pathways up to several times per second. The human operator is described adequately by linear translation of sensory input to motor output. Motor output also always includes a non-linear remnant resulting from random sensorimotor noise from multiple sources, and non-linear input transformations, for example thresholds or refractory periods. Recent evidence showed that manual tracking incurs substantial, serial, refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information of 350 and 550 ms for 1st and 2nd order systems respectively). Our two questions are: (i) What are the comparative merits of explaining the non-linear remnant using noise or non-linear transformations? (ii) Can non-linear transformations represent serial motor decision making within the sensorimotor feedback loop intrinsic to tracking? Twelve participants (instructed to act in three prescribed

  2. Complaint of unconstitutionality rejected in the matter of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The First Department of the Federal Constitutional Court, in a decision of December 20, 1979, rejected the complaint of unconstitutionality brought against the decision of May 3, 1977 of the Rhineland-Palatinate Higher Administrative Court. The decision under attack had rescinded the halt of construction work on the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station. The court argues, inter alia, that a violation of a basic civil right could also be involved, if the licensing authority neglected to take into account procedural rules under the Atomic Energy Act which had been passed by the Government in discharging its obligations to offer protection under Article 2, Para. 2 of the Basic Law. The present and direct involvement of the holder of a civil right could not be denied for the reason that hazards to life and health could arise only from the operation of a nuclear power plant, but not yet from measures preceding it. (HSCH) [de

  3. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  4. The cleavable matter: Discursive orders in Swedish nuclear power politics 1972-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, P.

    1997-09-01

    This study applies a qualitative discourse-theoretical method to analyse the central argumentation in the parliamentary debate on nuclear power in Sweden during 1972-1980, reconstructed from official documents such as governmental and parliamentary bills, committee reports, parliamentary debate protocols, and official commission reports. Particular concern is directed to the process in which various discursive orders emerging within the political debate tend to have a structuring influence on the political argumentation regarding what can be said, by whom this can be said, and how this can be said. It is argued that these discursive orders have a profound, and in a systems theoretical sense self-dynamic influence, going beyond the original intentions of the political actors, on how the energy policy issue is interpreted and constructed. It is argued, furthermore, that these discursive orders actively exploit the political context of meaning by deliberately instrumentalising and incorporating competing argumentative elements into their own cognitive structure. In other words, the dominant political system incorporates the arguments of the political opposition and of the environmental and anti nuclear movements in order to consolidate its political power. The discourse theoretical analysis of the Swedish nuclear power debate in that sense unveils a deep resistance against a true political discourse, in the sense of Habermas, as a rational and domination-free process of reaching mutual understanding. 152 refs

  5. Using reverse osmosis to remove natural organic matter from power plant makeup water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattaraj, S.; Kilduff, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    A field-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system was used to remove salts and natural organic matter (NOM) from a surface water source. The RO membrane exhibited an NOM solution hydraulic permeability of 8.33 x 10 -9 m x s -1 x kPa -1 , about 6% less than the clean water value, over pressures ranging from 414 to 1 000 kPa (60 to 145 psi). The rejection of salt and NOM were greater than 98% and 99%, respectively. Under controlled laboratory conditions, greater than 99% mass recovery of NOM could be obtained. A small fraction of NOM was not recovered using hydrodynamic cleaning but could be recovered with chemical cleaning (NaOH wash solution). The mass recovered in the NaOH solution increased from 6% with increasing transmembrane pressures from 414 kPa to 1 000 kPa, respectively. This is consistent with fouling that results from an increase in solution flux, and a concomitant decrease in tangential crossflow velocity. (orig.)

  6. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-10-16

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  7. Proceedings of the Canadian Wind Energy Association's 2009 wind matters conference : wind and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for wind energy and electric power industry experts to discuss issues related to wind and power systems. An overview of wind integration studies and activities in Canada and the United States was provided. New tools and technologies for facilitating the integration of wind and improve market conditions for wind energy developers were presented. Methods of increasing wind penetration were evaluated, and technical issues related to wind interconnections throughout North America were reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) experiences with wind integration, and lessons learned, (2) update on ongoing wind integration initiatives in Canada and the United States, (3) initiatives and tools to facilitate wind integration and market access, (4) developments in wind interconnection and grid codes, (5) wind energy and cold weather considerations, and (6) challenges to achieving the 20 per cent WindVision goal in Canada. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  9. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Impact of pH and ionic strength on fluoride and natural organic matter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Isaac; Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea Iris

    2018-04-15

    Real water pH and ionic strength vary greatly, which influences the performance of membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Systematic variation of pH (3-12) and ionic strength (2-10g/L as total dissolved solids (TDS)) was undertaken with a real Tanzanian water to investigate how water quality affects retention mechanisms of fluoride (F) and natural organic matter (NOM). An autonomous solar powered NF/RO system driven by a solar array simulator was supplied with constant power from a generator. An open NF (NF270) and a brackish water RO (BW30) membrane were used. A surface water with a very high F (59.7mg/L) and NOM (110mgC/L) was used. Retention of F by NF270 was 80% at pH4, and about 99% at pH >5, due to the smaller pore size and hence a more dominant size exclusion. In consequence, only little impact of ionic strength increase was observed for BW30. The concentration of NOM in permeates of both NF270 and BW30 were typically energy fluctuations, this research emphasises on feed water quality that affects system performance and may alter due to a number of environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on Risk Evaluation of Transnational Power Networking Projects Based on the Matter-Element Extension Theory and Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In project management, risk assessment is crucial for stakeholders to identify the risk factors during the whole life cycle of the project. A risk evaluation index system of a transnational networking project, which provides an effective way for the grid integration of clean electricity and the sustainable development of the power industry, is constructed in this paper. Meanwhile, a combination of granular computing and order relation analysis (G1 method is applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the matter-element extension evaluation model is also employed to seek the global optimal decision during the risk assessment. Finally, a case study is given to validate the index system and evaluation model established in this paper by assessing two different investment schemes of a transnational high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission project. The result shows that the comprehensive risk level of Scheme 1 is “Low” and the level of Scheme 2 is “General”, which means Scheme 1 is better for the stakeholders from the angle of risk control. The main practical significance of this paper lies in that it can provide a reference and decision support for the government’s power sectors, investment companies and other stakeholders when carrying out related activities.

  11. Consistent scalar and tensor perturbation power spectra in single fluid matter bounce with dark energy era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalhau, Anna Paula; Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Vitenti, Sandro Dias Pinto

    2018-04-01

    We investigate cosmological scenarios containing one canonical scalar field with an exponential potential in the context of bouncing models, in which the bounce happens due to quantum cosmological effects. The only possible bouncing solutions in this scenario (discarding an infinitely fine-tuned exception) must have one and only one dark energy phase, occurring either in the contracting era or in the expanding era. Hence, these bounce solutions are necessarily asymmetric. Naturally, the more convenient solution is the one in which the dark energy phase happens in the expanding era, in order to be a possible explanation for the current accelerated expansion indicated by cosmological observations. In this case, one has the picture of a Universe undergoing a classical dust contraction from very large scales, the initial repeller of the model, moving to a classical stiff-matter contraction near the singularity, which is avoided due to the quantum bounce. The Universe is then launched to a dark energy era, after passing through radiation- and dust-dominated phases, finally returning to the dust expanding phase, the final attractor of the model. We calculate the spectral indices and amplitudes of scalar and tensor perturbations numerically, considering the whole history of the model, including the bounce phase itself, without making any approximation nor using any matching condition on the perturbations. As the background model is necessarily dust dominated in the far past, the usual adiabatic vacuum initial conditions can be easily imposed in this era. Hence, this is a cosmological model in which the presence of dark energy behavior in the Universe does not turn the usual vacuum initial conditions prescription for cosmological perturbation in bouncing models problematic. Scalar and tensor perturbations end up being almost scale invariant, as expected. The background parameters can be adjusted, without fine-tunings, to yield the observed amplitude for scalar

  12. Selection Ideal Coal Suppliers of Thermal Power Plants Using the Matter-Element Extension Model with Integrated Empowerment Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable.

  13. Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160109; Støvneng, Jon Andreas

    2017-08-15

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strength of the beam-beam interactions will be higher after the upgrade to the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, and also in the next generation of machines, as the Future Circular Hadron Collider. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and drives resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. For this thesis, a new code named CABIN (Cuda-Accelerated Beam-beam Interaction) has been developed to study the limitations caused by the impact of strong beam-beam interactions. In particular, the evolution of the beam emittance and beam intensity has been monitored to study the impact quantitatively...

