#### Sample records for nonlinear mapping technique

1. Review of Control Techniques for HVAC Systems—Nonlinearity Approaches Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Farinaz Behrooz

2018-02-01

Full Text Available Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are the major energy-consuming devices in buildings. Nowadays, due to the high demand for HVAC system installation in buildings, designing an effective controller in order to decrease the energy consumption of the devices while meeting the thermal comfort demands in buildings are the most important goals of control designers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the different control methods for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each control method are discussed and finally the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM method is introduced as a new strategy for HVAC systems. The FCM method is an intelligent and advanced control technique to address the nonlinearity, Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, complexity and coupling effect features of the systems. The significance of this method and improvements by this method are compared with other methods.

2. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

3. Moment methods for nonlinear maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pusch, G.D.; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON

1993-01-01

It is shown that Differential Algebra (DA) may be used to push moments of distributions through a map, at a computational cost per moment comparable to pushing a single particle. The algorithm is independent of order, and whether or not the map is symplectic. Starting from the known result that moment-vectors transform linearly - like a tensor - even under a nonlinear map, I suggest that the form of the moment transformation rule indicates that the moment-vectors are elements of the dual to DA-vector space. I propose several methods of manipulating moments and constructing invariants using DA. I close with speculations on how DA might be used to ''close the circle'' to solve the inverse moment problem, yielding an entirely DA-and-moment-based space-charge code. (Author)

4. Learning Inverse Rig Mappings by Nonlinear Regression.

Science.gov (United States)

Holden, Daniel; Saito, Jun; Komura, Taku

2017-03-01

We present a framework to design inverse rig-functions-functions that map low level representations of a character's pose such as joint positions or surface geometry to the representation used by animators called the animation rig. Animators design scenes using an animation rig, a framework widely adopted in animation production which allows animators to design character poses and geometry via intuitive parameters and interfaces. Yet most state-of-the-art computer animation techniques control characters through raw, low level representations such as joint angles, joint positions, or vertex coordinates. This difference often stops the adoption of state-of-the-art techniques in animation production. Our framework solves this issue by learning a mapping between the low level representations of the pose and the animation rig. We use nonlinear regression techniques, learning from example animation sequences designed by the animators. When new motions are provided in the skeleton space, the learned mapping is used to estimate the rig controls that reproduce such a motion. We introduce two nonlinear functions for producing such a mapping: Gaussian process regression and feedforward neural networks. The appropriate solution depends on the nature of the rig and the amount of data available for training. We show our framework applied to various examples including articulated biped characters, quadruped characters, facial animation rigs, and deformable characters. With our system, animators have the freedom to apply any motion synthesis algorithm to arbitrary rigging and animation pipelines for immediate editing. This greatly improves the productivity of 3D animation, while retaining the flexibility and creativity of artistic input.

5. A q-deformed nonlinear map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Sinha, Sudeshna

2005-01-01

A scheme of q-deformation of nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a q-deformation procedure related to the Tsallis q-exponential function is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of q-logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors-a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps

6. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

1991-04-01

Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs

7. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

1991-01-01

Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map (ST). Thus, it is natural to pose the question asking how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical ST map. The authors show that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map (RST) and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. The RST map is a two parameter (k, β = ω/kc) family of dynamics reducing to the ST map when β → 0. For β ≠ 0 the relativity suppresses the onset of stochasticity. Chernikov et al. has also reported this effect. They have carried out extensive studies of nonlinear dynamics of the RST map and found very intricate structure of mixing of the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits. They have shown that no matter how its gets chaotic the symmetry properties of the RST map determines its nonlinear dynamical behavior. 1 ref

8. Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps

In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...

9. A Fibonacci-like Iterated Nonlinear Map

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Asveld, P.R.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Valkering, T.P.

1990-01-01

We study a second-order Fibonacci-like iterated nonlinear map that contains two parameters of which one is kept fixed, whereas the other one varies from 0 to 1. This gives rise to some complicated behavior which is displayed in a few interesting pictures.

10. A Fibonacci-like Iterated Nonlinear Map

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Asveld, P.R.J.

1989-01-01

We study a second-order Fibonacci-like iterated nonlinear map that contains two parameters of which one is kept fixed, whereas the other one varies from 0 to 1. This gives rise to some complicated behavior which is displayed in a few interesting pictures.

11. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

12. Spectral analysis of noisy nonlinear maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hirshman, S.P.; Whitson, J.C.

1982-01-01

A path integral equation formalism is developed to obtain the frequency spectrum of nonlinear mappings exhibiting chaotic behavior. The one-dimensional map, x/sub n+1/ = f(x/sub n/), where f is nonlinear and n is a discrete time variable, is analyzed in detail. This map is introduced as a paradigm of systems whose exact behavior is exceedingly complex, and therefore irretrievable, but which nevertheless possess smooth, well-behaved solutions in the presence of small sources of external noise. A Boltzmann integral equation is derived for the probability distribution function p(x,n). This equation is linear and is therefore amenable to spectral analysis. The nonlinear dynamics in f(x) appear as transition probability matrix elements, and the presence of noise appears simply as an overall multiplicative scattering amplitude. This formalism is used to investigate the band structure of the logistic equation and to analyze the effects of external noise on both the invariant measure and the frequency spectrum of x/sub n/ for several values of lambda epsilon [0,1

13. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

CERN Document Server

van der Schaft, Arjan

2017-01-01

This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

14. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Goldberg, Cristine

2004-01-01

Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

15. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shen, Y.R.

1981-09-01

Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed

16. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

Science.gov (United States)

Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

2015-09-01

This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

17. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

1990-07-01

The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of Neural Network known as the multi-layer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs

18. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

1991-01-01

The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of neural network known as the multilayer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab

19. Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2009-01-01

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

20. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

Science.gov (United States)

1994-01-01

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

1. Application of Contraction Mappings to the Control of Nonlinear Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

Science.gov (United States)

Killingsworth, W. R., Jr.

1972-01-01

The theoretical and applied aspects of successive approximation techniques are considered for the determination of controls for nonlinear dynamical systems. Particular emphasis is placed upon the methods of contraction mappings and modified contraction mappings. It is shown that application of the Pontryagin principle to the optimal nonlinear regulator problem results in necessary conditions for optimality in the form of a two point boundary value problem (TPBVP). The TPBVP is represented by an operator equation and functional analytic results on the iterative solution of operator equations are applied. The general convergence theorems are translated and applied to those operators arising from the optimal regulation of nonlinear systems. It is shown that simply structured matrices and similarity transformations may be used to facilitate the calculation of the matrix Green functions and the evaluation of the convergence criteria. A controllability theory based on the integral representation of TPBVP's, the implicit function theorem, and contraction mappings is developed for nonlinear dynamical systems. Contraction mappings are theoretically and practically applied to a nonlinear control problem with bounded input control and the Lipschitz norm is used to prove convergence for the nondifferentiable operator. A dynamic model representing community drug usage is developed and the contraction mappings method is used to study the optimal regulation of the nonlinear system.

2. Nonlinear Maps and their Applications 2011 International Workshop

CERN Document Server

Fournier-Prunaret, Daniele; Ueta, Tetsushi; Nishio, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

In the field of Dynamical Systems, nonlinear iterative processes play an important role. Nonlinear mappings can be found as immediate models for many systems from different scientific areas, such as engineering, economics, biology, or can also be obtained via numerical methods permitting to solve non-linear differential equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific dynamical behaviors and phenomena is of the greatest interest for scientists. This volume contains papers that were presented at the International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA 2011) held in Évora, Portugal, on September 15-16, 2011. This kind of collaborative effort is of paramount importance in promoting communication among the various groups that work in dynamical systems and networks in their research theoretical studies as well as for applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students as well as researchers in the field.

3. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yu, L.; Nash, B.

2009-01-01

We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

4. Nonlinear continua fundaments for the computational techniques

CERN Document Server

Dvorkin, Eduardo N

2005-01-01

Offers a presentation of Continuum Mechanics, oriented towards numerical applications in the nonlinear analysis of solids, structures and fluid mechanics. This book develops general curvilinear coordinator kinematics of the continuum deformation using general curvilinear coordinates.

5. Mode-selective mapping and control of vectorial nonlinear-optical processes in multimode photonic-crystal fibers.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Ming-Lie; Wang, Ching-Yue; Song, You-Jian; Li, Yan-Feng; Chai, Lu; Serebryannikov, Evgenii; Zheltikov, Aleksei

2006-02-06

We demonstrate an experimental technique that allows a mapping of vectorial nonlinear-optical processes in multimode photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Spatial and polarization modes of PCFs are selectively excited in this technique by varying the tilt angle of the input beam and rotating the polarization of the input field. Intensity spectra of the PCF output plotted as a function of the input field power and polarization then yield mode-resolved maps of nonlinear-optical interactions in multimode PCFs, facilitating the analysis and control of nonlinear-optical transformations of ultrashort laser pulses in such fibers.

6. Hash function based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.

2009-01-01

Chaos-based cryptography appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map with a variant probability parameter is proposed. Also the proposed algorithm is an attempt to present a new chaotic hash function based on multithreaded programming. In this chaotic scheme, the message is connected to the chaotic map using probability parameter and other parameters of chaotic map such as control parameter and initial condition, so that the generated hash value is highly sensitive to the message. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm presented several interesting features, such as high flexibility, good statistical properties, high key sensitivity and message sensitivity. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

7. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-09-25

Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

8. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

2014-01-01

Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range

9. An Introduction to the Space Mapping Technique

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

2001-01-01

The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It is assumed that two different models of the same physical system are available: Besides the expensive model of primary interest (denoted the fine model), access to ...

10. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Umeh, Obinna, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

2017-06-01

Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

11. Advances in dynamic relaxation techniques for nonlinear finite element analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sauve, R.G.; Metzger, D.R.

1995-01-01

Traditionally, the finite element technique has been applied to static and steady-state problems using implicit methods. When nonlinearities exist, equilibrium iterations must be performed using Newton-Raphson or quasi-Newton techniques at each load level. In the presence of complex geometry, nonlinear material behavior, and large relative sliding of material interfaces, solutions using implicit methods often become intractable. A dynamic relaxation algorithm is developed for inclusion in finite element codes. The explicit nature of the method avoids large computer memory requirements and makes possible the solution of large-scale problems. The method described approaches the steady-state solution with no overshoot, a problem which has plagued researchers in the past. The method is included in a general nonlinear finite element code. A description of the method along with a number of new applications involving geometric and material nonlinearities are presented. They include: (1) nonlinear geometric cantilever plate; (2) moment-loaded nonlinear beam; and (3) creep of nuclear fuel channel assemblies

12. Digital mapping techniques '06 - Workshop proceedings

Science.gov (United States)

Soller, David R.

2007-01-01

The Digital Mapping Techniques `06 (DMT`06) workshop was attended by more than 110 technical experts from 51 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 27 state geological surveys (see Appendix A of these Proceedings). This workshop was similar in nature to the previous nine meetings, which were held in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998), Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999), Lexington, Kentucky (Soller, 2000), Tuscaloosa, Alabama (Soller, 2001), Salt Lake City, Utah (Soller, 2002), Millersville, Pennsylvania (Soller, 2003), Portland, Oregon (Soller, 2004), and Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Soller, 2005). This year?s meeting was hosted by the Ohio Geological Survey, from June 11-14, 2006, on the Ohio State University campus in Columbus, Ohio. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure that I note that the objective was successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops.Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Capture Working Group, the latter of which was formed in August 1996 to support the AASG and the USGS in their effort to build a National Geologic Map Database (see Soller, this volume, and http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/info/standards/datacapt/). The Working Group was formed because increased production efficiencies, standardization, and quality of digital map products were needed for the database - and for the State and Federal geological surveys - to provide more high-quality digital maps to the public.At the 2006 meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, "publishing" includes Web-based release); 2) field data

13. Nonlinear Wave Mixing Technique for Nondestructive Assessment of Infrastructure Materials

Science.gov (United States)

Ju, Taeho

To operate safely, structures and components need to be inspected or monitored either periodically or in real time for potential failure. For this purpose, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used extensively. Most of these ultrasonic NDE techniques utilize only the linear behavior of the ultrasound. These linear techniques are effective in detecting discontinuities in materials such as cracks, voids, interfaces, inclusions, etc. However, in many engineering materials, it is the accumulation of microdamage that leads to degradation and eventual failure of a component. Unfortunately, it is difficult for linear ultrasonic NDE techniques to characterize or quantify such damage. On the other hand, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (ANLP) of a material is often positively correlated with such damage in a material. Thus, nonlinear ultrasonic NDE methods have been used in recently years to characterize cumulative damage such as fatigue in metallic materials, aging in polymeric materials, and degradation of cement-based materials due to chemical reactions. In this thesis, we focus on developing a suit of novel nonlinear ultrasonic NDE techniques based on the interactions of nonlinear ultrasonic waves, namely wave mixing. First, a noncollinear wave mixing technique is developed to detect localized damage in a homogeneous material by using a pair of noncollinear a longitudinal wave (L-wave) and a shear wave (S-wave). This pair of incident waves make it possible to conduct NDE from a single side of the component, a condition that is often encountered in practical applications. The proposed noncollinear wave mixing technique is verified experimentally by carrying out measurements on aluminum alloy (AA 6061) samples. Numerical simulations using the Finite Element Method (FEM) are also conducted to further demonstrate the potential of the proposed technique to detect localized damage in structural components. Second, the aforementioned nonlinear

14. Fermi surface mapping: Techniques and visualization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.D.; Kevan, S.D.

1997-01-01

Angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) of valence bands is a mature technique that has achieved spectacular success in band-mapping metals, semiconductors, and insulators. The purpose of the present study was the development of experimental and analytical techniques in ARP which take advantage of third generation light sources. Here the authors studied the relatively simple Cu surface in preparation for other metals. Copper and related metals themselves are of current interest, especially due to its role as an interlayer in spin valves and other magnetic heterostructures. A major goal of this study was the development of a systematic technique to quickly (i.e. in a few hours of synchrotron beamtime) measure the FS and separate it into bulk and surface FS's. Often, one needs to avoid bulk features altogether, which one can achieve by carefully mapping their locations in k-space. The authors will also show how they systematically map Fermi surfaces throughout large volumes of k-space, and, by processing the resulting volume data sets, provide intuitive pictures of FS's, both bulk and surface

15. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young

2010-01-01

Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

16. The edge of chaos: A nonlinear view of psychoanalytic technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Galatzer-Levy, Robert M

2016-04-01

The field of nonlinear dynamics (or chaos theory) provides ways to expand concepts of psychoanalytic process that have implications for the technique of psychoanalysis. This paper describes how concepts of "the edge of chaos," emergence, attractors, and coupled oscillators can help shape analytic technique resulting in an approach to doing analysis which is at the same time freer and more firmly based in an enlarged understanding of the ways in which psychoanalysis works than some current recommendation about technique. Illustrations from a lengthy analysis of an analysand with obsessive-compulsive disorder show this approach in action. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

17. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Predicting and Mapping Daily Pan Evaporation

Science.gov (United States)

Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.; Sharma, Kirty

2017-09-01

In this study, Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT) and Genetic Programming (GP) are used to develop daily pan evaporation time-series (TS) prediction and cause-effect (CE) mapping models. Ten years of observed daily meteorological data such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and pan evaporation are used for developing the models. For each technique, several models are developed by changing the number of inputs and other model parameters. The performance of each model is evaluated using standard statistical measures such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error, Normalized Mean Square Error and correlation coefficient (R). The results showed that daily TS-GP (4) model predicted better with a correlation coefficient of 0.959 than other TS models. Among various CE models, CE-ANN (6-10-1) resulted better than MT and GP models with a correlation coefficient of 0.881. Because of the complex non-linear inter-relationship among various meteorological variables, CE mapping models could not achieve the performance of TS models. From this study, it was found that GP performs better for recognizing single pattern (time series modelling), whereas ANN is better for modelling multiple patterns (cause-effect modelling) in the data.

18. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a nonequilibrium plasma flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knoll, D.A.

1998-01-01

The authors study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. They use Newton's method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. They investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, mesh sequencing, and a pseudotransient continuation technique is used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with incomplete lower-upper (ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a mesh sequencing implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented

19. Tensor SOM and tensor GTM: Nonlinear tensor analysis by topographic mappings.

Science.gov (United States)

Iwasaki, Tohru; Furukawa, Tetsuo

2016-05-01

In this paper, we propose nonlinear tensor analysis methods: the tensor self-organizing map (TSOM) and the tensor generative topographic mapping (TGTM). TSOM is a straightforward extension of the self-organizing map from high-dimensional data to tensorial data, and TGTM is an extension of the generative topographic map, which provides a theoretical background for TSOM using a probabilistic generative model. These methods are useful tools for analyzing and visualizing tensorial data, especially multimodal relational data. For given n-mode relational data, TSOM and TGTM can simultaneously organize a set of n-topographic maps. Furthermore, they can be used to explore the tensorial data space by interactively visualizing the relationships between modes. We present the TSOM algorithm and a theoretical description from the viewpoint of TGTM. Various TSOM variations and visualization techniques are also described, along with some applications to real relational datasets. Additionally, we attempt to build a comprehensive description of the TSOM family by adapting various data structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. Non-linear wave equations:Mathematical techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1978-01-01

An account of certain well-established mathematical methods, which prove useful to deal with non-linear partial differential equations is presented. Within the strict framework of Functional Analysis, it describes Semigroup Techniques in Banach Spaces as well as variational approaches towards critical points. Detailed proofs are given of the existence of local and global solutions of the Cauchy problem and of the stability of stationary solutions. The formal approach based upon invariance under Lie transformations deserves attention due to its wide range of applicability, even if the explicit solutions thus obtained do not allow for a deep analysis of the equations. A compre ensive introduction to the inverse scattering approach and to the solution concept for certain non-linear equations of physical interest are also presented. A detailed discussion is made about certain convergence and stability problems which arise in importance need not be emphasized. (author) [es

1. One-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hills, R.G.; Hensel, E.C. Jr.

1986-01-01

The one-dimensional nonlinear problem of heat conduction is considered. A noniterative space-marching finite-difference algorithm is developed to estimate the surface temperature and heat flux from temperature measurements at subsurface locations. The trade-off between resolution and variance of the estimates of the surface conditions is discussed quantitatively. The inverse algorithm is stabilized through the use of digital filters applied recursively. The effect of the filters on the resolution and variance of the surface estimates is quantified. Results are presented which indicate that the technique is capable of handling noisy measurement data

2. Structural Modeling Using "Scanning and Mapping" Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Amos, Courtney L.; Dash, Gerald S.; Shen, J. Y.; Ferguson, Frederick; Noga, Donald F. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

Supported by NASA Glenn Center, we are in the process developing a structural damage diagnostic and monitoring system for rocket engines, which consists of five modules: Structural Modeling, Measurement Data Pre-Processor, Structural System Identification, Damage Detection Criterion, and Computer Visualization. The function of the system is to detect damage as it is incurred by the engine structures. The scientific principle to identify damage is to utilize the changes in the vibrational properties between the pre-damaged and post-damaged structures. The vibrational properties of the pre-damaged structure can be obtained based on an analytic computer model of the structure. Thus, as the first stage of the whole research plan, we currently focus on the first module - Structural Modeling. Three computer software packages are selected, and will be integrated for this purpose. They are PhotoModeler-Pro, AutoCAD-R14, and MSC/NASTRAN. AutoCAD is the most popular PC-CAD system currently available in the market. For our purpose, it plays like an interface to generate structural models of any particular engine parts or assembly, which is then passed to MSC/NASTRAN for extracting structural dynamic properties. Although AutoCAD is a powerful structural modeling tool, the complexity of engine components requires a further improvement in structural modeling techniques. We are working on a so-called "scanning and mapping" technique, which is a relatively new technique. The basic idea is to producing a full and accurate 3D structural model by tracing on multiple overlapping photographs taken from different angles. There is no need to input point positions, angles, distances or axes. Photographs can be taken by any types of cameras with different lenses. With the integration of such a modeling technique, the capability of structural modeling will be enhanced. The prototypes of any complex structural components will be produced by PhotoModeler first based on existing similar

3. Burn Control in Fusion Reactors via Nonlinear Stabilization Techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schuster, Eugenio; Krstic, Miroslav; Tynan, George

2003-01-01

Control of plasma density and temperature magnitudes, as well as their profiles, are among the most fundamental problems in fusion reactors. Existing efforts on model-based control use control techniques for linear models. In this work, a zero-dimensional nonlinear model involving approximate conservation equations for the energy and the densities of the species was used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition of a fusion reactor. The subignition case, where the modulation of auxiliary power and fueling rate are considered as control forces, and the ignition case, where the controlled injection of impurities is considered as an additional actuator, are treated separately.The model addresses the issue of the lag due to the finite time for the fresh fuel to diffuse into the plasma center. In this way we make our control system independent of the fueling system and the reactor can be fed either by pellet injection or by puffing. This imposed lag is treated using nonlinear backstepping.The nonlinear controller proposed guarantees a much larger region of attraction than the previous linear controllers. In addition, it is capable of rejecting perturbations in initial conditions leading to both thermal excursion and quenching, and its effectiveness does not depend on whether the operating point is an ignition or a subignition point.The controller designed ensures setpoint regulation for the energy and plasma parameter β with robustness against uncertainties in the confinement times for different species. Hence, the controller can increase or decrease β, modify the power, the temperature or the density, and go from a subignition to an ignition point and vice versa

4. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

Science.gov (United States)

Giridhar, K.

decision-feedback mechanism is introduced to truncate the channel memory "seen" by the MAPSD section. Also, simpler gradient-based updates for the channel estimates, and a metric pruning technique are used to further reduce the MAPSD complexity. Spatial diversity MAP combiners are developed to enhance the error rate performance and combat channel fading. As a first application of the MAPSD algorithm, dual-mode recovery techniques for TDMA (time-division multiple access) mobile radio signals are presented. Combined estimation of the symbol timing and the multipath parameters is proposed, using an auxiliary extended Kalman filter during the training cycle, and then tracking of the fading parameters is performed during the data cycle using the blind MAPSD algorithm. For the second application, a single-input receiver is employed to jointly recover cochannel narrowband signals. Assuming known channels, this two-stage joint MAPSD (JMAPSD) algorithm is compared to the optimal joint maximum likelihood sequence estimator, and to the joint decision-feedback detector. A blind MAPSD algorithm for the joint recovery of cochannel signals is also presented. Computer simulation results are provided to quantify the performance of the various algorithms proposed in this dissertation.

5. Photonic band structure calculations using nonlinear eigenvalue techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spence, Alastair; Poulton, Chris

2005-01-01

This paper considers the numerical computation of the photonic band structure of periodic materials such as photonic crystals. This calculation involves the solution of a Hermitian nonlinear eigenvalue problem. Numerical methods for nonlinear eigenvalue problems are usually based on Newton's method or are extensions of techniques for the standard eigenvalue problem. We present a new variation on existing methods which has its derivation in methods for bifurcation problems, where bordered matrices are used to compute critical points in singular systems. This new approach has several advantages over the current methods. First, in our numerical calculations the new variation is more robust than existing techniques, having a larger domain of convergence. Second, the linear systems remain Hermitian and are nonsingular as the method converges. Third, the approach provides an elegant and efficient way of both thinking about the problem and organising the computer solution so that only one linear system needs to be factorised at each stage in the solution process. Finally, first- and higher-order derivatives are calculated as a natural extension of the basic method, and this has advantages in the electromagnetic problem discussed here, where the band structure is plotted as a set of paths in the (ω,k) plane

6. Sparse PDF maps for non-linear multi-resolution image operations

KAUST Repository

Hadwiger, Markus; Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Beyer, Johanna; Krü ger, Jens J.; Mö ller, Torsten

2012-01-01

feasible for gigapixel images, while enabling direct evaluation of a variety of non-linear operators from the same representation. We illustrate this versatility for antialiased color mapping, O(n) local Laplacian filters, smoothed local histogram filters

7. Geological mapping using fractal technique | Lawal | Nigerian ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

In this work the use of fractal scaling exponents for geological mapping was first investigated using theoretical models, and results from the analysis showed that the scaling exponents mapped isolated bodies but did not properly resolve bodies close to each other. However application on real data (the Mamfe basin, the ...

8. Multigrid techniques for nonlinear eigenvalue probems: Solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger eigenvalue problem in 2D and 3D

Science.gov (United States)

Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo

1994-01-01

This paper presents multigrid (MG) techniques for nonlinear eigenvalue problems (EP) and emphasizes an MG algorithm for a nonlinear Schrodinger EP. The algorithm overcomes the mentioned difficulties combining the following techniques: an MG projection coupled with backrotations for separation of solutions and treatment of difficulties related to clusters of close and equal eigenvalues; MG subspace continuation techniques for treatment of the nonlinearity; an MG simultaneous treatment of the eigenvectors at the same time with the nonlinearity and with the global constraints. The simultaneous MG techniques reduce the large number of self consistent iterations to only a few or one MG simultaneous iteration and keep the solutions in a right neighborhood where the algorithm converges fast.

9. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

2002-05-01

To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

10. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Singh, Vijender, E-mail: chahal-gju@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat-132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055, Haryana (India)

2015-08-28

Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

11. Using Concept Map Technique in Accounting Education: Uludag University Application

OpenAIRE

Ertan, Yasemin; Yücel, Elif; Saraç, Mehlika

2014-01-01

In recent years accounting applications become more complicated because of the growing markets and developing technology. Therefore the requirements of accounting education have increased and trying some new learning techniques have become necessary. Thus, this study was prepared to measure the contribution of concept map technique, used in accounting lessons, to the effect on students learning level. In the first part of the study, the concept map technique and its applications were explaine...

12. Column-Oriented Storage Techniques for MapReduce

OpenAIRE

Floratou, Avrilia; Patel, Jignesh; Shekita, Eugene; Tata, Sandeep

2011-01-01

Users of MapReduce often run into performance problems when they scale up their workloads. Many of the problems they encounter can be overcome by applying techniques learned from over three decades of research on parallel DBMSs. However, translating these techniques to a MapReduce implementation such as Hadoop presents unique challenges that can lead to new design choices. This paper describes how column-oriented storage techniques can be incorporated in Hadoop in a way that preserves its pop...

13. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Deep Parikh

2015-08-01

Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

14. Remote sensing techniques for mangrove mapping

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vaiphasa, C.

2006-01-01

Mangroves, important components of the world's coastal ecosystems, are threatened by the expansion of human settlements, the boom in commercial aquaculture, the impact of tidal waves and storm surges, etc. Such threats are leading to the increasing demand for detailed mangrove maps for the purpose

15. Geological mapping using fractal technique | Lawal | Nigerian ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

... in Nigeria) showed good correlation with the geological maps of the areas. The results also indicated that basement rocks can generally be represented by scaling exponents with values ranging between -3.0 and -2.0. Keywords: Fractal, dimension, susceptibility, spectra, scaling exponent. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

16. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

1996-01-01

Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

17. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

CERN Multimedia

CERN. Geneva

2003-01-01

These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

18. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

Science.gov (United States)

Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric D.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

2018-01-01

The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

19. Global Linear Representations of Nonlinear Systems and the Adjoint Map

OpenAIRE

Banks, S.P.

1988-01-01

In this paper we shall study the global linearization of nonlinear systems on a manifold by two methods. The first consists of an expansion of the vector field in the space of square integrable vector fields. In the second method we use the adjoint representation of the Lie algebra vector fields to obtain an infinite-dimensional matrix representation of the system. A connection between the two approaches will be developed.

20. Photon attenuation correction technique in SPECT based on nonlinear optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suzuki, Shigehito; Wakabayashi, Misato; Okuyama, Keiichi; Kuwamura, Susumu

1998-01-01

Photon attenuation correction in SPECT was made using a nonlinear optimization theory, in which an optimum image is searched so that the sum of square errors between observed and reprojected projection data is minimized. This correction technique consists of optimization and step-width algorithms, which determine at each iteration a pixel-by-pixel directional value of search and its step-width, respectively. We used the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods as the optimization algorithm, and Curry rule and the quadratic function method as the step-width algorithm. Statistical fluctuations in the corrected image due to statistical noise in the emission projection data grew as the iteration increased, depending on the combination of optimization and step-width algorithms. To suppress them, smoothing for directional values was introduced. Computer experiments and clinical applications showed a pronounced reduction in statistical fluctuations of the corrected image for all combinations. Combinations using the conjugate gradient method were superior in noise characteristic and computation time. The use of that method with the quadratic function method was optimum if noise property was regarded as important. (author)

1. Coastal tomographic mapping of nonlinear tidal currents and residual currents

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu

2017-07-01

Depth-averaged current data, which were obtained by coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) July 12-13, 2009 in Zhitouyang Bay on the western side of the East China Sea, are used to estimate the semidiurnal tidal current (M2) as well as its first two overtide currents (M4 and M6). Spatial mean amplitude ratios M2:M4:M6 in the bay are 1.00:0.15:0.11. The shallow-water equations are used to analyze the generation mechanisms of M4 and M6. In the deep area, where water depths are larger than 60 m, M4 velocity amplitudes measured by CAT agree well with those predicted by the advection terms in the shallow water equations, indicating that M4 in the deep area is predominantly generated by the advection terms. M6 measured by CAT and M6 predicted by the nonlinear quadratic bottom friction terms agree well in the area where water depths are less than 20 m, indicating that friction mechanisms are predominant for generating M6 in the shallow area. In addition, dynamic analysis of the residual currents using the tidally averaged momentum equation shows that spatial mean values of the horizontal pressure gradient due to residual sea level and of the advection of residual currents together contribute about 75% of the spatial mean values of the advection by the tidal currents, indicating that residual currents in this bay are induced mainly by the nonlinear effects of tidal currents. This is the first ever nonlinear tidal current study by CAT.

2. Sparse PDF maps for non-linear multi-resolution image operations

KAUST Repository

2012-11-01

We introduce a new type of multi-resolution image pyramid for high-resolution images called sparse pdf maps (sPDF-maps). Each pyramid level consists of a sparse encoding of continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of pixel neighborhoods in the original image. The encoded pdfs enable the accurate computation of non-linear image operations directly in any pyramid level with proper pre-filtering for anti-aliasing, without accessing higher or lower resolutions. The sparsity of sPDF-maps makes them feasible for gigapixel images, while enabling direct evaluation of a variety of non-linear operators from the same representation. We illustrate this versatility for antialiased color mapping, O(n) local Laplacian filters, smoothed local histogram filters (e.g., median or mode filters), and bilateral filters. © 2012 ACM.

3. A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orito, Kohtaro

1996-02-01

The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)

4. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Torello, David [GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech and GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States)

2015-03-31

This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

5. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

1994-05-01

Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

6. Higher-order techniques for some problems of nonlinear control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sarychev Andrey V.

2002-01-01

Full Text Available A natural first step when dealing with a nonlinear problem is an application of some version of linearization principle. This includes the well known linearization principles for controllability, observability and stability and also first-order optimality conditions such as Lagrange multipliers rule or Pontryagin's maximum principle. In many interesting and important problems of nonlinear control the linearization principle fails to provide a solution. In the present paper we provide some examples of how higher-order methods of differential geometric control theory can be used for the study nonlinear control systems in such cases. The presentation includes: nonlinear systems with impulsive and distribution-like inputs; second-order optimality conditions for bang–bang extremals of optimal control problems; methods of high-order averaging for studying stability and stabilization of time-variant control systems.

7. Convergence theorems for certain classes of nonlinear mappings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chidume, C.E.

1992-01-01

Recently, Xinlong Weng announced a convergence theorem for the iterative approximation of fixed points of local strictly pseudo-contractive mappings in uniformly smooth Banach spaces, (Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. Vol.113, No.3 (1991) 727-731). An example is presented which shows that this theorem of Weng is false. Then, a convergence theorem is proved, in certain real Banach spaces, for approximation a solution of the inclusion f is an element of x + Tx, where T is a set-valued monotone operator. An explicit error estimate is also presented. (author). 26 refs

8. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

2012-01-01

Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...... direction the individual locations influence the classification. We illustrate the visualization procedure on a real data from a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment....

9. Competency mapping and visualisation techniques in change management

OpenAIRE

Schöpfel , Joachim; Creusot , Jacques

2008-01-01

Purpose: The article describes techniques that may facilitate change management in the library. Approach: The paper is based on practical experience and evidence from the INIST library department in France. Findings: Based on standard inventories of LIS professions and competencies, we present techniques for the mapping and visualisation of individual or team-centred job functions and skills. These techniques can help and facilitate communication, information and participation and are useful ...

10. Map Your Way to Speech Success! Employing Mind Mapping as a Speech Preparation Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Paxman, Christina G.

2011-01-01

Mind mapping has gained considerable credibility recently in corporations such as Boeing and Nabisco, as well as in the classroom in terms of preparing for examinations and preparing for speeches. A mind map is a graphic technique for organizing an individual's thoughts and other information. It harnesses the full range of cortical skills--word,…

11. A new hybrid nonlinear congruential number generator based on higher functional power of logistic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cecen, Songul; Demirer, R. Murat; Bayrak, Coskun

2009-01-01

We propose a nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator consisting of summation of higher order composition of random logistic maps under certain congruential mappings. We change both bifurcation parameters of logistic maps in the interval of U=[3.5599,4) and coefficients of the polynomials in each higher order composition of terms up to degree d. This helped us to obtain a perfect random decorrelated generator which is infinite and aperiodic. It is observed from the simulation results that our new PRNG has good uniformity and power spectrum properties with very flat white noise characteristics. The results are interesting, new and may have applications in cryptography and in Monte Carlo simulations.

12. Detecting unstable periodic orbits of nonlinear mappings by a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization non-Lyapunov way

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gao Fei; Gao Hongrui; Li Zhuoqiu; Tong Hengqing; Lee, Ju-Jang

2009-01-01

It is well known that set of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) can be thought of as the skeleton for the dynamics. However, detecting UPOs of nonlinear map is one of the most challenging problems of nonlinear science in both numerical computations and experimental measures. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect the UPOs in a non-Lyapunov way. Firstly three special techniques are added to quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), a novel mbest particle, contracting the searching space self-adaptively and boundaries restriction (NCB), then the new method NCB-QPSO is proposed. It can maintain an effective search mechanism with fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Secondly, the problems of detecting the UPOs are converted into a non-negative functions' minimization through a proper translation in a non-Lyapunov way. Thirdly the simulations to 6 benchmark optimization problems and different high order UPOs of 5 classic nonlinear maps are done by the proposed method. And the results show that NCB-QPSO is a successful method in detecting the UPOs, and it has the advantages of fast convergence, high precision and robustness.

13. Analytical description of critical dynamics for two-dimensional dissipative nonlinear maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Méndez-Bermúdez, J.A.; Oliveira, Juliano A. de; Leonel, Edson D.

2016-01-01

The critical dynamics near the transition from unlimited to limited action diffusion for two families of well known dissipative nonlinear maps, namely the dissipative standard and dissipative discontinuous maps, is characterized by the use of an analytical approach. The approach is applied to explicitly obtain the average squared action as a function of the (discrete) time and the parameters controlling nonlinearity and dissipation. This allows to obtain a set of critical exponents so far obtained numerically in the literature. The theoretical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations. We conclude that all possible dynamical cases, independently on the map parameter values and initial conditions, collapse into the universal exponential decay of the properly normalized average squared action as a function of a normalized time. The formalism developed here can be extended to many other different types of mappings therefore making the methodology generic and robust. - Highlights: • We analytically approach scaling properties of a family of two-dimensional dissipative nonlinear maps. • We derive universal scaling functions that were obtained before only approximately. • We predict the unexpected condition where diffusion and dissipation compensate each other exactly. • We find a new universal scaling function that embraces all possible dissipative behaviors.

14. Digital Mapping Techniques '11–12 workshop proceedings

Science.gov (United States)

Soller, David R.

2014-01-01

The Digital Mapping Techniques '11 (DMT'11) workshop was hosted by Virginia Division of Geology and Mineral Resources and The College of William & Mary, and coordinated by the National Geologic Map Database project. Conducted May 22-25 on the campus of The College of William & Mary, in Williamsburg, Virginia, it was attended by 77 technical experts from 30 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 19 State geological surveys (see "DMT'11 Presentations and Attendees" in these Proceedings).

15. Nonlinear systems techniques for dynamical analysis and control

CERN Document Server

Lefeber, Erjen; Arteaga, Ines

2017-01-01

This treatment of modern topics related to the control of nonlinear systems is a collection of contributions celebrating the work of Professor Henk Nijmeijer and honoring his 60th birthday. It addresses several topics that have been the core of Professor Nijmeijer’s work, namely: the control of nonlinear systems, geometric control theory, synchronization, coordinated control, convergent systems and the control of underactuated systems. The book presents recent advances in these areas, contributed by leading international researchers in systems and control. In addition to the theoretical questions treated in the text, particular attention is paid to a number of applications including (mobile) robotics, marine vehicles, neural dynamics and mechanical systems generally. This volume provides a broad picture of the analysis and control of nonlinear systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participan...

16. A Novel Analog-to-digital conversion Technique using nonlinear duty-cycle modulation

OpenAIRE

Jean Mbihi; François Ndjali Beng; Martin Kom; Léandre Nneme Nneme

2012-01-01

A new type of analog-to-digital conversion technique is presented in this paper. The interfacing hardware is a very simple nonlinear circuit with 1-bit modulated output. As a implication, behind the hardware simplicity retained is hidden a dreadful nonlinear duty-cycle modulation ratio. However, the overall nonlinear behavior embeds a sufficiently wide linear range, for a rigorous digital reconstitution of the analog input signal using a standard linear filter. Simulation and experimental r...

17. High-precision numerical simulation with autoadaptative grid technique in nonlinear thermal diffusion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chambarel, A.; Pumborios, M.

1992-01-01

This paper reports that many engineering problems concern the determination of a steady state solution in the case with strong thermal gradients, and results obtained using the finite-element technique are sometimes inaccurate, particularly for nonlinear problems with unadapted meshes. Building on previous results in linear problems, we propose an autoadaptive technique for nonlinear cases that uses quasi-Newtonian iterations to reevaluate an interpolation error estimation. The authors perfected an automatic refinement technique to solve the nonlinear thermal problem of temperature calculus in a cast-iron cylinder head of a diesel engine

18. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Buck, Gregory M.

1989-01-01

Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

19. A simple predistortion technique for suppression of nonlinear effects in periodic signals generated by nonlinear transducers

Science.gov (United States)

Novak, A.; Simon, L.; Lotton, P.

2018-04-01

Mechanical transducers, such as shakers, loudspeakers and compression drivers that are used as excitation devices to excite acoustical or mechanical nonlinear systems under test are imperfect. Due to their nonlinear behaviour, unwanted contributions appear at their output besides the wanted part of the signal. Since these devices are used to study nonlinear systems, it should be required to measure properly the systems under test by overcoming the influence of the nonlinear excitation device. In this paper, a simple method that corrects distorted output signal of the excitation device by means of predistortion of its input signal is presented. A periodic signal is applied to the input of the excitation device and, from analysing the output signal of the device, the input signal is modified in such a way that the undesirable spectral components in the output of the excitation device are cancelled out after few iterations of real-time processing. The experimental results provided on an electrodynamic shaker show that the spectral purity of the generated acceleration output approaches 100 dB after few iterations (1 s). This output signal, applied to the system under test, is thus cleaned from the undesirable components produced by the excitation device; this is an important condition to ensure a correct measurement of the nonlinear system under test.

20. On solutions of stochastic oscillatory quadratic nonlinear equations using different techniques, a comparison study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

El-Tawil, M A; Al-Jihany, A S

2008-01-01

In this paper, nonlinear oscillators under quadratic nonlinearity with stochastic inputs are considered. Different methods are used to obtain first order approximations, namely, the WHEP technique, the perturbation method, the Pickard approximations, the Adomian decompositions and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Some statistical moments are computed for the different methods using mathematica 5. Comparisons are illustrated through figures for different case-studies

1. Construction of nonlinear symplectic six-dimensional thin-lens maps by exponentiation

CERN Document Server

Heinemann, K; Schmidt, F

1995-01-01

The aim of this paper is to construct six-dimensional symplectic thin-lens transport maps for the tracking program SIXTRACK, continuing an earlier report by using another method which consistes in applying Lie series and exponentiation as described by W. Groebner and for canonical systems by A.J. Dragt. We firstly use an approximate Hamiltonian obtained by a series expansion of the square root. Furthermore, nonlinear crossing terms due to the curvature in bending magnets are neglected. An improved Hamiltonian, excluding solenoids, is introduced in Appendix A by using the unexpanded square root mentioned above, but neglecting again nonlinear crossing terms...

2. Rational Variety Mapping for Contrast-Enhanced Nonlinear Unsupervised Segmentation of Multispectral Images of Unstained Specimen

Science.gov (United States)

2011-01-01

A methodology is proposed for nonlinear contrast-enhanced unsupervised segmentation of multispectral (color) microscopy images of principally unstained specimens. The methodology exploits spectral diversity and spatial sparseness to find anatomical differences between materials (cells, nuclei, and background) present in the image. It consists of rth-order rational variety mapping (RVM) followed by matrix/tensor factorization. Sparseness constraint implies duality between nonlinear unsupervised segmentation and multiclass pattern assignment problems. Classes not linearly separable in the original input space become separable with high probability in the higher-dimensional mapped space. Hence, RVM mapping has two advantages: it takes implicitly into account nonlinearities present in the image (ie, they are not required to be known) and it increases spectral diversity (ie, contrast) between materials, due to increased dimensionality of the mapped space. This is expected to improve performance of systems for automated classification and analysis of microscopic histopathological images. The methodology was validated using RVM of the second and third orders of the experimental multispectral microscopy images of unstained sciatic nerve fibers (nervus ischiadicus) and of unstained white pulp in the spleen tissue, compared with a manually defined ground truth labeled by two trained pathophysiologists. The methodology can also be useful for additional contrast enhancement of images of stained specimens. PMID:21708116

3. Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. Pérez-Muñuzuri

2000-10-01

Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields

4. Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. Pérez-Muñuzuri

Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.

Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields

5. Robust Control and Motion Planning for Nonlinear Underactuated Systems Using H infinity Techniques

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Toussaint, Gregory

2000-01-01

This thesis presents new techniques for planning and robustly controlling the motion of nonlinear underactuated vehicles when disturbances are present and only imperfect state measurements are available for feedback...

6. UAS Mapping as an alternative for land surveying techniques?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

L. Devriendt

2014-03-01

Full Text Available Can a UAS mapping technique compete with standard surveying techniques? Since the boom in different RPAS (remotely piloted air system, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAS (unmanned aerial system, this is one of the crucial questions when it comes to UAS mappings. Not the looks and feels are important but the reliability, ease-to-use, and accuracy that you get with a system based on hardware and corresponding software. This was also one of the issues that the Dutch Land Registry asked a few months ago aimed at achieving an effective and usable system for updating property boundaries in new-build districts. Orbit GT gave them a ready-made answer: a definitive outcome based on years of research and development in UAS mapping technology and software.

7. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

2012-01-01

For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

8. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chidume, C.E.

1994-03-01

Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

9. IMPLEMENTING CONCEPT MAPPING TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ DESCRIPTIVE WRITING ABILITY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rubiyah Rubiyah Rubiyah

2018-04-01

Full Text Available This Classroom Action Research aimed at investigating the implementation of Concept Mapping Technique to improve students’ descriptive writing ability. The research was conducted in two cycles at SMP Negeri 21 Samarinda, with 37 seventh grade students participating. In this research, there was one teacher- researcher who implemented the technique and there were two collaborators who did the observation. The data were collected both quantitatively and qualitatively by using writing assessment, interview guide, observation sheets and field notes. The findings showed that: 1 there was an improvement in the students’ descriptive writing average scores at the end of the second research cycle; 2 the implementation of the concept mapping technique was done properly by the teacher- researcher; 3 the concept mapping technique delivered through collaborative working improved the participation of the students in the teaching and learning process. Since all the criteria of success in this research were fulfilled by the end of the second cycle, it could be concluded that this classroom action research was successfully implemented and the technique proposed could very well improve the skills being targeted.

10. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagatani, Takashi

2011-01-01

We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips. - Highlights: → We propose the nonlinear-map model in energy-saving traffic of elevators. → We study the dynamical behavior and dynamical transitions in the system of elevators. → We derive the fixed point of the nonlinear map analytically. → We clarify the dependence of the motion on the loading parameter and the number.

11. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nagatani, Takashi, E-mail: tmtnaga@ipc.shizuoka.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Thermal Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

2011-05-16

We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips. - Highlights: We propose the nonlinear-map model in energy-saving traffic of elevators. We study the dynamical behavior and dynamical transitions in the system of elevators. We derive the fixed point of the nonlinear map analytically. We clarify the dependence of the motion on the loading parameter and the number.

12. Nonlinear analysis techniques of block masonry walls in nuclear power plants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hamid, A.A.; Harris, H.G.

1986-01-01

Concrete masonry walls have been used extensively in nuclear power plants as non-load bearing partitions serving as pipe supports, fire walls, radiation shielding barriers, and similar heavy construction separations. When subjected to earthquake loads, these walls should maintain their structural integrity. However, some of the walls do not meet design requirements based on working stress allowables. Consequently, utilities have used non-linear analysis techniques, such as the arching theory and the energy balance technique, to qualify such walls. This paper presents a critical review of the applicability of non-linear analysis techniques for both unreinforced and reinforced block masonry walls under seismic loading. These techniques are critically assessed in light of the performance of walls from limited available test data. It is concluded that additional test data are needed to justify the use of nonlinear analysis techniques to qualify block walls in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

13. Differential geometry techniques for sets of nonlinear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Estabrook, Frank B.

1990-01-01

An attempt is made to show that the Cartan theory of partial differential equations can be a useful technique for applied mathematics. Techniques for finding consistent subfamilies of solutions that are generically rich and well-posed and for introducing potentials or other usefully consistent auxiliary fields are introduced. An extended sample calculation involving the Korteweg-de Vries equation is given.

14. Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer quadratic nonlinear grating structures by layer-by-layer direct laser writing technique

Science.gov (United States)

Bich Do, Danh; Lin, Jian Hung; Diep Lai, Ngoc; Kan, Hung-Chih; Hsu, Chia Chen

2011-08-01

We demonstrate the fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) polymer quadratic nonlinear (χ(2)) grating structure. By performing layer-by-layer direct laser writing (DLW) and spin-coating approaches, desired photobleached grating patterns were embedded in the guest--host dispersed-red-1/poly(methylmethacrylate) (DR1/PMMA) active layers of an active-passive alternative multilayer structure through photobleaching of DR1 molecules. Polyvinyl-alcohol and SU8 thin films were deposited between DR1/PMMA layers serving as a passive layer to separate DR1/PMMA active layers. After applying the corona electric field poling to the multilayer structure, nonbleached DR1 molecules in the active layers formed polar distribution, and a 3D χ(2) grating structure was obtained. The χ(2) grating structures at different DR1/PMMA nonlinear layers were mapped by laser scanning second harmonic (SH) microscopy, and no cross talk was observed between SH images obtained from neighboring nonlinear layers. The layer-by-layer DLW technique is favorable to fabricating hierarchical 3D polymer nonlinear structures for optoelectronic applications with flexible structural design.

15. Finite difference techniques for nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sanders, R.

1985-01-01

The present study is concerned with numerical approximations to the initial value problem for nonlinear systems of conservative laws. Attention is given to the development of a class of conservation form finite difference schemes which are based on the finite volume method (i.e., the method of averages). These schemes do not fit into the classical framework of conservation form schemes discussed by Lax and Wendroff (1960). The finite volume schemes are specifically intended to approximate solutions of multidimensional problems in the absence of rectangular geometries. In addition, the development is reported of different schemes which utilize the finite volume approach for time discretization. Particular attention is given to local time discretization and moving spatial grids. 17 references

16. Nonlinear Filtering Techniques Comparison for Battery State Estimation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Aspasia Papazoglou

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The performance of estimation algorithms is vital for the correct functioning of batteries in electric vehicles, as poor estimates will inevitably jeopardize the operations that rely on un-measurable quantities, such as State of Charge and State of Health. This paper compares the performance of three nonlinear estimation algorithms: the Extended Kalman Filter, the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Particle Filter, where a lithium-ion cell model is considered. The effectiveness of these algorithms is measured by their ability to produce accurate estimates against their computational complexity in terms of number of operations and execution time required. The trade-offs between estimators' performance and their computational complexity are analyzed.

17. Measurements of nonlinear optical properties of PVDF/ZnO using Z-scan technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shanshool, Haider Mohammed, E-mail: haidshan62@gmail.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul (Iraq)

2015-10-15

The nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer are investigated. PVDF/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by mixing different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles, as the filler, with PVDF, as the polymer matrix, using casting method. Acetone was used as a solvent for the polymer. FTIR spectra of the samples were analyzed thus confirming the formation of α and β phases. The absorbance spectra of the samples were obtained, thereby showing high absorption in the UV region. The linear absorption coefficient was calculated. The single-beam Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the PVDF/ZnO nanocomposite samples. We observed that the nonlinear refractive index is in the order of 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/W with the negative sign, whereas the nonlinear absorption coefficient is in the order of 10{sup -8} cm/W. (author)

18. Abstract [NOMA-15: International workshop on nonlinear maps and their applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2016-01-01

The International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA) is a series of international conferences. NOMA editions were held in Toulouse (Noma’07), Urbino (Noma’09), Évora (Noma’ 11) and Zaragoza (Noma’13). The fifth edition of NOMA was organised and hosted by the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of University College Dublin. This workshop brings together researchers from theoretical and application areas (mathematics, physics, engineering and economics) who study nonlinear discrete systems. Nonlinear iterative processes play an important role in physical, biological and social phenomena. Nonlinear mappings can directly model various systems or can be obtained using numerical methods permitting the solution of differential nonlinear equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific behaviours and bifurcations of these type of systems is of the greatest interest. This workshop is open to theoretical studies as well as applicative ones in the fields of physics, electronics, biology, computational methods, engineering, telecommunications and others. The scientific programme of NOMA’ 15 included 28 invited and regular lectures with 12 selected talks published in this special issue. Prof Vassili Gelfreich (the University of Warwick), Prof Daniele Fournier-Prunaret (INSA Toulouse), Prof Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz (the University of Zaragoza), Prof Sergio Callegari (the University of Bologna), Prof Yoshifumi Nishio (Tokushima University) and Dr Elena Blokhina (University College Dublin) have served as the editors of NOMA’2015 and selected the papers. On behalf of the scientific committee of NOMA, we would like to thank the editors and Eoghan O'Riordan and Panagiotis Giounanlis for their help in preparing this special issue. We are very grateful for the support of University College Dublin and to the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. (paper)

19. Fuzzy Cognitive Map for Software Testing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

OpenAIRE

Larkman , Deane; Mohammadian , Masoud; Balachandran , Bala; Jentzsch , Ric

2010-01-01

International audience; This paper discusses a framework to assist test managers to evaluate the use of AI techniques as a potential tool in software testing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are employed to evaluate the framework and make decision analysis easier. A what-if analysis is presented that explores the general application of the framework. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The framework proposed is innovative and it assists managers in making e...

20. Bound-preserving Legendre-WENO finite volume schemes using nonlinear mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, Timothy; Pantano, Carlos

2017-11-01

We present a new method to enforce field bounds in high-order Legendre-WENO finite volume schemes. The strategy consists of reconstructing each field through an intermediate mapping, which by design satisfies realizability constraints. Determination of the coefficients of the polynomial reconstruction involves nonlinear equations that are solved using Newton's method. The selection between the original or mapped reconstruction is implemented dynamically to minimize computational cost. The method has also been generalized to fields that exhibit interdependencies, requiring multi-dimensional mappings. Further, the method does not depend on the existence of a numerical flux function. We will discuss details of the proposed scheme and show results for systems in conservation and non-conservation form. This work was funded by the NSF under Grant DMS 1318161.

1. Compensation techniques for non-linearities in H-bridge inverters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniel Zammit

2016-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents compensation techniques for component non-linearities in H-bridge inverters as those used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV inverters. Novel compensation techniques depending on the switching device current were formulated to compensate for the non-linearities in inverter circuits caused by the voltage drops on the switching devices. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. Testing was carried out on a PV inverter which was designed and constructed for this research. Very satisfactory results were obtained from all the compensation techniques presented, however the exact compensation method was the most effective, providing the highest reduction in harmonics.

2. Multipulse technique exploiting the intermodulation of ultrasound waves in a nonlinear medium.

Science.gov (United States)

Biagi, Elena; Breschi, Luca; Vannacci, Enrico; Masotti, Leonardo

2009-03-01

In recent years, the nonlinear properties of materials have attracted much interest in nondestructive testing and in ultrasound diagnostic applications. Acoustic nonlinear parameters represent an opportunity to improve the information that can be extracted from a medium such as structural organization and pathologic status of tissue. In this paper, a method called pulse subtraction intermodulation (PSI), based on a multipulse technique, is presented and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. This method allows separation of the intermodulation products, which arise when 2 separate frequencies are transmitted in a nonlinear medium, from fundamental and second harmonic components, making them available for improved imaging techniques or signal processing algorithms devoted to tissue characterization. The theory of intermodulation product generation was developed according the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) nonlinear propagation equation, which is consistent with experimental results. The description of the proposed method, characterization of the intermodulation spectral contents, and quantitative results coming from in vitro experimentation are reported and discussed in this paper.

3. Satellite SAR interferometric techniques applied to emergency mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Stefanova Vassileva, Magdalena; Riccardi, Paolo; Lecci, Daniele; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Boccardo Boccardo, Piero; Chiesa, Giuliana; Angeluccetti, Irene

2017-04-01

This paper aim to investigate the capabilities of the currently available SAR interferometric algorithms in the field of emergency mapping. Several tests have been performed exploiting the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data using the COTS software ENVI/SARscape 5.3. Emergency Mapping can be defined as "creation of maps, geo-information products and spatial analyses dedicated to providing situational awareness emergency management and immediate crisis information for response by means of extraction of reference (pre-event) and crisis (post-event) geographic information/data from satellite or aerial imagery". The conventional differential SAR interferometric technique (DInSAR) and the two currently available multi-temporal SAR interferometric approaches, i.e. Permanent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), have been applied to provide crisis information useful for the emergency management activities. Depending on the considered Emergency Management phase, it may be distinguished between rapid mapping, i.e. fast provision of geospatial data regarding the area affected for the immediate emergency response, and monitoring mapping, i.e. detection of phenomena for risk prevention and mitigation activities. In order to evaluate the potential and limitations of the aforementioned SAR interferometric approaches for the specific rapid and monitoring mapping application, five main factors have been taken into account: crisis information extracted, input data required, processing time and expected accuracy. The results highlight that DInSAR has the capacity to delineate areas affected by large and sudden deformations and fulfills most of the immediate response requirements. The main limiting factor of interferometry is the availability of suitable SAR acquisition immediately after the event (e.g. Sentinel-1 mission characterized by 6-day revisiting time may not always satisfy the immediate emergency request). PSI and SBAS techniques are suitable to produce

4. Automated, non-linear registration between 3-dimensional brain map and medical head image

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mizuta, Shinobu; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Zoroofi, R.A.; Uyama, Chikao

1998-01-01

In this paper, we propose an automated, non-linear registration method between 3-dimensional medical head image and brain map in order to efficiently extract the regions of interest. In our method, input 3-dimensional image is registered into a reference image extracted from a brain map. The problems to be solved are automated, non-linear image matching procedure, and cost function which represents the similarity between two images. Non-linear matching is carried out by dividing the input image into connected partial regions, transforming the partial regions preserving connectivity among the adjacent images, evaluating the image similarity between the transformed regions of the input image and the correspondent regions of the reference image, and iteratively searching the optimal transformation of the partial regions. In order to measure the voxelwise similarity of multi-modal images, a cost function is introduced, which is based on the mutual information. Some experiments using MR images presented the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

5. Solving eigenvalue response matrix equations with nonlinear techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roberts, Jeremy A.; Forget, Benoit

2014-01-01

Highlights: • High performance solvers were applied within ERMM for the first time. • Accelerated fixed-point methods were developed that reduce computational times by 2–3. • A nonlinear, Newton-based ERMM led to similar improvement and more robustness. • A 3-D, SN-based ERMM shows how ERMM can apply fine-mesh methods to full-core analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents new algorithms for use in the eigenvalue response matrix method (ERMM) for reactor eigenvalue problems. ERMM spatially decomposes a domain into independent nodes linked via boundary conditions approximated as truncated orthogonal expansions, the coefficients of which are response functions. In its simplest form, ERMM consists of a two-level eigenproblem: an outer Picard iteration updates the k-eigenvalue via balance, while the inner λ-eigenproblem imposes neutron balance between nodes. Efficient methods are developed for solving the inner λ-eigenvalue problem within the outer Picard iteration. Based on results from several diffusion and transport benchmark models, it was found that the Krylov–Schur method applied to the λ-eigenvalue problem reduces Picard solver times (excluding response generation) by a factor of 2–5. Furthermore, alternative methods, including Picard acceleration schemes, Steffensen’s method, and Newton’s method, are developed in this paper. These approaches often yield faster k-convergence and a need for fewer k-dependent response function evaluations, which is important because response generation is often the primary cost for problems using responses computed online (i.e., not from a precomputed database). Accelerated Picard iteration was found to reduce total computational times by 2–3 compared to the unaccelerated case for problems dominated by response generation. In addition, Newton’s method was found to provide nearly the same performance with improved robustness

6. The Use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques for Soil Mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

2015-04-01

Soils have high natural spatial variability. This has been recognized for a long time, and many methods of mapping that spatial variability have been investigated. One technique that has received considerable attention over the last ~30 years is electromagnetic induction (EMI). Particularly when coupled with modern GPS and GIS systems, EMI techniques have allowed the rapid and relatively inexpensive collection of large spatially-related data sets that can be correlated to soil properties that either directly or indirectly influence electrical conductance in the soil. Soil electrical conductivity is directly controlled by soil water content, soluble salt content, clay content and mineralogy, and temperature. A wide range of indirect controls have been identified, such as soil organic matter content and bulk density; both influence water relationships in the soil. EMI techniques work best in areas where there are large changes in one soil property that influences soil electrical conductance, and don't work as well when soil properties that influence electrical conductance are largely homogenous. This presentation will present examples of situations where EMI techniques were successful as well as a couple of examples of situations where EMI was not so useful in mapping the spatial variability of soil properties. Reasons for both the successes and failures will be discussed.

7. Nonlinear mapping of the luminance in dual-layer high dynamic range displays

Science.gov (United States)

Guarnieri, Gabriele; Ramponi, Giovanni; Bonfiglio, Silvio; Albani, Luigi

2009-02-01

It has long been known that the human visual system (HVS) has a nonlinear response to luminance. This nonlinearity can be quantified using the concept of just noticeable difference (JND), which represents the minimum amplitude of a specified test pattern an average observer can discern from a uniform background. The JND depends on the background luminance following a threshold versus intensity (TVI) function. It is possible to define a curve which maps physical luminances into a perceptually linearized domain. This mapping can be used to optimize a digital encoding, by minimizing the visibility of quantization noise. It is also commonly used in medical applications to display images adapting to the characteristics of the display device. High dynamic range (HDR) displays, which are beginning to appear on the market, can display luminance levels outside the range in which most standard mapping curves are defined. In particular, dual-layer LCD displays are able to extend the gamut of luminance offered by conventional liquid crystals towards the black region; in such areas suitable and HVS-compliant luminance transformations need to be determined. In this paper we propose a method, which is primarily targeted to the extension of the DICOM curve used in medical imaging, but also has a more general application. The method can be modified in order to compensate for the ambient light, which can be significantly greater than the black level of an HDR display and consequently reduce the visibility of the details in dark areas.

8. Nonlinear optimization of the modern synchrotron radiation storage ring based on frequency map analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tian Shunqiang; Liu Guimin; Hou Jie; Chen Guangling; Wan Chenglan; Li Haohu

2009-01-01

In this paper, we present a rule to improve the nonlinear solution with frequency map analysis (FMA), and without frequently revisiting the optimization algorithm. Two aspects of FMA are emphasized. The first one is the tune shift with amplitude, which can be used to improve the solution of harmonic sextupoles, and thus obtain a large dynamic aperture. The second one is the tune diffusion rate, which can be used to select a quiet tune. Application of these ideas is carried out in the storage ring of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and the detailed processes, as well as better solutions, are presented in this paper. Discussions about the nonlinear behaviors of off-momentum particles are also presented. (authors)

9. A comparison of linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in performance attribution.

Science.gov (United States)

Chan, N H; Genovese, C R

2001-01-01

Performance attribution is usually conducted under the linear framework of multifactor models. Although commonly used by practitioners in finance, linear multifactor models are known to be less than satisfactory in many situations. After a brief survey of nonlinear methods, nonlinear statistical techniques are applied to performance attribution of a portfolio constructed from a fixed universe of stocks using factors derived from some commonly used cross sectional linear multifactor models. By rebalancing this portfolio monthly, the cumulative returns for procedures based on standard linear multifactor model and three nonlinear techniques-model selection, additive models, and neural networks-are calculated and compared. It is found that the first two nonlinear techniques, especially in combination, outperform the standard linear model. The results in the neural-network case are inconclusive because of the great variety of possible models. Although these methods are more complicated and may require some tuning, toolboxes are developed and suggestions on calibration are proposed. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of modern nonlinear statistical techniques in performance attribution.

10. Classifying depression patients and normal subjects using machine learning techniques and nonlinear features from EEG signal.

Science.gov (United States)

2013-03-01

Diagnosing depression in the early curable stages is very important and may even save the life of a patient. In this paper, we study nonlinear analysis of EEG signal for discriminating depression patients and normal controls. Forty-five unmedicated depressed patients and 45 normal subjects were participated in this study. Power of four EEG bands and four nonlinear features including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), higuchi fractal, correlation dimension and lyapunov exponent were extracted from EEG signal. For discriminating the two groups, k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression as the classifiers are then used. Highest classification accuracy of 83.3% is obtained by correlation dimension and LR classifier among other nonlinear features. For further improvement, all nonlinear features are combined and applied to classifiers. A classification accuracy of 90% is achieved by all nonlinear features and LR classifier. In all experiments, genetic algorithm is employed to select the most important features. The proposed technique is compared and contrasted with the other reported methods and it is demonstrated that by combining nonlinear features, the performance is enhanced. This study shows that nonlinear analysis of EEG can be a useful method for discriminating depressed patients and normal subjects. It is suggested that this analysis may be a complementary tool to help psychiatrists for diagnosing depressed patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

12. A Second-Order Maximum Principle Preserving Lagrange Finite Element Technique for Nonlinear Scalar Conservation Equations

KAUST Repository

Guermond, Jean-Luc; Nazarov, Murtazo; Popov, Bojan; Yang, Yong

2014-01-01

© 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. This paper proposes an explicit, (at least) second-order, maximum principle satisfying, Lagrange finite element method for solving nonlinear scalar conservation equations. The technique is based on a new viscous bilinear form introduced in Guermond and Nazarov [Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 272 (2014), pp. 198-213], a high-order entropy viscosity method, and the Boris-Book-Zalesak flux correction technique. The algorithm works for arbitrary meshes in any space dimension and for all Lipschitz fluxes. The formal second-order accuracy of the method and its convergence properties are tested on a series of linear and nonlinear benchmark problems.

13. Surface registration technique for close-range mapping applications

Science.gov (United States)

Habib, Ayman F.; Cheng, Rita W. T.

2006-08-01

Close-range mapping applications such as cultural heritage restoration, virtual reality modeling for the entertainment industry, and anatomical feature recognition for medical activities require 3D data that is usually acquired by high resolution close-range laser scanners. Since these datasets are typically captured from different viewpoints and/or at different times, accurate registration is a crucial procedure for 3D modeling of mapped objects. Several registration techniques are available that work directly with the raw laser points or with extracted features from the point cloud. Some examples include the commonly known Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and a recently proposed technique based on matching spin-images. This research focuses on developing a surface matching algorithm that is based on the Modified Iterated Hough Transform (MIHT) and ICP to register 3D data. The proposed algorithm works directly with the raw 3D laser points and does not assume point-to-point correspondence between two laser scans. The algorithm can simultaneously establish correspondence between two surfaces and estimates the transformation parameters relating them. Experiment with two partially overlapping laser scans of a small object is performed with the proposed algorithm and shows successful registration. A high quality of fit between the two scans is achieved and improvement is found when compared to the results obtained using the spin-image technique. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm for registering 3D laser scanning data in close-range mapping applications to help with the generation of complete 3D models.

14. A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behnia, S.; Akhshani, A.; Ahadpour, S.; Mahmodi, H.; Akhavan, A.

2007-01-01

In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security

15. The Recommendations for Linear Measurement Techniques on the Measurements of Nonlinear System Parameters of a Joint.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Smith, Scott A [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalfamo, Simone [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Brake, Matthew R. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Schwingshackl, Christoph W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Reusb, Pascal [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

2017-01-01

In the study of the dynamics of nonlinear systems, experimental measurements often convolute the response of the nonlinearity of interest and the effects of the experimental setup. To reduce the influence of the experimental setup on the deduction of the parameters of the nonlinearity, the response of a mechanical joint is investigated under various experimental setups. These experiments first focus on quantifying how support structures and measurement techniques affect the natural frequency and damping of a linear system. The results indicate that support structures created from bungees have negligible influence on the system in terms of frequency and damping ratio variations. The study then focuses on the effects of the excitation technique on the response for a linear system. The findings suggest that thinner stingers should not be used, because under the high force requirements the stinger bending modes are excited adding unwanted torsional coupling. The optimal configuration for testing the linear system is then applied to a nonlinear system in order to assess the robustness of the test configuration. Finally, recommendations are made for conducting experiments on nonlinear systems using conventional/linear testing techniques.

16. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States) and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

2012-04-15

Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment

17. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

2012-01-01

Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B 1 inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment both

18. Comparative study of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques for evaluation thermal damage of tube like structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, Weibin; Cho, Younho; Li, Xianqiang

2013-01-01

Ultrasonic guided wave techniques have been widely used for long range nondestructive detection in tube like structures. The present paper investigates the ultrasonic linear and nonlinear parameters for evaluating the thermal damage in aluminum pipe. Specimens were subjected to thermal loading. Flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) comb transducers were used to generate and receive the ultrasonic waves. The second harmonic wave generation technique was used to check the material nonlinearity change after different heat loadings. The conventional linear ultrasonic approach based on attenuation was also used to evaluate the thermal damages in specimens. The results show that the proposed experimental setup is viable to assess the thermal damage in an aluminum pipe. The ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is a promising candidate for the prediction of micro damages in a tube like structure

19. K-means-clustering-based fiber nonlinearity equalization techniques for 64-QAM coherent optical communication system.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Wei; Gao, Mingyi; Shen, Gangxiang

2017-10-30

In this work, we proposed two k-means-clustering-based algorithms to mitigate the fiber nonlinearity for 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (64-QAM) signal, the training-sequence assisted k-means algorithm and the blind k-means algorithm. We experimentally demonstrated the proposed k-means-clustering-based fiber nonlinearity mitigation techniques in 75-Gb/s 64-QAM coherent optical communication system. The proposed algorithms have reduced clustering complexity and low data redundancy and they are able to quickly find appropriate initial centroids and select correctly the centroids of the clusters to obtain the global optimal solutions for large k value. We measured the bit-error-ratio (BER) performance of 64-QAM signal with different launched powers into the 50-km single mode fiber and the proposed techniques can greatly mitigate the signal impairments caused by the amplified spontaneous emission noise and the fiber Kerr nonlinearity and improve the BER performance.

20. Spatiotemporal chaos in mixed linear-nonlinear two-dimensional coupled logistic map lattice

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Ying-Qian; He, Yi; Wang, Xing-Yuan

2018-01-01

We investigate a new spatiotemporal dynamics with mixing degrees of nonlinear chaotic maps for spatial coupling connections based on 2DCML. Here, the coupling methods are including with linear neighborhood coupling and the nonlinear chaotic map coupling of lattices, and the former 2DCML system is only a special case in the proposed system. In this paper the criteria such Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density and universality, bifurcation diagrams, space-amplitude and snapshot pattern diagrams are provided in order to investigate the chaotic behaviors of the proposed system. Furthermore, we also investigate the parameter ranges of the proposed system which holds those features in comparisons with those of the 2DCML system and the MLNCML system. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the proposed system contains features such as the higher percentage of lattices in chaotic behaviors for most of parameters, less periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams and the larger range of parameters for chaotic behaviors, which is more suitable for cryptography.

1. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lin Liang

2015-01-01

Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

2. Applying field mapping refractive beam shapers to improve holographic techniques

Science.gov (United States)

2012-03-01

Performance of various holographic techniques can be essentially improved by homogenizing the intensity profile of the laser beam with using beam shaping optics, for example, the achromatic field mapping refractive beam shapers like πShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several laser sources with different wavelengths simultaneously. Applying of these beam shapers brings serious benefits to the Spatial Light Modulator based techniques like Computer Generated Holography or Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms since uniform illumination of an SLM allows simplifying mathematical calculations and increasing predictability and reliability of the imaging results. Another example is multicolour Denisyuk holography when the achromatic πShaper provides uniform illumination of a field at various wavelengths simultaneously. This paper will describe some design basics of the field mapping refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

3. Toward accelerating landslide mapping with interactive machine learning techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Kerle, Norman; Puissant, Anne

2013-04-01

Despite important advances in the development of more automated methods for landslide mapping from optical remote sensing images, the elaboration of inventory maps after major triggering events still remains a tedious task. Image classification with expert defined rules typically still requires significant manual labour for the elaboration and adaption of rule sets for each particular case. Machine learning algorithm, on the contrary, have the ability to learn and identify complex image patterns from labelled examples but may require relatively large amounts of training data. In order to reduce the amount of required training data active learning has evolved as key concept to guide the sampling for applications such as document classification, genetics and remote sensing. The general underlying idea of most active learning approaches is to initialize a machine learning model with a small training set, and to subsequently exploit the model state and/or the data structure to iteratively select the most valuable samples that should be labelled by the user and added in the training set. With relatively few queries and labelled samples, an active learning strategy should ideally yield at least the same accuracy than an equivalent classifier trained with many randomly selected samples. Our study was dedicated to the development of an active learning approach for landslide mapping from VHR remote sensing images with special consideration of the spatial distribution of the samples. The developed approach is a region-based query heuristic that enables to guide the user attention towards few compact spatial batches rather than distributed points resulting in time savings of 50% and more compared to standard active learning techniques. The approach was tested with multi-temporal and multi-sensor satellite images capturing recent large scale triggering events in Brazil and China and demonstrated balanced user's and producer's accuracies between 74% and 80%. The assessment also

4. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Zongo, S

2015-08-01

Full Text Available . The experiments were performed by using single beam Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 10 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses excitation. From the open-aperture Z-scan data, we derived that the laccaic dye samples exhibit strong two photon absorption (2PA). The nonlinear...

5. GDTM-Padé technique for the non-linear differential-difference equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lu Jun-Feng

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper focuses on applying the GDTM-Padé technique to solve the non-linear differential-difference equation. The bell-shaped solitary wave solution of Belov-Chaltikian lattice equation is considered. Comparison between the approximate solutions and the exact ones shows that this technique is an efficient and attractive method for solving the differential-difference equations.

6. Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jaroon Rungamornrat

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.

7. Nonlinear analysis techniques for use in the assessment of high-level waste tank structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moore, C.J.; Julyk, L.J.; Fox, G.L.; Dyrness, A.D.

1991-01-01

Reinforced concrete in combination with a steel liner has had a wide application to structures containing hazardous material. The buried double-shell waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site use this construction method. The generation and potential ignition of combustible gases within the primary tank is postulated to develop beyond-design-basis internal pressure and possible impact loading. The scope of this paper includes the illustration of analysis techniques for the assessment of these beyond-design-basis loadings. The analysis techniques include the coupling of the gas dynamics with the structural response, the treatment of reinforced concrete in regimes of inelastic behavior, and the treatment of geometric nonlinearities. The techniques and software tools presented provide a powerful nonlinear analysis capability for storage tanks

8. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

Science.gov (United States)

Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2015-12-01

Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

9. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Michelotti, Leo

2009-01-01

This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first (1) explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. (1) To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material has been lifted - and modified - from

10. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Michelotti, Leo; /FERMILAB

2009-04-01

This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first [1] explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. [1] To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material

11. Quantification of EFTEM elemental maps using ion beam techniques

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lindner, J.K.N. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)]. E-mail: lindner@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Haeberlen, M. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Schwarz, F. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); AxynTeC Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Am Mittleren Moos 49, 86167 Augsburg (Germany); Thorwarth, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); AxynTeC Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Am Mittleren Moos 49, 86167 Augsburg (Germany); Stritzker, B. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Hammerl, C. [AxynTeC Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Am Mittleren Moos 49, 86167 Augsburg (Germany); Assmann, W. [Sektion Physik der LMU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2006-08-15

In this paper the nanometric spatial resolution capabilities of energy filtered cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) element mapping are complemented with the ability of elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) to perform absolute and standardless composition analysis of light and heavy elements. The strength of this combination of techniques is examplified by means of several {mu}m thick multielemental wear protection multilayer stacks of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon compounds with individual sublayers of few ten nanometer thickness, which were analysed with respect to their composition. The result are quantitative high-resolution 2-dimensional distributions of different elements in the several {mu}m thick film sandwiches.

12. Applications of Mapping and Tomographic Techniques in Gem Sciences

Science.gov (United States)

Shen, A. H.

2014-12-01

Gem Sciences are scientific studies of gemstones - their genesis, provenance, synthesis, enhancement, treatment and identification. As high quality forms of specific minerals, the gemstones exhibit unusual physical properties that are usually unseen in the regular counterparts. Most gemstones are colored by trace elements incorporated in the crystal lattice during various growth stages; forming coloration zones of various scales. Studying the spectral and chemical contrast across color zones helps elucidating the origins of colors. These are done by UV-visible spectrometers with microscope and LA-ICPMS in modern gemological laboratories. In the case of diamonds, their colored zones arise from various structural defects incorporated in different growth zones and are studied with FTIR spectrometers with IR microscope and laser photoluminescence spectrometers. Advancement in modern synthetic techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has created some problem for identification. Some exploratory experiments in carbon isotope mapping were done on diamonds using SIMS. The most important issue in pearls is to identify one particular pearl being a cultured one or a natural pearl. The price difference can be enormous. Classical way of such identification is done by x-ray radiographs, which clearly show the bead and the nacre. Modern cultured pearl advancement has eliminated the need for an artificial bead, but a small piece of tissue instead. Nowadays, computer x-ray tomography (CT) scanning devices are used to depict the clear image of the interior of a pearl. In the Chinese jade market, filling fissures with epoxy and/or wax are very commonly seen. We are currently exploring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to map the distribution of artificial resin within a polycrystalline aggregates.

13. In situ nonlinear ultrasonic technique for monitoring microcracking in concrete subjected to creep and cyclic loading.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Gun; Loreto, Giovanni; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly E; Wall, James J; Jacobs, Laurence J

2018-08-01

14. The solution of linear and nonlinear systems of Volterra functional equations using Adomian-Pade technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dehghan, Mehdi; Shakourifar, Mohammad; Hamidi, Asgar

2009-01-01

15. Stochastic response and bifurcation of periodically driven nonlinear oscillators by the generalized cell mapping method

Science.gov (United States)

Han, Qun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Jian-Qiao

2016-09-01

The stochastic response of nonlinear oscillators under periodic and Gaussian white noise excitations is studied with the generalized cell mapping based on short-time Gaussian approximation (GCM/STGA) method. The solutions of the transition probability density functions over a small fraction of the period are constructed by the STGA scheme in order to construct the GCM over one complete period. Both the transient and steady-state probability density functions (PDFs) of a smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator are computed to illustrate the application of the method. The accuracy of the results is verified by direct Monte Carlo simulations. The transient responses show the evolution of the PDFs from being Gaussian to non-Gaussian. The effect of a chaotic saddle on the stochastic response is also studied. The stochastic P-bifurcation in terms of the steady-state PDFs occurs with the decrease of the smoothness parameter, which corresponds to the deterministic pitchfork bifurcation.

16. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

Science.gov (United States)

Nagatani, Takashi

2011-05-01

We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips.

17. The parallel-sequential field subtraction technique for coherent nonlinear ultrasonic imaging

Science.gov (United States)

Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

2018-06-01

Nonlinear imaging techniques have recently emerged which have the potential to detect cracks at a much earlier stage than was previously possible and have sensitivity to partially closed defects. This study explores a coherent imaging technique based on the subtraction of two modes of focusing: parallel, in which the elements are fired together with a delay law and sequential, in which elements are fired independently. In the parallel focusing a high intensity ultrasonic beam is formed in the specimen at the focal point. However, in sequential focusing only low intensity signals from individual elements enter the sample and the full matrix of transmit-receive signals is recorded and post-processed to form an image. Under linear elastic assumptions, both parallel and sequential images are expected to be identical. Here we measure the difference between these images and use this to characterise the nonlinearity of small closed fatigue cracks. In particular we monitor the change in relative phase and amplitude at the fundamental frequencies for each focal point and use this nonlinear coherent imaging metric to form images of the spatial distribution of nonlinearity. The results suggest the subtracted image can suppress linear features (e.g. back wall or large scatters) effectively when instrumentation noise compensation in applied, thereby allowing damage to be detected at an early stage (c. 15% of fatigue life) and reliably quantified in later fatigue life.

18. Nonlinear microrheology and molecular imaging to map microscale deformations of entangled DNA networks

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Tsai-Chin; Anderson, Rae

We use active microrheology coupled to single-molecule fluorescence imaging to elucidate the microscale dynamics of entangled DNA. DNA naturally exists in a wide range of lengths and topologies, and is often confined in cell nucleui, forming highly concentrated and entangled biopolymer networks. Thus, DNA is the model polymer for understanding entangled polymer dynamics as well as the crowded environment of cells. These networks display complex viscoelastic properties that are not well understood, especially at the molecular-level and in response to nonlinear perturbations. Specifically, how microscopic stresses and strains propagate through entangled networks, and what molecular deformations lead to the network stress responses are unknown. To answer these important questions, we optically drive a microsphere through entangled DNA, perturbing the system far from equilibrium, while measuring the resistive force the DNA exerts on the bead during and after bead motion. We simultaneously image single fluorescent-labeled DNA molecules throughout the network to directly link the microscale stress response to molecular deformations. We characterize the deformation of the network from the molecular-level to the mesoscale, and map the stress propagation throughout the network. We further study the impact of DNA length (11 - 115 kbp) and topology (linear vs ring DNA) on deformation and propagation dynamics, exploring key nonlinear features such as tube dilation and power-law relaxation.

19. Cognitive Mapping Techniques: Implications for Research in Engineering and Technology Education

Science.gov (United States)

Dixon, Raymond A.; Lammi, Matthew

2014-01-01

The primary goal of this paper is to present the theoretical basis and application of two types of cognitive maps, concept map and mind map, and explain how they can be used by educational researchers in engineering design research. Cognitive mapping techniques can be useful to researchers as they study students' problem solving strategies…

20. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

2014-12-20

In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

1. Slow neutron mapping technique for level interface measurement

Science.gov (United States)

Zain, R. M.; Ithnin, H.; Razali, A. M.; Yusof, N. H. M.; Mustapha, I.; Yahya, R.; Othman, N.; Rahman, M. F. A.

2017-01-01

Modern industrial plant operations often require accurate level measurement of process liquids in production and storage vessels. A variety of advanced level indicators are commercially available to meet the demand, but these may not suit specific need of situations. The neutron backscatter technique is exceptionally useful for occasional and routine determination, particularly in situations such as pressure vessel with wall thickness up to 10 cm, toxic and corrosive chemical in sealed containers, liquid petroleum gas storage vessels. In level measurement, high energy neutrons from 241Am-Be radioactive source are beamed onto a vessel. Fast neutrons are slowed down mostly by collision with hydrogen atoms of material inside the vessel. Parts of thermal neutron are bounced back towards the source. By placing a thermal detector next to the source, these backscatter neutrons can be measured. The number of backscattered neutrons is directly proportional to the concentration of the hydrogen atoms in front of the neutron detector. As the source and detector moved by the matrix around the side of the vessel, interfaces can be determined as long as it involves a change in hydrogen atom concentration. This paper presents the slow neutron mapping technique to indicate level interface of a test vessel.

2. Multiple Solutions of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order: A New Analytic Iterative Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Omar Abu Arqub

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new kind of analytical method, the so-called residual power series, to predict and represent the multiplicity of solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of fractional order. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if these multiple solutions are very close and thus rather difficult to distinguish even by numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency of the designed proposed technique, two nonlinear models are performed, one of them arises in mixed convection flows and the other one arises in heat transfer, which both admit multiple solutions. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward, and powerful for formulating these multiple solutions.

3. An accurate technique for the solution of the nonlinear point kinetics equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D.; Furfaro, Roberto

2011-01-01

A novel methodology for the solution of non-linear point kinetic (PK) equations is proposed. The technique is based on a piecewise constant approximation of PK system of ODEs and explicitly accounts for reactivity feedback effects, through an iterative cycle. High accuracy is reached by introducing a sub-mesh for the numerical evaluation of integrals involved and by correcting the source term to include the non-linear effect on a finer time scale. The use of extrapolation techniques for convergence acceleration is also explored. Results for adiabatic feedback model are reported and compared with other benchmarks in literature. The convergence trend makes the algorithm particularly attractive for applications, including in multi-point kinetics and quasi-static frameworks. (author)

4. Predicting the Pullout Capacity of Small Ground Anchors Using Nonlinear Integrated Computing Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mosbeh R. Kaloop

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This study investigates predicting the pullout capacity of small ground anchors using nonlinear computing techniques. The input-output prediction model for the nonlinear Hammerstein-Wiener (NHW and delay inputs for the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (DANFIS are developed and utilized to predict the pullout capacity. The results of the developed models are compared with previous studies that used artificial neural networks and least square support vector machine techniques for the same case study. The in situ data collection and statistical performances are used to evaluate the models performance. Results show that the developed models enhance the precision of predicting the pullout capacity when compared with previous studies. Also, the DANFIS model performance is proven to be better than other models used to detect the pullout capacity of ground anchors.

5. Connection between perturbation theory, projection-operator techniques, and statistical linearization for nonlinear systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Budgor, A.B.; West, B.J.

1978-01-01

We employ the equivalence between Zwanzig's projection-operator formalism and perturbation theory to demonstrate that the approximate-solution technique of statistical linearization for nonlinear stochastic differential equations corresponds to the lowest-order β truncation in both the consolidated perturbation expansions and in the ''mass operator'' of a renormalized Green's function equation. Other consolidated equations can be obtained by selectively modifying this mass operator. We particularize the results of this paper to the Duffing anharmonic oscillator equation

6. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

Science.gov (United States)

Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

1993-01-01

This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

7. Sensitivity Analysis of Multicarrier Digital Pre-distortion/ Equalization Techniques for Non-linear Satellite Channels

OpenAIRE

Piazza, Roberto; Shankar, Bhavani; Zenteno, Efrain; Ronnow, Daniel; Liolis, Kostantinos; Zimmer, Frank; Grasslin, Michael; Berheide, Tobias; Cioni, Stefano

2013-01-01

On-board joint power amplification of multiple-carrier DVB-S2 signals using a single High-Power Amplifier (HPA) is an emerging configuration that aims to reduce flight hardware and weight. However, effects specific to such a scenario degrade power and spectral efficiencies with increased Adjacent Channel Interference caused by non-linear characteristic of the HPA and power efficiency loss due to the increased Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). The paper studies signal processing techniques ...

8. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

2015-12-01

Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

9. Evaluation of ECC bypass data with a nonlinear constrained MLE technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bishop, T.A.; Collier, R.P.; Kurth, R.E.

1980-01-01

Recently, Battelle's Columbus Laboratories have been involved in scale-model tests of emergency core cooling (ECC) systems for hypothesized loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors (PWR). These tests are intended to increase our understanding of ECC bypass, which can occur when steam flow from the reactor core causes the emergency coolant to bypass the core and flow directly to the break. One objective of these experiments is the development of a correlation which relates the flow rate of water penetrating to the core to the steam flow rate. This correlation is derived from data obtained from a 2/15 scale model PWR at various ECC water injection rates, subcoolings, pressures, and steam flows. The general form of the correlation being studied is a modification of the correlation first proposed by Wallis. The correlation model is inherently nonlinear and implicit in form, and the model variables are all subject to error. Therefore, the usual nonlinear analysis techniques are inappropriate. A nonlinear constrained maximum-likelihood-estimation technique has been used to obtain estimates of the model parameters, and a Battelle-developed code, NLINMLE, has been used to analyze the data. The application of this technique is illustrated by sample calculations of estimates of the model parameters and their associated confidence intervals for selected experimental data sets. 5 figures, 7 tables

10. Characterization of nonuniform chaos in area-preserving nonlinear maps through a continuous archetype

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerbelli, S.; Giona, M.

2008-01-01

Numerical investigations conducted over a wealth of nonlinear area-preserving smooth maps (e.g. the Standard Map) showed that these systems possess physically relevant features that are not captured by any continuous archetype of two-dimensional conservative dynamics. Among these properties are the dispersive behavior of stretch factor statistics, the multifractal character of the measure associated with invariant foliations, the sign-alternating property, accounting for the nestedly bent structure of invariant foliations, and the strict inequality between the topological entropy, h top , and the Lyapunov exponent, Λ. We refer to systems possessing all of these properties as nonuniformly chaotic. In this article, we present a globally continuous, piecewise-smooth area-preserving transformation, the toral homeomorphism H, as an archetype of nonuniformly chaotic behavior. The relatively simple structure of point set dynamics and the closed-form knowledge of the pointwise expanding and contracting invariant directions associated with H, permits to derive either analytically, or with arbitrary numerical precision, the standard chaotic properties as well as the dynamics of the physically relevant properties that define nonuniform chaos. Potentialities and limitations of the model proposed in representing geometric and statistical properties of physically relevant smooth systems are discussed in detail

11. A modified objective mapping technique for scatterometer wind data

Science.gov (United States)

Kelly, Kathryn A.; Caruso, Michael J.

1990-01-01

A method for generating high-resolution wind maps from scatterometer data was developed and tested on synthetic data for the northeast Pacific Ocean. It is shown that, unlike the wind fields generated by current GCMs, the wind maps constructed by this method retain the high spatial resolution of the scatterometer wherever adequate measurements exist. For the NASA scatterometer, this method would produce every 12 hours a wind map with spatial resolution that preserves the small-scale features of the original data over about half the mapped region. Over the rest of the region, maps with somewhat lower resolution and accuracy will be obtained.

12. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qiaomei Su

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

13. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a non-equilibrium plasma flow

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

We study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially-ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales, and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. We use Newton`s method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. We investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, one-way multigrid and a pseudo-transient continuation technique are used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with Incomplete Lower-Upper(ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a one-way multigrid implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of the modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented.

14. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

2014-01-01

Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile......) confirmed that the output is reliable and can be used in various soil and environmental studies without major difficulties. This study also verified the importance of GlobalSoilMap products and a priori pedological information that improved prediction performance and quality of the new FAO soil map...

15. Simultaneous multigrid techniques for nonlinear eigenvalue problems: Solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson eigenvalue problem in two and three dimensions

Science.gov (United States)

Costiner, Sorin; Ta'asan, Shlomo

1995-07-01

Algorithms for nonlinear eigenvalue problems (EP's) often require solving self-consistently a large number of EP's. Convergence difficulties may occur if the solution is not sought in an appropriate region, if global constraints have to be satisfied, or if close or equal eigenvalues are present. Multigrid (MG) algorithms for nonlinear problems and for EP's obtained from discretizations of partial differential EP have often been shown to be more efficient than single level algorithms. This paper presents MG techniques and a MG algorithm for nonlinear Schrödinger Poisson EP's. The algorithm overcomes the above mentioned difficulties combining the following techniques: a MG simultaneous treatment of the eigenvectors and nonlinearity, and with the global constrains; MG stable subspace continuation techniques for the treatment of nonlinearity; and a MG projection coupled with backrotations for separation of solutions. These techniques keep the solutions in an appropriate region, where the algorithm converges fast, and reduce the large number of self-consistent iterations to only a few or one MG simultaneous iteration. The MG projection makes it possible to efficiently overcome difficulties related to clusters of close and equal eigenvalues. Computational examples for the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson EP in two and three dimensions, presenting special computational difficulties that are due to the nonlinearity and to the equal and closely clustered eigenvalues are demonstrated. For these cases, the algorithm requires O(qN) operations for the calculation of q eigenvectors of size N and for the corresponding eigenvalues. One MG simultaneous cycle per fine level was performed. The total computational cost is equivalent to only a few Gauss-Seidel relaxations per eigenvector. An asymptotic convergence rate of 0.15 per MG cycle is attained.

16. Compressed sensing techniques for receiver based post-compensation of transmitter's nonlinear distortions in OFDM systems

KAUST Repository

Owodunni, Damilola S.

2014-04-01

In this paper, compressed sensing techniques are proposed to linearize commercial power amplifiers driven by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals. The nonlinear distortion is considered as a sparse phenomenon in the time-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional compressed sensing approach, while the second incorporates a priori information about the distortions to enhance the estimation. Finally, the third technique involves an iterative data-aided algorithm that does not require any pilot carriers and hence allows the system to work at maximum bandwidth efficiency. The performances of all the proposed techniques are evaluated on a commercial power amplifier and compared. The error vector magnitude and symbol error rate results show the ability of compressed sensing to compensate for the amplifier\\'s nonlinear distortions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

17. A review on prognostic techniques for non-stationary and non-linear rotating systems

Science.gov (United States)

Kan, Man Shan; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph

2015-10-01

The field of prognostics has attracted significant interest from the research community in recent times. Prognostics enables the prediction of failures in machines resulting in benefits to plant operators such as shorter downtimes, higher operation reliability, reduced operations and maintenance cost, and more effective maintenance and logistics planning. Prognostic systems have been successfully deployed for the monitoring of relatively simple rotating machines. However, machines and associated systems today are increasingly complex. As such, there is an urgent need to develop prognostic techniques for such complex systems operating in the real world. This review paper focuses on prognostic techniques that can be applied to rotating machinery operating under non-linear and non-stationary conditions. The general concept of these techniques, the pros and cons of applying these methods, as well as their applications in the research field are discussed. Finally, the opportunities and challenges in implementing prognostic systems and developing effective techniques for monitoring machines operating under non-stationary and non-linear conditions are also discussed.

18. Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Crystal VioletDye Doped Polystyrene Films by Using Z-Scan Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for crystal violet doped polystyrene films as a function of doping ratio in chloroform solvent. Samples exhibits in closed aperture Z-scan positive nonlinear refraction (self-focusing. While in the open aperture Z-scan gives reverse saturation absorption (RSA (positive absorption for all film with different doping ratio making samples candidates for optical limiting devices for protection of sensors and eyes from energetic laser light pulses under the experimental conditions.

19. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Muja, Cristina; Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe

2011-01-01

Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100μm in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII th . XIII th ) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the multi

20. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

2011-07-01

Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

1. Mapping innovation processes: Visual techniques for opening and presenting the black box of service innovation processes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

2017-01-01

This chapter argues for the usefulness of visual mapping techniques for performing qualitative analysis of complex service innovation processes. Different mapping formats are presented, namely, matrices, networks, process maps, situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps....... For the purpose of researching service innovation processes, the three latter formats are argued to be particularly interesting. Process maps can give an overview of different periods and milestones in a process in one carefully organized location. Situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps...... can open up complexities of service innovation processes, as well as close them down for presentational purposes. The mapping formats presented are illustrated by displaying maps from an exemplary research project, and the chapter is concluded with a brief discussion of the limitations and pitfalls...

2. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dubbert, Dale F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tise, Bertice L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2014-07-01

Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

3. ALIF: A New Promising Technique for the Decomposition and Analysis of Nonlinear and Nonstationary Signals

Science.gov (United States)

Cicone, A.; Zhou, H.; Piersanti, M.; Materassi, M.; Spogli, L.

2017-12-01

Nonlinear and nonstationary signals are ubiquitous in real life. Their decomposition and analysis is of crucial importance in many research fields. Traditional techniques, like Fourier and wavelet Transform have been proved to be limited in this context. In the last two decades new kind of nonlinear methods have been developed which are able to unravel hidden features of these kinds of signals. In this poster we present a new method, called Adaptive Local Iterative Filtering (ALIF). This technique, originally developed to study mono-dimensional signals, unlike any other algorithm proposed so far, can be easily generalized to study two or higher dimensional signals. Furthermore, unlike most of the similar methods, it does not require any a priori assumption on the signal itself, so that the technique can be applied as it is to any kind of signals. Applications of ALIF algorithm to real life signals analysis will be presented. Like, for instance, the behavior of the water level near the coastline in presence of a Tsunami, length of the day signal, pressure measured at ground level on a global grid, radio power scintillation from GNSS signals,

4. Higher-Order Approximations of Motion of a Nonlinear Oscillator Using the Parameter Expansion Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Ganji, S. S.; Domairry, G.; Davodi, A. G.; Babazadeh, H.; Seyedalizadeh Ganji, S. H.

The main objective of this paper is to apply the parameter expansion technique (a modified Lindstedt-Poincaré method) to calculate the first, second, and third-order approximations of motion of a nonlinear oscillator arising in rigid rod rocking back. The dynamics and frequency of motion of this nonlinear mechanical system are analyzed. A meticulous attention is carried out to the study of the introduced nonlinearity effects on the amplitudes of the oscillatory states and on the bifurcation structures. We examine the synchronization and the frequency of systems using both the strong and special method. Numerical simulations and computer's answers confirm and complement the results obtained by the analytical approach. The approach proposes a choice to overcome the difficulty of computing the periodic behavior of the oscillation problems in engineering. The solutions of this method are compared with the exact ones in order to validate the approach, and assess the accuracy of the solutions. In particular, APL-PM works well for the whole range of oscillation amplitudes and excellent agreement of the approximate frequency with the exact one has been demonstrated. The approximate period derived here is accurate and close to the exact solution. This method has a distinguished feature which makes it simple to use, and also it agrees with the exact solutions for various parameters.

5. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

2015-11-02

The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

6. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

2015-01-01

The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor - a sensor that can continuously monitor a material's damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks

7. The constrained discrete-time state-dependent Riccati equation technique for uncertain nonlinear systems

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, Insu

The objective of the thesis is to introduce a relatively general nonlinear controller/estimator synthesis framework using a special type of the state-dependent Riccati equation technique. The continuous time state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) technique is extended to discrete-time under input and state constraints, yielding constrained (C) discrete-time (D) SDRE, referred to as CD-SDRE. For the latter, stability analysis and calculation of a region of attraction are carried out. The derivation of the D-SDRE under state-dependent weights is provided. Stability of the D-SDRE feedback system is established using Lyapunov stability approach. Receding horizon strategy is used to take into account the constraints on D-SDRE controller. Stability condition of the CD-SDRE controller is analyzed by using a switched system. The use of CD-SDRE scheme in the presence of constraints is then systematically demonstrated by applying this scheme to problems of spacecraft formation orbit reconfiguration under limited performance on thrusters. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy and reliability of the proposed CD-SDRE. The CD-SDRE technique is further investigated in a case where there are uncertainties in nonlinear systems to be controlled. First, the system stability under each of the controllers in the robust CD-SDRE technique is separately established. The stability of the closed-loop system under the robust CD-SDRE controller is then proven based on the stability of each control system comprising switching configuration. A high fidelity dynamical model of spacecraft attitude motion in 3-dimensional space is derived with a partially filled fuel tank, assumed to have the first fuel slosh mode. The proposed robust CD-SDRE controller is then applied to the spacecraft attitude control system to stabilize its motion in the presence of uncertainties characterized by the first fuel slosh mode. The performance of the robust CD-SDRE technique is discussed. Subsequently

8. Shallow water bathymetry mapping using Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique and multispectral imagery

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Misra, Ankita; Vojinovic, Zoran; Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Luijendijk, Arjen; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

2018-01-01

Satellite imagery along with image processing techniques prove to be efficient tools for bathymetry retrieval as they provide time and cost-effective alternatives to traditional methods of water depth estimation. In this article, a nonlinear machine learning technique of Support Vector Machine (SVM)

9. Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique

KAUST Repository

El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.; Al-Mulla, Noah

2014-01-01

Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.

10. Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique

KAUST Repository

El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.

2014-01-06

Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.

11. A novel technique to solve nonlinear higher-index Hessenberg differential-algebraic equations by Adomian decomposition method.

Science.gov (United States)

Benhammouda, Brahim

2016-01-01

Since 1980, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) has been extensively used as a simple powerful tool that applies directly to solve different kinds of nonlinear equations including functional, differential, integro-differential and algebraic equations. However, for differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) the ADM is applied only in four earlier works. There, the DAEs are first pre-processed by some transformations like index reductions before applying the ADM. The drawback of such transformations is that they can involve complex algorithms, can be computationally expensive and may lead to non-physical solutions. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel technique that applies the ADM directly to solve a class of nonlinear higher-index Hessenberg DAEs systems efficiently. The main advantage of this technique is that; firstly it avoids complex transformations like index reductions and leads to a simple general algorithm. Secondly, it reduces the computational work by solving only linear algebraic systems with a constant coefficient matrix at each iteration, except for the first iteration where the algebraic system is nonlinear (if the DAE is nonlinear with respect to the algebraic variable). To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we apply it to a nonlinear index-three Hessenberg DAEs system with nonlinear algebraic constraints. This technique is straightforward and can be programmed in Maple or Mathematica to simulate real application problems.

12. New methods to enhance cerebral flow maps made by the stable xenon/CT technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wist, A.O.; Fatouros, P.P.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Weiss, J.; Cothran, S.J.

1987-01-01

The authors developed several new techniques to extract the important information of the high-resolution flow maps as they are being generated by our improved stable Xe/CT technique. First, they adapted a new morphologic filtering technique to separate white, white/gray and gray matter. Second, they generated iso-flow lines using the same filtering technique for easier reading of the values in the flow map. Third, by combining the information in both maps, the authors constructed a new map which shows the areas of high, normal, and low blood flow for the whole brain. When combined with anatomic information, the information in the map can indicate the probable pathologic areas. Fourth, they were able to reduce the calculation time of the flow by almost a factor of 10 by developing a new, faster algorithm for calculating the flow

13. Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG

1998-01-01

Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the

14. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

Science.gov (United States)

Pramodini, S.; Sudhakar, Y. N.; SelvaKumar, M.; Poornesh, P.

2014-04-01

We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He-Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of βeff, n2 and χ(3) were found to be of the order of 10-2 cm W-1, 10-5 esu and 10-7 esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications.

15. 3D temporal subtraction on multislice CT images using nonlinear warping technique

Science.gov (United States)

Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kawashita, Ikuo; Kim, Hyounseop; Itai, Yoshinori; Awai, Kazuo; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

2007-03-01

The detection of very subtle lesions and/or lesions overlapped with vessels on CT images is a time consuming and difficult task for radiologists. In this study, we have developed a 3D temporal subtraction method to enhance interval changes between previous and current multislice CT images based on a nonlinear image warping technique. Our method provides a subtraction CT image which is obtained by subtraction of a previous CT image from a current CT image. Reduction of misregistration artifacts is important in the temporal subtraction method. Therefore, our computerized method includes global and local image matching techniques for accurate registration of current and previous CT images. For global image matching, we selected the corresponding previous section image for each current section image by using 2D cross-correlation between a blurred low-resolution current CT image and a blurred previous CT image. For local image matching, we applied the 3D template matching technique with translation and rotation of volumes of interests (VOIs) which were selected in the current and the previous CT images. The local shift vector for each VOI pair was determined when the cross-correlation value became the maximum in the 3D template matching. The local shift vectors at all voxels were determined by interpolation of shift vectors of VOIs, and then the previous CT image was nonlinearly warped according to the shift vector for each voxel. Finally, the warped previous CT image was subtracted from the current CT image. The 3D temporal subtraction method was applied to 19 clinical cases. The normal background structures such as vessels, ribs, and heart were removed without large misregistration artifacts. Thus, interval changes due to lung diseases were clearly enhanced as white shadows on subtraction CT images.

16. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

2011-01-01

We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

17. Mapping ionospheric observations using combined techniques for Europe region

Science.gov (United States)

Tomasik, Lukasz; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Stanislawska, Iwona; Swiatek, Anna; Pozoga, Mariusz; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata

An k nearest neighbours algorithm (KNN) was used for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied. This method uses TEC data calculated from EGNOS Vertical Delay Estimate (VDE ≈0.78 TECU) and several GNSS stations and its spatial correlation whit data from selected ionosondes. For mapping purposes two-dimensional similarity function in KNN method was proposed.

18. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

2017-10-01

The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

19. Stability analysis of nonlinear Roesser-type two-dimensional systems via a homogenous polynomial technique

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Tie-Yan; Zhao, Yan; Xie, Xiang-Peng

2012-12-01

This paper is concerned with the problem of stability analysis of nonlinear Roesser-type two-dimensional (2D) systems. Firstly, the fuzzy modeling method for the usual one-dimensional (1D) systems is extended to the 2D case so that the underlying nonlinear 2D system can be represented by the 2D Takagi—Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model, which is convenient for implementing the stability analysis. Secondly, a new kind of fuzzy Lyapunov function, which is a homogeneous polynomially parameter dependent on fuzzy membership functions, is developed to conceive less conservative stability conditions for the TS Roesser-type 2D system. In the process of stability analysis, the obtained stability conditions approach exactness in the sense of convergence by applying some novel relaxed techniques. Moreover, the obtained result is formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved via standard numerical software. Finally, a numerical example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

20. Stability analysis of nonlinear Roesser-type two-dimensional systems via a homogenous polynomial technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang Tie-Yan; Zhao Yan; Xie Xiang-Peng

2012-01-01

This paper is concerned with the problem of stability analysis of nonlinear Roesser-type two-dimensional (2D) systems. Firstly, the fuzzy modeling method for the usual one-dimensional (1D) systems is extended to the 2D case so that the underlying nonlinear 2D system can be represented by the 2D Takagi—Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model, which is convenient for implementing the stability analysis. Secondly, a new kind of fuzzy Lyapunov function, which is a homogeneous polynomially parameter dependent on fuzzy membership functions, is developed to conceive less conservative stability conditions for the TS Roesser-type 2D system. In the process of stability analysis, the obtained stability conditions approach exactness in the sense of convergence by applying some novel relaxed techniques. Moreover, the obtained result is formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved via standard numerical software. Finally, a numerical example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (general)

1. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

Science.gov (United States)

Citroni, Margherita

2013-06-01

Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

2. Two techniques for mapping and area estimation of small grains in California using Landsat digital data

Science.gov (United States)

Sheffner, E. J.; Hlavka, C. A.; Bauer, E. M.

1984-01-01

Two techniques have been developed for the mapping and area estimation of small grains in California from Landsat digital data. The two techniques are Band Ratio Thresholding, a semi-automated version of a manual procedure, and LCLS, a layered classification technique which can be fully automated and is based on established clustering and classification technology. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that the two techniques have potential for providing map products which can be incorporated into existing inventory procedures and automated alternatives to traditional inventory techniques and those which currently employ Landsat imagery.

3. Classification of fMRI resting-state maps using machine learning techniques: A comparative study

Science.gov (United States)

Gallos, Ioannis; Siettos, Constantinos

2017-11-01

We compare the efficiency of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and nonlinear learning manifold algorithms (ISOMAP and Diffusion maps) for classifying brain maps between groups of schizophrenia patients and healthy from fMRI scans during a resting-state experiment. After a standard pre-processing pipeline, we applied spatial Independent component analysis (ICA) to reduce (a) noise and (b) spatial-temporal dimensionality of fMRI maps. On the cross-correlation matrix of the ICA components, we applied PCA, ISOMAP and Diffusion Maps to find an embedded low-dimensional space. Finally, support-vector-machines (SVM) and k-NN algorithms were used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms in classifying between the two groups.

4. On the Reliability of Nonlinear Modeling using Enhanced Genetic Programming Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Winkler, S. M.; Affenzeller, M.; Wagner, S.