  14. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  15. Spare nonlinear systems resolution; its applicability in the resolution of the problem related power flow in electric power networks; Resolucao de sistemas nao-lineares esparsos; sua aplicacao na resolucao do problema de fluxo de carga em redes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ana Cecilia

    1990-03-01

    This thesis aims to find a better way to solve large scale nonlinear sparse system problems giving special emphasis to load flow in electric power networks. The suggested algorithms are presented 63 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Non-linear relationship between O2 uptake and power output at high intensities of exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Rademaker, A C; Sargeant, A J

    1995-01-01

    1. A slow component to pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) is reported during prolonged high power exercise performed at constant power output at, or above, approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake. The magnitude of the slow component is reported to be associated with the intensity of exercise and to be largely accounted for by an increased VO2 across the exercising legs. 2. On the assumption that the control mechanism responsible for the increased VO2 is intensity dependent we hypothesized that it should also be apparent in multi-stage incremental exercise tests with the result that the VO2-power output relationship would be curvilinear. 3. We further hypothesized that the change in the VO2-power output relationship could be related to the hierarchical recruitment of different muscle fibre types with a lower mechanical efficiency. 4. Six subjects each performed five incremental exercise tests, at pedalling rates of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 rev min-1, over which range we expected to vary the proportional contribution of different fibre types to the power output. Pulmonary VO2 was determined continuously and arterialized capillary blood was sampled and analysed for blood lactate concentration ([lactate]b). 5. Below the level at which a sustained increase in [lactate]b was observed pulmonary VO2 showed a linear relationship with power output; at high power outputs, however, there was an additional increase in VO2 above that expected from the extrapolation of that linear relationship, leading to a positive curvilinear VO2-power output relationship. 6. No systematic effect on the magnitude or onset of the 'extra' VO2 was found in relation to pedalling rate, which suggests that it is not related to the pattern of motor unit recruitment in any simple way. PMID:8568657

  17. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...... the case of a power-law nonlinearity in detail. We discuss several scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of the nonlinear impurity modes, including the mode decay or switching to a new stable state, and collapse at the impurity site....

  18. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  19. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Till Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Providing an introduction to the theory of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, this book discusses fundamental properties of transient and stationary solutions, emphasizing the stability analysis of stationary solutions by means of self-consistency equations, linear stability analysis, and Lyapunov's direct method. Also treated are Langevin equations and correlation functions. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations addresses various phenomena such as phase transitions, multistability of systems, synchronization, anomalous diffusion, cut-off solutions, travelling-wave solutions and the emergence of power law solutions. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective to quantum statistics, generalized thermodynamics, and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics is given. Theoretical concepts are illustrated where possible by simple examples. The book also reviews several applications in the fields of condensed matter physics, the physics of porous media and liquid crystals, accelerator physics, neurophysics, social sciences, popul...

  20. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  1. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koa, A.S.; Chang, N.B. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-15

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To case the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.

  2. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-07-01

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.

  3. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD, defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED’s optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1 the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2 the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs, and color rendering indexes (CRIs of phosphor-converted (pc-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  4. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiajie; Mohamed, Moumouni Guero; Qian, Cheng; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi; Pecht, Michael

    2017-07-18

    With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD), defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED's optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1) the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2) the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs), and color rendering indexes (CRIs) of phosphor-converted (pc)-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  5. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  7. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  8. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  9. Is it possible to tell the difference between fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannestad, S.; Tu, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ringwald, A.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We study the difference between thermally produced fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter in detail. In the linear regime of structure formation, their distinct free-streaming behaviours can lead to pronounced differences in the matter power spectrum. While not detectable with current cosmological data, such differences will be clearly observable with upcoming large scale weak lensing surveys for particles as light as m{sub HDM} {proportional_to} 0.2 eV. In the nonlinear regime, bosonic hot dark matter is not subject to the same phase space constraints that severely limit the amount of fermionic hot dark matter infall into cold dark matter halos. Consequently, the overdensities in fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter of equal particle mass can differ by more than a factor of five in the central part of a halo. However, this unique manifestation of quantum statistics may prove very difficult to detect unless the mass of the hot dark matter particle and its decoupling temperature fall within a very narrow window, 1matter infall may have some observable consequences for the nonlinear power spectrum and hence the weak lensing convergence power spectrum at l {proportional_to} 10{sup 3} {yields} 10{sup 4} at the percent level. (orig.)

  10. Endurance training decreases the non-linearity in the oxygen uptake-power output relationship in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Nieckarz, Zenon; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that 5 weeks of cycling endurance training can decrease the magnitude of the non-proportional increase in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to power output relationship (V(O(2)) 'excess') at exercise intensities exceeding the lactate threshold (LT). Ten untrained, physically active men performed a bout of incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after training. The mitochondrial DNA copy number, myosin heavy chain composition and content of uncoupling protein 3 and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) were analysed in muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis before and after training. The training resulted in an enhancement of the power-generating capabilities at maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)) by ∼7% (P = 0.002) despite there being no changes in V(O(2)max) (P = 0.49). This effect was due to a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the V(O(2)) 'excess' (P 0.05) were found after training. We conclude that the training-induced increase in power-generating capabilities at V(O(2)max) was due to attenuation of the V(O(2)) 'excess' above the LT. This adaptive response seems to be related to the improvement of muscle metabolic stability, as judged by a lowering of plasma ammonia concentration. The enhancement of muscle metabolic stability after training could be caused by a decrease in ATP usage at a given power output owing to downregulation of SERCA2 pumps.

  11. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  12. The angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background as a probe of Galactic dark matter substructure

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure produces diffuse gamma-ray emission of remarkably constant intensity across the sky, and in general this signal dominates over the smooth halo signal at angles greater than a few tens of degrees from the Galactic Center. The large-scale isotropy of the emission from substructure suggests that it may be difficult to extract this Galactic dark matter signal from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure induces...

  13. Modeling and Predicting the EUR/USD Exchange Rate: The Role of Nonlinear Adjustments to Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Crespo Cuaresma; Anna Orthofer

    2010-01-01

    Reliable medium-term forecasts are essential for forward-looking monetary policy decisionmaking. Traditionally, predictions of the exchange rate tend to be linked to the equilibrium concept implied by the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory. In particular, the traditional benchmark for exchange rate models is based on a linear adjustment of the exchange rate to the level implied by PPP. In the presence of aggregation effects, transaction costs or uncertainty, however, economic theory predict...

  14. Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.

  15. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  16. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  17. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  18. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-03-20

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with {lambda}{sub CDM}. Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the {lambda}{sub CDM} model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter

  19. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with Λ CDM . Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the Λ CDM model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter space of such scenarios

  20. Frequency Response Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plants with Influence From a Non-Linearized Frictional Damping and the Turbine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brekke

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the dissertation has been to establish a complete stability analysis of a hydroelectric power plant. The most important part in this study has been to establish a theory for the damping of oscillatory flow in tunnels and pipes. The influence of the turbine characteristics is also important and has been included by differentiation of the turbine equation. The partial derivative values can be found by means of the characteristic diagram of the turbine. Special attention is paid to establishing an empirical friction function for tunnels with rough walls. The author has based his theory on experimental tests carried out for damping of sea waves on rough beds, and the friction factor is a function of both frequency, amplitudes, cross section area and roughness of the wall (Jonsson 1978. Further, the damping of oscillations in shafts leading to tunnels taking into account the mean velocity in the tunnel has been established.

  1. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    of a proposed NSE system with high dynamic performance. The goal of the work is to achieve a state-of-the art transient time of 10 µs. In order to produce the arbitrary nonlinear curve, the exponential function of a typical diode is used, but the diode can be replaced by other nonlinear curve reference...... of conductive common-mode current produced by the high rate of change of voltage over time (high dv/dt) at the NSE output. v/xvii The contributions of the thesis are based on the development of both units: the low Cio isolated power supply and the high dynamic performance NSE. Both units are investigated......-of-the-art dynamic performance among devices of the same kind. It also offers a complete solution for simulation of nonlinear source systems of different sizes, both in terrestrial and non-terrestrial applications. Key words: Current transformers, dc-dc power converters, hysteresis, parasitic capacitance, system...

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Derek

    At least two of the three neutrino species are known to be massive, but their exact masses are currently unknown. Cosmic neutrinos decoupled from the rest of the primordial plasma early on when the Universe was over a billion times hotter than it is today. These relic particles, which have cooled and are now non-relativistic, constitute the Cosmic Neutrino Background and permeate the Universe. While they are not observable directly, their presence can be inferred by measuring the suppression of the matter power spectrum. This suppression is a linear effect caused by the large thermal velocities of neutrinos, which prevent them from collapsing gravitationally on small scales. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure because of degeneracies with other cosmological parameters and biases arising from the fact that we typically observe point-like galaxies rather than a continous matter field. It is therefore important to look for new effects beyond linear suppression that may be more sensitive to neutrinos. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of the cosmological neutrino background in the following ways: (i) the development of a new injection scheme for neutrinos in cosmological N-body simulations which circumvents many issues associated with simulating neutrinos at large redshifts, (ii) the numerical study of the relative velocity field between cold dark matter and neutrinos including its reconstruction from density fields, (iii) the theoretical description of neutrinos as a dispersive fluid and its use in modelling the nonlinear evolution of the neutrino density power spectrum, (iv) the derivation of the dipole correlation function using linear response which allows for the Fermi-Dirac velocity distribution to be properly included, and (v) the numerical study and detection of the dipole correlation function in the TianNu simulation. In totality, this thesis is a comprehensive study of neutrino density and velocity fields that may

  3. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca; Shahmoradi, Asghar [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate.