The use of genetic programming (GP) in nonlinear system identification enables the automated search for mathematical models that are evolved by an evolutionary process using the principles of selection, crossover and mutation. Due to the stochastic element that is intrinsic to any evolutionary process, GP cannot guarantee the generation of similar or even equal models in each GP process execution; still, if there is a physical model underlying to the data that are analyzed, then GP is expected to find these structures and produce somehow similar results. In this paper we define a function for measuring the syntactic similarity of mathematical models represented as structure trees; using this similarity function we compare the results produced by GP techniques for a data set representing measurement data of a BMW Diesel engine.

5. A new technique based on the transformation of variables for nonlinear drift and Rossby vortices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orito, Kohtaro

1996-07-01

The quasi-two-dimensional nonlinear equations for drift and Rossby vortices have some stationary multipole solutions, and especially the dipole vortex solution is called modon. These solutions are valid only in the lowest order where the fluid velocity has a stream function. In order to investigate features of the multipole solutions more accurately, the effect of the higher order terms, for example the polarization drift in a plasma or the Coriolis force in a rotating planet, needs to be considered. It is shown that the higher order analysis through a new technique based on a transformation of variables is much easier than a straightforward iteration. The solutions in this analysis are obtained by inverse transformation to the original coordinates, where the profiles of potentials are distorted by the effects of higher order terms. (author)

6. On measurement of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter using the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) technique

Science.gov (United States)

Zeqiri, Bajram; Cook, Ashley; Rétat, Lise; Civale, John; ter Haar, Gail

2015-04-01

The acoustic nonlinearity parameter, B/A, is an important parameter which defines the way a propagating finite amplitude acoustic wave progressively distorts when travelling through any medium. One measurement technique used to determine its value is the finite amplitude insertion substitution (FAIS) method which has been applied to a range of liquid, tissue and tissue-like media. Importantly, in terms of the achievable measurement uncertainties, it is a relative technique. This paper presents a detailed study of the method, employing a number of novel features. The first of these is the use of a large area membrane hydrophone (30 mm aperture) which is used to record the plane-wave component of the acoustic field. This reduces the influence of diffraction on measurements, enabling studies to be carried out within the transducer near-field, with the interrogating transducer, test cell and detector positioned close to one another, an attribute which assists in controlling errors arising from nonlinear distortion in any intervening water path. The second feature is the development of a model which estimates the influence of finite-amplitude distortion as the acoustic wave travels from the rear surface of the test cell to the detector. It is demonstrated that this can lead to a significant systematic error in B/A measurement whose magnitude and direction depends on the acoustic property contrast between the test material and the water-filled equivalent cell. Good qualitative agreement between the model and experiment is reported. B/A measurements are reported undertaken at (20 ± 0.5) °C for two fluids commonly employed as reference materials within the technical literature: Corn Oil and Ethylene Glycol. Samples of an IEC standardised agar-based tissue-mimicking material were also measured. A systematic assessment of measurement uncertainties is presented giving expanded uncertainties in the range ±7% to ±14%, expressed at a confidence level close to 95

7. Numerical solution of large nonlinear boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glowinski, R.; Le Tallec, P.

1984-01-01

The objective of this paper is to describe the numerical treatment of large highly nonlinear two or three dimensional boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques. In all the different situations where these techniques were applied, the methodology remains the same and is organized as follows: 1) derive a variational formulation of the original boundary value problem, and approximate it by Galerkin methods; 2) transform this variational formulation into a quadratic minimization problem (least squares methods) or into a sequence of quadratic minimization problems (augmented lagrangian decomposition); 3) solve each quadratic minimization problem by a conjugate gradient method with preconditioning, the preconditioning matrix being sparse, positive definite, and fixed once for all in the iterative process. This paper will illustrate the methodology above on two different examples: the description of least squares solution methods and their application to the solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids; the description of augmented lagrangian decomposition techniques and their application to the solution of equilibrium problems in finite elasticity

8. Robust intelligent backstepping tracking control for uncertain non-linear chaotic systems using H∞ control technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peng, Y.-F.

2009-01-01

The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is a non-linear adaptive system with built-in simple computation, good generalization capability and fast learning property. In this paper, a robust intelligent backstepping tracking control (RIBTC) system combined with adaptive CMAC and H ∞ control technique is proposed for a class of chaotic systems with unknown system dynamics and external disturbance. In the proposed control system, an adaptive backstepping cerebellar model articulation controller (ABCMAC) is used to mimic an ideal backstepping control (IBC), and a robust H ∞ controller is designed to attenuate the effect of the residual approximation errors and external disturbances with desired attenuation level. Moreover, the all adaptation laws of the RIBTC system are derived based on the Lyapunov stability analysis, the Taylor linearization technique and H ∞ control theory, so that the stability of the closed-loop system and H ∞ tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, three application examples, including a Duffing-Holmes chaotic system, a Genesio chaotic system and a Sprott circuit system, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of proposed robust control technique.

9. A simple method for the design of tension structures combining topological mapping and nonlinear structural analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-12-01

10. The Random-Map Technique: Enhancing Mind-Mapping with a Conceptual Combination Technique to Foster Creative Potential

Science.gov (United States)

Malycha, Charlotte P.; Maier, Günter W.

2017-01-01

Although creativity techniques are highly recommended in working environments, their effects have been scarcely investigated. Two cognitive processes are often considered to foster creative potential and are, therefore, taken as a basis for creativity techniques: knowledge activation and conceptual combination. In this study, both processes were…

11. Identification of a Class of Non-linear State Space Models using RPE Techniques

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhou, Wei-Wu; Blanke, Mogens

1989-01-01

The RPE (recursive prediction error) method in state-space form is developed in the nonlinear systems and extended to include the exact form of a nonlinearity, thus enabling structure preservation for certain classes of nonlinear systems. Both the discrete and the continuous-discrete versions...... of the algorithm in an innovations model are investigated, and a nonlinear simulation example shows a quite convincing performance of the filter as combined parameter and state estimator...

12. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility mapping techniques using lidar-derived conditioning factors (Oregon case study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rubini Mahalingam

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Landslides are a significant geohazard, which frequently result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and remote sensing can help communities prepare for these damaging events. Current mapping efforts utilize a wide variety of techniques and consider multiple factors. Unfortunately, each study is relatively independent of others in the applied technique and factors considered, resulting in inconsistencies. Further, input data quality often varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, leading to uncertainty. This paper investigates if lidar-derived data-sets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index, and compound topographic index can be used for predictive mapping without other landslide conditioning factors. This paper also assesses the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using several, widely used statistical techniques. Landslide susceptibility maps were produced from the aforementioned lidar-derived data-sets for a small study area in Oregon using six representative statistical techniques. Most notably, results show that only a few factors were necessary to produce satisfactory maps with high predictive capability (area under the curve >0.7. The sole use of lidar digital elevation models and their derivatives can be used for landslide mapping using most statistical techniques without requiring additional detailed data-sets that are often difficult to obtain or of lower quality.

13. Nonlinear optical characterization of phosphate glasses based on ZnO using the Z-scan technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mojdehi Masoumeh Shokati; Yunus Wan Mahmood Mat; Talib Zainal Abidin; Tamchek, N.; Fhan Khor Shing

2013-01-01

The nonlinear optical properties of a phosphate vitreous system [(ZnO) x − (MgO) 30−x − (P 2 O 5 ) 70 ], where x = 8, 10, 15, 18, and 20 mol% synthesized through the melt-quenching technique have been investigated by using the Z-scan technique. In the experiment, a continuous-wave laser with a wavelength of 405 nm was utilized to determine the sign and value of the nonlinear refractive (NLR) index and the absorption coefficient with closed and opened apertures of the Z-scan setup. The NLR index was found to increase with the ZnO concentration in the glass samples by an order of 10 −10 cm 2 ·W −1 . The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility were calculated by referring to the NLR index (n 2 ) and absorption coefficient (β) of the samples. The value of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility was presented by nonlinear refractive or absorptive behavior of phosphate glasses for proper utilization in nonlinear optical devices. Based on the measurement, the positive sign of the NLR index shows a self-focusing phenomenon. The figures of merit for each sample were calculated to judge the potential of phosphate glasses for application in optical switching

14. PIV technique implementation for wind mapping in complex topographies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Siddiqui, Kamran; Hangan, Horia; Rasouli, Ashkan

2008-01-01

An experimental study was conducted to demonstrate PIV's capability to provide a detailed characterization of the flow field over complex topographic terrain in a large boundary layer wind tunnel setup. Two-dimensional velocity fields were measured in horizontal and vertical planes over a 1:3000 scaled topographic model. The non-uniform seed distribution was found to be a major issue which could affect the PIV velocity vectors. A novel scheme was developed to automatically detect the regions with low seed density and exclude them from further analysis. The mean and turbulent velocities obtained from PIV and previous hotwire measurements are compared and show good agreement. The study shows that PIV can be successfully used to measure flow over complex geometries in large wind tunnel setups, enabling the flow structure to be mapped with a very high spatial resolution

15. Photoinduced force microscopy: A technique for hyperspectral nanochemical mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Murdick, Ryan A.; Morrison, William; Nowak, Derek; Albrecht, Thomas R.; Jahng, Junghoon; Park, Sung

2017-08-01

Advances in nanotechnology have intensified the need for tools that can characterize newly synthesized nanomaterials. A variety of techniques has recently been shown which combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) with optical illumination including tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM), and photothermal induced resonance microscopy (PTIR). To varying degrees, these existing techniques enable optical spectroscopy with the nanoscale spatial resolution inherent to AFM, thereby providing nanochemical interrogation of a specimen. Here we discuss photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM), a recently developed technique for nanoscale optical spectroscopy that exploits image forces acting between an AFM tip and sample to detect wavelength-dependent polarization within the sample to generate absorption spectra. This approach enables ∼10 nm spatial resolution with spectra that show correlation with macroscopic optical absorption spectra. Unlike other techniques, PiFM achieves this high resolution with virtually no constraints on sample or substrate properties. The applicability of PiFM to a variety of archetypal systems is reported here, highlighting the potential of PiFM as a useful tool for a wide variety of industrial and academic investigations, including semiconducting nanoparticles, nanocellulose, block copolymers, and low dimensional systems, as well as chemical and morphological mixing at interfaces.

16. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Klofai, Yerima; Essimbi, B Z; Jaeger, D

2011-01-01

Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

17. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

2011-10-15

Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

18. Stochastic sensitivity analysis of periodic attractors in non-autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems based on stroboscopic map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guo, Kong-Ming, E-mail: kmguo@xidian.edu.cn [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xidian University, P.O. Box 187, Xi' an 710071 (China); Jiang, Jun, E-mail: jun.jiang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2014-07-04

To apply stochastic sensitivity function method, which can estimate the probabilistic distribution of stochastic attractors, to non-autonomous dynamical systems, a 1/N-period stroboscopic map for a periodic motion is constructed in order to discretize the continuous cycle into a discrete one. In this way, the sensitivity analysis of a cycle for discrete map can be utilized and a numerical algorithm for the stochastic sensitivity analysis of periodic solutions of non-autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems under stochastic disturbances is devised. An external excited Duffing oscillator and a parametric excited laser system are studied as examples to show the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A method to analyze sensitivity of stochastic periodic attractors in non-autonomous dynamical systems is proposed. • Probabilistic distribution around periodic attractors in an external excited Φ{sup 6} Duffing system is obtained. • Probabilistic distribution around a periodic attractor in a parametric excited laser system is determined.

19. Modal Techniques for Remote Identification of Nonlinear Reactions at Gap-Supported Tubes Under Turbulent Excitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delaune, X.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L.; Antunes, J.; Debut, V.

2010-01-01

Predictive computation of the nonlinear dynamical responses of gap-supported tubes subjected to flow excitation has been the subject of very active research. Nevertheless, experimental results are still very important, for validation of the theoretical predictions as well as for asserting the integrity of field components. Because carefully instrumented test tubes and tube-supports are seldom possible, due to space limitations and to the severe environment conditions, there is a need for robust techniques capable of extracting, from the actual vibratory response data, information that is relevant for asserting the components integrity. The dynamical contact/impact (vibro-impact) forces are of paramount significance, as are the tube/support gaps. Following our previous studies in this area using wave-propagation techniques (De Araujo, Antunes, and Piteau, 1998, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Part 1-Basic Theory and Experiments', J. Sound Vib., 215, pp. 1015-1041; Antunes, Paulino, and Piteau, 1998, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Part 2-Complex Vibro-Impact Motions', J. Sound Vib., 215, pp. 1043-1064; Paulino, Antunes, and Izquierdo, 1999, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Analysis of Multi-Supported Systems', ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 121, pp. 61-70), we apply modal methods in the present paper for extracting such information. The dynamical support forces, as well as the vibratory responses at the support locations, are identified from one or several vibratory response measurements at remote transducers, from which the support gaps can be inferred. As for most inverse problems, the identification results may prove quite sensitive to noise and modeling errors. Therefore, topics discussed in the paper include regularization techniques to mitigate the effects of non-measured noise perturbations. In particular, a method is proposed to improve the

20. An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

2013-01-01

Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128

1. Mapping the nonlinear optical susceptibility by noncollinear second-harmonic generation.

Science.gov (United States)

Larciprete, M C; Bovino, F A; Giardina, M; Belardini, A; Centini, M; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Passaseo, A; Tasco, V

2009-07-15

We present a method, based on noncollinear second-harmonic generation, to evaluate the nonzero elements of the nonlinear optical susceptibility. At a fixed incidence angle, the generated signal is investigated by varying the polarization state of both fundamental beams. The resulting polarization charts allows us to verify if Kleinman's symmetry rules can be applied to a given material or to retrieve the absolute value of the nonlinear optical tensor terms, from a reference measurement. Experimental measurements obtained from gallium nitride layers are reported. The proposed method does not require an angular scan and thus is useful when the generated signal is strongly affected by sample rotation.

2. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

2007-01-01

Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

3. Contractive maps on normed linear spaces and their applications to nonlinear matrix equations.

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Reurings, M.C.B.

2017-01-01

In this paper the author gives necessary and sufficient conditions under which a map is a contraction on a certain subset of a normed linear space. These conditions are already well known for maps on intervals in R. Using the conditions and Banach's fixed point theorem a fixed point theorem can be

4. Investigation of perturbation techniques for nonlinear difference equations and other related topics: Final technical report

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mickens, R.E.

1986-01-01

Investigations in mathematical physics are summarized for projects concerning a nonlinear wave equation; a second-order nonlinear difference equation; singular, nonlinear oscillators; and numerical instabilities. All of the results obtained through these research efforts have been presented in seminars and professional meetings and conferences. Further, all of these results have been published in the scientific literature. A list of exact references are given in the appendices to this report

5. Measuring transient chaos in nonlinear one- and two-dimensional maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buszko, Katarzyna; Stefanski, Krzysztof

2006-01-01

In this paper, we present results of numerical experiments on chaotic transients in families of the logistic and Henon maps. The duration of chaotic transients (the rambling time) for logistic maps estimated according to a rigorous criterion shows monotonic regularities with respect to both the period and the number of periodic window in a series of a given period. Due to inapplicability of this criterion to multidimensional maps, a more universal, though approximate, criterion is systematically studied on the family of logistic maps to optimize a choice of the free parameter value. The same approximate criterion is used to estimate rambling time for a number of periodic windows for the family of Henon maps. The dependence of the rambling time on the width of periodic windows is tested

6. Wind Turbine Tower Vibration Modeling and Monitoring by the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Peng Guo

2012-12-01

Full Text Available With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected. In this paper, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET has been applied to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these. The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a sub-model used for below rated wind speed; and another for above rated wind speed. Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 is used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented. This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation and high accuracy. The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage. The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.

7. Implementation of a variable-step integration technique for nonlinear structural dynamic analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underwood, P.; Park, K.C.

1977-01-01

The paper presents the implementation of a recently developed unconditionally stable implicit time integration method into a production computer code for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structural dynamic systems. The time integrator is packaged with two significant features; a variable step size that is automatically determined and this is accomplished without additional matrix refactorizations. The equations of motion solved by the time integrator must be cast in the pseudo-force form, and this provides the mechanism for controlling the step size. Step size control is accomplished by extrapolating the pseudo-force to the next time (the predicted pseudo-force), then performing the integration step and then recomputing the pseudo-force based on the current solution (the correct pseudo-force); from this data an error norm is constructed, the value of which determines the step size for the next step. To avoid refactoring the required matrix with each step size change a matrix scaling technique is employed, which allows step sizes to change by a factor of 100 without refactoring. If during a computer run the integrator determines it can run with a step size larger than 100 times the original minimum step size, the matrix is refactored to take advantage of the larger step size. The strategy for effecting these features are discussed in detail. (Auth.)

8. A New Approach and Solution Technique to Solve Time Fractional Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Inci Cilingir Sungu

2015-01-01

Full Text Available A new application of the hybrid generalized differential transform and finite difference method is proposed by solving time fractional nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. This method is a combination of the multi-time-stepping temporal generalized differential transform and the spatial finite difference methods. The procedure first converts the time-evolutionary equations into Poisson equations which are then solved using the central difference method. The temporal differential transform method as used in the paper takes care of stability and the finite difference method on the resulting equation results in a system of diagonally dominant linear algebraic equations. The Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure then used to solve the linear system thus has assured convergence. To have optimized convergence rate, numerical experiments were done by using a combination of factors involving multi-time-stepping, spatial step size, and degree of the polynomial fit in time. It is shown that the hybrid technique is reliable, accurate, and easy to apply.

9. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pramodini, S; Poornesh, P; Sudhakar, Y N; SelvaKumar, M

2014-01-01

We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He–Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of β eff , n 2 and χ (3) were found to be of the order of 10 −2  cm W −1 , 10 -5  esu and 10 −7  esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications. (paper)

10. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Garoui Nassreddine

2012-04-01

Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

11. The linkage of Zlib to Teapot for auto-differentiation map extraction and nonlinear analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sun, N.; Yan, Y.T.; Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

1993-05-01

The differential Lie algebraic numerical library, Zlib has been linked to Teapot, the accelerator simulator code. This makes possible the use of the operational correction features of Teapot to produce a corrected lattice, and then choose either map or thin element-by-element tracking for tracking studies. Thin-element tracking is more accurate but slower than map tracking; therefore, the option of choosing one or the other is very desirable

12. Clinical application of sentinel lymph node mapping in colon cancer: in vivo vs. ex vivo techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Oh, Seung Yeop; Kim, Do Yoon; Kim, Young Bae; Suh, Kwang Wook

2014-09-01

Clinical usefulness of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in colorectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN mapping technique using serial sectioning, and to compare the results between ex vivo and in vivo techniques. From February 2011 to October 2012, 34 colon cancer patients underwent SLN mapping during surgical resection. Eleven patients were analyzed with the in vivo method, and 23 patients with the ex vivo method. Patient characteristics and results of SLN mapping were evaluated. The SLN mapping was performed in 34 patients. Mean age was 67.3 years (range, 44-81 years). Primary tumors were located in the following sites: 13 in the right colon (38.2%) and 21 in the left colon (61.8%). SLN mapping was performed successfully in 88.2% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the identification rate between the two methods (90.9% vs. 87.0%, P = 1.000). Both the mapping methods showed a low sensitivity and high rate of skip metastasis. This study showed that SLN evaluation using serial sectioning could not predict the nodal status with clinically acceptable accuracy despite the high detection rate.

13. Towards automated statewide land cover mapping in Wisconsin using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosentino, B.L.; Lillesand, T.M.

1991-01-01

Attention is given to an initial research project being performed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Environmental Remote Sensing Center in conjunction with seven local, state, and federal agencies to implement automated statewide land cover mapping using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The basis, progress, and future research needs for this mapping program are presented. The research efforts are directed toward strategies that integrate satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in the generation of land cover data for multiple users of land cover information. The project objectives are to investigate methodologies that integrate satellite data with other imagery and spatial data resident in emerging GISs in the state for particular program needs, and to develop techniques that can improve automated land cover mapping efficiency and accuracy. 10 refs

14. An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yin Fucheng

2017-01-01

Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.

15. Mapping accuracy via spectrally and structurally based filtering techniques: comparisons through visual observations

Science.gov (United States)

Chockalingam, Letchumanan

2005-01-01

The data of Gunung Ledang region of Malaysia acquired through LANDSAT are considered to map certain hydrogeolocial features. To map these significant features, image-processing tools such as contrast enhancement, edge detection techniques are employed. The advantages of these techniques over the other methods are evaluated from the point of their validity in properly isolating features of hydrogeolocial interest are discussed. As these techniques take the advantage of spectral aspects of the images, these techniques have several limitations to meet the objectives. To discuss these limitations, a morphological transformation, which generally considers the structural aspects rather than spectral aspects from the image, are applied to provide comparisons between the results derived from spectral based and the structural based filtering techniques.

16. Digital Mapping Techniques '10-Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, May 16-19, 2010

Science.gov (United States)

Soller, David R.; Soller, David R.

2012-01-01

The Digital Mapping Techniques '10 (DMT'10) workshop was attended by 110 technical experts from 40 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 19 State geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop, hosted by the California Geological Survey, May 16-19, 2010, in Sacramento, California, was similar in nature to the previous 13 meetings (see Appendix B). The meeting was coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Geologic Map Database project. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure that I note that the objective was again successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized (1) methods for creating and publishing map products ("publishing" includes Web-based release); (2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LiDAR; (3) digital cartographic techniques; (4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; (5) analytical GIS techniques; and (6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

17. A New Numerical Technique for Solving Systems Of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mountassir Hamdi Cherif

2017-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we apply an efficient method called the Aboodh decomposition method to solve systems of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. This method is a combined form of Aboodh transform with Adomian decomposition method. The theoretical analysis of this investigated for systems of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations is calculated in the explicit form of a power series with easily computable terms. Some examples are given to shows that this method is very efficient and accurate. This method can be applied to solve others nonlinear systems problems.

18. Evaluation of Landslide Mapping Techniques and LiDAR-based Conditioning Factors

Science.gov (United States)

Mahalingam, R.; Olsen, M. J.

2014-12-01

Landslides are a major geohazard, which result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping can help communities to plan and prepare for these damaging events. Mapping landslide susceptible locations using GIS and remote sensing techniques is gaining popularity in the past three decades. These efforts use a wide variety of procedures and consider a wide range of factors. Unfortunately, each study is often completed differently and independently of others. Further, the quality of the datasets used varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, which can propagate errors or inconsistencies into the resulting output maps. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has proved to have higher accuracy in representing the continuous topographic surface, which can help minimize this uncertainty. The primary objectives of this paper are to investigate the applicability and performance of terrain factors in landslide hazard mapping, determine if LiDAR-derived datasets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index and compound topographic index) can be used for predictive mapping without data representing other common landslide conditioning factors, and evaluate the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using widely-used statistical approaches. The aforementioned factors were used to produce landslide susceptibility maps for a 140 km2 study area in northwest Oregon using six representative techniques: frequency ratio, weights of evidence, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, artificial neural network, and support vector machine. Most notably, the research showed an advantage in selecting fewer critical conditioning factors. The most reliable factors all could be derived from a single LiDAR DEM, reducing the need for laborious and costly data gathering. Most of the six techniques showed similar statistical results; however, ANN showed less accuracy for predictive mapping. Keywords : Li

19. IClinfMRI Software for Integrating Functional MRI Techniques in Presurgical Mapping and Clinical Studies.

Science.gov (United States)

Hsu, Ai-Ling; Hou, Ping; Johnson, Jason M; Wu, Changwei W; Noll, Kyle R; Prabhu, Sujit S; Ferguson, Sherise D; Kumar, Vinodh A; Schomer, Donald F; Hazle, John D; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Ho-Ling

2018-01-01

Task-evoked and resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have been applied to the clinical management of neurological diseases, exemplified by presurgical localization of eloquent cortex, to assist neurosurgeons in maximizing resection while preserving brain functions. In addition, recent studies have recommended incorporating cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) imaging into clinical fMRI to evaluate the risk of lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU). Although each of these imaging techniques possesses its own advantage for presurgical mapping, a specialized clinical software that integrates the three complementary techniques and promptly outputs the analyzed results to radiology and surgical navigation systems in a clinical format is still lacking. We developed the Integrated fMRI for Clinical Research (IClinfMRI) software to facilitate these needs. Beyond the independent processing of task-fMRI, rs-fMRI, and CVR mapping, IClinfMRI encompasses three unique functions: (1) supporting the interactive rs-fMRI mapping while visualizing task-fMRI results (or results from published meta-analysis) as a guidance map, (2) indicating/visualizing the NVU potential on analyzed fMRI maps, and (3) exporting these advanced mapping results in a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format that are ready to export to a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a surgical navigation system. In summary, IClinfMRI has the merits of efficiently translating and integrating state-of-the-art imaging techniques for presurgical functional mapping and clinical fMRI studies.

20. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

Science.gov (United States)

Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

2015-07-01

The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

1. Applying a nonlinear, pitch-catch, ultrasonic technique for the detection of kissing bonds in friction stir welds.

Science.gov (United States)

Delrue, Steven; Tabatabaeipour, Morteza; Hettler, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen

2016-05-01

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technology for the joining of aluminum alloys and other metallic admixtures that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. Although FSW generally provides better fatigue properties than traditional fusion welding methods, fatigue properties are still significantly lower than for the base material. Apart from voids, kissing bonds for instance, in the form of closed cracks propagating along the interface of the stirred and heat affected zone, are inherent features of the weld and can be considered as one of the main causes of a reduced fatigue life of FSW in comparison to the base material. The main problem with kissing bond defects in FSW, is that they currently are very difficult to detect using existing NDT methods. Besides, in most cases, the defects are not directly accessible from the exposed surface. Therefore, new techniques capable of detecting small kissing bond flaws need to be introduced. In the present paper, a novel and practical approach is introduced based on a nonlinear, single-sided, ultrasonic technique. The proposed inspection technique uses two single element transducers, with the first transducer transmitting an ultrasonic signal that focuses the ultrasonic waves at the bottom side of the sample where cracks are most likely to occur. The large amount of energy at the focus activates the kissing bond, resulting in the generation of nonlinear features in the wave propagation. These nonlinear features are then captured by the second transducer operating in pitch-catch mode, and are analyzed, using pulse inversion, to reveal the presence of a defect. The performance of the proposed nonlinear, pitch-catch technique, is first illustrated using a numerical study of an aluminum sample containing simple, vertically oriented, incipient cracks. Later, the proposed technique is also applied experimentally on a real-life friction stir welded butt joint containing a kissing bond flaw. Copyright © 2016

2. Nonlinear time reversal signal processing techniques applied to acousto-mechanical imaging of complex materials

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Dos Santos, S.; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Caliez, M.; Převorovský, Zdeněk

2015-01-01

Roč. 138, č. 3 (2015) ISSN 0001-4966 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acousto-mechanical characterization of skin aging * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * PM-space statistical approach Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

3. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, M.

2014-01-01

Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each grid node form a

4. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: ishida-mk@n-koei.jp [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2014-11-15

Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

5. Mapping nonlinear shallow-water tides: a look at the past and future

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Egbert, G.D.; Erofeeva, S.Y.

2006-01-01

advanced by the pioneering researches of Christian Le Provost who employed analytical theory, physical modeling, and numerical modeling in many extensive studies, especially of the tides of the English Channel. Le Provost's complementary work with satellite altimetry motivates our attempts to merge...... these two interests. After a brief review, we describe initial steps toward the assimilation of altimetry into models of nonlinear tides via generalized inverse methods. A series of barotropic inverse solutions is computed for the M-4 tide over the northwest European Shelf. Future applications of altimetry...

6. 2D Presentation Techniques of Mind-maps for Blind Meeting Participants.

Science.gov (United States)

Pölzer, Stephan; Miesenberger, Klaus

2015-01-01

Mind-maps, used as ideation technique in co-located meetings (e.g. in brainstorming sessions), which meet with increased importance in business and education, show considerably accessibility challenges for blind meeting participants. Besides an overview of general aspects of accessibility issues in co-located meetings, this paper focuses on the design and development of alternative non-visual presentation techniques for mind-maps. The different aspects of serialized presentation techniques (e.g. treeview) for Braille and audio rendering and two dimensional presentation techniques (e.g. tactile two dimensional array matrix and edge-projection method [1]) are discussed based on the user feedback gathered in intermediate tests following a user centered design approach.

7. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

1981-01-01

The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

8. A conjugate gradients/trust regions algorithms for training multilayer perceptrons for nonlinear mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Madyastha, Raghavendra K.; Aazhang, Behnaam; Henson, Troy F.; Huxhold, Wendy L.

1992-01-01

This paper addresses the issue of applying a globally convergent optimization algorithm to the training of multilayer perceptrons, a class of Artificial Neural Networks. The multilayer perceptrons are trained towards the solution of two highly nonlinear problems: (1) signal detection in a multi-user communication network, and (2) solving the inverse kinematics for a robotic manipulator. The research is motivated by the fact that a multilayer perceptron is theoretically capable of approximating any nonlinear function to within a specified accuracy. The algorithm that has been employed in this study combines the merits of two well known optimization algorithms, the Conjugate Gradients and the Trust Regions Algorithms. The performance is compared to a widely used algorithm, the Backpropagation Algorithm, that is basically a gradient-based algorithm, and hence, slow in converging. The performances of the two algorithms are compared with the convergence rate. Furthermore, in the case of the signal detection problem, performances are also benchmarked by the decision boundaries drawn as well as the probability of error obtained in either case.

9. The Effect of Mnemonic and Mapping Techniques on L2 Vocabulary Learning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Abbas Ali Zarei

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of selected presentation techniques including the keyword method, the peg word method, the loci method, argument mapping, concept mapping and mind mapping on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. To this end, a sample of 151 Iranian female students from a public pre-university school in Islam Shahr was selected. They were assigned to six groups. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the afore-mentioned treatment conditions. After the experimental period, two post-tests in multiple choice and fill-in-the-blanks formats were administered to assess the participants’ vocabulary comprehension and production. Two independent One-Way ANOVA procedures were used to analyze the obtained data. The results showed that the differences among the effects of the above-mentioned techniques were statistically significant in both vocabulary comprehension and production. These findings can have implications for learners, teachers, and materials’ developers.

10. Non-Linear Optical Studies On Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals Using Z-Scan Technique

OpenAIRE

Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Toms, Roseleena; Nampoori, VP N; Radhakrishnan, P

2014-01-01

In this paper we report the preparation, optical characterization and non linear optical behavior of pure lead chloride crystals. Lead chloride samples subjected to UV and IR irradiation and electric and magnetic fields have also been investigated Optical nonlinearity in these lead chloride samples were determined using single beam and high sensitive Z-scan technique. Non linear optical studies of these materials in single distilled water show reverse saturable absorption which makes th...

11. A technique for determining the deuterium/hydrogen contrast map in neutron macromolecular crystallography.

Science.gov (United States)

Chatake, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Satoru

2016-01-01

A difference in the neutron scattering length between hydrogen and deuterium leads to a high density contrast in neutron Fourier maps. In this study, a technique for determining the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) contrast map in neutron macromolecular crystallography is developed and evaluated using ribonuclease A. The contrast map between the D2O-solvent and H2O-solvent crystals is calculated in real space, rather than in reciprocal space as performed in previous neutron D/H contrast crystallography. The present technique can thus utilize all of the amplitudes of the neutron structure factors for both D2O-solvent and H2O-solvent crystals. The neutron D/H contrast maps clearly demonstrate the powerful detectability of H/D exchange in proteins. In fact, alternative protonation states and alternative conformations of hydroxyl groups are observed at medium resolution (1.8 Å). Moreover, water molecules can be categorized into three types according to their tendency towards rotational disorder. These results directly indicate improvement in the neutron crystal structure analysis. This technique is suitable for incorporation into the standard structure-determination process used in neutron protein crystallography; consequently, more precise and efficient determination of the D-atom positions is possible using a combination of this D/H contrast technique and standard neutron structure-determination protocols.

12. Information Landscaping: Information Mapping, Charting, Querying and Reporting Techniques for Total Quality Knowledge Management.

Science.gov (United States)

Tsai, Bor-sheng

2003-01-01

Total quality management and knowledge management are merged and used as a conceptual model to direct and develop information landscaping techniques through the coordination of information mapping, charting, querying, and reporting. Goals included: merge citation analysis and data mining, and apply data visualization and information architecture…

13. Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

NARCIS (Netherlands)

T.V. Tran; S. Brisset; D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P. Brochet

2007-01-01

textabstractSpace-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore

14. Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding – Initial Studies Using a Space Mapping Technique

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher

2007-01-01

The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process. The optimization is performed using a space mapping technique in which an analytical model is used along with the FEM model to be optimized. The results are compared to traditional gradient based optimization...

15. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

2007-01-01

The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive

16. Hybrid image classification technique for land-cover mapping in the Arctic tundra, North Slope, Alaska

Science.gov (United States)

Chaudhuri, Debasish

Remotely sensed image classification techniques are very useful to understand vegetation patterns and species combination in the vast and mostly inaccessible arctic region. Previous researches that were done for mapping of land cover and vegetation in the remote areas of northern Alaska have considerably low accuracies compared to other biomes. The unique arctic tundra environment with short growing season length, cloud cover, low sun angles, snow and ice cover hinders the effectiveness of remote sensing studies. The majority of image classification research done in this area as reported in the literature used traditional unsupervised clustering technique with Landsat MSS data. It was also emphasized by previous researchers that SPOT/HRV-XS data lacked the spectral resolution to identify the small arctic tundra vegetation parcels. Thus, there is a motivation and research need to apply a new classification technique to develop an updated, detailed and accurate vegetation map at a higher spatial resolution i.e. SPOT-5 data. Traditional classification techniques in remotely sensed image interpretation are based on spectral reflectance values with an assumption of the training data being normally distributed. Hence it is difficult to add ancillary data in classification procedures to improve accuracy. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a hybrid image classification approach that effectively integrates ancillary information into the classification process and combines ISODATA clustering, rule-based classifier and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier which uses artificial neural network (ANN). The main goal was to find out the best possible combination or sequence of classifiers for typically classifying tundra type vegetation that yields higher accuracy than the existing classified vegetation map from SPOT data. Unsupervised ISODATA clustering and rule-based classification techniques were combined to produce an intermediate classified map which was

17. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Talman, R.

1988-06-01

Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

18. A new technique in constructing closed-form solutions for nonlinear PDEs appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Panayotounakos D. E.

1996-01-01

Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.

19. Application of numerical optimization techniques to control system design for nonlinear dynamic models of aircraft

Science.gov (United States)

Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fuying

1989-01-01

Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. The general flight dynamic equations are numerically integrated and dynamic characteristics are then identified from the dynamic response. The design variables are determined iteratively by the optimizer to optimize a prescribed objective function which is related to desired dynamic characteristics. Generality of the method allows nonlinear effects to aerodynamics and dynamic coupling to be considered in the design process. To demonstrate the method, nonlinear simulation models for an F-5A and an F-16 configurations are used to design dampers to satisfy specifications on flying qualities and control systems to prevent departure. The results indicate that the present method is simple in formulation and effective in satisfying the design objectives.

20. Investigation on imperfection sensitivity of composite cylindrical shells using the nonlinearity reduction technique and the polynomial chaos method

Science.gov (United States)

Liang, Ke; Sun, Qin; Liu, Xiaoran

2018-05-01

The theoretical buckling load of a perfect cylinder must be reduced by a knock-down factor to account for structural imperfections. The EU project DESICOS proposed a new robust design for imperfection-sensitive composite cylindrical shells using the combination of deterministic and stochastic simulations, however the high computational complexity seriously affects its wider application in aerospace structures design. In this paper, the nonlinearity reduction technique and the polynomial chaos method are implemented into the robust design process, to significantly lower computational costs. The modified Newton-type Koiter-Newton approach which largely reduces the number of degrees of freedom in the nonlinear finite element model, serves as the nonlinear buckling solver to trace the equilibrium paths of geometrically nonlinear structures efficiently. The non-intrusive polynomial chaos method provides the buckling load with an approximate chaos response surface with respect to imperfections and uses buckling solver codes as black boxes. A fast large-sample study can be applied using the approximate chaos response surface to achieve probability characteristics of buckling loads. The performance of the method in terms of reliability, accuracy and computational effort is demonstrated with an unstiffened CFRP cylinder.

1. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schiavone, G; Murray, J; Smith, S; Walton, A J; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mount, A R

2016-01-01

The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements. (paper)

2. Parametric techniques for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 1): T1 mapping.

Science.gov (United States)

Perea Palazón, R J; Ortiz Pérez, J T; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Solé Arqués, M

2016-01-01

The development of myocardial fibrosis is a common process in the appearance of ventricular dysfunction in many heart diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to accurately evaluate the structure and function of the heart, and its role in the macroscopic characterization of myocardial fibrosis by late enhancement techniques has been widely validated clinically. Recent studies have demonstrated that T1-mapping techniques can quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis and the expansion of the myocardial extracellular space in absolute terms. However, further studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of this technique in the early detection of tissue remodeling at a time when implementing early treatment would improve a patient's prognosis. This article reviews the state of the art for T1 mapping of the myocardium, its clinical applications, and its limitations. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

3. Evaluation of mesh morphing and mapping techniques in patient specific modeling of the human pelvis.

Science.gov (United States)

Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Whyne, Cari Marisa

2013-01-01

Robust generation of pelvic finite element models is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical behaviour resulting from differences in gender, aging, disease and injury. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate mesh morphing and mapping techniques to facilitate the creation and structural analysis of specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of the pelvis. A specimen-specific pelvic FE model (source mesh) was generated following a traditional user-intensive meshing scheme. The source mesh was morphed onto a computed tomography scan generated target surface of a second pelvis using a landmarked-based approach, in which exterior source nodes were shifted to target surface vertices, while constrained along a normal. A second copy of the morphed model was further refined through mesh mapping, in which surface nodes of the initial morphed model were selected in patches and remapped onto the surfaces of the target model. Computed tomography intensity based material properties were assigned to each model. The source, target, morphed and mapped models were analyzed under axial compression using linear static FE analysis and their strain distributions evaluated. Morphing and mapping techniques were effectively applied to generate good quality geometrically complex specimen-specific pelvic FE models. Mapping significantly improved strain concurrence with the target pelvis FE model. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4. Evaluation of mesh morphing and mapping techniques in patient specific modelling of the human pelvis.

Science.gov (United States)

Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Whyne, Cari Marisa

2012-08-01

Robust generation of pelvic finite element models is necessary to understand variation in mechanical behaviour resulting from differences in gender, aging, disease and injury. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate mesh morphing and mapping techniques to facilitate the creation and structural analysis of specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of the pelvis. A specimen-specific pelvic FE model (source mesh) was generated following a traditional user-intensive meshing scheme. The source mesh was morphed onto a computed tomography scan generated target surface of a second pelvis using a landmarked-based approach, in which exterior source nodes were shifted to target surface vertices, while constrained along a normal. A second copy of the morphed model was further refined through mesh mapping, in which surface nodes of the initial morphed model were selected in patches and remapped onto the surfaces of the target model. Computed tomography intensity-based material properties were assigned to each model. The source, target, morphed and mapped models were analyzed under axial compression using linear static FE analysis, and their strain distributions were evaluated. Morphing and mapping techniques were effectively applied to generate good quality and geometrically complex specimen-specific pelvic FE models. Mapping significantly improved strain concurrence with the target pelvis FE model. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

5. Convergence theorems for a class of nonlinear maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

1992-05-01

Let K be a nonempty closed and convex subset of a real uniformly smooth Banach space, E, with modulus of smoothness of power type q>1. Let T be a mapping of K into itself, T is an element of C (in the notion of Browder and Petryshyn; and Rhoades). It is proved that the Mann iteration process, under suitable conditions, converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. If K is also bounded, then the Ishikawa iteration process converges to the fixed point of T. While our theorems generalize important known results, our method is also of independent interest. (author). 14 refs

6. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

Science.gov (United States)

Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

2010-01-01

Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

7. Digital Mapping Techniques '05--Workshop Proceedings, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, April 24-27, 2005

Science.gov (United States)

Soller, David R.

2005-01-01

Intorduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '05 (DMT'05) workshop was attended by more than 100 technical experts from 47 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 25 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the previous eight meetings, held in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998), in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999), in Lexington, Kentucky (Soller, 2000), in Tuscaloosa, Alabama (Soller, 2001), in Salt Lake City, Utah (Soller, 2002), in Millersville, Pennsylvania (Soller, 2003), and in Portland, Oregon (Soller, 2004). This year's meeting was hosted by the Louisiana Geological Survey, from April 24-27, 2005, on the Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure I note that the objective was successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and to renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Capture Working Group, which was formed in August 1996, to support the AASG and the USGS in their effort to build a National Geologic Map Database (see Soller and Berg, this volume, and http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/info/standards/datacapt/). The Working Group was formed because increased production efficiencies, standardization, and quality of digital map products were needed for the database?and for the State and Federal geological surveys?to provide more high-quality digital maps to the public. At the 2005 meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) field data capture software and

8. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

2000-01-01

New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

9. Topsoil moisture mapping using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions.

Science.gov (United States)

Martínez-Murillo, J F; Hueso-González, P; Ruiz-Sinoga, J D

2017-10-01

Soil mapping has been considered as an important factor in the widening of Soil Science and giving response to many different environmental questions. Geostatistical techniques, through kriging and co-kriging techniques, have made possible to improve the understanding of eco-geomorphologic variables, e.g., soil moisture. This study is focused on mapping of topsoil moisture using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions (humid, dry and semiarid) in three small watersheds and considering topography and soil properties as key factors. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a resolution of 1×1m was derived from a topographical survey as well as soils were sampled to analyzed soil properties controlling topsoil moisture, which was measured during 4-years. Afterwards, some topography attributes were derived from the DEM, the soil properties analyzed in laboratory, and the topsoil moisture was modeled for the entire watersheds applying three geostatistical techniques: i) ordinary kriging; ii) co-kriging considering as co-variate topography attributes; and iii) co-kriging ta considering as co-variates topography attributes and gravel content. The results indicated topsoil moisture was more accurately mapped in the dry and semiarid watersheds when co-kriging procedure was performed. The study is a contribution to improve the efficiency and accuracy of studies about the Mediterranean eco-geomorphologic system and soil hydrology in field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

10. Digital mapping techniques '00, workshop proceedings - May 17-20, 2000, Lexington, Kentucky

Science.gov (United States)

Soller, David R.

2000-01-01

Introduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '00 (DMT'00) workshop was attended by 99 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 28 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the first three meetings, held in June, 1997, in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in May, 1998, in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998a), and in May, 1999, in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999). This year's meeting was hosted by the Kentucky Geological Survey, from May 17 to 20, 2000, on the University of Kentucky campus in Lexington. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. When, based on discussions at the workshop, an attendee adopts or modifies a newly learned technique, the workshop clearly has met that objective. Evidence of learning and cooperation among participating agencies continued to be a highlight of the DMT workshops (see example in Soller, 1998b, and various papers in this volume). The meeting's general goal was to help move the state geological surveys and the USGS toward development of more cost-effective, flexible, and useful systems for digital mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis. Through oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions, emphasis was given to: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database; 3) progress toward building a standard geologic map data model; 4) field data-collection systems; and 5) map citation and authorship guidelines. Four representatives of the GIS hardware and software vendor community were invited to participate. The four annual DMT workshops were coordinated by the AASG/USGS Data Capture Working Group, which was formed in August, 1996, to support the Association of American State Geologists and the USGS in their effort

11. Clitoral Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Resection With Intraoperative Sensory Nerve Mapping Technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Cindy; Damitz, Lynn; Karrat, Kimberly M; Mintz, Alice; Zolnoun, Denniz

2016-01-01

Despite the ever increasing popularity of labial and clitoral surgeries, the best practices and long-term effects of reconstructive procedures in these regions remain unknown. This is particularly noteworthy because the presentation of nerve-related symptoms may be delayed up to a year. Despite the convention that these surgical procedures are low risk, little is known about the best practices that may reduce the postoperative complications as a result of these reconstructive surgeries. We describe a preoperative sensory mapping technique in the context of a symptomatic inclusion cyst in the clitoral region. This technique delineates anatomical and functional regions innervated by the dorsal clitoral nerve while minimizing the vascular watershed area in the midline. A prototypical case of a patient with a clitoral mass is discussed with clinical history and surgical approach. Prior to surgical excision, the dorsal clitoral nerve distribution was mapped in order to avoid a surgical incision in this sensual zone. In our practice, preoperative sensory mapping is a clinically useful planning tool that requires minimal instrumentation and no additional operating time. Sensory mapping allows identification of the functional zone innervated by the dorsal clitoral nerve, which can aid in minimizing damage to the area.

12. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran.

Science.gov (United States)

Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

2014-01-01

High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerman province in Iran using flood zone mapping techniques. The intended flood zone map was introduced in four steps. Steps 1 to 3 pave the way to calculate and estimate flood zone map in the understudy area while step 4 determines the estimation of environmental effects of flood occurrence. Based on our studies, wide range of accuracy for estimating the environmental effects of flood occurrence was introduced by using of flood zone mapping techniques. Moreover, it was identified that the existence of Jiroft dam in the study area can decrease flood zone from 260 hectares to 225 hectares and also it can decrease 20% of flood peak intensity. As a result, 14% of flood zone in the study area can be saved environmentally.

13. Myocardial T1 and T2 mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Pan Ki; Hong, Yoo Jin; Im, Dong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

2017-01-15

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis. In this study, we have reviewed various T1 and T2 mapping sequence techniques and their clinical applications.

14. Southern European ionospheric TEC maps based on Kriging technique to monitor ionosphere behavior

Science.gov (United States)

2017-10-01

Global or regional Maps of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) are an efficient tool to monitor the delay introduced by the ionosphere in the satellite signals. Ionospheric disturbance periods are of particular interest because these conditions can strongly affect satellite navigation range measurements. This work presents post-processing regional vertical TEC maps over Southern Europe ([35°N-50°N] latitude) obtained by applying Kriging interpolation to GPS derived TEC over more than 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. These maps are used to study the behavior of the ionosphere during space weather events and their effects. To validate these maps, hereafter called Southern European Ionospheric Maps (SEIMs), their TEC values have been compared with those obtained from EGNOS Message Server (EMS) and with direct experimental TEC data from GNSS stations. Ionospheric space weather events related to geomagnetic storms of March 17th, 2013, February 19th, 2014 and March 17th, 2015 have been selected. To test the methodology, one period of quiet days has been also analyzed. TEC values obtained by SEIMs in the Ionospheric Grid Points (IGPs) defined by EGNOS are very close to those given by EMS and in the period of major geomagnetic storms the difference does not exceed 6 TEC units. These results confirm the good performance of the technique used for obtaining the SEIMs that can be a useful tool to study the ionosphere behavior during geomagnetic storms and their effects in the region of interest.

15. Nonlinear optimal filter technique for analyzing energy depositions in TES sensors driven into saturation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. Shank

2014-11-01

Full Text Available We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs connected to quasiparticle (qp traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

16. Nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates: physical relevance and mathematical techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carretero-González, R; Frantzeskakis, D J; Kevrekidis, P G

2008-01-01

The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to some of the physical notions and the mathematical methods that are relevant to the study of nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Upon introducing the general framework, we discuss the prototypical models that are relevant to this setting for different dimensions and different potentials confining the atoms. We analyse some of the model properties and explore their typical wave solutions (plane wave solutions, bright, dark, gap solitons as well as vortices). We then offer a collection of mathematical methods that can be used to understand the existence, stability and dynamics of nonlinear waves in such BECs, either directly or starting from different types of limits (e.g. the linear or the nonlinear limit or the discrete limit of the corresponding equation). Finally, we consider some special topics involving more recent developments, and experimental setups in which there is still considerable need for developing mathematical as well as computational tools. (invited article)

17. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

OpenAIRE

Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

2007-01-01

The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive measurements with the TRAC instrument were conducted to produce mainly the element clumping index. The aim of the study was to compare the performances of LAI-2000 and DHP and to evaluate effect of...

18. Phase-mapping technique for the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by MR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engels, G.; Mueller, E.; Reynen, K.; Wilke, N.; Bachmann, K.

1992-01-01

New MR-techniques for quantitative blood flow registration such as phase-mapping (a two-dimensional space-resolved technique with a time-averaged measurement of blood flow) or RACE (real-time acquisition and evaluation of blood flow in one-dimensional space projection) are available for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease. Initial results of grading aortic valve stenosis by these methods are shown in comparison to continuous wave Ultrasound-Doppler. Two groups of 15 patients were examined by RACE or phase-mapping, 12 respectively 8 of whom suffered from an aortic valve stenosis. The shape of blood flow profiles as well as grading of aortic valve stenosis show high concordance when comparing the results of MR and Doppler technique. Good reliability and practicability of the demonstrated MR-method are shown. With respect to the results of RACE and phase-mapping the development of an alternative and competing MR-method for the evaluation of valvular heart disease and shunt diagnostics seems possible. (orig.)

19. Phase-mapping technique for the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by MR

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Engels, G. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Mueller, E. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Reynen, K. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Wilke, N. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Bachmann, K. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany)

1992-08-01

New MR-techniques for quantitative blood flow registration such as phase-mapping (a two-dimensional space-resolved technique with a time-averaged measurement of blood flow) or RACE (real-time acquisition and evaluation of blood flow in one-dimensional space projection) are available for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease. Initial results of grading aortic valve stenosis by these methods are shown in comparison to continuous wave Ultrasound-Doppler. Two groups of 15 patients were examined by RACE or phase-mapping, 12 respectively 8 of whom suffered from an aortic valve stenosis. The shape of blood flow profiles as well as grading of aortic valve stenosis show high concordance when comparing the results of MR and Doppler technique. Good reliability and practicability of the demonstrated MR-method are shown. With respect to the results of RACE and phase-mapping the development of an alternative and competing MR-method for the evaluation of valvular heart disease and shunt diagnostics seems possible. (orig.)

20. Efficient sampling techniques for uncertainty quantification in history matching using nonlinear error models and ensemble level upscaling techniques

KAUST Repository

Efendiev, Y.

2009-11-01

The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a rigorous sampling method to quantify uncertainty in subsurface characterization. However, the MCMC usually requires many flow and transport simulations in evaluating the posterior distribution and can be computationally expensive for fine-scale geological models. We propose a methodology that combines coarse- and fine-scale information to improve the efficiency of MCMC methods. The proposed method employs off-line computations for modeling the relation between coarse- and fine-scale error responses. This relation is modeled using nonlinear functions with prescribed error precisions which are used in efficient sampling within the MCMC framework. We propose a two-stage MCMC where inexpensive coarse-scale simulations are performed to determine whether or not to run the fine-scale (resolved) simulations. The latter is determined on the basis of a statistical model developed off line. The proposed method is an extension of the approaches considered earlier where linear relations are used for modeling the response between coarse-scale and fine-scale models. The approach considered here does not rely on the proximity of approximate and resolved models and can employ much coarser and more inexpensive models to guide the fine-scale simulations. Numerical results for three-phase flow and transport demonstrate the advantages, efficiency, and utility of the method for uncertainty assessment in the history matching. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

1. Part I: nonlinear analysis of three coupled Josephson junctions. Part II. general bond-to-site mapping in aggregation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strenski, P.N.

1985-01-01

The first part of this thesis deals with the analysis of a small array of Josephson junctions, superconducting devices of markedly nonlinear behavior. The components of the array are modeled as resistively-shunted junctions and are driven by direct current. A chapter is provided that reviews the validity and features of such a model for the case of a single junction. This chapter also includes background information on the subjects of bifurcation, chaos, and fractals. In the following chapters, the array of three junctions is studied, first with one driving current and later with an additional bias current. The analysis includes both numerical results from computer simulations and analytic computations using a perturbative approach. The two approaches are shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the array is dominated by hysteresis effects. The second part of the thesis describes an exact bound-to-site transformation for diffusion-limited aggregation. A review is provided that summarizes the field of aggregation and demonstrates the need for such exact results. The equivalence maps a class of partial adhesion problems on arbitrary lattices to absolute adhesion problems on transformed lattices. Examples are given for diffusion in the presence and absence of an external field

2. Cardiac-driven Pulsatile Motion of Intracranial Cerebrospinal Fluid Visualized Based on a Correlation Mapping Technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Sunohara, Saeko; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Atsumi, Hideki; Kuroda, Kagayaki

2018-04-10

A correlation mapping technique delineating delay time and maximum correlation for characterizing pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) propagation was proposed. After proofing its technical concept, this technique was applied to healthy volunteers and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. A time-resolved three dimensional-phase contrast (3D-PC) sampled the cardiac-driven CSF velocity at 32 temporal points per cardiac period at each spatial location using retrospective cardiac gating. The proposed technique visualized distributions of propagation delay and correlation coefficient of the PC-based CSF velocity waveform with reference to a waveform at a particular point in the CSF space. The delay time was obtained as the amount of time-shift, giving the maximum correlation for the velocity waveform at an arbitrary location with that at the reference location. The validity and accuracy of the technique were confirmed in a flow phantom equipped with a cardiovascular pump. The technique was then applied to evaluate the intracranial CSF motions in young, healthy (N = 13), and elderly, healthy (N = 13) volunteers and iNPH patients (N = 13). The phantom study demonstrated that root mean square error of the delay time was 2.27%, which was less than the temporal resolution of PC measurement used in this study (3.13% of a cardiac cycle). The human studies showed a significant difference (P correlation coefficient between the young, healthy group and the other two groups. A significant difference (P correlation coefficients in intracranial CSF space among all groups. The result suggests that the CSF space compliance of iNPH patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. The correlation mapping technique allowed us to visualize pulsatile CSF velocity wave propagations as still images. The technique may help to classify diseases related to CSF dynamics, such as iNPH.

3. Investigating Nonlinear Shoreline Multiperiod Change from Orthophoto Map Information by Using a Neural Network Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tienfuan Kerh

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The effects of extreme weather and overdevelopment may cause some coastal areas to exhibit erosion problems, which in turn may contribute to creating disasters of varying scale, particularly in regions comprising islands. This study used aerial survey information from three periods (1990, 2001, and 2010 and used graphical software to establish the spatial data of six beaches surrounding the island of Taiwan. An overlaying technique was then implemented to compare the sandy area of each beach in the aforementioned study periods. In addition, an artificial neural network model was developed based on available digitised coordinates for predicting coastline variation for 2015 and 2020. An onsite investigation was performed using a global positioning system for comparing the beaches. The results revealed that two beaches from this study may have experienced significant changes in total sandy areas under a statistical 95% confidence interval. The proposed method and the result of this study may provide a valuable reference in follow-up research and applications.

4. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

2003-01-01

The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...

5. Heterogeneous corrosion of mild steel under SRB-biofilm characterised by electrochemical mapping technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dong Zehua; Shi Wei; Ruan Hongmei; Zhang Guoan

2011-01-01

Highlights: → Highly conductive SRB-biofilm can shield the potential differences of mild steel. → Potential maps fail to indicate the localised corrosion of steel under SRB-biofilm. → Galvanic current maps can detect the location of localised corrosion under biofilm. → SRB-biofilm is super-capacitive due to the conductive sulphide micropores. - Abstract: Heterogeneous corrosion of mild steel under sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB)-biofilm was characterised by wire beam electrode (WBE) technique and electrochemical impedance spectrum. The potential/current distributions of the WBE under SRB-biofilm showed that the potential maps could not indicate the localised corrosion of steels beneath biofilm due to the fact that all wire electrodes were short-circuited by the highly conductive sulphide precipitates embedded in SRB-biofilm. Instead, the galvanic current maps may give a good indication. The characteristic of super-capacitance (0.21 F/cm 2 ) of SRB-biofilm was attributed to the huge specific surface area of conductive pore walls inside biofilm.

6. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kamarulzaman Kamarudin

2014-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS. The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect’s depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

7. Novel techniques of real-time blood flow and functional mapping: technical note.

Science.gov (United States)

Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Masato; Tamura, Yukie; Anei, Ryogo; Kapeller, Christoph; Hayashi, Hideaki; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

2014-01-01

There are two main approaches to intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgery. One approach is related to fluorescent phenomena and the other is related to oscillatory neuronal activity. We developed novel techniques to visualize blood flow (BF) conditions in real time, based on indocyanine green videography (ICG-VG) and the electrophysiological phenomenon of high gamma activity (HGA). We investigated the use of ICG-VG in four patients with moyamoya disease and two with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and we investigated the use of real-time HGA mapping in four patients with brain tumors who underwent lesion resection with awake craniotomy. Real-time data processing of ICG-VG was based on perfusion imaging, which generated parameters including arrival time (AT), mean transit time (MTT), and BF of brain surface vessels. During awake craniotomy, we analyzed the frequency components of brain oscillation and performed real-time HGA mapping to identify functional areas. Processed results were projected on a wireless monitor linked to the operating microscope. After revascularization for moyamoya disease, AT and BF were significantly shortened and increased, respectively, suggesting hyperperfusion. Real-time fusion images on the wireless monitor provided anatomical, BF, and functional information simultaneously, and allowed the resection of AVMs under the microscope. Real-time HGA mapping during awake craniotomy rapidly indicated the eloquent areas of motor and language function and significantly shortened the operation time. These novel techniques, which we introduced might improve the reliability of intraoperative monitoring and enable the development of rational and objective surgical strategies.

8. Respiratory lung motion analysis using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated lung perfusion SPECT images

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ue, Hidenori; Haneishi, Hideaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Suga, Kazuyoshi

2007-01-01

This study evaluated the respiratory motion of lungs using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The motion correction technique corrects the respiratory motion of the lungs nonlinearly between two-phase images obtained by respiratory-gated SPECT. The displacement vectors resulting from respiration can be computed at every location of the lungs. Respiratory lung motion analysis is carried out by calculating the mean value of the body axis component of the displacement vector in each of the 12 small regions into which the lungs were divided. In order to enable inter-patient comparison, the 12 mean values were normalized by the length of the lung region along the direction of the body axis. This method was applied to 25 Technetium (Tc)-99m-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion SPECT images, and motion analysis results were compared with the diagnostic results. It was confirmed that the respiratory lung motion reflects the ventilation function. A statistically significant difference in the amount of the respiratory lung motion was observed between the obstructive pulmonary diseases and other conditions, based on an unpaired Student's t test (P<0.0001). A difference in the motion between normal lungs and lungs with a ventilation obstruction was detected by the proposed method. This method is effective for evaluating obstructive pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

9. Mixed Models and Reduction Techniques for Large-Rotation, Nonlinear Analysis of Shells of Revolution with Application to Tires

Science.gov (United States)

Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, J. A.

1984-01-01

An effective computational strategy is presented for the large-rotation, nonlinear axisymmetric analysis of shells of revolution. The three key elements of the computational strategy are: (1) use of mixed finite-element models with discontinuous stress resultants at the element interfaces; (2) substantial reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom through the use of a multiple-parameter reduction technique; and (3) reduction in the size of the analysis model through the decomposition of asymmetric loads into symmetric and antisymmetric components coupled with the use of the multiple-parameter reduction technique. The potential of the proposed computational strategy is discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy of the mixed models developed and to show the potential of using the proposed computational strategy for the analysis of tires.

10. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

2016-01-01

This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

11. Numeric treatment of nonlinear second order multi-point boundary value problems using ANN, GAs and sequential quadratic programming technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zulqurnain Sabir

2014-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper, computational intelligence technique are presented for solving multi-point nonlinear boundary value problems based on artificial neural networks, evolutionary computing approach, and active-set technique. The neural network is to provide convenient methods for obtaining useful model based on unsupervised error for the differential equations. The motivation for presenting this work comes actually from the aim of introducing a reliable framework that combines the powerful features of ANN optimized with soft computing frameworks to cope with such challenging system. The applicability and reliability of such methods have been monitored thoroughly for various boundary value problems arises in science, engineering and biotechnology as well. Comprehensive numerical experimentations have been performed to validate the accuracy, convergence, and robustness of the designed scheme. Comparative studies have also been made with available standard solution to analyze the correctness of the proposed scheme.

12. Path integration guided with a quality map for shape reconstruction in the fringe reflection technique

Science.gov (United States)

Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Wen, Yongfu

2018-04-01

A new local integration algorithm called quality map path integration (QMPI) is reported for shape reconstruction in the fringe reflection technique. A quality map is proposed to evaluate the quality of gradient data locally, and functions as a guideline for the integrated path. The presented method can be employed in wavefront estimation from its slopes over the general shaped surface with slope noise equivalent to that in practical measurements. Moreover, QMPI is much better at handling the slope data with local noise, which may be caused by the irregular shapes of the surface under test. The performance of QMPI is discussed by simulations and experiment. It is shown that QMPI not only improves the accuracy of local integration, but can also be easily implemented with no iteration compared to Southwell zonal reconstruction (SZR). From an engineering point-of-view, the proposed method may also provide an efficient and stable approach for different shapes with high-precise demand.

13. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Goal Programming Technique for Solving Non-Linear Multi-objective Structural Problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Samir Dey

2015-07-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multi-objective intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach to solve a multi-objective nonlinear programming problem in context of a structural design. Here we describe some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy optimization. We have considered a multi-objective structural optimization problem with several mutually conflicting objectives. The design objective is to minimize weight of the structure and minimize the vertical deflection at loading point of a statistically loaded three-bar planar truss subjected to stress constraints on each of the truss members. This approach is used to solve the above structural optimization model based on arithmetic mean and compare with the solution by intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach. A numerical solution is given to illustrate our approach.

14. Betatron tomography with the use of non-linear backprojection techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baranov, V.A.; Temnik, A.K.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Chekalin, A.S.

1995-01-01

The testing of heavy components under non-steady-state condition (at erection and building sites, at jigs, for testing of welded joints and valving of oil and gas pipelines, power and boiler plants repair, building construction and for testing of castings and welded joints of large thickness) traditionally belongs to most pressing NDT problems. One of essential prerequisites for success at this point was the elaboration of appropriate high energy radiation sources, in particular small size pulse betatrons like MIB-4 and MIB-6 with the energy 4 and 6 MeV. Now, taking into account the new possibilities of tomography, the adaptation of fresh methods of cross-sectional visualisation (like non-linear tomosynthesis) to this conventional problem-solving area is of special interest. (orig./RHM)

15. Feedback control linear, nonlinear and robust techniques and design with industrial applications

CERN Document Server

Dodds, Stephen J

2015-01-01

This book develops the understanding and skills needed to be able to tackle original control problems. The general approach to a given control problem is to try the simplest tentative solution first and, when this is insufficient, to explain why and use a more sophisticated alternative to remedy the deficiency and achieve satisfactory performance. This pattern of working gives readers a full understanding of different controllers and teaches them to make an informed choice between traditional controllers and more advanced modern alternatives in meeting the needs of a particular plant. Attention is focused on the time domain, covering model-based linear and nonlinear forms of control together with robust control based on sliding modes and the use of state observers such as disturbance estimation. Feedback Control is self-contained, paying much attention to explanations of underlying concepts, with detailed mathematical derivations being employed where necessary. Ample use is made of diagrams to aid these conce...

16. Dynamic acousto-elastic testing of concrete with a coda-wave probe: comparison with standard linear and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Shokouhi, Parisa; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T J

2017-11-01

The use of nonlinear acoustic techniques in solids consists in measuring wave distortion arising from compliant features such as cracks, soft intergrain bonds and dislocations. As such, they provide very powerful nondestructive tools to monitor the onset of damage within materials. In particular, a recent technique called dynamic acousto-elasticity testing (DAET) gives unprecedented details on the nonlinear elastic response of materials (classical and non-classical nonlinear features including hysteresis, transient elastic softening and slow relaxation). Here, we provide a comprehensive set of linear and nonlinear acoustic responses on two prismatic concrete specimens; one intact and one pre-compressed to about 70% of its ultimate strength. The two linear techniques used are Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), while the nonlinear ones include DAET (fast and slow dynamics) as well as Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS). In addition, the DAET results correspond to a configuration where the (incoherent) coda portion of the ultrasonic record is used to probe the samples, as opposed to a (coherent) first arrival wave in standard DAET tests. We find that the two visually identical specimens are indistinguishable based on parameters measured by linear techniques (UPV and RUS). On the contrary, the extracted nonlinear parameters from NRUS and DAET are consistent and orders of magnitude greater for the damaged specimen than those for the intact one. This compiled set of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic testing data including the most advanced technique (DAET) provides a benchmark comparison for their use in the field of material characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

17. Nonlinear oscillations

CERN Document Server

Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

1995-01-01

Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

18. Spatial Field Variability Mapping of Rice Crop using Clustering Technique from Space Borne Hyperspectral Data

Science.gov (United States)

Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

2015-12-01

Precision farming refers to field-specific management of an agricultural crop at a spatial scale with an aim to get the highest achievable yield and to achieve this spatial information on field variability is essential. The difficulty in mapping of spatial variability occurring within an agriculture field can be revealed by employing spectral techniques in hyperspectral imagery rather than multispectral imagery. However an advanced algorithm needs to be developed to fully make use of the rich information content in hyperspectral data. In the present study, potential of hyperspectral data acquired from space platform was examined to map the field variation of paddy crop and its species discrimination. This high dimensional data comprising 242 spectral narrow bands with 30m ground resolution Hyperion L1R product acquired for Assam, India (30th Sept and 3rd Oct, 2014) were allowed for necessary pre-processing steps followed by geometric correction using Hyperion L1GST product. Finally an atmospherically corrected and spatially deduced image consisting of 112 band was obtained. By employing an advanced clustering algorithm, 12 different clusters of spectral waveforms of the crop were generated from six paddy fields for each images. The findings showed that, some clusters were well discriminated representing specific rice genotypes and some clusters were mixed treating as a single rice genotype. As vegetation index (VI) is the best indicator of vegetation mapping, three ratio based VI maps were also generated and unsupervised classification was performed for it. The so obtained 12 clusters of paddy crop were mapped spatially to the derived VI maps. From these findings, the existence of heterogeneity was clearly captured in one of the 6 rice plots (rice plot no. 1) while heterogeneity was observed in rest of the 5 rice plots. The degree of heterogeneous was found more in rice plot no.6 as compared to other plots. Subsequently, spatial variability of paddy field was

19. The factors forming investor’s failure: Is financial literacy a matter? Viewing test by cognitive mapping technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Amari Mouna

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply cognitive map-related techniques to extract causal knowledge from a specific problem domain. This paper proposes to draw an average cognitive map in order to identify the failure factors of the Tunisian small investors. Our paper extends traditional and behavioral finance and previous research by proposing a new approach to building an average cognitive map for the explanation of small investors’ failure in the stock market.

20. Secure positioning technique based on encrypted visible light map for smart indoor service

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Yong Up; Jung, Gillyoung

2018-03-01

Indoor visible light (VL) positioning systems for smart indoor services are negatively affected by both cochannel interference from adjacent light sources and VL reception position irregularity in the three-dimensional (3-D) VL channel. A secure positioning methodology based on a two-dimensional (2-D) encrypted VL map is proposed, implemented in prototypes of the specific positioning system, and analyzed based on performance tests. The proposed positioning technique enhances the positioning performance by more than 21.7% compared to the conventional method in real VL positioning tests. Further, the pseudonoise code is found to be the optimal encryption key for secure VL positioning for this smart indoor service.

1. Enhanced nonlinearity interval mapping scheme for high-performance simulation-optimization of watershed-scale BMP placement

Science.gov (United States)

Zou, Rui; Riverson, John; Liu, Yong; Murphy, Ryan; Sim, Youn

2015-03-01

Integrated continuous simulation-optimization models can be effective predictors of a process-based responses for cost-benefit optimization of best management practices (BMPs) selection and placement. However, practical application of simulation-optimization model is computationally prohibitive for large-scale systems. This study proposes an enhanced Nonlinearity Interval Mapping Scheme (NIMS) to solve large-scale watershed simulation-optimization problems several orders of magnitude faster than other commonly used algorithms. An efficient interval response coefficient (IRC) derivation method was incorporated into the NIMS framework to overcome a computational bottleneck. The proposed algorithm was evaluated using a case study watershed in the Los Angeles County Flood Control District. Using a continuous simulation watershed/stream-transport model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC), three nested in-stream compliance points (CP)—each with multiple Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) targets—were selected to derive optimal treatment levels for each of the 28 subwatersheds, so that the TMDL targets at all the CP were met with the lowest possible BMP implementation cost. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and NIMS were both applied and compared. The results showed that the NIMS took 11 iterations (about 11 min) to complete with the resulting optimal solution having a total cost of 67.2 million, while each of the multiple GA executions took 21-38 days to reach near optimal solutions. The best solution obtained among all the GA executions compared had a minimized cost of 67.7 million—marginally higher, but approximately equal to that of the NIMS solution. The results highlight the utility for decision making in large-scale watershed simulation-optimization formulations.

2. Microscale and nanoscale strain mapping techniques applied to creep of rocks

Science.gov (United States)

Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Evans, Brian; Kohlstedt, David L.

2017-07-01

Usually several deformation mechanisms interact to accommodate plastic deformation. Quantifying the contribution of each to the total strain is necessary to bridge the gaps from observations of microstructures, to geomechanical descriptions, to extrapolating from laboratory data to field observations. Here, we describe the experimental and computational techniques involved in microscale strain mapping (MSSM), which allows strain produced during high-pressure, high-temperature deformation experiments to be tracked with high resolution. MSSM relies on the analysis of the relative displacement of initially regularly spaced markers after deformation. We present two lithography techniques used to pattern rock substrates at different scales: photolithography and electron-beam lithography. Further, we discuss the challenges of applying the MSSM technique to samples used in high-temperature and high-pressure experiments. We applied the MSSM technique to a study of strain partitioning during creep of Carrara marble and grain boundary sliding in San Carlos olivine, synthetic forsterite, and Solnhofen limestone at a confining pressure, Pc, of 300 MPa and homologous temperatures, T/Tm, of 0.3 to 0.6. The MSSM technique works very well up to temperatures of 700 °C. The experimental developments described here show promising results for higher-temperature applications.