  4. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Shahmoradi, Asghar

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate

  5. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  6. Black phosphorus: broadband nonlinear optical absorption and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Yanliang; Cai, Yao; Chen, Shuqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yuanjiang, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), 2D layered material with layered dependent direct bandgap (0.3 eV (bulk), 2.0 eV (single layer)) that has gained renewed attention, has been demonstrated as an extremely appropriate optical material for broadband optical applications from infrared to mid-infrared wavebands. Herein, by coupling multi-layer BP films with microfiber, we fabricated a nonlinear optical device with long light-matter interaction distance and enhanced damage threshold. Through taking full advantage of its fine nonlinear optical absorption property, we obtained stable mode-locking (51 ps) and Q-switched mode-locking states in Yb-doped or Er-doped (403.7 fs) all-fiber lasers and the single-longitudinal-mode operation (53 kHz) in an Er-doped fiber laser with enhanced power tolerance, using the same nonlinear optical device. Our results showed that BP could be a favorable nonlinear optical material for developing BP-enabled wave-guiding photonic devices, and revealed new insight into BP for high optical power unexplored optical devices.

  7. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  8. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  9. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  10. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  11. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  12. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  13. Wave transmission in nonlinear lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, D.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    The interplay of nonlinearity with lattice discreteness leads to phenomena and propagation properties quite distinct from those appearing in continuous nonlinear systems. For a large variety of condensed matter and optics applications the continuous wave approximation is not appropriate. In the present review we discuss wave transmission properties in one dimensional nonlinear lattices. Our paradigmatic equations are discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equations and their study is done through a dynamical systems approach. We focus on stationary wave properties and utilize well known results from the theory of dynamical systems to investigate various aspects of wave transmission and wave localization. We analyze in detail the more general dynamical system corresponding to the equation that interpolates between the non-integrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the integrable Albowitz-Ladik equation. We utilize this analysis in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney model and investigate transmission and band modification properties. We discuss the modifications that are effected through an electric field and the nonlinear Wannier-Stark localization effects that are induced. Several applications are described, such as polarons in one dimensional lattices, semiconductor superlattices and one dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap systems. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Linear and nonlinear interactions in the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate models of interacting dark matter and dark energy for the Universe in a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time. We find the 'source equation' for the total energy density and determine the energy density of each dark component. We introduce an effective one-fluid description to evidence that interacting and unified models are related to each other, analyze the effective model, and obtain the attractor solutions. We study linear and nonlinear interactions, the former comprises a linear combination of the dark matter and dark energy densities, their first derivatives, the total energy density, its first and second derivatives, and a function of the scale factor. The latter is a possible generalization of the linear interaction consisting of an aggregate of the above linear combination and a significant nonlinear term built with a rational function of the dark matter and dark energy densities homogeneous of degree 1. We solve the evolution equations of the dark components for both interactions and examine exhaustively several examples. There exist cases where the effective one-fluid description produces different alternatives to the ΛCDM model and cases where the problem of coincidence is alleviated. In addition, we find that some nonlinear interactions yield an effective one-fluid model with a Chaplygin gas equation of state, whereas others generate cosmological models with de Sitter and power-law expansions. We show that a generic nonlinear interaction induces an effective equation of state which depends on the scale factor in the same way as the variable modified Chaplygin gas model, giving rise to the 'relaxed Chaplygin gas model'.

  15. 77 FR 16082 - In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Holders of Construction Permits in Active Or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Beale Street, Mail Code B32, San Francisco, CA 94105 Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant Indiana Michigan Power... President and Chief Nuclear Officer, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Nuclear Generation Group, One Cook... Mr. Thomas Joyce, President and Chief Nuclear Officer, PSEG Nuclear LLC--N09, P. O. Box 236, Hancocks...

  16. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geographical distance on the extent of socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic is assessed by combining two different research approaches. First, we survey how people living in municipalities in the vicinity of the power plant perceive impacts on their personal quality of life. Second, we explore the effects of the power plant on regional development by analysing long-term statistical data about the unemployment rate, the share of workers in the energy sector and overall job opportunities in the respective municipalities. The results indicate that the power plant has had significant positive impacts on surrounding communities both as perceived by residents and as evidenced by the statistical data. The level of impacts is, however, significantly influenced by the spatial and social distances of communities and individuals from the power plant. The perception of positive impacts correlates with geographical proximity to the power plant, while the hypothetical distance where positive effects on the quality of life are no longer perceived was estimated at about 15 km. Positive effects are also more likely to be reported by highly educated, young and middle-aged and economically active persons, whose work is connected to the power plant.

  17. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  18. Particulate matter over a seven year period in urban and rural areas within, proximal and far from mining and power station operations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, A G; Zoras, S; Evagelopoulos, V

    2006-11-01

    Lignite mining operations and lignite-fired power stations result in major particulate pollution (fly ash and fugitive dust) problems in the areas surrounding these activities. The problem is more complicated, especially, for urban areas located not far from these activities, due to additional contribution from the urban pollution sources. Knowledge of the distribution of airborne particulate matter into size fraction has become an increasing area of focus when examining the effects of particulate pollution. On the other hand, airborne particle concentration measurements are useful in order to assess the air pollution levels based on national and international air quality standards. These measurements are also necessary for developing air pollutants control strategies or for evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies, especially, for long periods. In this study an attempt is made in order to investigate the particle size distribution of fly ash and fugitive dust in a heavy industrialized (mining and power stations operations) area with complex terrain in the northwestern part of Greece. Parallel total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) concentrations are analyzed. These measurements gathered from thirteen monitoring stations located in the greater area of interest. Spatial, temporal variation and trend are analyzed over the last seven years. Furthermore, the geographical variation of PM10 - TSP correlation and PM10/TSP ratio are investigated and compared to those in the literature. The analysis has indicated that a complex system of sources and meteorological conditions modulate the particulate pollution of the examined area.

  19. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  20. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  1. Nuclear power and the opting-out policy of the German Government. A matter of responsibility and controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.; Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The article critically reviews the energy policy of the German Government and the plans for winding down nuclear power generation and instead pursue a policy for a ''green reshufflement'' of generation technologies, providing for incentives to switch to options for decentralized power generation with enhanced use of renewable energy sources. The article explains arguments against the Government's opting-out policy which were laid down in a memorandum presented to the Government by a group of five university professors, among them the authors of this article who, as experts in this domain, are aware of their responsibility as scientists and members of society and therefore explain their view of the policy issues, also referring to a recent expert opinion of the German Wissenschaftsrat (science council), which recommended to continue nuclear energy research programmes and nuclear power generation. (orig./CB) [de

  2. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA High-power EUV (13.5 nm) light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir M.; Borisova, Galina N.; Vinokhodov, Aleksandr Yu; Zakharov, S. V.; Ivanov, Aleksandr S.; Kiryukhin, Yurii B.; Mishchenko, Valentin A.; Prokof'ev, Aleksandr V.; Khristoforov, Oleg B.

    2010-10-01

    Characteristics of a discharge-produced plasma (DPP) light source in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm, developed for Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) lithography, are presented. EUV light is generated by DPP in tin vapour formed between rotating disk electrodes. The discharge is ignited by a focused laser beam. The EUV power 1000 W/(2π sr) in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm was achieved with input power about of ~63 kW to the plasma at a pulse repetition rate ~7 kHz . The results of numerical simulation are compared with the experimental data.

  3. Nonlinear characteristics of the rotating exciter system of power plant generators in case of electricity accidents; Transientes Verhalten des rotierenden Erregersystems von Kraftwerksgeneratoren bei elektrischen Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataei, Nader

    2006-05-09

    Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und

  4. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region.

  5. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  6. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. I. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the method and the implementation of a cosmological simulation of a class of metric-variation f(R) models that accelerate the cosmological expansion without a cosmological constant and evade solar-system bounds of small-field deviations to general relativity. Such simulations are shown to reduce to solving a nonlinear Poisson equation for the scalar degree of freedom introduced by the f(R) modifications. We detail the method to efficiently solve the nonlinear Poisson equation by using a Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme coupled with the multigrid method to accelerate the convergence. The simulations are shown to satisfy tests comparing the simulated outcome to analytical solutions for simple situations, and the dynamics of the simulations are tested with orbital and Zeldovich collapse tests. Finally, we present several static and dynamical simulations using realistic cosmological parameters to highlight the differences between standard physics and f(R) physics. In general, we find that the f(R) modifications result in stronger gravitational attraction that enhances the dark matter power spectrum by ∼20% for large but observationally allowed f(R) modifications. A more detailed study of the nonlinear f(R) effects on the power spectrum are presented in a companion paper.