3. Uranium exploration data and techniques applied to the preparation of radioelement maps. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1997-11-01

The report reviews the advantage and pitfalls of using uranium exploration data and techniques as well as other methods for the preparation of radioelement and radon maps for baseline information in environmental studies and monitoring

4. Uranium exploration data and techniques applied to the preparation of radioelement maps. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

1997-11-01

The report reviews the advantage and pitfalls of using uranium exploration data and techniques as well as other methods for the preparation of radioelement and radon maps for baseline information in environmental studies and monitoring. Refs, figs, tabs.

5. Development of Rapid and Low Cost Archaeological Site Mapping Using Photogrammetric Technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Azhar, N A Mohd; Ahmad, Anuar

2014-01-01

In digital photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform is a new technology that can be used to capture digital images for large scale mapping with accuracy down to centimeter level from various waypoints for archaeological site documentation. UAV is one of the great alternatives to replace piloted aircraft and with combination of non -metric camera, thus it can be applied for small area such as cultural heritage building/ archeological site area. With the recent technology of non-metric cameras, this camera is capable of producing high resolution digital images. This study investigates the application of UAV images for documentation and mapping of a simulated archaeological sites. An archaeological site simulation modelwith dimension of 2.4 m × 3.5 m is used in this study. The accuracy for mapping the archeological sites based on the UAV system is evaluated and analyzed by performing the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) derived from the differences of coordinates between reference value and the coordinates observed from photogrammetric output such as digital terrain model and orthophoto. In this application, a simulation model was used to simulate the archaeological site excavation. The results clearly demonstrate the potential and the capability of UAV and non-metric camera in providing the accuracy of centimetre level for this application. From this study, it can be concluded that the UAV and the photogrammetric technique procedure satisfied the needs of archaeological sites survey and documentation

6. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Room, M H M; Ahmad, A

2014-01-01

Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition

7. Consistency of seven different GNSS global ionospheric mapping techniques during one solar cycle

Science.gov (United States)

Roma-Dollase, David; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Krankowski, Andrzej; Kotulak, Kacper; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Wang, Cheng; Feltens, Joachim; Vergados, Panagiotis; Komjathy, Attila; Schaer, Stefan; García-Rigo, Alberto; Gómez-Cama, José M.

2018-06-01

In the context of the International GNSS Service (IGS), several IGS Ionosphere Associated Analysis Centers have developed different techniques to provide global ionospheric maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (VTEC) since 1998. In this paper we present a comparison of the performances of all the GIMs created in the frame of IGS. Indeed we compare the classical ones (for the ionospheric analysis centers CODE, ESA/ESOC, JPL and UPC) with the new ones (NRCAN, CAS, WHU). To assess the quality of them in fair and completely independent ways, two assessment methods are used: a direct comparison to altimeter data (VTEC-altimeter) and to the difference of slant total electron content (STEC) observed in independent ground reference stations (dSTEC-GPS). The main conclusion of this study, performed during one solar cycle, is the consistency of the results between so many different GIM techniques and implementations.

8. Robust and adaptive techniques for numerical simulation of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order

Science.gov (United States)

2017-03-01

In this paper, some nonlinear space-fractional order reaction-diffusion equations (SFORDE) on a finite but large spatial domain x ∈ [0, L], x = x(x , y , z) and t ∈ [0, T] are considered. Also in this work, the standard reaction-diffusion system with boundary conditions is generalized by replacing the second-order spatial derivatives with Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivatives of order α, for 0 Fourier spectral method is introduced as a better alternative to existing low order schemes for the integration of fractional in space reaction-diffusion problems in conjunction with an adaptive exponential time differencing method, and solve a range of one-, two- and three-components SFORDE numerically to obtain patterns in one- and two-dimensions with a straight forward extension to three spatial dimensions in a sub-diffusive (0 reaction-diffusion case. With application to models in biology and physics, different spatiotemporal dynamics are observed and displayed.

9. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

2017-08-01

With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

10. Creep deformation behavior in eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints using a novel mapping technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lucas, J.P.; Guo, F.; McDougall, J.; Bieler, T.R.; Subramanian, K.N.; Park, J.K.

1999-11-01

Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60--100 {micro}m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (1) non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (2) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing 20 vol.%, 5 {micro}m diameter in-situ Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of creep deformation was characterized on the solder joints. Creep deformation was analyzed using a novel mapping technique where a geometrical-regular line pattern was etched over the entire solder joint using excimer laser ablation. During creep, the laser-ablation (LA) pattern becomes distorted due to deformation in the solder joint. By imaging the distortion of laser-ablation patterns using the SEM, actual deformation mapping for the entire solder joint is revealed. The technique involves sequential optical/digital imaging of the deformation versus time history during creep. By tracing and recording the deformation of the LA patterns on the solder over intervals of time, local creep data are obtained in many locations in the joint. This analysis enables global and localized creep shear strains and strain rate to be determined.

11. Advanced Ecosystem Mapping Techniques for Large Arctic Study Domains Using Calibrated High-Resolution Imagery

Science.gov (United States)

Macander, M. J.; Frost, G. V., Jr.

2015-12-01

Regional-scale mapping of vegetation and other ecosystem properties has traditionally relied on medium-resolution remote sensing such as Landsat (30 m) and MODIS (250 m). Yet, the burgeoning availability of high-resolution (environments has not been previously evaluated. Image segmentation, or object-based image analysis, automatically partitions high-resolution imagery into homogeneous image regions that can then be analyzed based on spectral, textural, and contextual information. We applied eCognition software to delineate waterbodies and vegetation classes, in combination with other techniques. Texture metrics were evaluated to determine the feasibility of using high-resolution imagery to algorithmically characterize periglacial surface forms (e.g., ice-wedge polygons), which are an important physical characteristic of permafrost-dominated regions but which cannot be distinguished by medium-resolution remote sensing. These advanced mapping techniques provide products which can provide essential information supporting a broad range of ecosystem science and land-use planning applications in northern Alaska and elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic.

12. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

Science.gov (United States)

Kovacs, Gyorgy

2018-06-01

In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

13. Compressed sensing techniques for receiver based post-compensation of transmitter's nonlinear distortions in OFDM systems

KAUST Repository

Owodunni, Damilola S.; Ali, Anum Z.; Quadeer, Ahmed Abdul; Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.; Hammi, Oualid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

2014-01-01

-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional

14. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

2015-05-01

Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

15. Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study

Science.gov (United States)

Balim, Ali Günay

2013-01-01

The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade science…

16. An efficient nonlinear relaxation technique for the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations

Science.gov (United States)

Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. S.

1993-01-01

An efficient implicit method for the computation of steady, three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes flowfields is presented. A nonlinear iteration strategy based on planar Gauss-Seidel sweeps is used to drive the solution toward a steady state, with approximate factorization errors within a crossflow plane reduced by the application of a quasi-Newton technique. A hybrid discretization approach is employed, with flux-vector splitting utilized in the streamwise direction and central differences with artificial dissipation used for the transverse fluxes. Convergence histories and comparisons with experimental data are presented for several 3-D shock-boundary layer interactions. Both laminar and turbulent cases are considered, with turbulent closure provided by a modification of the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model. For the problems considered (175,000-325,000 mesh points), the algorithm provides steady-state convergence in 900-2000 CPU seconds on a single processor of a Cray Y-MP.

17. Quantifying Patterns of Smooth Muscle Motility in the Gut and Other Organs With New Techniques of Video Spatiotemporal Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roger G. Lentle

2018-04-01

Full Text Available The uses and limitations of the various techniques of video spatiotemporal mapping based on change in diameter (D-type ST maps, change in longitudinal strain rate (L-type ST maps, change in area strain rate (A-type ST maps, and change in luminous intensity of reflected light (I-maps are described, along with their use in quantifying motility of the wall of hollow structures of smooth muscle such as the gut. Hence ST-methods for determining the size, speed of propagation and frequency of contraction in the wall of gut compartments of differing geometric configurations are discussed. We also discuss the shortcomings and problems that are inherent in the various methods and the use of techniques to avoid or minimize them. This discussion includes, the inability of D-type ST maps to indicate the site of a contraction that does not reduce the diameter of a gut segment, the manipulation of axis [the line of interest (LOI] of L-maps to determine the true axis of propagation of a contraction, problems with anterior curvature of gut segments and the use of adjunct image analysis techniques that enhance particular features of the maps.

18. Quantifying Patterns of Smooth Muscle Motility in the Gut and Other Organs With New Techniques of Video Spatiotemporal Mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Lentle, Roger G.; Hulls, Corrin M.

2018-01-01

The uses and limitations of the various techniques of video spatiotemporal mapping based on change in diameter (D-type ST maps), change in longitudinal strain rate (L-type ST maps), change in area strain rate (A-type ST maps), and change in luminous intensity of reflected light (I-maps) are described, along with their use in quantifying motility of the wall of hollow structures of smooth muscle such as the gut. Hence ST-methods for determining the size, speed of propagation and frequency of contraction in the wall of gut compartments of differing geometric configurations are discussed. We also discuss the shortcomings and problems that are inherent in the various methods and the use of techniques to avoid or minimize them. This discussion includes, the inability of D-type ST maps to indicate the site of a contraction that does not reduce the diameter of a gut segment, the manipulation of axis [the line of interest (LOI)] of L-maps to determine the true axis of propagation of a contraction, problems with anterior curvature of gut segments and the use of adjunct image analysis techniques that enhance particular features of the maps. PMID:29686624

19. MRI technique for the snapshot imaging of quantitative velocity maps using RARE

Science.gov (United States)

Shiko, G.; Sederman, A. J.; Gladden, L. F.

2012-03-01

A quantitative PGSE-RARE pulse sequence was developed and successfully applied to the in situ dissolution of two pharmaceutical formulations dissolving over a range of timescales. The new technique was chosen over other existing fast velocity imaging techniques because it is T2 weighted, not T2∗ weighted, and is, therefore, robust for imaging time-varying interfaces and flow in magnetically heterogeneous systems. The complex signal was preserved intact by separating odd and even echoes to obtain two phase maps which are then averaged in post-processing. Initially, the validity of the technique was shown when imaging laminar flow in a pipe. Subsequently, the dissolution of two drugs was followed in situ, where the technique enables the imaging and quantification of changes in the form of the tablet and the flow field surrounding it at high spatial and temporal resolution. First, the complete 3D velocity field around an eroding salicylic acid tablet was acquired at a resolution of 98 × 49 μm2, within 20 min, and monitored over ˜13 h. The tablet was observed to experience a heterogeneous flow field and, hence a heterogeneous shear field, which resulted in the non-symmetric erosion of the tablet. Second, the dissolution of a fast dissolving immediate release tablet was followed using one-shot 2D velocity images acquired every 5.2 s at a resolution of 390 × 390 μm2. The quantitative nature of the technique and fast acquisition times provided invaluable information on the dissolution behaviour of this tablet, which had not been attainable previously with conventional quantitative MRI techniques.

20. MRI technique for the snapshot imaging of quantitative velocity maps using RARE.

Science.gov (United States)

Shiko, G; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F

2012-03-01

A quantitative PGSE-RARE pulse sequence was developed and successfully applied to the in situ dissolution of two pharmaceutical formulations dissolving over a range of timescales. The new technique was chosen over other existing fast velocity imaging techniques because it is T(2) weighted, not T(2)(∗) weighted, and is, therefore, robust for imaging time-varying interfaces and flow in magnetically heterogeneous systems. The complex signal was preserved intact by separating odd and even echoes to obtain two phase maps which are then averaged in post-processing. Initially, the validity of the technique was shown when imaging laminar flow in a pipe. Subsequently, the dissolution of two drugs was followed in situ, where the technique enables the imaging and quantification of changes in the form of the tablet and the flow field surrounding it at high spatial and temporal resolution. First, the complete 3D velocity field around an eroding salicylic acid tablet was acquired at a resolution of 98×49 μm(2), within 20 min, and monitored over ∼13 h. The tablet was observed to experience a heterogeneous flow field and, hence a heterogeneous shear field, which resulted in the non-symmetric erosion of the tablet. Second, the dissolution of a fast dissolving immediate release tablet was followed using one-shot 2D velocity images acquired every 5.2 s at a resolution of 390×390 μm(2). The quantitative nature of the technique and fast acquisition times provided invaluable information on the dissolution behaviour of this tablet, which had not been attainable previously with conventional quantitative MRI techniques. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. A noise reduction technique based on nonlinear kernel function for heart sound analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Mondal, Ashok; Saxena, Ishan; Tang, Hong; Banerjee, Poulami

2017-02-13

The main difficulty encountered in interpretation of cardiac sound is interference of noise. The contaminated noise obscures the relevant information which are useful for recognition of heart diseases. The unwanted signals are produced mainly by lungs and surrounding environment. In this paper, a novel heart sound de-noising technique has been introduced based on a combined framework of wavelet packet transform (WPT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). The most informative node of wavelet tree is selected on the criteria of mutual information measurement. Next, the coefficient corresponding to the selected node is processed by SVD technique to suppress noisy component from heart sound signal. To justify the efficacy of the proposed technique, several experiments have been conducted with heart sound dataset, including normal and pathological cases at different signal to noise ratios. The significance of the method is validated by statistical analysis of the results. The biological information preserved in de-noised heart sound (HS) signal is evaluated by k-means clustering algorithm and Fit Factor calculation. The overall results show that proposed method is superior than the baseline methods.

2. Profiling a Mind Map User: A Descriptive Appraisal

Science.gov (United States)

Tucker, Joanne M.; Armstrong, Gary R.; Massad, Victor J.

2010-01-01

Whether manually or through the use of software, a non-linear information organization framework known as mind mapping offers an alternative method for capturing thoughts, ideas and information to linear thinking modes such as outlining. Mind mapping is brainstorming, organizing, and problem solving. This paper examines mind mapping techniques,…

3. Enhanced Sentinel Lymphoscintigraphic Mapping in Breast Tumor Using the Graded Shield Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yu-Wen Chen

2003-07-01

Full Text Available The graded shield technique was developed to increase the sentinel node detection rate by improving lymphoscintigraphic image contrast. In a 6-month period, 50 women with clinical suspicion of early stage breast cancer (T1 and T2 tumors were enrolled in this study. The patients had a mean age of 47.2 ± 10.3 years. A composite graded shield was constructed using three concentric layers of leaded plastic measuring 3 cm, 5 cm, and 7 cm each in diameter. The graded shield was designed with a movable Velcro backing for accurate positioning over the injection site. Images were acquired with a vertical angle dual-head gamma camera using an established injection procedure developed at our institution. The rate of detection of sentinel lymph nodes using lymphoscintigraphic mapping improved from 74% (37/50 patients to 96% (48/50 using the graded shield (p < 0.05. In addition to the increased detection rate, our technique also increased the number of nodes detected and improved visualization of the adjacent lymphatic basin. By enhancing nodal contrast, we have demonstrated that the graded shield technique is an effective method for improving the rate of sentinel node detection.

4. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kelsey Herrmann

2015-07-01

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

5. Nonlinear systems

CERN Document Server

Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

2018-01-01

This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

6. Renewal of Road Networks Using Map-matching Technique of Trajectories

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

WU Tao

2017-04-01

7. Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abel, Taylor J; Rhone, Ariane E; Nourski, Kirill V; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A III; Granner, Mark A; Tranel, Daniel T; Griffiths, Timothy D

2014-01-01

Temporopolar cortex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy and subserves important cognitive functions. Because of its shape and position in the middle cranial fossa, complete electrode coverage of the temporal pole (TP) is difficult to achieve using existing devices. We designed a novel TP electrode array that conforms to the surface of temporopolar cortex and achieves dense electrode coverage of this important brain region. A multi-pronged electrode array was designed that can be placed over the surface of the TP using a straightforward insertion technique. Twelve patients with medically intractable epilepsy were implanted with the TP electrode array for purposes of seizure localization. Select patients underwent cognitive mapping by electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording from the TP during a naming task. Use of the array resulted in excellent TP electrode coverage in all patients. High quality ECoG data were consistently obtained for purposes of delineating seizure activity and functional mapping. During a naming task, significant increases in ECoG power were observed within localized subregions of the TP. One patient developed a transient neurological deficit thought to be related to the mass effect of multiple intracranial recording arrays, including the TP array. This deficit resolved following removal of all electrodes. The TP electrode array overcomes limitations of existing devices and enables clinicians and researchers to obtain optimal multi-site recordings from this important brain region. (paper)

8. MAPPING GLAUCONITE UNITES WITH USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN NORTH EAST OF IRAN

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-10-01

Full Text Available Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM, band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

9. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE FOR ZONING THE FORMER SEMIPALATINSK TEST SITE TERRITORY USINHG GEOINFORMATIONAL MAPPING

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yu. Yu. Yakovenko

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on radio-ecological assessment of pollution carried out at the former Semipalatinsk test site. The technique of radio-ecological zoning with methods of geoinformation mapping, including the determination of qualitative and qualitative criteria depending on the degree of superficial soil layer pollution, exposed to anthropogenic radiative impact, is offered. The result of such zoning makes it possible to evaluate the degree of radiation impact on the surveyed area, identify areas with high background radiation and define the borders representing potential risks to the public, residing or carrying out business activities within the area.

10. Imaging Spectroscopy: A Novel Use for the Velocity Mapped Ion Imaging Technique.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guzman, Jennie S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culberson, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2017-02-01

The ability to measure the velocity of neutral atoms and molecules with a precision of several meter/sec provides an opportunity to measure subtle perturbations on electronic states with high resolution. Using Velocity Mapped Ion Imaging we are able to measure induced perturbations of electronic states such as broadening and magnetic and electric field splittings . We demonstrate this ability utilizing the 5s[3/2]2 → 5p[5/2]3 cycling transition at 811.5 nm in metastable Kr atoms to investigate the saturation broadening caused by Rabi cycling on a resonant transition with MHz resolution. In addition we investigate the lifetime broadening associated with ionization from the cycling states and the Zeeman splitting of the states. We discuss the inherent limits to resolution obtained with this technique.

11. Application of Mind Map-based abstracting technique in pedagogical strategy for ESP teaching/learning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ekaterina Choporova

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The work presents some theoretical and practical results of the abstracting practice carried out by the teachers and cadets of Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia. The sources used in the experiment were of British and American origin, equally authentic, and were mainly of engineering content because of the cadets’ speciality. The main purpose of the experiment was focused on the primary source adequate abstract making as a product of a keen understanding of social and professional aspects, views, and anticipations of English-speaking nations. The authors analyzed a number of current approaches towards abstract making procedures and offered an original system of the education strategy by means of Mind Map building technique.

12. Remote sensing techniques and their urgency for snow and glacier mapping in Himalayas

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Das, M C; Chattopadhyay, S N; Murty, A S

1979-01-01

The mighty Himalayas are great repositories of snow and ice. The river system of Indus, the Ganges and Brahmaputra owe their perennial flow to these large snow and ice masses. The demand for systematic exploitation of water resources of these great mountain ranges calls for a thorough inventory of these water-holding bodies. Rough and difficult terrain, inclement weather and very inaccessible altitudes stood in the way for better understanding of these vast sources of life giving water. In this paper, the urgency for snow and glacier mapping of this Himalayan region is highlighted in the light of the fast evolving techniques of remote sensing. Aerospace photography, use of radars and infrared sensing methods microwave sensing, and application of gamma radiation with the help of satellites, are examined for their present status and future potential for application in this ice and snow capped, top of the world.

13. Orbital stability analysis in biomechanics: a systematic review of a nonlinear technique to detect instability of motor tasks.

Science.gov (United States)

Riva, F; Bisi, M C; Stagni, R

2013-01-01

Falls represent a heavy economic and clinical burden on society. The identification of individual chronic characteristics associated with falling is of fundamental importance for the clinicians; in particular, the stability of daily motor tasks is one of the main factors that the clinicians look for during assessment procedures. Various methods for the assessment of stability in human movement are present in literature, and methods coming from stability analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems applied to biomechanics recently showed promise. One of these techniques is orbital stability analysis via Floquet multipliers. This method allows to measure orbital stability of periodic nonlinear dynamic systems and it seems a promising approach for the definition of a reliable motor stability index, taking into account for the whole task cycle dynamics. Despite the premises, its use in the assessment of fall risk has been deemed controversial. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to provide a critical evaluation of the literature on the topic of applications of orbital stability analysis in biomechanics, with particular focus to methodologic aspects. Four electronic databases have been searched for articles relative to the topic; 23 articles were selected for review. Quality of the studies present in literature has been assessed with a customised quality assessment tool. Overall quality of the literature in the field was found to be high. The most critical aspect was found to be the lack of uniformity in the implementation of the analysis to biomechanical time series, particularly in the choice of state space and number of cycles to include in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

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McCullagh Paul J

2005-09-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

15. Interfascial technique for vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle: the road map.

Science.gov (United States)

Youssef, A Samy; Uribe, Juan S; Ramos, Edwin; Janjua, Rashid; Thomas, L Brannon; van Loveren, Harry

2010-12-01

The extradural portion of the vertebral artery (VA-V3) has a unique anatomy at the craniovertebral junction. The exposure of V3 can be accompanied by profuse bleeding from the venous plexus in addition to the potential risk of inadvertent injury of the VA during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. The natural tissue planes represent a road map to the safe exposure of the VA in the suboccipital triangle. To describe the microsurgical anatomy of the tissue planes in the suboccipital region. The suboccipital region was bilaterally dissected in 6 fresh silicone-injected cadaver heads. An interfascial technique was used to expose the VA-V3 following a tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscular fascia dorsally and posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the C1 periosteal membrane, and the membrane covering the VA and venous plexus ventrally. The craniovertebral junction was harvested from 2 heads and prepared for histological sections. The same technique was applied in 25 operative cases. The anatomic dissections confirmed the existence of an interfascial plane that can be dissected in a blunt fashion to reach as far lateral as the transverse processes of C1 and C2. Application of the dissection technique did not require diathermy coagulation in the operating room. In 25 cases, there was no injury of the VA or bleeding from the venous plexus. Vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle (V3) can be achieved safely with minimal blood loss using a technique that follows the natural tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscle fascia, the posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the membrane covering VA/venous plexus, and the periosteum of the C1 and C2 laminae.

16. The Effect of Semantic Mapping as a Vocabulary Instruction Technique on EFL Learners with Different Perceptual Learning Styles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2009-05-01

Full Text Available Traditional and modern vocabulary instruction techniques have been introduced in the past few decades to improve the learners’ performance in reading comprehension. Semantic mapping, which entails drawing learners’ attention to the interrelationships among lexical items through graphic organizers, is claimed to enhance vocabulary learning significantly. However, whether this technique suits all types of learners has not been adequately investigated. This study examines the effectiveness of employing semantic mapping versus traditional approaches in vocabulary instruction to EFL learners with different perceptual modalities. A modified version of Reid’s (1987 perceptual learning style questionnaire was used to determine the learners’ modality types. The results indicate that semantic mapping in comparison to the traditional approaches significantly enhances vocabulary learning of EFL learners. However, although visual learners slightly outperformed other types of learners on the post-test, no significant differences were observed among intermediate learners with different perceptual modalities employing semantic mapping for vocabulary practice.

17. Performance Comparison of Reputation Assessment Techniques Based on Self-Organizing Maps in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Sabrina Sicari

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Many solutions based on machine learning techniques have been proposed in literature aimed at detecting and promptly counteracting various kinds of malicious attack (data violation, clone, sybil, neglect, greed, and DoS attacks, which frequently affect Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Besides recognizing the corrupted or violated information, also the attackers should be identified, in order to activate the proper countermeasures for preserving network’s resources and to mitigate their malicious effects. To this end, techniques adopting Self-Organizing Maps (SOM for intrusion detection in WSN were revealed to represent a valuable and effective solution to the problem. In this paper, the mechanism, namely, Good Network (GoNe, which is based on SOM and is able to assess the reliability of the sensor nodes, is compared with another relevant and similar work existing in literature. Extensive performance simulations, in terms of nodes’ classification, attacks’ identification, data accuracy, energy consumption, and signalling overhead, have been carried out in order to demonstrate the better feasibility and efficiency of the proposed solution in WSN field.

18. Mapping coral reefs using consumer-grade drones and structure from motion photogrammetry techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Casella, Elisa; Collin, Antoine; Harris, Daniel; Ferse, Sebastian; Bejarano, Sonia; Parravicini, Valeriano; Hench, James L.; Rovere, Alessio

2017-03-01

We propose a novel technique to measure the small-scale three-dimensional features of a shallow-water coral reef using a small drone equipped with a consumer-grade camera, a handheld GPS and structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. We used a GoPro HERO4 with a modified lens mounted on a DJI Phantom 2 drone (maximum total take-off weight <2 kg) to perform a 10 min flight and collect 306 aerial images with an overlap equal or greater than 90%. We mapped an area of 8380 m2, obtaining as output an ortho-rectified aerial photomosaic and a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0.78 and 1.56 cm pixel-1, respectively. Through comparison with airborne LiDAR data for the same area, we verified that the location of the ortho-rectified aerial photomosaic is accurate within 1.4 m. The bathymetric difference between our DEM and the LiDAR dataset is -0.016 ± 0.45 m (1σ). Our results show that it is possible, in conditions of calm waters, low winds and minimal sun glint, to deploy consumer-grade drones as a relatively low-cost and rapid survey technique to produce multispectral and bathymetric data on shallow-water coral reefs. We discuss the utility of such data to monitor temporal changes in topographic complexity of reefs and associated biological processes.

19. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Mapping Techniques for Enormous Etl and Exploitation Patterns

Science.gov (United States)

Deiotte, R.; La Valley, R.

2017-10-01

The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano's 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer's and Usher's techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

20. COMPARISON OF SPATIOTEMPORAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES FOR ENORMOUS ETL AND EXPLOITATION PATTERNS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Deiotte

2017-10-01

Full Text Available The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano’s 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer’s and Usher’s techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

1. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

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Zehan Wu

2017-06-01

Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

2. Lysis solution composition and non-linear dose-response to ionizing radiation in the non-denaturing DNA filter elution technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1990-01-01

The suggestion by Okayasu and Iliakis (1989) that the non-linear dose-response curve, obtained with the non-denaturing filter elution technique for mammalian cells exposed to low-LET radiation, is the result of a technical artefact, was not confirmed. (author)

3. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

Science.gov (United States)

Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

2017-04-01

Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

4. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

Science.gov (United States)

Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

2014-02-01

Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

5. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rasam, A R A; Ghazali, R; Noor, A M M; Mohd, W M N W; Hamid, J R A; Bazlan, M J; Ahmad, N

2014-01-01

Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia

6. Effects of surface-mapping corrections and synthetic-aperture focusing techniques on ultrasonic imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barna, B.A.; Johnson, J.A.

1981-01-01

Improvements in ultrasonic imaging that can be obtained using algorithms that map the surface of targets are evaluated. This information is incorporated in the application of synthetic-aperture focusing techniques which also have the potential to improve image resolution. Images obtained using directed-beam (flat) transducers and the focused transducers normally used for synthetic-aperture processing are quantitatively compared by using no processing, synthetic-aperture processing with no corrections for surface variations, and synthetic-aperture processing with surface mapping. The unprocessed images have relatively poor lateral resolutions because echoes from two adjacent reflectors show interference effects which prevent their identification even if the spacing is larger than the single-hole resolution. The synthetic-aperture-processed images show at least a twofold improvement in lateral resolution and greatly reduced interference effects in multiple-hole images compared to directed-beam images. Perhaps more importantly, in images of test blocks with substantial surface variations portions of the image are displaced from their actual positions by several wavelengths. To correct for this effect an algorithm has been developed for calculating the surface variations. The corrected images produced using this algorithm are accurate within the experimental error. In addition, the same algorithm, when applied to the directed-beam data, produced images that are not only accurately positioned, but that also have a resolution comparable to conventional synthetic-aperture-processed images obtained from focused-transducer data. This suggests that using synthetic-aperture processing on the type of data normally collected during directed-beam ultrasonic inspections would eliminate the need to rescan for synthetic-aperture enhancement

7. Can social semantic web techniques foster collaborative curriculum mapping in medicine?

Science.gov (United States)

Spreckelsen, Cord; Finsterer, Sonja; Cremer, Jan; Schenkat, Hennig

2013-08-15

Curriculum mapping, which is aimed at the systematic realignment of the planned, taught, and learned curriculum, is considered a challenging and ongoing effort in medical education. Second-generation curriculum managing systems foster knowledge management processes including curriculum mapping in order to give comprehensive support to learners, teachers, and administrators. The large quantity of custom-built software in this field indicates a shortcoming of available IT tools and standards. The project reported here aims at the systematic adoption of techniques and standards of the Social Semantic Web to implement collaborative curriculum mapping for a complete medical model curriculum. A semantic MediaWiki (SMW)-based Web application has been introduced as a platform for the elicitation and revision process of the Aachen Catalogue of Learning Objectives (ACLO). The semantic wiki uses a domain model of the curricular context and offers structured (form-based) data entry, multiple views, structured querying, semantic indexing, and commenting for learning objectives ("LOs"). Semantic indexing of learning objectives relies on both a controlled vocabulary of international medical classifications (ICD, MeSH) and a folksonomy maintained by the users. An additional module supporting the global checking of consistency complements the semantic wiki. Statements of the Object Constraint Language define the consistency criteria. We evaluated the application by a scenario-based formative usability study, where the participants solved tasks in the (fictional) context of 7 typical situations and answered a questionnaire containing Likert-scaled items and free-text questions. At present, ACLO contains roughly 5350 operational (ie, specific and measurable) objectives acquired during the last 25 months. The wiki-based user interface uses 13 online forms for data entry and 4 online forms for flexible searches of LOs, and all the forms are accessible by standard Web browsers. The

8. Development and field application of a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation technique for fatigue crack detection without reference data from an intact condition

Science.gov (United States)

Lim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yongtak; Koo, Gunhee; Yang, Suyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In-hwan; Jang, Jeong-Hwan

2016-09-01

In this study, a fatigue crack detection technique, which detects a fatigue crack without relying on any reference data obtained from the intact condition of a target structure, is developed using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and applied to a real bridge structure. Using two wafer-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers, ultrasonic excitations at two distinctive frequencies are applied to a target inspection spot and the corresponding ultrasonic response is measured by another PZT transducer. Then, the nonlinear modulation components produced by a breathing-crack are extracted from the measured ultrasonic response, and a statistical classifier, which can determine if the nonlinear modulation components are statistically significant in comparison with the background noise level, is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed fatigue crack detection technique is experimentally validated using the data obtained from aluminum plates and aircraft fitting-lug specimens under varying temperature and loading conditions, and through a field testing of Yeongjong Grand Bridge in South Korea. The uniqueness of this study lies in that (1) detection of a micro fatigue crack with less than 1 μm width and fatigue cracks in the range of 10-20 μm in width using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation, (2) automated detection of fatigue crack formation without using reference data obtained from an intact condition, (3) reliable and robust diagnosis under varying temperature and loading conditions, (4) application of a local fatigue crack detection technique to online monitoring of a real bridge.

9. Mapping Cropland in Smallholder-Dominated Savannas: Integrating Remote Sensing Techniques and Probabilistic Modeling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sean Sweeney

2015-11-01

Full Text Available Traditional smallholder farming systems dominate the savanna range countries of sub-Saharan Africa and provide the foundation for the region’s food security. Despite continued expansion of smallholder farming into the surrounding savanna landscapes, food insecurity in the region persists. Central to the monitoring of food security in these countries, and to understanding the processes behind it, are reliable, high-quality datasets of cultivated land. Remote sensing has been frequently used for this purpose but distinguishing crops under certain stages of growth from savanna woodlands has remained a major challenge. Yet, crop production in dryland ecosystems is most vulnerable to seasonal climate variability, amplifying the need for high quality products showing the distribution and extent of cropland. The key objective in this analysis is the development of a classification protocol for African savanna landscapes, emphasizing the delineation of cropland. We integrate remote sensing techniques with probabilistic modeling into an innovative workflow. We present summary results for this methodology applied to a land cover classification of Zambia’s Southern Province. Five primary land cover categories are classified for the study area, producing an overall map accuracy of 88.18%. Omission error within the cropland class is 12.11% and commission error 9.76%.

10. A Novel Imaging Technique (X-Map) to Identify Acute Ischemic Lesions Using Noncontrast Dual-Energy Computed Tomography.

Science.gov (United States)

Noguchi, Kyo; Itoh, Toshihide; Naruto, Norihito; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro; Kuroda, Satoshi

2017-01-01

We evaluated whether X-map, a novel imaging technique, can visualize ischemic lesions within 20 hours after the onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke, using noncontrast dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Six patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Noncontrast head DECT scans were acquired with 2 X-ray tubes operated at 80 kV and Sn150 kV between 32 minutes and 20 hours after the onset. Using these DECT scans, the X-map was reconstructed based on 3-material decomposition and compared with a simulated standard (120 kV) computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The X-map showed more sensitivity to identify the lesions as an area of lower attenuation value than a simulated standard CT in all 6 patients. The lesions on the X-map correlated well with those on DWI. In 3 of 6 patients, the X-map detected a transient decrease in the attenuation value in the peri-infarct area within 1 day after the onset. The X-map is a powerful tool to supplement a simulated standard CT and characterize acute ischemic lesions. However, the X-map cannot replace a simulated standard CT to diagnose acute cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

11. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi

2016-01-01

learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5...... formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high....

12. Observing Equatorial Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures with a New Mapping Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Faivre, M. W.; Meriwether, J. W.; Sherwood, P.; Veliz, O.

2005-12-01

Application of the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Arequipa, Peru (16.4S, 71.4 W) to measure the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadenings in the equatorial O(1D) 630-nm nightglow has resulted in numerous detections of a large-scale thermospheric phenomenon called the Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM). A recent detector upgrade with a CCD camera has improved the accuracy of these measurements by a factor of 5. Temperature increases of 50 to 150K have been measured during nights in April and July, 2005, with error bars less than 10K after averaging in all directions. Moreover, the meridional wind measurements show evidence for a flow reversal from equatorward to poleward near local midnight for such events. A new observing strategy based upon the pioneering work of Burnside et al.[1981] maps the equatorial wind and temperature fields by observing in eight equally-spaced azimuth directions, each with a zenith angle of 60 degrees. Analysis of the data obtained with this technique gives the mean wind velocities in the meridional and zonal directions as well as the horizontal gradients of the wind field for these directions. Significant horizontal wind gradients are found for the meridional direction but not for the zonal direction. The zonal wind blows eastward throughout the night with a maximum speed of ~150 m/s near the middle of the night and then decreases towards zero just before dawn. In general, the fastest poleward meridional wind is observed near mid-evening. By the end of the night, the meridional flow tends to be more equatorward at speeds of about 50 m/s. Using the assumption that local time and longitude are equivalent over a period of 30 minutes, a map of the horizontal wind field vector field is constructed over a range of 12 degrees latitude centered at 16.5 S. Comparison between MTM nights and quiet nights (no MTM) revealed significant differences in the horizontal wind fields. Using the method of Fourier decomposition of the line-of-sight winds

13. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

CERN Document Server

Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

2014-01-01

This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

14. Column ratio mapping: a processing technique for atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images.

Science.gov (United States)

Robb, Paul D; Craven, Alan J

2008-12-01

An image processing technique is presented for atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images that have been acquired using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This technique is termed column ratio mapping and involves the automated process of measuring atomic column intensity ratios in high-resolution HAADF images. This technique was developed to provide a fuller analysis of HAADF images than the usual method of drawing single intensity line profiles across a few areas of interest. For instance, column ratio mapping reveals the compositional distribution across the whole HAADF image and allows a statistical analysis and an estimation of errors. This has proven to be a very valuable technique as it can provide a more detailed assessment of the sharpness of interfacial structures from HAADF images. The technique of column ratio mapping is described in terms of a [110]-oriented zinc-blende structured AlAs/GaAs superlattice using the 1 angstroms-scale resolution capability of the aberration-corrected SuperSTEM 1 instrument.