  7. Important matter by confirmation of administrative office regarding repair of enriched uranium dissolution tanks in reprocessing plant of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission acknowledged the policy of handling this matter by Science and Technology Agency after having received a report from the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety on April 11, 1985, and carried out the deliberation. The investigation and deliberation of this matter were instructed by the NSC to the Committee on January 24, 1985. It was confirmed that the repair welding applied to the place of leak of the dissolution tanks would not hinder the expected test dissolution, and if the leak occurs, the measures to detect it properly have been taken. In order to confirm the soundness of the repair welding, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. is to carry out the test dissolution for about 400 hours per one tank dividing into three runs, and the observation of appearance is to be made after every run. The time of test dissolution, the items and contents of inspection were confirmed to be adequate. Moreover, the immersion corrosion test of test pieces and the long term corrosion test in a laboratory are to be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  8. Composition and concentration of soluble and particulate matter in the coolant of the reactor primary cooling system of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Garcia Rodenas, Luis; La Gamma, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina; Fernandez, Alberto N.; Allemandi, Walter; Manera, Raul; Rosales, Hugo

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants type PWR and PHWR (pressurized water reactor and pressurized heavy water reactor) have three coolant circuits which only exchange energy among them. The primary circuit, whose coolant extracts the reactor energy, the secondary circuit or water-steam cycle and the tertiary circuit which could be lake, river or sea water. The chemistry of the primary and secondary coolants is carefully controlled with the aim of minimizing the corrosion of structural materials. However, very low rates of corrosion are inevitable and one of the consequences of the corrosion processes is the presence of soluble and particulate matter in the coolant from where several problems associated with mass transfer arisen. In this way radioactive nuclides are transported out of the core to the steam generators, hydraulic resistance increases and heat transfer capability degrades. In the present paper some alternative techniques are proposed for the quantification of both, the particulate and soluble matter present in the coolant and their correspondent composition. Some results are also included and discussed. (author)

  9. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Malý, Jiří; Ouředníček, M.; Nemeškal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 2-13 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : nuclear power plant impacts * spatial analysis * risk perceptions Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mgr.2016.24.issue-1/mgr-2016-0001/mgr-2016-0001.xml?format=INT

  10. Temporal characterization of plasma cw high-power CO2 laser-matter interaction: contribution to the welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Thierry; Kane, M.; Fontaine, Joel

    1997-08-01

    During high-power laser welding, gas ionization occurs above the sample. The resulting plasma ignition threshold is related to ionization potential of metallic vapors from the sample, and shielding gases used in the process. In this work, we have characterized the temporal behavior of the radiation emitted by the plasma during laser welding in order to relate the observed signals to the process parameters.

  11. Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal burning power production area of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini

    2006-12-01

    Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited annual TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (Pmining activities.

  12. The Box-Cox power transformation on nursing sensitive indicators: does it matter if structural effects are omitted during the estimation of the transformation parameter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingjiang; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2011-08-19

    Many nursing and health related research studies have continuous outcome measures that are inherently non-normal in distribution. The Box-Cox transformation provides a powerful tool for developing a parsimonious model for data representation and interpretation when the distribution of the dependent variable, or outcome measure, of interest deviates from the normal distribution. The objectives of this study was to contrast the effect of obtaining the Box-Cox power transformation parameter and subsequent analysis of variance with or without a priori knowledge of predictor variables under the classic linear or linear mixed model settings. Simulation data from a 3 × 4 factorial treatments design, along with the Patient Falls and Patient Injury Falls from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI® for the 3rd quarter of 2007 from a convenience sample of over one thousand US hospitals were analyzed. The effect of the nonlinear monotonic transformation was contrasted in two ways: a) estimating the transformation parameter along with factors with potential structural effects, and b) estimating the transformation parameter first and then conducting analysis of variance for the structural effect. Linear model ANOVA with Monte Carlo simulation and mixed models with correlated error terms with NDNQI examples showed no substantial differences on statistical tests for structural effects if the factors with structural effects were omitted during the estimation of the transformation parameter. The Box-Cox power transformation can still be an effective tool for validating statistical inferences with large observational, cross-sectional, and hierarchical or repeated measure studies under the linear or the mixed model settings without prior knowledge of all the factors with potential structural effects.

  13. The Box-Cox power transformation on nursing sensitive indicators: Does it matter if structural effects are omitted during the estimation of the transformation parameter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many nursing and health related research studies have continuous outcome measures that are inherently non-normal in distribution. The Box-Cox transformation provides a powerful tool for developing a parsimonious model for data representation and interpretation when the distribution of the dependent variable, or outcome measure, of interest deviates from the normal distribution. The objectives of this study was to contrast the effect of obtaining the Box-Cox power transformation parameter and subsequent analysis of variance with or without a priori knowledge of predictor variables under the classic linear or linear mixed model settings. Methods Simulation data from a 3 × 4 factorial treatments design, along with the Patient Falls and Patient Injury Falls from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI® for the 3rd quarter of 2007 from a convenience sample of over one thousand US hospitals were analyzed. The effect of the nonlinear monotonic transformation was contrasted in two ways: a estimating the transformation parameter along with factors with potential structural effects, and b estimating the transformation parameter first and then conducting analysis of variance for the structural effect. Results Linear model ANOVA with Monte Carlo simulation and mixed models with correlated error terms with NDNQI examples showed no substantial differences on statistical tests for structural effects if the factors with structural effects were omitted during the estimation of the transformation parameter. Conclusions The Box-Cox power transformation can still be an effective tool for validating statistical inferences with large observational, cross-sectional, and hierarchical or repeated measure studies under the linear or the mixed model settings without prior knowledge of all the factors with potential structural effects.

  14. Effect of gases and particulate matter from electricity generation process on the radial growth of teak plantations surrounding Mae Moh power plant, Lampang province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narapong Sangram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate radial growth patterns and influences of polluting gases and particulate matter on the radial growth of teak plantations surrounding the Mae Moh Power Plant. Twenty-four 32-year-old teak trees were selected from Mae Jang and Mae Moh plantations, which were 5 km and 15 km from the Mae Moe power plant, respectively. Forty-eight sample cores were collected from the 24 trees (two cores per tree. The growth patterns of all the cores were analyzed following the standard methods of dendrochronology. The relationships between the growth pattern and the amounts of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter were measured as average daily rates and then analyzed. The study showed that the best-fit model for the relationship between the radial current annual increment at breast height (CAIdbh and time (Y was an exponential equation. The fitted equations were: CAIdbh = 10.657e(−0.031Y for Mae Moh plantation and CAIdbh = 12.518e(−0.032Y for Mae Jang plantation. The coefficient of determination for the fitted equations was 0.410 and 0.423 for the Mae Moh and Mae Jang plantations, respectively. Moreover, carbon monoxide (CO and sulfur dioxide (SO2 had a statistically significant effect on radial teak growth (RT in the Mae Jang plantation, with a coefficient of determination of 0.69 (RTmj = 0.571 + 0.429(CO − 0.023(SO2.

  15. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  16. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  17. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  18. Nonlinear optics an analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Based on the author's extensive teaching experience and lecture notes, this textbook provides a substantially analytical rather than descriptive presentation of nonlinear optics. Divided into five parts, with most chapters corresponding to a two-hour lecture, the book begins with a unique account of the historical development from Kirchhoff's law for the black-body radiation to Planck's quantum hypothesis and Einstein's discovery of spontaneous emission - providing all the explicit proofs. The subsequent sections deal with matter quantization, ultrashort pulse propagation in 2-level media, cavity nonlinear optics, chi(2) and chi(3) media. For graduate and PhD students in nonlinear optics or photonics, while also representing a valuable reference for researchers in these fields.

  19. Challenges for the kinetic unified dark matter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios; Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Given that the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe affect cosmological observables only gravitationally, their phenomenology may be described by a single stress-energy tensor. True unification however requires a theory that reproduces the successful phenomenology of ΛCDM and that requirement places specific constraints on the stress structure of the matter. We show that a recently proposed unification through an offset quadratic kinetic term for a scalar field is exactly equivalent to a fluid with a closed-form barotropic equation of state plus cosmological constant. The finite pressure at high densities introduces a cutoff in the linear power spectrum, which may alleviate the dark matter substructure problem; we provide a convenient fitting function for such studies. Given that sufficient power must remain to reionize the Universe, the equation of state today is nonrelativistic with p∝ρ 2 and a Jeans scale in the parsec regime for all relevant densities. Structure may then be evolved into the nonlinear regime with standard hydrodynamic techniques. In fact, the model is equivalent to the well-studied collisional dark matter with negligible mean free path. If recent observations of the triaxiality of dark matter halos and ram pressure stripping in galaxy clusters are confirmed, this model will be ruled out

  20. Adaptive regression for modeling nonlinear relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Knafl, George J

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methods for investigating whether relationships are linear or nonlinear and for adaptively fitting appropriate models when they are nonlinear. Data analysts will learn how to incorporate nonlinearity in one or more predictor variables into regression models for different types of outcome variables. Such nonlinear dependence is often not considered in applied research, yet nonlinear relationships are common and so need to be addressed. A standard linear analysis can produce misleading conclusions, while a nonlinear analysis can provide novel insights into data, not otherwise possible. A variety of examples of the benefits of modeling nonlinear relationships are presented throughout the book. Methods are covered using what are called fractional polynomials based on real-valued power transformations of primary predictor variables combined with model selection based on likelihood cross-validation. The book covers how to formulate and conduct such adaptive fractional polynomial modeling in the s...

  1. Up-to-date subject matter of world research in the field of materials for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    New approach to the problem of composition of present-day materials, which are working in high temperatures assumes that their microstructure becomes a subject of analysis-not an object-as it was before. Nowadays many industrial and university laboratories deal with these problems, individually or in the cooperation, in framework of the different types of projects, financed by the international organizations. In the report, research realized over the last 20 years in USA, Europe and japan have been reviewed. This research focused on the working in high temperatures steels as a constructional materials for pipes and other units of the power plants. According to the newest achievement in this domain we could expect that the ferritic and ferro-martensitic alloy steels will become new generation of the high-temperature creep-resisting steels (author)

  2. Averaging for solitons with nonlinearity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelinovsky, D.E.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an averaging method for solitons of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a periodically varying nonlinearity coefficient, which is used to effectively describe solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, in the context of the recently proposed technique of Feshbach resonance management. Using the derived local averaged equation, we study matter-wave bright and dark solitons and demonstrate a very good agreement between solutions of the averaged and full equations

  3. Bound electron nonlinearity beyond the ionization threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Although high field laser-induced ionization is a fundamental process underlying many applications, there have been no absolute measurements of the nonlinear polarizability of atoms and molecules in the presence of ionization. Such information is crucial, for example, for understanding the propagation of high intensity ultrashort pulses in matter. Here, we present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, ni...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  5. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  6. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  7. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  8. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-02-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  9. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  10. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  11. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    but recovers quickly. The the high power and long term measurements affect the non-linearity of the speaker, by incresing the compliance value for all values of displacement. This level dependency is validated with distortion measurements and it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of the non-linear model can...

  12. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  13. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  14. Nonlinear materials for frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Eimerl, D.

    1988-01-01

    Two figures of merit, the threshold power (P/sub th/) and the limiting volume (V/sub min/) can be used to compare the relative efficiency and economy of new harmonic generating crystals. The properties of barium metaborate and L-Arginine phosphate are used to illustrate the effect of nonlinearity, birefringence, and damage threshold on these figures of merit

  15. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of solitons in those physical systems reveals some exciting .... With the following power series expansions for g(z,t) and f(z,t): g(z,t) = εg1(z,t) + ... If nonlinearity γ (z) is also taken as a function in figure 1b, the periodic and oscillation.

  16. Interacting dark matter disguised as warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Riazuelo, Alain; Hansen, Steen H.; Schaeffer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We explore some of the consequences of dark-matter-photon interactions on structure formation, focusing on the evolution of cosmological perturbations and performing both an analytical and a numerical study. We compute the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectrum in this class of models. We find, as the main result, that when dark matter and photons are coupled, dark matter perturbations can experience a new damping regime in addition to the usual collisional Silk damping effect. Such dark matter particles (having quite large photon interactions) behave like cold dark matter or warm dark matter as far as the cosmic microwave background anisotropies or matter power spectrum are concerned, respectively. These dark-matter-photon interactions leave specific imprints at sufficiently small scales on both of these two spectra, which may allow us to put new constraints on the acceptable photon-dark-matter interactions. Under the conservative assumption that the abundance of 10 12 M · galaxies is correctly given by the cold dark matter, and without any knowledge of the abundance of smaller objects, we obtain the limit on the ratio of the dark-matter-photon cross section to the dark matter mass σ γ-DM /m DM -6 σ Th /(100 GeV)≅6x10 -33 cm 2 GeV -1

  17. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  18. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects due to Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders.

    CERN Document Server

    Furuseth, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. This report discusses results from an implementation of the weak-strong model, studying the effects of head-on beam-beam interactions. The assumptions has been shown to be valid for configurations where the growth and losses of the beam are small. The tracking has been done using an original code which applies graphic cards to reduce the computation time. The bunches in the beams have been modelled cylindrically symmetrical, based on a Gaussian distribution in three dimensions. This choice fits well with bunches...

  19. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  20. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  1. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  2. The nonlinear dynamics of the Oklo natural reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanovic, Z.; Harms, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Oklo natural reactor, a self-sustaining and self-regulating critical assembly that existed some 2 billion years ago in Gabon, Africa, is presented. Nonlinear continuous dif ferential and nonlinear discrete iterative formulations are established and selected parameter characterizations identified. Conceivable power oscillations are calculated and discussed. Some implications of nonlinear mappings for nuclear simulation are suggested

  3. Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic

  4. COMBINING LONG MEMORY AND NONLINEAR MODEL OUTPUTS FOR INFLATION FORECAST

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Kuswanto; Irhamah Alimuhajin; Laylia Afidah

    2014-01-01

    Long memory and nonlinearity have been proven as two models that are easily to be mistaken. In other words, nonlinearity is a strong candidate of spurious long memory by introducing a certain degree of fractional integration that lies in the region of long memory. Indeed, nonlinear process belongs to short memory with zero integration order. The idea of the forecast is to obtain the future condition with minimum error. Some researches argued that no matter what the model is, the important thi...

  5. Emission characterization and δ"1"3C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1 compared with PM_2_._5_–_1_0. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM_2_._5_–_1_0), intermediate (PM_1_–_2_._5) and fine (PM_1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and

  6. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  7. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  8. Exact Solutions for Nonlinear Differential Difference Equations in Mathematical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Gepreel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We modified the truncated expansion method to construct the exact solutions for some nonlinear differential difference equations in mathematical physics via the general lattice equation, the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger with a saturable nonlinearity, the quintic discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and the relativistic Toda lattice system. Also, we put a rational solitary wave function method to find the rational solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear differential difference equations. The proposed methods are more effective and powerful to obtain the exact solutions for nonlinear difference differential equations.

  9. Non-linear model supported predicted strategy of regulation for the block regulation of a membrane based oxyfuel power plant process; Nichtlineare modellgestuetzte praediktive Regelungsstrategie fuer Blockregelung eines membranbasierten Oxyfuel-Kraftwerksprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelemann, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    As a part of the OXYCOAL AC project a concept of a fossil-fired power plant without emissions of CO{sub 2} is developed in which the recirculated flue gas in a high-temperature ceramic membrane is enriched with oxygen for the combustion of coal. This enables a separation of CO{sub 2} at relatively low efficiency losses. The contribution under consideration deals with the design of a block control strategy for this dynamic extremely demanding process. A cascaded control structure with two non-linear model-based predictive controllers is implemented. An essential component of the cascade structure is an adaptation of this specially developed algorithm with which the underlying controller determines the values for restrictions that are valid in the super-posed regulator in determining the setpoint. The block control approach is examined using a simulation model.

  10. Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)

  11. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  12. Dark matter reflection of particle symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the relationship between physics of cosmological dark matter and symmetry of elementary particles, a wide list of dark matter candidates is possible. New symmetries provide stability of different new particles and their combination can lead to a multicomponent dark matter. The pattern of symmetry breaking involves phase transitions in the very early Universe, extending the list of candidates by topological defects and even primordial nonlinear structures.