15. Column ratio mapping: A processing technique for atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Robb, Paul D.; Craven, Alan J.

2008-01-01

An image processing technique is presented for atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images that have been acquired using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This technique is termed column ratio mapping and involves the automated process of measuring atomic column intensity ratios in high-resolution HAADF images. This technique was developed to provide a fuller analysis of HAADF images than the usual method of drawing single intensity line profiles across a few areas of interest. For instance, column ratio mapping reveals the compositional distribution across the whole HAADF image and allows a statistical analysis and an estimation of errors. This has proven to be a very valuable technique as it can provide a more detailed assessment of the sharpness of interfacial structures from HAADF images. The technique of column ratio mapping is described in terms of a [1 1 0]-oriented zinc-blende structured AlAs/GaAs superlattice using the 1 A-scale resolution capability of the aberration-corrected SuperSTEM 1 instrument.

16. Condition monitoring and signature analysis techniques as applied to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) [Paper No.: VIA - 1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rangarajan, V.; Suryanarayana, L.

1981-01-01

The technique of vibration signature analysis for identifying the machine troubles in their early stages is explained. The advantage is that a timely corrective action can be planned to avoid breakdowns and unplanned shutdowns. At the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), this technique is applied to regularly monitor vibrations of equipment and thus is serving as a tool for doing corrective maintenance of equipment. Case studies of application of this technique to main boiler feed pumps, moderation pump motors, centrifugal chiller, ventilation system fans, thermal shield ventilation fans, filtered water pumps, emergency process sea water pumps, and antifriction bearings of MAPS are presented. Condition monitoring during commissioning and subsequent operation could indicate defects. Corrective actions which were taken are described. (M.G.B.)

17. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

Science.gov (United States)

Spohn, Marie

2014-05-01

The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10

18. Field Evaluation of Two Geophysical Techniques for Real-Time Mapping of Smouldering Remediation (STAR)

Science.gov (United States)

Trento, L. M.; Tsourlos, P.; McMaster, M.; Liefl, D.; Sims, A.; Dominguez, J. L. G.; Vidumsky, J.; Gerhard, J.

2016-12-01

Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) technology destroys non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in situ using principles of smouldering combustion. It involves propagating an exothermic (400-1000C) oxidation reaction outwards from an ignition well. A full-scale STAR system is currently being applied at an industrial site contaminated with coal tar below the water table in New Jersey, USA. STAR is typically tracked using multi-level thermocouples, which are discrete and sparse in space and time. This study evaluates two surface-based geophysical methods - Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Self-Potential (SP) - for the ability to map the STAR reaction in real time at the New Jersey site. Both techniques involve placing electrode arrays on the surface and monitoring electrical signals over time (i.e., time-lapse). It is hypothesized that ERT should be able to monitor the resistive dry zone that precedes the reaction front and/or the growing NAPL-depleted zone. SP is expected to be able to detect the potential difference associated with thermal gradients generated by the reaction. Approximately 72 ERT electrodes in a "swiss cross" pattern plus 10 SP electrodes will be emplaced over single STAR treatment cell (six ignition wells). This setup will be employed to monitor both a deep (25 feet) and shallow (8 feet) STAR treatments. The geophysics will be complemented by in situ temperature measurements, continuous gas measurements, and pre- and post-treatment coring. The primary goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of using ERT and SP for STAR under field conditions. The tests will be conducted in August 2016.

19. Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Information Retrieval Among Medical College Students in Puducherry-A Pilot Study.

Science.gov (United States)

Kalyanasundaram, Madhanraj; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Ramachandran, Divija; Jayaseelan, Venkatachalam; Bazroy, Joy; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil Jacob

2017-01-01

The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students ( n = 64) at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group ( n = 32) followed the text reading method and another group ( n = 32) followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08). On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26). On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03). The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.

20. Effectiveness of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry-A pilot study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students (n = 64 at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group (n = 32 followed the text reading method and another group (n = 32 followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Results: Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08. On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26. On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03. Conclusion: The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.

1. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

2016-04-25

Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM) techniques can further prevent the occurrence of false positives with conventional MRI, distinguish which are clinically relevant from levels of cauda equina and/or nerve root lesions based on MRI, and determine and reduce the decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE, while ensuring or improving surgical outcomes. We compared the data between patients who underwent MRI + (PM or DTI) and patients who underwent conventional MRI + NE to determine levels of decompression for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Outcome measures were assessed at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. One hundred fourteen patients (59 in the control group, 54 in the experimental group) underwent decompression. The levels of decompression determined by MRI + (PM or DTI) in the experimental group were significantly less than that determined by MRI + NE in the control group (p = 0.000). The surgical time, blood loss, and surgical transfusion were significantly less in the experimental group (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in improvement of the visual analog scale back and leg pain (VAS-BP, VAS-LP) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after operation between the experimental and control groups. MRI + (PM or DTI) showed clear benefits in determining decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE. In patients with lumbar spinal

2. Use Residual Correction Method and Monotone Iterative Technique to Calculate the Upper and Lower Approximate Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Non-linear Boundary Value Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chi-Chang Wang

2013-09-01

Full Text Available This paper seeks to use the proposed residual correction method in coordination with the monotone iterative technique to obtain upper and lower approximate solutions of singularly perturbed non-linear boundary value problems. First, the monotonicity of a non-linear differential equation is reinforced using the monotone iterative technique, then the cubic-spline method is applied to discretize and convert the differential equation into the mathematical programming problems of an inequation, and finally based on the residual correction concept, complex constraint solution problems are transformed into simpler questions of equational iteration. As verified by the four examples given in this paper, the method proposed hereof can be utilized to fast obtain the upper and lower solutions of questions of this kind, and to easily identify the error range between mean approximate solutions and exact solutions.

3. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological fault maps of Massachusetts and Connecticut

Science.gov (United States)

Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

1973-01-01

The author has identified the following significant results. The applications of ERTS-1 imagery for geological fracture mapping regardless of season has been repeatedly confirmed. The enhancement provided by a differential cover of snow increases the number and length of fracture-lineaments which can be detected with ERTS-1 data and accelerates the fracture mapping process for a variety of practical applications. The geological mapping benefits of the program will be realized in geographic areas where data are most needed - complex glaciated terrain and areas of deep residual soils. ERTS-1 derived fracture-lineament maps which provide detail well in excess of existing geological maps are not available in the Massachusetts-Connecticut area. The large quantity of new data provided by ERTS-1 may accelerate and improve field mapping now in progress in the area. Numerous other user groups have requested data on the techniques. This represents a major change in operating philosophy for groups who to data judged that snow obscured geological detail.

4. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kalle Eerikäinen

2012-12-01

Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

5. Technique for large-scale structural mapping at uranium deposits i in non-metamorphosed sedimentary cover rocks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kochkin, B.T.

1985-01-01

The technique for large-scale construction (1:1000 - 1:10000), reflecting small amplitude fracture plicate structures, is given for uranium deposits in non-metamorphozed sedimentary cover rocks. Structure drill log sections, as well as a set of maps with the results of area analysis of hidden disturbances, structural analysis of iso-pachous lines and facies of platform mantle horizons serve as sour ce materials for structural mapplotting. The steps of structural map construction are considered: 1) structural carcass construction; 2) reconstruction of structure contour; 3) time determination of structure initiation; 4) plotting of an additional geologic load

6. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Garoui NASSREDDINE

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

7. Analysis of terrain map matching using multisensing techniques for applications to autonomous vehicle navigation

Science.gov (United States)

Page, Lance; Shen, C. N.

1991-01-01

This paper describes skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping. Skylines can be extracted from the range-finding measurements and modelled from the global map, and are represented in parametric, cylindrical form with azimuth angle as the independent variable. The three translational parameters of the vantage point are determined with a three-dimensional matching of these two sets of skylines.

8. Characterizing nonlinearity in invasive EEG recordings from temporal lobe epilepsy

Science.gov (United States)

Casdagli, M. C.; Iasemidis, L. D.; Sackellares, J. C.; Roper, S. N.; Gilmore, R. L.; Savit, R. S.

Invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from depth and subdural electrodes, performed in eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, are analyzed using a variety of nonlinear techniques. A surrogate data technique is used to find strong evidence for nonlinearities in epileptogenic regions of the brain. Most of these nonlinearities are characterized as “spiking” by a wavelet analysis. A small fraction of the nonlinearities are characterized as “recurrent” by a nonlinear prediction algorithm. Recurrent activity is found to occur in spatio-temporal patterns related to the location of the epileptogenic focus. Residual delay maps, used to characterize “lag-one nonlinearity”, are remarkably stationary for a given electrode, and exhibit striking variations among electrodes. The clinical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

9. Measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP using extended Z-scan technique with elliptical polarization

Science.gov (United States)

Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

2018-05-01

The elliptical polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured by the extended Z-scan technique for thick materials in the wavelength range from 1640 to 1800 nm. The analytical formula of the Z-scan technique has been extended with consideration of multiple reflections. The Z-scan results have been fitted very well by the formula and β has been evaluated accurately. The three independent elements of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP have also been determined accurately from the elliptical polarization dependence of β.

10. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

1997-01-01

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing

11. Improvement of temporal and dynamic subtraction images on abdominal CT using 3D global image matching and nonlinear image warping techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Okumura, E; Sanada, S; Suzuki, M; Takemura, A; Matsui, O

2007-01-01

Accurate registration of the corresponding non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images is necessary to create temporal and dynamic subtraction images for the enhancement of subtle abnormalities. However, respiratory movement causes misregistration at the periphery of the liver. To reduce these misregistration errors, we developed a temporal and dynamic subtraction technique to enhance small HCC by 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping techniques. The study population consisted of 21 patients with HCC. Using the 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping technique, we registered current and previous arterial-phase CT images or current non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images obtained in the same position. The temporal subtraction image was obtained by subtracting the previous arterial-phase CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The dynamic subtraction image was obtained by the subtraction of the current non-enhanced CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The percentage of fair or superior temporal subtraction images increased from 52.4% to 95.2% using the new technique, while on the dynamic subtraction images, the percentage increased from 66.6% to 95.2%. The new subtraction technique may facilitate the diagnosis of subtle HCC based on the superior ability of these subtraction images to show nodular and/or ring enhancement

12. Thermal mapping of mountain slopes on Mars by application of a Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia technique

Science.gov (United States)

Kubiak, Marta; Mège, Daniel; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Ciazela, Jakub

2015-04-01

Thermal inertia (P) is an important property of geologic surfaces that essentially describes the resistance to temperature (T) change as heat is added. Most remote sensing data describe the surface only. P is a volume property that is sensitive to the composition of the subsurface, down to a depth reached by the diurnal heating wave. As direct measurement of P is not possible on Mars, thermal inertia models (Fergason et al., 2006) and deductive methods (the Apparent Thermal Inertia: ATI and Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia: DATI) are used to estimate it. ATI is computed as (1 - A) / (Tday - Tnight), where A is albedo. Due to the lack of the thermal daytime images with maximum land surface temperature (LST) and nighttime images with minimum LST in Valles Marineris region, the ATI method is difficult to apply. Instead, we have explored the DATI technique (Sabol et al., 2006). DATI is calculated based on shorter time (t) intervals with a high |ΔT/Δt| gradient (in the morning or in the afternoon) and is proportional to the day/night temperature difference (ATI), and hence P. Mars, which exhibits exceptionally high |ΔT/Δt| gradients due to the lack of vegetation and thin atmosphere, is especially suitable for the DATI approach. Here we present a new deductive method for high-resolution differential apparent thermal inertia (DATI) mapping for areas of highly contrasted relief (e.g., Valles Marineris). Contrary to the thermal inertia models, our method takes local relief characteristics (slopes and aspects) into account. This is crucial as topography highly influences A and ΔT measurements. In spite of the different approach, DATI values in the flat areas are in the same range as the values obtained by Fergason et al. (2006). They provide, however, more accurate information for geological interpretations of hilly or mountainous terrains. Sabol, D. E., Gillespie, A. R., McDonald, E., and Danilina, I., 2006. Differential Thermal Inertia of Geological Surfaces. In

13. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

2018-01-01

Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

14. Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Information Retrieval Among Medical College Students in Puducherry-A Pilot Study

OpenAIRE

Kalyanasundaram, Madhanraj; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Ramachandran, Divija; Jayaseelan, Venkatachalam; Bazroy, Joy; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil Jacob

2017-01-01

Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using e...

15. Development of a shortleaf pine individual-tree growth equation using non-linear mixed modeling techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Chakra B. Budhathoki; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

2010-01-01

Nonlinear mixed-modeling methods were used to estimate parameters in an individual-tree basal area growth model for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). Shortleaf pine individual-tree growth data were available from over 200 permanently established 0.2-acre fixed-radius plots located in naturally-occurring even-aged shortleaf pine forests on the...

16. Estimating temporal and spatial variation of ocean surface pCO2 in the North Pacific using a self-organizing map neural network technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Nakaoka

2013-09-01

Full Text Available This study uses a neural network technique to produce maps of the partial pressure of oceanic carbon dioxide (pCO2sea in the North Pacific on a 0.25° latitude × 0.25° longitude grid from 2002 to 2008. The pCO2sea distribution was computed using a self-organizing map (SOM originally utilized to map the pCO2sea in the North Atlantic. Four proxy parameters – sea surface temperature (SST, mixed layer depth, chlorophyll a concentration, and sea surface salinity (SSS – are used during the training phase to enable the network to resolve the nonlinear relationships between the pCO2sea distribution and biogeochemistry of the basin. The observed pCO2sea data were obtained from an extensive dataset generated by the volunteer observation ship program operated by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES. The reconstructed pCO2sea values agreed well with the pCO2sea measurements, with the root-mean-square error ranging from 17.6 μatm (for the NIES dataset used in the SOM to 20.2 μatm (for independent dataset. We confirmed that the pCO2sea estimates could be improved by including SSS as one of the training parameters and by taking into account secular increases of pCO2sea that have tracked increases in atmospheric CO2. Estimated pCO2sea values accurately reproduced pCO2sea data at several time series locations in the North Pacific. The distributions of pCO2sea revealed by 7 yr averaged monthly pCO2sea maps were similar to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory pCO2sea climatology, allowing, however, for a more detailed analysis of biogeochemical conditions. The distributions of pCO2sea anomalies over the North Pacific during the winter clearly showed regional contrasts between El Niño and La Niña years related to changes of SST and vertical mixing.

17. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

Science.gov (United States)

Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2013-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

18. Improved Multiscale Entropy Technique with Nearest-Neighbor Moving-Average Kernel for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Short-Time Biomedical Signal Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. P. Arunachalam

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Analysis of biomedical signals can yield invaluable information for prognosis, diagnosis, therapy evaluation, risk assessment, and disease prevention which is often recorded as short time series data that challenges existing complexity classification algorithms such as Shannon entropy (SE and other techniques. The purpose of this study was to improve previously developed multiscale entropy (MSE technique by incorporating nearest-neighbor moving-average kernel, which can be used for analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary short time series physiological data. The approach was tested for robustness with respect to noise analysis using simulated sinusoidal and ECG waveforms. Feasibility of MSE to discriminate between normal sinus rhythm (NSR and atrial fibrillation (AF was tested on a single-lead ECG. In addition, the MSE algorithm was applied to identify pivot points of rotors that were induced in ex vivo isolated rabbit hearts. The improved MSE technique robustly estimated the complexity of the signal compared to that of SE with various noises, discriminated NSR and AF on single-lead ECG, and precisely identified the pivot points of ex vivo rotors by providing better contrast between the rotor core and the peripheral region. The improved MSE technique can provide efficient complexity analysis of variety of nonlinear and nonstationary short-time biomedical signals.

19. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program.

Science.gov (United States)

Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro

2016-06-01

In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5-question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions had a mean score of 8.44 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.2) compared with a mean score of 8.63 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.1) for active sessions (P = 0.63). Slides-based classroom lectures were the most common instructional method, and faculty used an average of 5 known teaching techniques per formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high.

20. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

2005-01-01

This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithm...

1. Soil Salinity Mapping in Everglades National Park Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Su, H.; Khadim, F. K.; Blankenship, J.; Sobhan, K.

2017-12-01

The South Florida Everglades is a vast subtropical wetland with a globally unique hydrology and ecology, and it is designated as an International Biosphere Reserve and a Wetland of International Importance. Everglades National Park (ENP) is a hydro-ecologically enriched wetland with varying salinity contents, which is a concern for terrestrial ecosystem balance and sustainability. As such, in this study, time series soil salinity mapping was carried out for the ENP area. The mapping first entailed a maximum likelihood classification of seven land cover classes for the ENP area—namely mangrove forest, mangrove scrub, low-density forest, sawgrass, prairies and marshes, barren lands with woodland hammock and water—for the years 1996, 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2015. The classifications for 1996-2010 yielded accuracies of 82%-94%, and the 2015 classification was supported through ground truthing. Afterwards, electric conductivity (EC) tolerance thresholds for each vegetation class were established,which yielded soil salinity maps comprising four soil salinity classes—i.e., the non- (EC = 0 2 dS/m), low- (EC = 2 4 dS/m), moderate- (EC = 4 8 dS/m) and high-saline (EC = >8 dS/m) areas. The soil salinity maps visualized the spatial distribution of soil salinity with no significant temporal variations. The innovative approach of "land cover identification to salinity estimation" used in the study is pragmatic and application oriented, and the study upshots are also useful, considering the diversifying ecological context of the ENP area.

2. Concept Map Technique as a New Method for Whole Text Translation

Science.gov (United States)

Krishan, Tamara Mohd Altabieri

2017-01-01

This study discusses the use of concept map tool as a new method for teaching translation (from English language to Arabic language). This study comprised 80 students divided into two groups. The first group was taught the new vocabulary by using the concept tool method, whereas the second group was taught the new vocabulary by the traditional…

3. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation techniques in the Tennessee Valley. [land use and soil mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Bodenheimer, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

1974-01-01

The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of delineating major soil associations and land uses through computerized analyses is discussed. Useful and potential applications in detecting landscape change and land use mapping are described. Recommendations for improving the data processing effort in a multidisciplinary program are presented.

4. Floodplain Mapping for the Continental United States Using Machine Learning Techniques and Watershed Characteristics

Science.gov (United States)

2017-12-01

Using conventional hydrodynamic methods for floodplain mapping in large-scale and data-scarce regions is problematic due to the high cost of these methods, lack of reliable data and uncertainty propagation. In this study a new framework is proposed to generate 100-year floodplains for any gauged or ungauged watershed across the United States (U.S.). This framework uses Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), topographic, climatic and land use data which are freely available for entire U.S. for floodplain mapping. The framework consists of three components, including a Random Forest classifier for watershed classification, a Probabilistic Threshold Binary Classifier (PTBC) for generating the floodplains, and a lookup table for linking the Random Forest classifier to the PTBC. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed framework is tested on 145 watersheds from various geographical locations in the U.S. The validation results show that around 80 percent of total watersheds are predicted well, 14 percent have acceptable fit and less than five percent are predicted poorly compared to FIRMs. Another advantage of this framework is its ability in generating floodplains for all small rivers and tributaries. Due to the high accuracy and efficiency of this framework, it can be used as a preliminary decision making tool to generate 100-year floodplain maps for data-scarce regions and all tributaries where hydrodynamic methods are difficult to use.

5. Colony mapping: A new technique for monitoring crevice-nesting seabirds

Science.gov (United States)

Renner, H.M.; Renner, M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Harping, A.M.A.; Jones, I.L.; Irons, D.B.; Byrd, G.V.

2006-01-01

Monitoring populations of auklets and other crevice-nesting seabirds remains problematic, although numerous methods have been attempted since the mid-1960s. Anecdotal evidence suggests several large auklet colonies have recently decreased in both abundance and extent, concurrently with vegetation encroachment and succession. Quantifying changes in the geographical extent of auklet colonies may be a useful alternative to monitoring population size directly. We propose a standardized method for colony mapping using a randomized systematic grid survey with two components: a simple presence/absence survey and an auklet evidence density survey. A quantitative auklet evidence density index was derived from the frequency of droppings and feathers. This new method was used to map the colony on St. George Island in the southeastern Bering Sea and results were compared to previous colony mapping efforts. Auklet presence was detected in 62 of 201 grid cells (each grid cell = 2500 m2) by sampling a randomly placed 16 m2 plot in each cell; estimated colony area = 155 000 m2. The auklet evidence density index varied by two orders of magnitude across the colony and was strongly correlated with means of replicated counts of birds socializing on the colony surface. Quantitatively mapping all large auklet colonies is logistically feasible using this method and would provide an important baseline for monitoring colony status. Regularly monitoring select colonies using this method may be the best means of detecting changes in distribution and population size of crevice-nesting seabirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

6. Printed organic smart devices characterized by nonlinear optical

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel

2017-01-01

In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to characterize organic printed electronics. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence...

7. Nature Inspired Computational Technique for the Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Singular Boundary Value Problems Arising in Physiology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Suheel Abdullah Malik

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We present a hybrid heuristic computing method for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. The approximate solution is deduced as a linear combination of some log sigmoid basis functions. A fitness function representing the sum of the mean square error of the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE and its boundary conditions is formulated. The optimization of the unknown adjustable parameters contained in the fitness function is performed by the hybrid heuristic computation algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA, interior point algorithm (IPA, and active set algorithm (ASA. The efficiency and the viability of the proposed method are confirmed by solving three examples from physiology. The obtained approximate solutions are found in excellent agreement with the exact solutions as well as some conventional numerical solutions.

8. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

2014-10-21

We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

9. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Katharine Glanville

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

10. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

2015-06-01

Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.

11. Methodology for qualitative content analysis with the technique of mind maps using Nvivo and FreeMind softwares

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

José Leonardo Oliveira Lima

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Introduction: In a survey it is not enough choosing tools, resources and procedures. It is important to understand the method beyond the technics and their relationship with philosophy, epistemology and methodology. Objective: To discuss theoretical and methodological concerns on Qualitative Research in Information Science and the process of Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA at User Studies field and to show a followed path of QCA integrated with Mind Maps technic for developing categories and indicators, by using Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS and Mind Maps designing tools. Methodology: The research was descriptive, methodological, bibliographical and fieldwork conducted with open interviews that were processed using the QCA method with the support of QDAS Nvivo and FreeMind Software for Mind Map design. Results: It is shown the theory of qualitative research and QCA and a methodological path of QCA by using techniques and software mentioned above. Conclusions: When it comes to qualitative researches, the theoretical framework suggests the need of more dialogue among Information Science and other disciplines. The process of QCA evidenced: a viable path that might help further related investigations using the QDAS; the contribution of Mind Maps and their design softwares to develop the indicators and categories of QCA.

12. Land Cover Mapping Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Greater Cairo Region—Egypt

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yasmine Megahed

2015-09-01

Full Text Available This study modeled the urban growth in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR, one of the fastest growing mega cities in the world, using remote sensing data and ancillary data. Three land use land cover (LULC maps (1984, 2003 and 2014 were produced from satellite images by using Support Vector Machines (SVM. Then, land cover changes were detected by applying a high level mapping technique that combines binary maps (change/no-change and post classification comparison technique. The spatial and temporal urban growth patterns were analyzed using selected statistical metrics developed in the FRAGSTATS software. Major transitions to urban were modeled to predict the future scenarios for year 2025 using Land Change Modeler (LCM embedded in the IDRISI software. The model results, after validation, indicated that 14% of the vegetation and 4% of the desert in 2014 will be urbanized in 2025. The urban areas within a 5-km buffer around: the Great Pyramids, Islamic Cairo and Al-Baron Palace were calculated, highlighting an intense urbanization especially around the Pyramids; 28% in 2014 up to 40% in 2025. Knowing the current and estimated urbanization situation in GCR will help decision makers to adjust and develop new plans to achieve a sustainable development of urban areas and to protect the historical locations.

13. A Procedure to Map Subsidence at the Regional Scale Using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ascanio Rosi

2014-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a procedure to map subsidence at the regional scale by means of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI. Subsidence analysis is usually restricted to plain areas and where the presence of this phenomenon is already known. The proposed procedure allows a fast identification of subsidences in large and hilly-mountainous areas. The test area is the Tuscany region, in Central Italy, where several areas are affected by natural and anthropogenic subsidence and where PSI data acquired by the Envisat satellite are available both in ascending and descending orbit. The procedure consists of the definition of the vertical and horizontal components of the deformation measured by satellite at first, then of the calculation of the “real” displacement direction, so that mainly vertical deformations can be individuated and mapped.

14. Techniques for the creation of land use maps and tabulations from Landsat imagery

Science.gov (United States)

Angelici, G. L.; Bryant, N. A.

1977-01-01

Methods for creating color thematic maps and land use tabulations, employing both Landsat imagery and computer image processing, are discussed. The system, the Multiple Input Land Use System (MILUS) has been tested in the metropolitan section of Dayton, Ohio. Training areas for land use were first digitized by coordinates and then transformed onto an image of white lines on a black background. This image was added to a Landsat image of the same area. Then multispectral classification was performed. A tape of digitized census tract boundaries was computer interfaced to yield an image of tract boundaries on a background registered to the thematic land-use map. Using a data management system, the data were then used to produce figures for the area and percent of land use in each tract. Future work is expected to convert most of the steps into interactive processing. This would greatly reduce the time needed to edit and register the data sets.

15. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

2011-01-01

The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

16. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skokos, Ch., E-mail: haris.skokos@uct.ac.za [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Gerlach, E. [Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bodyfelt, J.D., E-mail: J.Bodyfelt@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Papamikos, G. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Eggl, S. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)

2014-05-01

While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

17. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skokos, Ch.; Gerlach, E.; Bodyfelt, J.D.; Papamikos, G.; Eggl, S.

2014-01-01

While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

18. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

2016-12-01

The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

19. A Survey Work on Optimization Techniques Utilizing Map Reduce Framework in Hadoop Cluster

OpenAIRE

Bibhudutta Jena; Mahendra Kumar Gourisaria; Siddharth Swarup Rautaray; Manjusha Pandey

2017-01-01

Data is one of the most important and vital aspect of different activities in today's world. Therefore vast amount of data is generated in each and every second. A rapid growth of data in recent time in different domains required an intelligent data analysis tool that would be helpful to satisfy the need to analysis a huge amount of data. Map Reduce framework is basically designed to process large amount of data and to support effective decision making. It consists of ...

20. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis

OpenAIRE

Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

2016-01-01

Background Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM...

1. 3D laser scanning techniques applying to tunnel documentation and geological mapping at Aespoe hard rock laboratory, Sweden

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feng, Q.; Wang, G.; Roeshoff, K.

2008-01-01

3D terrestrial laser scanning is nowadays one of the most attractive methods to applying for 3D mapping and documentation of rock faces and tunnels, and shows the most potential to improve the data quality and provide some good solutions in rock engineering projects. In this paper, the state-of-the-art methods are described for different possibility to tunnel documentation and geological mapping based on 3D laser scanning data. Some results are presented from the case study performed at the Hard Rock Laboratory, Aespoe run by SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. Comparing to traditional methods, 3D laser scanning techniques can not only provide us with a rapid and 3D digital way for tunnel documentation, but also create a potential chance to achieve high quality data, which might be beneficial to different rock engineering project procedures, including field data acquisition, data processing, data retrieving and management, and also modeling and design. (authors)

2. Mapping and evaluation of snow avalanche risk using GIS technique in Rodnei National Park

Science.gov (United States)

Covǎsnianu, Adrian; Grigoraş, Ioan-Rǎducu; Covǎsnianu, Liliana-Elena; Iordache, Iulian; Balin, Daniela

2010-05-01

The study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign, on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:25.000 scale and updated with ASTER mission) of the Rodnei National Park area (Romanian Carpathians) with a focus on snow avalanche risk survey. Parameters taken into account were slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness resulted from a high resolute numerical terrain model obtained by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) mission. The resulted digital surface model with a spatial resolution of 10 m covered a total area of 187 square kilometers and was improved by the help of Topo to Raster tool. All these parameters were calibrated after a model applied onto Tatra Massive and also Ceahlău Mountain. The results were adapted and interpreted in accordance with European avalanche hazard scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Rodnei Natural Park. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

3. Managing the total cost of risk exposures through risk mapping techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unione, A.J.; Rode, D.M.

1998-01-01

In a competitive power market, power producers are exposed to an increasingly broad spectrum of financial risks. The cumulative impact of these financial risks is known collectively as the Total of Cost of Risk. The concept of Total of Cost of Risk presents the business reality of a company's exposure to potentially devastating financial consequences in an integrated and useful way. In this way, a strategy of managing Total Cost of Risk in the most cost effective way can become a means of ensuring long term business health and security. This paper will examine the use of risk mapping as a tool for visually understanding Total Cost of Risk, thus creating an enhanced situational awareness and an integrated basis for risk management decision. The evaluation process, available through the use of risk maps allows the power producers to pro-actively implement prudent business decisions concerning the design, operation and maintenance of power plants. Risk mapping is thus a means for harmonizing operational objectives, such as improved plant reliability, with corporate strategies and goals in terms of an effective risk management program

4. A new strategy for snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Roberge, S.; Chokmani, K.; De Sève, D.

2012-04-01

The snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of Quebec (Eastern Canada). Consequently, evaluating its spatial extent interests the authorities responsible for the management of water resources, especially hydropower companies. The main objective of this study is the development of a snow-cover mapping strategy using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques. Planned to be tested in a near real-time operational mode, this snow-cover mapping strategy has the advantage to provide the probability of a pixel to be snow covered and its uncertainty. Ensemble systems are made of two key components. First, a method is needed to build an ensemble of classifiers that is diverse as much as possible. Second, an approach is required to combine the outputs of individual classifiers that make up the ensemble in such a way that correct decisions are amplified, and incorrect ones are cancelled out. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of ensemble systems to snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data. The chosen classifier is a sequential thresholds algorithm using NOAA-AVHRR data adapted to conditions over Eastern Canada. Its special feature is the use of a combination of six sequential thresholds varying according to the day in the winter season. Two versions of the snow-cover mapping algorithm have been developed: one is specific for autumn (from October 1st to December 31st) and the other for spring (from March 16th to May 31st). In order to build the ensemble based system, different versions of the algorithm are created by varying randomly its parameters. One hundred of the versions are included in the ensemble. The probability of a pixel to be snow, no-snow or cloud covered corresponds to the amount of votes the pixel has been classified as such by all classifiers. The overall performance of ensemble based mapping is compared to the overall performance of the chosen classifier, and also with ground observations at meteorological

5. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

2014-05-01

Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (potential for communicating the complexity of key exposures. For example, in studies of metamorphic structures we often search for days to find "Rosetta Stone" outcrops that display key geometric relationships. While conventional photographs rarely can capture the essence of the field exposure, capturing a true 3D representation of the exposure with multiple photos from many orientations can solve this communication problem. As spatial databases evolve these 3D models should be readily importable into the database.

6. Modelling risk of tick exposure in southern Scandinavia using machine learning techniques, satellite imagery, and human population density maps

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

30 sites (forests and meadows) in each of Denmark, southern Norway and south-eastern Sweden. At each site we measured presence/absence of ticks, and used the data obtained along with environmental satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall spatial...... and Sweden), areas with high population densities tend to overlap with these zones.Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger areas without having to perform extensive sampling all over the region in question, and we were able to produce models and maps with high predictive value. The results...

7. An evaluation of image based techniques for wildfire detection and fuel mapping

Science.gov (United States)

Gabbert, Dustin W.

Few events can cause the catastrophic impact to ecology, infrastructure, and human safety of a wildland fire along the wildland urban interface. The suppression of natural wildland fires over the past decade has caused a buildup of dry, dead surface fuels: a condition that, coupled with the right weather conditions, can cause large destructive wildfires that are capable of threatening both ancient tree stands and manmade infrastructure. Firefighters use fire danger models to determine staffing needs on high fire risk days; however models are only as effective as the spatial and temporal density of their observations. OKFIRE, an Oklahoma initiative created by a partnership between Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma, has proven that fire danger assessments close to the fire - both geographically and temporally - can give firefighters a significant increase in their situational awareness while fighting a wildland fire. This paper investigates several possible solutions for a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which could gather information useful for detecting ground fires and constructing fire danger maps. Multiple fire detection and fuel mapping programs utilize satellites, manned aircraft, and large UAS equipped with hyperspectral sensors to gather useful information. Their success provides convincing proof of the utility that could be gained from low-altitude UAS gathering information at the exact time and place firefighters and land managers are interested in. Close proximity, both geographically and operationally, to the end can reduce latency times below what could ever be possible with satellite observation. This paper expands on recent advances in computer vision, photogrammetry, and infrared and color imagery to develop a framework for a next-generation UAS which can assess fire danger and aid firefighters in real time as they observe, contain, or extinguish wildland fires. It also investigates the impact information gained by this

8. Village Level Tsunami Threat Maps for Tamil Nadu, SE Coast of India: Numerical Modeling Technique

Science.gov (United States)

MP, J.; Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; V, R. M.

2014-12-01

The Indian Ocean tsunami (IOT) devastated several countries of North Indian Ocean. India is one of the worst affected countries after Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In India, Tamil Nadu suffered maximum with fatalities exceeding 8,000 people. Historical records show that tsunami has invaded the shores of Tamil Nadu in the past and has made people realize that the tsunami threat looms over Tamil Nadu and it is necessary to evolve strategies for tsunami threat management. The IOT has brought to light that tsunami inundation and runup varied within short distances and for the disaster management for tsunami, large scale maps showing areas that are likely to be affected by future tsunami are identified. Therefore threat assessment for six villages including Mamallapuram (also called Mahabalipuram) which is famous for its rock-cut temples, from the northern part of Tamil Nadu state of India has been carried out and threat maps categorizing the coast into areas of different degree of threat are prepared. The threat was assessed by numerical modeling using TUNAMI N2 code considering different tsunamigenic sources along the Andaman - Sumatra trench. While GEBCO and C-Map data was used for bathymetry and for land elevation data was generated by RTK - GPS survey for a distance of 1 km from shore and SRTM for the inland areas. The model results show that in addition to the Sumatra source which generated the IOT in 2004, earthquakes originating in Car Nicobar and North Andaman can inflict more damage. The North Andaman source can generate a massive tsunami and an earthquake of magnitude more than Mw 9 can not only affect Tamil Nadu but also entire south east coast of India. The runup water level is used to demarcate the tsunami threat zones in the villages using GIS.