  13. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  14. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power systems using normal forms of superior order; Analisis del comportamiento dinamico no lineal de sistemas de potencia usando formas normales de orden superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez Carrillo, Irma

    2003-08-01

    This thesis investigates the application of parameter disturbance methods of analysis to the nonlinear dynamic systems theory, for the study of the stability of small signal of electric power systems. The work is centered in the determination of two fundamental aspects of interest in the study of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system: the characterization and quantification of the nonlinear interaction degree between the fundamental ways of oscillation of the system and the study of the ways with greater influence in the response of the system in the presence of small disturbances. With these objectives, a general mathematical model, based on the application of the expansion in series of power of the nonlinear model of the power system and the theory of normal forms of vector fields is proposed for the study of the dynamic behavior of the power system. The proposed tool generalizes the existing methods in the literature to consider effects of superior order in the dynamic model of the power system. Starting off of this representation, a methodology is proposed to obtain analytical solutions of loop back and the extension of the existing methods is investigated to identify and quantify the of interaction degree among the fundamental ways of oscillation of the system. The developed tool allows, from analytical expressions of loop backs, the development of analytical measures to evaluate the stress degree in the system, the interaction between the fundamental ways of oscillation and the determination of stability borders. The conceptual development of the proposed method in this thesis offers, on the other hand, a great flexibility to incorporate detailed models of the power system and the evaluation of diverse measures of the nonlinear modal interaction. Finally, the results are presented of the application of the method of analysis proposed for the study of the nonlinear dynamic behavior in a machine-infinite bus system considering different modeled degrees

  15. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  16. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  17. Modelling non-linear effects of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Baldi, Marco; Pourtsidou, Alkistis

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the capabilities of perturbation theory in capturing non-linear effects of dark energy. We test constant and evolving w models, as well as models involving momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. Specifically, we compare perturbative predictions at 1-loop level against N-body results for four non-standard equations of state as well as varying degrees of momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. The interaction is modelled phenomenologically using a time dependent drag term in the Euler equation. We make comparisons at the level of the matter power spectrum and the redshift space monopole and quadrupole. The multipoles are modelled using the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space spectrum. We find perturbation theory does very well in capturing non-linear effects coming from dark sector interaction. We isolate and quantify the 1-loop contribution coming from the interaction and from the non-standard equation of state. We find the interaction parameter ξ amplifies scale dependent signatures in the range of scales considered. Non-standard equations of state also give scale dependent signatures within this same regime. In redshift space the match with N-body is improved at smaller scales by the addition of the TNS free parameter σv. To quantify the importance of modelling the interaction, we create mock data sets for varying values of ξ using perturbation theory. This data is given errors typical of Stage IV surveys. We then perform a likelihood analysis using the first two multipoles on these sets and a ξ=0 modelling, ignoring the interaction. We find the fiducial growth parameter f is generally recovered even for very large values of ξ both at z=0.5 and z=1. The ξ=0 modelling is most biased in its estimation of f for the phantom w=‑1.1 case.

  18. A States of Matter Search-Based Approach for Solving the Problem of Intelligent Power Allocation in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Valdivia-Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers have proved that the electrification of the transport sector is a key for reducing both the emissions of green-house pollutants and the dependence on oil for transportation. As a result, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (or PHEVs are receiving never before seen increased attention. Consequently, large-scale penetration of PHEVs into the market is expected to take place in the near future, however, an unattended increase in the PHEVs needs may cause several technical problems which could potentially compromise the stability of power systems. As a result of the growing necessity for addressing such issues, topics related to the optimization of PHEVs’ charging infrastructures have captured the attention of many researchers. Related to this, several state-of-the-art swarm optimization methods (such as the well-known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO or the recently proposed Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA approach have been successfully applied in the optimization of the average State of Charge (SoC, which represents one of the most important performance indicators in the context of PHEVs’ intelligent power allocation. Many of these swarm optimization methods, however, are known to be subject to several critical flaws, including premature convergence and a lack of balance between the exploration and exploitation of solutions. Such problems are usually related to the evolutionary operators employed by each of the methods on the exploration and exploitation of new solutions. In this paper, the recently proposed States of Matter Search (SMS swarm optimization method is proposed for maximizing the average State of Charge of PHEVs within a charging station. In our experiments, several different scenarios consisting on different numbers of PHEVs were considered. To test the feasibility of the proposed approach, comparative experiments were performed against other popular PHEVs’ State of Charge maximization approaches

  19. Perturbation theory for BAO reconstructed fields: One-loop results in the real-space matter density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Koyama, Kazuya; Heavens, Alan

    2017-08-01

    We compute the power spectrum at one-loop order in standard perturbation theory for the matter density field to which a standard Lagrangian baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) reconstruction technique is applied. The BAO reconstruction method corrects the bulk motion associated with the gravitational evolution using the inverse Zel'dovich approximation (ZA) for the smoothed density field. We find that the overall amplitude of one-loop contributions in the matter power spectrum substantially decreases after reconstruction. The reconstructed power spectrum thereby approaches the initial linear spectrum when the smoothed density field is close enough to linear, i.e., the smoothing scale Rs≳10 h-1 Mpc . On smaller Rs, however, the deviation from the linear spectrum becomes significant on large scales (k ≲Rs-1 ) due to the nonlinearity in the smoothed density field, and the reconstruction is inaccurate. Compared with N-body simulations, we show that the reconstructed power spectrum at one-loop order agrees with simulations better than the unreconstructed power spectrum. We also calculate the tree-level bispectrum in standard perturbation theory to investigate non-Gaussianity in the reconstructed matter density field. We show that the amplitude of the bispectrum significantly decreases for small k after reconstruction and that the tree-level bispectrum agrees well with N-body results in the weakly nonlinear regime.

  20. All-optical header recognizer for optical packet switched networks : exploiting nonlinear gain and index dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers for low power operation and photonic integration device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the internet traffic leads to future optical networks requiring tens of Tb/s of capacity. Current electronic circuit switches are limited by the scalability of the electronic switching fabrics, power consumption and dissipation in the opto- electronic conversion. All-optical packet

  1. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  2. Qubit-qubit entanglement dynamics control via external classical pumping and Kerr nonlinearity mediated by a single detuned cavity field powered by two-photon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateto, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear time-dependent two-photon Hamiltonian of a couple of classically pumped independent qubits is analytically solved, and the corresponding time evolution unitary operator, in an exact form, is derived. Using the concurrence, entanglement dynamics between the qubits under the influence of a wide range of effective parameters are examined and, in detail, analyzed. Observations analysis is documented with aid of the field phase-space distribution Wigner function. A couple of initial qubit states is considered, namely similar excited states and a Bell-like pure state. It is demonstrated that an initial Bell-like pure state is as well typical initial qubits setting for robust, regular and a high degree of entanglement. Moreover, it is established that high-constant Kerr media represent an effective tool for generating periodical entanglement at fixed time cycles of maxima reach unity forever when qubits are initially in a Bell-like pure state. Further, it is showed that the medium strength of the classical pumping stimulates efficiently qubits entanglement, specially, when the interaction occurs off resonantly. However, the high-intensity pumping thermalizes the coherent distribution of photons, thus, the least photons number is used and, hence, the least minimum degree of qubits entanglement could be created. Furthermore, when the cavity field and external pumping are detuned, the external pumping acts like an auxiliary effective frequency for the cavity, as a result, the field Gaussian distribution acquires linear chirps, and consequently, more entanglement revivals appear in the same cycle during timescale.

  3. Contribution of radioactive 137Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of 137 Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The 137 Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The 137 Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The 137 Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual 137 Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear analysis of pupillary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso; Sirca, Fabiola; Russo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Pupil size reflects autonomic response to different environmental and behavioral stimuli, and its dynamics have been linked to other autonomic correlates such as cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The aim of this study is to assess the nonlinear characteristics of pupil size of 25 normal subjects who participated in a psychophysiological experimental protocol with four experimental conditions, namely “baseline”, “anger”, “joy”, and “sadness”. Nonlinear measures, such as sample entropy, correlation dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent, were computed on reconstructed signals of spontaneous fluctuations of pupil dilation. Nonparametric statistical tests were performed on surrogate data to verify that the nonlinear measures are an intrinsic characteristic of the signals. We then developed and applied a piecewise linear regression model to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Two joinpoints and three scaling intervals were identified: slope α0, at slow time scales, represents a persistent nonstationary long-range correlation, whereas α1 and α2, at middle and fast time scales, respectively, represent long-range power-law correlations, similarly to DFA applied to heart rate variability signals. Of the computed complexity measures, α0 showed statistically significant differences among experimental conditions (pnonlinear dynamics, (b) three well-defined and distinct long-memory processes exist at different time scales, and (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics. (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics.

  5. Ultrafast nonlinear dynamics of thin gold films due to an intrinsic delayed nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Using long-range surface plasmon polaritons light can propagate in metal nano-scale waveguides for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. Gold is an important material for plasmonic waveguides, but although its linear optical properties are fairly well understood, the nonlinear response is still under investigation. We consider the propagation of pulses in ultrathin gold strip waveguides, modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The nonlinear response of gold is accounted for by the two-temperature model, revealing it as a delayed nonlinearity intrinsic in gold. The consequence is that the measured nonlinearities are strongly dependent on pulse duration. This issue has so far only been addressed phenomenologically, but we provide an accurate estimate of the quantitative connection as well as a phenomenological theory to understand the enhanced nonlinear response as the gold thickness is reduced. In comparison with previous works, the analytical model for the power-loss equation has been improved, and can be applied now to cases with a high laser peak power. We show new fits to experimental data from the literature and provide updated values for the real and imaginary parts of the nonlinear susceptibility of gold for various pulse durations and gold layer thicknesses. Our simulations show that the nonlinear loss is inhibiting efficient nonlinear interaction with low-power laser pulses. We therefore propose to design waveguides suitable for the mid-IR, where the ponderomotive instantaneous nonlinearity can dominate over the delayed hot-electron nonlinearity and provide a suitable plasmonics platform for efficient ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  6. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

    2004-12-10

    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  7. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. High power and spectral purity continuous-wave photonic THz source tunable from 1 to 4.5 THz for nonlinear molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, J.; Breunig, I.; Schunemann, P. G.; Buse, K.; Vodopyanov, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report a diffraction-limited photonic terahertz (THz) source with linewidth OP) gallium arsenide (GaAs) via intracavity frequency mixing between the two closely spaced resonating signal and idler waves of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating near λ = 2 μm. The doubly resonant type II OPO is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) pumped by a single-frequency Yb:YAG disc laser at 1030 nm. We take advantage of the enhancement of both optical fields inside a high-finesse OPO cavity: with 10 W of 1030 nm pump, 100 W of intracavity power near 2 μm was attained with GaAs inside cavity. This allows dramatic improvement in terms of generated THz power, as compared to the state-of-the art CW methods. We achieved >25 μW of single-frequency tunable CW THz output power scalable to >1 mW with proper choice of pump laser wavelength.

  9. Harmonic pollution produced by low power nonlinear loads: mathematical model and practical cases; Contaminacion armonica producida por cargas no lineales de baja potencia: modelo matematico y casos practicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Barajas, M.A.; Banuelos Sanchez, P. [Universidad de las Americas Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.morabs@udlap.mx; pedro.banuelos@udlap.mx

    2010-04-15

    Many household electrical appliances like televisions, video recorders and computers are sources of voltage and current harmonics, which increase power losses and contaminate the AC power line. These harmonics can cause serious problems in both, utilities and electrical equipment connected to the same AC line. This paper shows a mathematical analysis of harmonics content on the electrical current for a circuit representing a non linear residential load. A comparative harmonic distortion study produced by the residential loads on the electrical power lines, measured experimentally, is also shown. [Spanish] Muchos de los aparatos electricos que tenemos en casa como televisores, videograbadoras y computadoras, generan armonicos de voltaje y de corriente que incrementan las perdidas de potencia y contaminan las lineas de suministro electrico, pudiendo ocasionar severos danos tanto a las redes de energia como a los equipos que de ellas se alimentan. En este articulo se muestra un analisis matematico del contenido armonico en la corriente de un circuito que representa a una carga residencial no lineal. Ademas, a partir de mediciones electricas realizadas de manera experimental, se presente un estudio comparativo de la contaminacion armonica que este tipo de cargas introduce a las lineas de suministro electrico.

  10. Exact statistical analysis of nonlinear dynamic power reactor models by the Fokker--Planck method. Part II. Reactor with on-off control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debosscher, A.F.; Dutre, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the exact stochastic analysis of the low-frequency neutron density fluctuations in an on-off controlled nuclear power reactor without delayed neutrons and perturbed by Gaussian white reactivity noise. The stochastic process, being Markovian, is completely characterized by its first-order probability density function (pdf) and the transition pdf. The first-order pdf is the normalized solution to the time-independent Fokker--Planck equation (FPE). Using this pdf, a general expression for the moments is obtained. The conditions for stochastic stability in probability, in the mean, and in the mean-square are derived. The time-dependent FPE is solved using the Laplace transform technique, which results in four distinct expressions for the transition pdf, according to the relative magnitude of initial and final reactor power with respect to the regulator level. After Laplace inversion, a physical interpretation of the controller's effect on the stochastic process becomes possible. Finally, making use of the obtained pdf's, the spectral density of the reactor power fluctuations is calculated

  11. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  12. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  13. White noise from dark matter: 21 cm observations of early baryon collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, Kathryn M.; Hogan, Craig J.

    2007-01-01

    In concordance cosmology, dark matter density perturbations generated by inflation lead to nonlinear, virialized minihalos, into which baryons collapse at redshift z∼20. We survey here novel baryon evolution produced by a modification of the power spectrum from white noise density perturbations at scales below k∼10h Mpc -1 (the smallest scales currently measured with the Lyman-α forest). Exotic dark matter dynamics, such as would arise from scalar dark matter with a late phase transition (similar to an axion, but with lower mass), or primordial black hole dark matter, create such an amplification of small scale power. The dark matter produced in such a phase transition collapses into minihalos, with a size given by the dark matter mass within the horizon at the phase transition. If the mass of the initial minihalos is larger than ∼10 -3 M · , the modified power spectrum is found to cause widespread baryon collapse earlier than standard ΛCDM, leading to earlier gas heating. It also results in higher spin temperature of the baryons in the 21 cm line relative to ΛCDM at redshifts z>20 if the mass of the minihalo is larger than 1M · . It is estimated that experiments probing 21 cm radiation at high redshift will contribute a significant constraint on dark matter models of this type for initial minihalos larger than ∼10M · . These experiments may also detect (or rule out) primordial black holes as the dark matter in the window 30M · H 3 M · still left open by strong microlensing experiments and other astrophysical constraints. Early experiments reaching to z≅15 will constrain minihalos down to ∼10 3 M ·

  14. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  15. An efficient nonlinear Feshbach engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fogarty, Thomás; Campbell, Steve; Chen, Xi; Busch, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We investigate a thermodynamic cycle using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with nonlinear interactions as the working medium. Exploiting Feshbach resonances to change the interaction strength of the BEC allows us to produce work by expanding and compressing the gas. To ensure a large power output from this engine these strokes must be performed on a short timescale, however such non-adiabatic strokes can create irreversible work which degrades the engine’s efficiency. To combat this, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity which can achieve an adiabatic-like evolution within a finite time, therefore significantly reducing the out-of-equilibrium excitations in the BEC. We investigate the effect of the shortcut to adiabaticity on the efficiency and power output of the engine and show that the tunable nonlinearity strength, modulated by Feshbach resonances, serves as a useful tool to enhance the system’s performance.

  16. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    The approach to estimating landscape fire fuel consumption based on the remotely sensed fire radiative power (FRP) thermal energy release rate, as opposed to burned area, is now relatively widely used in studies of fire emissions, including operationally within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Nevertheless, there are still limitations to the approach, including uncertainties associated with using only the few daily overpasses typically provided by polar orbiting satellite systems, the conversion between FRP and smoke emissions, and the increased likelihood that the more frequent data from geostationary systems fails to detect the (probably highly numerous) smaller (i.e. low FRP) component of a regions fire regime. In this study, we address these limitations to directly estimate fire emissions of Particular Matter (PM; or smoke aerosols) by presenting an approach combining the "bottom-up" FRP observations available every 15 minutes across Africa from the Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Fire Radiative Product (FRP) processed at the EUMETSAT LSA SAF, and the "top-down" aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measures of the fire plumes themselves as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra (MOD04_L2) and Aqua (MYD04_L2) satellites. We determine PM emission coefficients that relate directly to FRP measures by combining these two datasets, and the use of the almost continuous geostationary FRP observations allows us to do this without recourse to (uncertain) data on wind speed at the (unknown) height of the matching plume. We also develop compensation factors to address the detection limitations of small/low intensity (low FRP) fires, and remove the need to estimate fuel consumption by going directly from FRP to PM emissions. We derive the smoke PM emissions coefficients per land cover class by comparing the total fire radiative energy (FRE) released from individual fires

  17. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  18. Nonlinear GARCH model and 1 / f noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononovicius, A.; Ruseckas, J.

    2015-06-01

    Auto-regressive conditionally heteroskedastic (ARCH) family models are still used, by practitioners in business and economic policy making, as a conditional volatility forecasting models. Furthermore ARCH models still are attracting an interest of the researchers. In this contribution we consider the well known GARCH(1,1) process and its nonlinear modifications, reminiscent of NGARCH model. We investigate the possibility to reproduce power law statistics, probability density function and power spectral density, using ARCH family models. For this purpose we derive stochastic differential equations from the GARCH processes in consideration. We find the obtained equations to be similar to a general class of stochastic differential equations known to reproduce power law statistics. We show that linear GARCH(1,1) process has power law distribution, but its power spectral density is Brownian noise-like. However, the nonlinear modifications exhibit both power law distribution and power spectral density of the 1 /fβ form, including 1 / f noise.

  19. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  1. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range

  2. Energy Matters, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, E.

    1999-07-09

    This issue of Energy Matters focuses on selling an energy-efficient project to management. There are also articles on combined heat and power systems, inspecting steam traps for efficient system, root cause failure analysis on AC induction motors, and performance optimization tips.

  3. Rotating black string with nonlinear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive rotating black string solutions in the presence of two kinds of nonlinear electromagnetic fields, so-called Born-Infeld and power Maxwell invariant. Investigation of the solutions show that for the Born-Infeld black string the singularity is timelike and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is anti-de Sitter, but for power Maxwell invariant solutions, depending on the values of nonlinearity parameter, the singularity may be timelike as well as spacelike and the solutions are not asymptotically anti-de Sitter for all values of the nonlinearity parameter. Next, we calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the nonlinearity parameter. We also compute the entropy, temperature, the angular velocity, the electric charge, and the electric potential of the solutions, in which the conserved and thermodynamics quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  4. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  5. Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the

  6. Finding structure in the dark: Coupled dark energy, weak lensing, and the mildly nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vinicius; González, Mariana Carrillo; Krause, Elisabeth; Trodden, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We reexamine interactions between the dark sectors of cosmology, with a focus on robust constraints that can be obtained using only mildly nonlinear scales. While it is well known that couplings between dark matter and dark energy can be constrained to the percent level when including the full range of scales probed by future optical surveys, calibrating matter power spectrum emulators to all possible choices of potentials and couplings requires many computationally expensive n-body simulations. Here we show that lensing and clustering of galaxies in combination with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are capable of probing the dark sector coupling to the few percent level for a given class of models, using only linear and quasilinear Fourier modes. These scales can, in principle, be described by semianalytical techniques such as the effective field theory of large-scale structure.