9. Mapping of unfolding states of integral helical membrane proteins by GPS-NMR and scattering techniques

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Calcutta, Antonello; Jessen, Christian M; Behrens, Manja Annette

2012-01-01

induced by unfolding of an integral membrane protein, namely TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA solubilized by the n-dodecyl ß-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactant is investigated by the recently introduced GPS-NMR (Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR) (Malmendal et al., PlosONE 5, e10262 (2010......)) along with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). GPS-NMR is used as a tool for fast analysis of the protein unfolding processes upon external perturbation, and DLS and SAXS are used for further structural characterization of the unfolding states. The combination allows...

10. Diagrams and Relational Maps: The Use of Graphic Elicitation Techniques with Interviewing for Data Collection, Analysis, and Display

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andrea J. Copeland PhD

2012-12-01

Full Text Available Graphic elicitation techniques, which ask research participants to provide visual data representing personal understandings of concepts, experiences, beliefs, or behaviors, can be especially useful in helping participants to express complex or abstract ideas or opinions. The benefits and drawbacks of using graphic elicitation techniques for data collection, data analysis, and data display in qualitative research studies are analyzed using examples from a research study that employed data matrices and relational maps in conjunction with semi-structured interviews. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the use of these combined techniques for data collection facilitates triangulation and helps to establish internal consistency of data, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of the interpretation of that data and lending support to validity and reliability claims. Findings support the notion that graphic elicitation techniques can be highly useful in qualitative research studies at the data collection, the data analysis, and the data reporting stages. For example, this study found that graphic elicitation techniques are especially useful for eliciting data related to emotions and emotional experiences.

11. Benthic Habitat Mapping Using Multispectral High-Resolution Imagery: Evaluation of Shallow Water Atmospheric Correction Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Francisco Eugenio

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Remote multispectral data can provide valuable information for monitoring coastal water ecosystems. Specifically, high-resolution satellite-based imaging systems, as WorldView-2 (WV-2, can generate information at spatial scales needed to implement conservation actions for protected littoral zones. However, coastal water-leaving radiance arriving at the space-based sensor is often small as compared to reflected radiance. In this work, complex approaches, which usually use an accurate radiative transfer code to correct the atmospheric effects, such as FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S, have been implemented for high-resolution imagery. They have been assessed in real scenarios using field spectroradiometer data. In this context, the three approaches have achieved excellent results and a slightly superior performance of 6S model-based algorithm has been observed. Finally, for the mapping of benthic habitats in shallow-waters marine protected environments, a relevant application of the proposed atmospheric correction combined with an automatic deglinting procedure is presented. This approach is based on the integration of a linear mixing model of benthic classes within the radiative transfer model of the water. The complete methodology has been applied to selected ecosystems in the Canary Islands (Spain but the obtained results allow the robust mapping of the spatial distribution and density of seagrass in coastal waters and the analysis of multitemporal variations related to the human activity and climate change in littoral zones.

12. Automatic classification techniques for type of sediment map from multibeam sonar data

Science.gov (United States)

Zakariya, R.; Abdullah, M. A.; Che Hasan, R.; Khalil, I.

2018-02-01

Sediment map can be important information for various applications such as oil drilling, environmental and pollution study. A study on sediment mapping was conducted at a natural reef (rock) in Pulau Payar using Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) technology which is Multibeam Echosounder R2-Sonic. This study aims to determine sediment type by obtaining backscatter and bathymetry data from multibeam echosounder. Ground truth data were used to verify the classification produced. The method used to analyze ground truth samples consists of particle size analysis (PSA) and dry sieving methods. Different analysis being carried out due to different sizes of sediment sample obtained. The smaller size was analyzed using PSA with the brand CILAS while bigger size sediment was analyzed using sieve. For multibeam, data acquisition includes backscatter strength and bathymetry data were processed using QINSy, Qimera, and ArcGIS. This study shows the capability of multibeam data to differentiate the four types of sediments which are i) very coarse sand, ii) coarse sand, iii) very coarse silt and coarse silt. The accuracy was reported as 92.31% overall accuracy and 0.88 kappa coefficient.

13. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

2018-06-01

The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14. A NEW RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE NAMED SOMP BASED ON PALMPRINT USING NEURAL NETWORK BASED SELF ORGANIZING MAPS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. S. Raja

2012-08-01

Full Text Available The word biometrics refers to the use of physiological or biological characteristics of human to recognize and verify the identity of an individual. Palmprint has become a new class of human biometrics for passive identification with uniqueness and stability. This is considered to be reliable due to the lack of expressions and the lesser effect of aging. In this manuscript a new Palmprint based biometric system based on neural networks self organizing maps (SOM is presented. The method is named as SOMP. The paper shows that the proposed SOMP method improves the performance and robustness of recognition. The proposed method is applied to a variety of datasets and the results are shown.

15. Mapping patient safety : A large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Rodrigues, S.P.; Van Eck, N.J.; Waltman, L.; Jansen, F.W.

2014-01-01

Background The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview

16. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

2005-01-01

The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

17. Identification of nonlinear anelastic models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Draganescu, G E; Bereteu, L; Ercuta, A

2008-01-01

A useful nonlinear identification technique applied to the anelastic and rheologic models is presented in this paper. First introduced by Feldman, the method is based on the Hilbert transform, and is currently used for identification of the nonlinear vibrations

18. Application of electrical resistivity tomography techniques for mapping man-made sinkholes

Science.gov (United States)

Rey, J.; Martínez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Dueñas, J.

2012-04-01

The suitability of the geophysical prospecting by electrical resistivity tomography to detect and map man-made subsurface cavities and related sinkholes has been studied in the Linares abandoned mining district (Spain). We have selected for this study four mined sectors constituted of different lithologies: granite and phyllites of Paleozoic age, and Triassic shales and sandstones. In three of these sectors, detail underground topographic surveys were carried out to chart the position and dimensions of the mining voids (galleries and chamber), in order to analyze the resolution of this methodology to characterize these cavities by using different electrode arrays. The results are variable, depending on the depth and diameter of the void, the selected electrode array, the spacing between electrodes, geological complexity and data density. These results also indicate that when the cavity is empty, an anomaly with a steep gradient and high resistivity values is registered, because the air that fills the mining void is dielectric, while when the cavities are filled with fine grain sediments, frequently saturated in water, the electrical resistance is lower. In relation with the three different multi-electrode arrays tested, the Wenner-Schlumberger array has resulted to offer the maximum resolution in all these cases, with lower and more stable values for the RMS than the other arrays. Therefore, this electrode array has been applied in the fourth studied sector, a former mine near the city centre of Linares, in an area of urban expansion in which there are problems of subsidence. Two sets of four electrical tomography profiles have been carried out, perpendicular to each other, and which have allowed reaching depths of research between 30-35 m. This net-array allowed the identification of two shallow anomalies of low resistivity values, interpreted as old mining galleries filled with fine material saturated in water. It also allows detecting two fractures, correlated

19. A technique for temperature mapping in fluorocarbon plasmas using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CF

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A.

2004-01-01

Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A 2 Σ + -X 2 Π(1,0) were used to determine two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF 4 plasmas. Measured rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with the gas temperature due to the long chemical lifetime of CF relative to the collision rate. Experiments were performed in the capacitively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference rf reference cell at pressures from 26.7 Pa (200 mTorr) to 107 Pa (800 mTorr) and powers of 10 to 30 W deposited in the plasma. Temperatures, which ranged from 273±15 K to 480±15 K, were fairly axially symmetric and increased with pressure and power. All plasmas were coolest near the electrodes, which provided a substantial sink for heat in the plasma. Highest temperatures were found at a radial position near the edge of the electrodes. The strong temperature gradients observed in the plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients. The effects of water-cooling the electrodes and the presence of a silicon wafer on temperature were also measured

20. Mapping gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol formation: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric data sets

Science.gov (United States)

Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.

2015-07-01

Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modelling in order to ultimately identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Results show that "model" biogenic oxidative systems can be successfully separated and classified according to their oxidation products. Furthermore, a holistic view of results obtained across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA formation chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidised gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i

1. High speed resonant frequency determination applied to field mapping using perturbation techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smith, B.H.; Burton, R.J.; Hutcheon, R.M.

1992-01-01

Perturbation techniques are commonly used for measuring electric and magnetic field distributions in resonant structures. A field measurement system has been assembled using a Hewlett Packard model 8753C network analyzer interfaced via an HPIB bus to a personal computer to form an accurate, rapid and flexible system for data acquisition, control, and analysis of such measurements. Characterization of long linac structures (up to 3 m) is accomplished in about three minutes, minimizing thermal drift effects. This paper describes the system, its application and its extension to applications such as confirming the presence of weak, off-axis quadrupole fields in an on-axis coupled linac. (Author) 5 figs., 10 refs

2. Linear and nonlinear optical studies of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol gel technique

Science.gov (United States)

Rajamannan, B.; Mugundan, S.; Viruthagiri, G.; Praveen, P.; Shanmugam, N.

2014-01-01

In general, the nanoparticles of TiO2 may exist in the phases of anatase, rutile and brookite. In the present work, we used titanium terta iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting material to prepare the precursors of bare and copper doped nanosized TiO2. Then the synthesized products were calcinated at 500 °C and after calcination the pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were harvested. The crystallite sizes of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were calculated from X-ray diffraction analysis. The existence of functional groups of the samples was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The nonlinear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

3. A nonlinear controller design for permanent magnet motors using a synchronization-based technique inspired from the Lorenz system.

Science.gov (United States)

Zaher, Ashraf A

2008-03-01

The dynamic behavior of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) is analyzed. Nominal and special operating conditions are explored to show that the PMSM can experience chaos. A nonlinear controller is introduced to control these unwanted chaotic oscillations and to bring the PMSM to a stable steady state. The designed controller uses a pole-placement approach to force the closed-loop system to follow the performance of a simple first-order linear system with zero steady-state error to a desired set point. The similarity between the mathematical model of the PMSM and the famous chaotic Lorenz system is utilized to design a synchronization-based state observer using only the angular speed for feedback. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in eliminating the chaotic oscillations while using a single feedback signal. The superiority of the proposed controller is further demonstrated by comparing it with a conventional PID controller. Finally, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted using the MCK2812 C Pro-MS(BL) motion control kit to confirm the theoretical results and to verify both the causality and versatility of the proposed controller.

4. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

2016-04-01

The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

5. Measuring trace gas emission from multi-distributed sources using vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The accuracy of the vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and the backward Lagrangian (bLS) techniques with an open-path optical spectrosco...

6. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

2018-02-01

Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

7. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

2018-06-01

Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

8. Current and emerging techniques for contaminant mapping and data visualization at DNAPL sites

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wealthall, Gary; Durant, Neal; Grosen, Bernt

methods will be discussed in the context of contaminant delineation, remediation design, technology verification and regulatory acceptance. We present a range of site investigation tools, based on the principle of combined lines of evidence and the premise that a single technique is not available to fully......Recent advances in the development of contaminant specific site investigation tools has significantly enhanced our ability to characterize the spatial architecture of DNAPL source zones in both sedimentary and fractured bedrock environments. The application of innovative site characterization...... value. These methods are generally of lower cost, produce vertical profiles of real-time data and are primarily used to identify site areas that require further investigation. Examples of such "decision quality" methods are drive point tools, such as laser-induced fluorescence profiling and membrane...

9. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

2014-03-13

The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000-2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives might be needed.

10. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Houser, P. I. Q.

2017-12-01

21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

11. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

2013-01-01

Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation

12. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

2014-01-01

Background The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). Methods On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000–2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. Results A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. Conclusions A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives

13. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001 (Australia); Brady, Carole [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland, 4101 (Australia); Dry, Allison [Cancer Care Services Royal Brisbane Women' s Hospital Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, 4029 (Australia); School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001 (Australia)

2013-03-15

Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

14. Effect of linear and non-linear blade modelling techniques on simulated fatigue and extreme loads using Bladed

Science.gov (United States)

Beardsell, Alec; Collier, William; Han, Tao

2016-09-01

15. Mapping forested wetlands in the Great Zhan River Basin through integrating optical, radar, and topographical data classification techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L

2015-11-01

Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pwetlands based on the per-pixel classifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (pwetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.

16. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

2003-01-01

The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

17. Nonlinear wave equations

CERN Document Server

Li, Tatsien

2017-01-01

This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

18. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

CERN Document Server

Kono, Mitsuo

2010-01-01

A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

19. The anti-CMS technique for genome-wide mapping of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, Yun; Pastor, William A; Zepeda-Martínez, Jorge A; Rao, Anjana

2012-10-01

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently discovered base in the mammalian genome, produced upon oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in a process catalyzed by TET proteins. The biological functions of 5hmC and further oxidation products of 5mC are under intense investigation, as they are likely intermediates in DNA demethylation pathways. Here we describe a novel protocol to profile 5hmC at a genome-wide scale. This approach is based on sodium bisulfite-mediated conversion of 5hmC to cytosine-5-methylenesulfonate (CMS); CMS-containing DNA fragments are then immunoprecipitated using a CMS-specific antiserum. The anti-CMS technique is highly specific with a low background, and is much less dependent on 5hmC density than anti-5hmC immunoprecipitation (IP). Moreover, it does not enrich for CA and CT repeats, as noted for 5hmC DNA IP using antibodies to 5hmC. The anti-CMS protocol takes 3 d to complete.

20. Mapping sediment deposite on tank FB-901 using neutron back scattering technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wibisono; Sugiharto; Zulkifli Lubis; Phyu Phyu Aung Myint; Thin Moe Hlaing

2016-01-01

Tank FB-901 is storage tank for temporary material production with a diameter 11 m and a high 12 m. This tank has been use about 10 years so it is suspected there is sediment in it. Neutron back scattering technique has been used to detected the level of sediment inside so it can be seen the volume of liquid properly and avoid problem in the nozzle outlet. AmBe neutron source with activity one Curie shoot into the tank to enable back scattering intensity from material. Measurement using He-3 detector, radiation counter Ludlum model 2200 scaler ratemeter and mechanical motor controlled by computer. Investigation were taken at around the tank from the bottom to the top on each step 50 mm height 8000 mm. Scan determined the distance between 500 mm and measurement time 3 seconds to each sample point. Investigation found the sediment level average 1000 mm by 1500 mm highest and lowest level 100 mm. Fluctuating liquid level observed maximum of 7800 mm and average of 7000 mm. Cleaning tank advised to avoid blockage of the nozzle and material volume is measured accurately. (author)

1. Techniques for precise mapping of 226Ra and 228Ra in the ocean

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moore, W.S.; Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.

1985-01-01

Improvements in the analyses of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in seawater made possible by better extraction and processing techniques reduce significantly the errors associated with these measurements. These improvements and the extensive sampling for Ra isotopes conducted on the TTO North Atlantic Study should enable us to use the distribution of 228 Ra to study mixing processes on a 3-15 year time scale in both the upper and deep North Atlantic. The 228 Ra profiles already analyzed show a closer resemblance to GEOSECS tritium data than to TTO tritium data in the upper ocean. This is because the transient tracer tritium was responding on a 10-year time scale during GEOSECS and a 20-year time scale during TTO. The steady state tracer 228 Ra should always respond on a time scale of 8 years. Thus the 228 Ra data obtained on TTO should provide a means to extend the features of the GEOSECS tritium field to the regions of the TTO study. The 226 Ra data are of high enough quality to identify features associated with different water masses. Changes in the positions of the deep-water masses since the GEOSECS cruise are revealed by the 226 Radata

2. Ultrafast electron, lattice and spin dynamics on rare earth metal surfaces. Investigated with linear and nonlinear optical techniques

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2006-03-15

This thesis presents the femtosecond laser-induced electron, lattice and spin dynamics on two representative rare-earth systems: The ferromagnetic gadolinium Gd(0001) and the paramagnetic yttrium Y(0001) metals. The employed investigation tools are the time-resolved linear reflectivity and second-harmonic generation, which provide complementary information about the bulk and surface/interface dynamics, respectively. The femtosecond laser excitation of the exchange-split surface state of Gd(0001) triggers simultaneously the coherent vibrational dynamics of the lattice and spin subsystems in the surface region at a frequency of 3 THz. The coherent optical phonon corresponds to the vibration of the topmost atomic layer against the underlying bulk along the normal direction to the surface. The coupling mechanism between phonons and magnons is attributed to the modulation of the exchange interaction J between neighbour atoms due to the coherent lattice vibration. This leads to an oscillatory motion of the magnetic moments having the same frequency as the lattice vibration. Thus these results reveal a new type of phonon-magnon coupling mediated by the modulation of the exchange interaction and not by the conventional spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show that coherent spin dynamics in the THz frequency domain is achievable, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than previously reported. The laser-induced (de)magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic Gd(0001) thin films have been studied. Upon photo-excitation, the nonlinear magneto-optics measurements performed in this work show a sudden drop in the spin polarization of the surface state by more than 50% in a <100 fs time interval. Under comparable experimental conditions, the time-resolved photoemission studies reveal a constant exchange splitting of the surface state. The ultrafast decrease of spin polarization can be explained by the quasi-elastic spin-flip scattering of the hot electrons among spin

3. Construction of symplectic full-turn maps by application of an arbitrary tracking code

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warnock, R.L.

1989-03-01

A map to describe propagation of particles through any section of a nonlinear lattice may be represented as a Taylor expansion about the origin in phase space. Although the technique to compute the Taylor coefficients has been improved recently, the expansion may fail to provide adequate accuracy in regions where nonlinear effects are substantial. A representation of the map in angle-action coordinates, with the angle dependence given by a Fourier series, and the action dependence by polynomials in I/sup 1/2/, may be more successful. Maps of this form are easily constructed by taking Fourier transforms of results from an arbitrary symplectic tracking code. Examples are given of one-turn and two turn maps for the SLC North Damping Ring in a strongly nonlinear region. Results for accuracy and speed of evaluation of the maps are quite encouraging. It seems feasible to make accurate maps for the SSC by this method. 9 refs., 1 tab

4. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

2015-04-01

This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

5. The landscape of nonlinear structural dynamics: an introduction.

Science.gov (United States)

Butlin, T; Woodhouse, J; Champneys, A R

2015-09-28

Nonlinear behaviour is ever-present in vibrations and other dynamical motions of engineering structures. Manifestations of nonlinearity include amplitude-dependent natural frequencies, buzz, squeak and rattle, self-excited oscillation and non-repeatability. This article primarily serves as an extended introduction to a theme issue in which such nonlinear phenomena are highlighted through diverse case studies. More ambitiously though, there is another goal. Both the engineering context and the mathematical techniques that can be used to identify, analyse, control or exploit these phenomena in practice are placed in the context of a mind-map, which has been created through expert elicitation. This map, which is available in software through the electronic supplementary material, attempts to provide a practitioner's guide to what hitherto might seem like a vast and complex research landscape. © 2015 The Authors.

6. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.

Science.gov (United States)

Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem

2018-03-01

Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

7. Nonlinear control techniques of a controllable rectifier/inverter-motor drive system with a small dc-link capacitor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liutanakul, Pisit; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

2008-01-01

The necessity of the converters compactness in many applications imposes the reduction of their different components size when it is possible. In this paper, a control method allowing the use of a small size dc-link capacitor for the cascade of voltage controlled-rectifier/inverter-motor drive system is proposed. This is achieved by adding the power balance equation in the system's model and the application of an exact input/output feedback linearization technique in a way that the rectifier controller compensates any sudden change in the inverter load, which is here an induction motor. Since the exact input/output feedback linearization technique is sensitive to the uncertainties over system parameters, a robust control strategy based on sliding mode controller is proposed. By this approach, the dc-link voltage becomes almost insensitive to the load variations. As a result, the level of the dc-link voltage could be stabilized with a small size dc-link capacitor. Without any considerations of the RMS current stress on this dc-link capacitor, a calculation method of a minimum value of this capacitor based on its storage energy is proposed. All the investigations are shown by computer simulations and the performance of controlled system is verified by experimentation results

8. Nonlinear Methods in Riemannian and Kählerian Geometry

CERN Document Server

Jost, Jürgen

1991-01-01

In this book, I present an expanded version of the contents of my lectures at a Seminar of the DMV (Deutsche Mathematiker Vereinigung) in Düsseldorf, June, 1986. The title "Nonlinear methods in complex geometry" already indicates a combination of techniques from nonlinear partial differential equations and geometric concepts. In older geometric investigations, usually the local aspects attracted more attention than the global ones as differential geometry in its foundations provides approximations of local phenomena through infinitesimal or differential constructions. Here, all equations are linear. If one wants to consider global aspects, however, usually the presence of curvature Ieads to a nonlinearity in the equations. The simplest case is the one of geodesics which are described by a system of second ordernonlinear ODE; their linearizations are the Jacobi fields. More recently, nonlinear PDE played a more and more pro~inent röle in geometry. Let us Iist some of the most important ones: - harmonic maps ...

9. Cool-season precipitation in the southwestern USA since AD 1000: comparison of linear and nonlinear techniques for reconstruction

Science.gov (United States)

Ni, Fenbiao; Cavazos, Tereza; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Comrie, Andrew C.; Funkhouser, Gary

2002-11-01

A 1000 year reconstruction of cool-season (November-April) precipitation was developed for each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico from a network of 19 tree-ring chronologies in the southwestern USA. Linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (NN) models were used to identify the cool-season precipitation signal in tree rings. Using 1931-88 records, the stepwise LR model was cross-validated with a leave-one-out procedure and the NN was validated with a bootstrap technique. The final models were also independently validated using the 1896-1930 precipitation data. In most of the climate divisions, both techniques can successfully reconstruct dry and normal years, and the NN seems to capture large precipitation events and more variability better than the LR. In the 1000 year reconstructions the NN also produces more distinctive wet events and more variability, whereas the LR produces more distinctive dry events. The 1000 year reconstructed precipitation from the two models shows several sustained dry and wet periods comparable to the 1950s drought (e.g. 16th century mega drought) and to the post-1976 wet period (e.g. 1330s, 1610s). The impact of extreme periods on the environment may be stronger during sudden reversals from dry to wet, which were not uncommon throughout the millennium, such as the 1610s wet interval that followed the 16th century mega drought. The instrumental records suggest that strong dry to wet precipitation reversals in the past 1000 years might be linked to strong shifts from cold to warm El Niño-southern oscillation events and from a negative to positive Pacific decadal oscillation.

10. PRONOSTICANDO EL ÍNDICE ENSO VARIOS PASOS EN ADELANTE MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS DE MODELAMIENTO NO LINEAL FORECASTING ENSO SEVERAL STEPS AHEAD THROUGH NONLINEAR MODELING TECHNIQUES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Giovanni Salini Calderón

2010-12-01

Full Text Available Se indica cómo manejar una gran base de datos consistente de series temporales no lineales, aplicando distintas técnicas de modelamiento no lineal a estas series. Aunque no existen guías explícitas de manipulación de series temporales no lineales en la profusa bibliografía actual, existen diferentes enfoques que pueden ser tomados en cuenta. Para ello se estudió una base de datos mensual correspondiente a datos del Fenómeno del Niño (ENSO, entre los años 1866 y 2006. Se explica cómo debe manipularse esta base de datos que poseen características de no linealidad, la cual será usada para hacer pronósticos varios pasos en adelante. Se aplicaron dos test estándar: Información Mutua Promedio (AMI y Falsos Vecinos más Cercanos (FNN. Se obtuvo el espaciamiento óptimo de los datos, así como el número de datos hacia atrás necesarios para pronosticar valores hacia el futuro. Luego, se diseñaron varios modelos de redes neuronales artificiales (RNA, con diferentes reglas de aprendizajes, funciones de transferencia, elementos de procesamiento (o neuronas en la capa escondida, etc., que permitieron hacer pronóstico de hasta 20 pasos en adelante. Las mejores redes correspondieron a aquellas que poseían como regla de aprendizaje la Regla Delta y la Regla Extendida, con función de transferencia sigmoide y tangente hiperbólica. El tipo de RNA usada fue una de multicapas alimentada hacia adelante y entrenada mediante la técnica de propagación hacia atrás. Se probaron redes con una, dos capas ocultas y sin ninguna capa. El mejor modelo que se obtuvo resultó ser uno consistente de una capa oculta.We indicate how to handle a large database consisting of nonlinear time series, applying different nonlinear modelling techniques to this kind of times series. Nowadays in the current references there is no explicit guide of how to manipulate data from nonlinear time series; however, there are approaches that can be taken account. To this end

11. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

CERN Document Server

Luo, Albert

2012-01-01

Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.

12. SU-F-J-71: Improving CT Quality for Radiation Therapy Planning and Delivery Guidance Using a Non-Linear Contrast Enhancement Technique

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Noid, G; Tai, A; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2016-06-15

Purpose: Advanced image post-processing techniques which enhance soft-tissue contrast in CT have not been widely employed for RT planning or delivery guidance. The purpose of this work is to assess the soft-tissue contrast enhancement from non-linear contrast enhancing filters and its impact in RT. The contrast enhancement reduces patient alignment uncertainties. Methods: Non-linear contrast enhancing methods, such as Best Contrast (Siemens), amplify small differences in X-ray attenuation between two adjacent structure without significantly increasing noise. Best Contrast (BC) separates a CT into two frequency bands. The low frequency band is modified by a non-linear scaling function before recombination with the high frequency band. CT data collected using a CT-on-rails (Definition AS Open, Siemens) during daily CT-guided RT for 6 prostate cancer patients and an image quality phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) were analyzed. Images acquired with a standard protocol (120 kVp, 0.6 pitch, 18 mGy CTDIvol) were processed before comparison to the unaltered images. Contrast and noise were measured in the the phantom. Inter-observer variation was assessed by placing prostate contours on the 12 CT study sets, 6 enhanced and 6 unaltered, in a blinded study involving 8 observers. Results: The phantom data demonstrate that BC increased the contrast between the 1.0% supra-slice element and the background substrate by 46.5 HU while noise increased by only 2.3 HU. Thus the contrast to noise ratio increased from 1.28 to 6.71. Furthermore, the variation in centroid position of the prostate contours was decreased from 1.3±0.4 mm to 0.8±0.3 mm. Thus the CTV-to-PTV margin was reduced by 1.1 mm. The uncertainty in delineation of the prostate/rectum edge decreased by 0.5 mm. Conclusion: As demonstrated in phantom and patient scans the BC filter accentuates soft-tissue contrast. This enhancement leads to reduced inter-observer variation, which should improve RT planning and delivery

13. TEC global mapping techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Orus, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, M.

2002-01-01

As is well known, many GNSS users are using single frequency receivers in their applications. These types of receivers are not able to correct directly the delay produced in the ionosphere, that can reach values of tens of meters. To overcome this problem there are several models that can be used to correct this ionospheric term: the GPS Broadcast model available with the GPS navigation message, empirical models like the IRI, and GPS data driven models, the last ones are being computed since June 1998 by the IGS Associate Analysis Centers (CODE, EMR, ESA, JPL and UPC). These models have different performances and can be or not suitable depending on the desired accuracy for each given application. A comparative study of such models is discussed in this paper, by comparing with independent ionospheric estimates provided by the TOPEX/Poseidon dual frequency altimeter. New improvements of the ionospheric correction algorithms using GPS data, for real-time and precise navigation purposes, will also be studied. (author)

14. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

Science.gov (United States)

Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

2013-12-01

Water ice is ubiquitous in our Solar System and is a probable target for planetary exploration. Mapping the lateral and vertical concentration of subsurface ice from or near the surface could determine the origin of lunar and martian ice and quantify a much-needed resource for human exploration. Determining subsurface ice concentration on Earth is not trivial and has been attempted previously with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), airborne EM (AEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These EM geophysical techniques do not actually detect ice, but rather the absence of unfrozen water. This causes a non-unique interpretation of frozen and dry subsurface sediments. This works well in the arctic because most locations are not dry. However, for planetary exploration, liquid water is exceedingly rare and subsurface mapping must discriminate between an ice-rich and a dry subsurface. Luckily, nature has provided a unique electrical signature of ice: its dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of ice creates a temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical properties and varies the relative dielectric permittivity from ~3.1 at radar frequencies to >100 at low frequencies. On Mars, sediments smaller than silt size can hold enough adsorbed unfrozen water to complicate the measurement. This is because the presence of absorbed water also creates frequency-dependent electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of adsorbed water and ice can be separated as they have different shapes and frequency ranges as long as a spectrum spanning the two relaxations is measured. The volume concentration of ice and adsorbed water is a function of the strength of their relaxations. Therefore, we suggest that capacitively-coupled dielectric spectroscopy (a.k.a. spectral induced polarization or complex resistivity) can detect the concentration of both ice and adsorbed water in the subsurface. To prove this concept we have collected

15. Nonlinear resonances

CERN Document Server

Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

2016-01-01

This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

16. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

1982-01-01

Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

17. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Teichgräber, Ulf K.; Bucourt, Maximilian de

2012-01-01

Objectives: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). Materials and methods: The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. Results: The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. Conclusion: VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system.

18. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

Science.gov (United States)

Teichgräber, Ulf K; de Bucourt, Maximilian

2012-01-01

OJECTIVES: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. A technique for visualization and mapping of local cartilage thickness changes in MR images of osteoarthritic knee

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ge, Quanxu, E-mail: gequanxu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Cheng, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yzcheng@hitwh.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bi, Kesen, E-mail: whbks@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Guo, Changyong, E-mail: hit_gcy@163.com [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bai, Jing, E-mail: deabj@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, China B209, Medical School Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tamura, Shinichi, E-mail: tamuras@nblmt.jp [Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, D11, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-11-15

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe a technique for the visualization and mapping of focal, local cartilage thickness changes over time in magnetic resonance images of osteoarthritic knee. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 fresh frozen pig knee joints and 15 knees of patients with borderline to mild osteoarthritis (51.2 {+-} 6.3 years). Cartilage and corresponding bone structures were extracted by semi-automatic segmentation. Each point in the bone surface which was part of the bone-cartilage interface was assigned a cartilage thickness value. Cartilage thicknesses were computed for each point in the bone-cartilage interfaces and transferred to the bone surfaces. Moreover, we developed a three dimensional registration method for the identification of anatomically corresponding points of the bone surface to quantify local cartilage thickness changes. One of the main advantages of our method compared to other studies in the field of registration is a global optimization algorithm that does not require any initialization. Results and conclusion: The registration accuracy was 0.93 {+-} 0.05 mm (less than a voxel of magnetic resonance data). Local cartilage thickness changes were seen as having follow-up clinical study for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness. Experiment results suggest that our method was sufficiently accurate and effective for monitoring knee joint diseases.

20. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

Science.gov (United States)

Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

2017-02-01

We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

1. Study of the hoop fracture behaviour of nuclear fuel cladding from ring compression tests by means of non-linear optimization techniques

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gómez, F.J., E-mail: javier.gomez@amsimulation.com [Advanced Material Simulation, AMS, Bilbao (Spain); Martin Rengel, M.A., E-mail: mamartin.rengel@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Puerta, M.A. [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2017-06-15

In this work, the hoop fracture toughness of ZIRLO{sup ®} fuel cladding is calculated as a function of three parameters: hydrogen concentration, temperature and displacement rate. To this end, pre-hydrided samples with nominal hydrogen concentrations of 0 (as-received), 150, 250, 500, 1200 and 2000 ppm were prepared. Hydrogen was precipitated as zirconium hydrides in the shape of platelets oriented along the hoop direction. Ring Compression Tests (RCTs) were conducted at three temperatures (20, 135 and 300 °C) and two displacement rates (0.5 and 100 mm/min). A new method has been proposed in this paper which allows the determination of fracture toughness from ring compression tests. The proposed method combines the experimental results, the cohesive crack model, finite elements simulations, numerical calculations and non-linear optimization techniques. The parameters of the cohesive crack model were calculated by minimizing the difference between the experimental data and the numerical results. An almost perfect fitting of the experimental results is achieved by this method. In addition, an estimation of the error in the calculated fracture toughness is also provided.

2. Comprehensive analysis of TEM methods for LiFePO4/FePO4 phase mapping: spectroscopic techniques (EFTEM, STEM-EELS) and STEM diffraction techniques (ACOM-TEM).

Science.gov (United States)

Mu, X; Kobler, A; Wang, D; Chakravadhanula, V S K; Schlabach, S; Szabó, D V; Norby, P; Kübel, C

2016-11-01

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used intensively in investigating battery materials, e.g. to obtain phase maps of partially (dis)charged (lithium) iron phosphate (LFP/FP), which is one of the most promising cathode material for next generation lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Due to the weak interaction between Li atoms and fast electrons, mapping of the Li distribution is not straightforward. In this work, we revisited the issue of TEM measurements of Li distribution maps for LFP/FP. Different TEM techniques, including spectroscopic techniques (energy filtered (EF)TEM in the energy range from low-loss to core-loss) and a STEM diffraction technique (automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM)), were applied to map the lithiation of the same location in the same sample. This enabled a direct comparison of the results. The maps obtained by all methods showed excellent agreement with each other. Because of the strong difference in the imaging mechanisms, it proves the reliability of both the spectroscopic and STEM diffraction phase mapping. A comprehensive comparison of all methods is given in terms of information content, dose level, acquisition time and signal quality. The latter three are crucial for the design of in-situ experiments with beam sensitive Li-ion battery materials. Furthermore, we demonstrated the power of STEM diffraction (ACOM-STEM) providing additional crystallographic information, which can be analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of the LFP/FP interface properties such as statistical information on phase boundary orientation and misorientation between domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological mapping of New England test area

Science.gov (United States)

Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

1974-01-01

The author has identified the following significant results. The procedure for conducting a regional geological mapping program utilizing snow-enhanced ERTS-1 imagery has been summarized. While it is recognized that mapping procedures in geological programs will vary from area to area and from geologist to geologist, it is believed that the procedure tested in this project is applicable over a wide range of mapping programs. The procedure is designed to maximize the utility and value of ERTS-1 imagery and aerial photography within the initial phase of geological mapping programs. Sample products which represent interim steps in the mapping formula (e.g. the ERTS Fracture-Lineament Map) have been prepared. A full account of these procedures and products will be included within the Snow Enhancement Users Manual.

4. Nonlinear optics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boyd, R.W.

1992-01-01

Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

5. An efficient control algorithm for nonlinear systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sinha, S.

1990-12-01

We suggest a scheme to step up the efficiency of a recently proposed adaptive control algorithm, which is remarkably effective for regulating nonlinear systems. The technique involves monitoring of the ''stiffness of control'' to get maximum gain while maintaining a predetermined accuracy. The success