  7. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  8. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  9. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  10. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  11. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  12. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  13. Quark Condensate in the Strange Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chang-Fang; LU" Xiao-Fu

    2003-01-01

    In a nonlinear chiral SU(3) framework, we investigate the quark condensate in the strange matter including N, Σ, Ξ, and Λ, making use of chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking Lagrangian and mean-field approximation. The results show that the chiral symmetry is restored partially when the strange matter density increases and that 〈π→2〉 plays a very important role in the strange matter which may approach the constituents of the neutron stars. In addition, we can find that the strange matter density where the π-condensate emerges leads to the ratio of the nucleon number to baryon number.

  14. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer...

  15. A matter of focus: Power-holders feel more responsible after adopting a cognitive other-focus, rather than a self-focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; de Wit, Frank

    Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments,

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  17. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  18. Nonlinear and turbulent processes in physics. Volume 2. Nonlinear effects in various areas of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeev, R Z

    1984-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of nonlinear and turbulent phenomena from a wide range of fields in physics are presented in reviews and reports. Topics examined include localized vortex formations in an ideal fluid, phase transitions in crystals, spatially nonuniform structures in condensed matter, solitons in molecular systems, the migration of quasi-particles in easily deformed crystals, bifurcations and dissipative structures in distributed kinetic systems, and structures in a nonlinear burning medium. Consideration is given to macroscopic motion generation in nonequilibrium media, the interaction of bulk and surface wave trains, near-threshold instabilities in hydrodynamics, solitons in nonlinear elastic rods with variable characteristics, the generation of solitons and vortices from chaos, and nonlinear electromagnetic-wave dissipation in an electron system.

  19. Optical supercavitation in soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C; DelRe, E

    2010-09-10

    We investigate theoretically, numerically, and experimentally nonlinear optical waves in an absorbing out-of-equilibrium colloidal material at the gelification transition. At a sufficiently high optical intensity, absorption is frustrated and light propagates into the medium. The process is mediated by the formation of a matter-shock wave due to optically induced thermodiffusion and largely resembles the mechanism of hydrodynamical supercavitation, as it is accompanied by a dynamic phase-transition region between the beam and the absorbing material.

  20. Emulating galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing into the deeply nonlinear regime: methodology, information, and forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Salcedo, Andrés N.; Weinberg, David H.; Garrison, Lehman H.; Ferrer, Douglas; Tinker, Jeremy; Eisenstein, Daniel; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) with galaxy clustering is one of the most promising routes to determining the amplitude of matter clustering at low redshifts. We show that extending clustering+GGL analyses from the linear regime down to $\\sim 0.5 \\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales increases their constraining power considerably, even after marginalizing over a flexible model of non-linear galaxy bias. Using a grid of cosmological N-body simulations, we construct a Taylor-expansion emulator ...

  1. APPLICATION OF NONLINEAR PID CONTROLLER IN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, Xiaotao; CHENG, Shijie

    2011-01-01

    As a new control strategy, Nonlinear PID(NLPID) controller has been introduced in the power system successfully. The controller is free of planting model foundation in the design procedure and realized simply. In this paper, a nonlinear PID controller used for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit connected to a power system is proposed. Purpose of designing such controller is to improve the stability of the power system in a relatively wide operation range. The design procedure...

  2. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  3. Nonlinear Cournot duopoly with implementation delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of two delays on the local as well as on global stability of nonlinear Cournot duopoly dynamics. The two major findings are an analytical construction of the stability switching curve on which stability is lost and the numerical confirmation of the birth of aperiodic global dynamics when the stationary state is locally unstable. The delays matters and can generate various dynamics ranging from simple to complicated dynamics.

  4. Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Soon after lasers were invented, there was tremendous curiosity on the nonlinear phenomena which would result in their interaction with a fully ionized plasma. Apart from the basic interest, it was realized that it could be used for the achievement of nuclear fusion in the laboratory. This led us to a paper on the propagation of a laser beam into an inhomogeneous fusion plasma, where it was first demonstrated that light would go up to the critical layer (where the frequency matches the plasma frequency) and get reflected from there with a reflection coefficient of order unity. The reflection coefficient was determined by collisional effects. Since the wave was expected to slow down to near zero group speed at the reflection point, the dominant collision frequency determining the reflection coefficient was the collision frequency at the reflection point. It turned out that the absorption of light was rather small for fusion temperatures. This placed a premium on investigation of nonlinear phenomena which might contribute to the absorption and penetration of the light into high-density plasma. An early investigation showed that electron jitter with respect to ions would be responsible for the excitation of decay instabilities which convert light waves into electrostatic plasma waves and ion waves near the critical frequency. These electrostatic waves would then get absorbed into the plasma even in the collisionless case and lead to plasma heating which is nonlinear. Detailed estimates of this heating were made. Similar nonlinear processes which could lead to stimulated scattering of light in the underdense region (ω >ω _p) were investigated together with a number of other workers. All these nonlinear processes need a critical threshold power for excitation. Another important process which was discovered around the same time had to do with filamentation and trapping of light when certain thresholds were exceeded. All of this work has been extensively verified in

  5. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  6. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  7. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  10. Simulations and cosmological inference: A statistical model for power spectra means and covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Knox, Lloyd; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Nakhleh, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We describe an approximate statistical model for the sample variance distribution of the nonlinear matter power spectrum that can be calibrated from limited numbers of simulations. Our model retains the common assumption of a multivariate normal distribution for the power spectrum band powers but takes full account of the (parameter-dependent) power spectrum covariance. The model is calibrated using an extension of the framework in Habib et al. (2007) to train Gaussian processes for the power spectrum mean and covariance given a set of simulation runs over a hypercube in parameter space. We demonstrate the performance of this machinery by estimating the parameters of a power-law model for the power spectrum. Within this framework, our calibrated sample variance distribution is robust to errors in the estimated covariance and shows rapid convergence of the posterior parameter constraints with the number of training simulations.

  11. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  12. Retraction: On the origin of power-law distributions in systems with constrained phase space [Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802 ( DOI:10.5488/CMP.16.43802 has been retracted by the decision of the Editorial Board. There is a significant overlap with an article: Phys. Rev. E, 2006, vol. 74, 036120 ( DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036120. Appologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  13. Advances and applications in nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The book reports on the latest advances and applications of nonlinear control systems. It consists of 30 contributed chapters by subject experts who are specialized in the various topics addressed in this book. The special chapters have been brought out in the broad areas of nonlinear control systems such as robotics, nonlinear circuits, power systems, memristors, underwater vehicles, chemical processes, observer design, output regulation, backstepping control, sliding mode control, time-delayed control, variables structure control, robust adaptive control, fuzzy logic control, chaos, hyperchaos, jerk systems, hyperjerk systems, chaos control, chaos synchronization, etc. Special importance was given to chapters offering practical solutions, modeling and novel control methods for the recent research problems in nonlinear control systems. This book will serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering. The resulting design proce...

  14. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  15. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...

  16. COSMIC EMULATION: FAST PREDICTIONS FOR THE GALAXY POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Juliana; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Frontiere, Nicholas; Pope, Adrian [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lawrence, Earl [Statistical Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The halo occupation distribution (HOD) approach has proven to be an effective method for modeling galaxy clustering and bias. In this approach, galaxies of a given type are probabilistically assigned to individual halos in N-body simulations. In this paper, we present a fast emulator for predicting the fully nonlinear galaxy–galaxy auto and galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum and correlation function over a range of freely specifiable HOD modeling parameters. The emulator is constructed using results from 100 HOD models run on a large ΛCDM N-body simulation, with Gaussian Process interpolation applied to a PCA-based representation of the galaxy power spectrum. The total error is currently ∼1% in the auto correlations and ∼2% in the cross correlations from z = 1 to z = 0, over the considered parameter range. We use the emulator to investigate the accuracy of various analytic prescriptions for the galaxy power spectrum, parametric dependencies in the HOD model, and the behavior of galaxy bias as a function of HOD parameters. Additionally, we obtain fully nonlinear predictions for tangential shear correlations induced by galaxy–galaxy lensing from our galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum emulator. All emulation products are publicly available at http://www.hep.anl.gov/cosmology/CosmicEmu/emu.html.

  17. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  18. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  19. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  20. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed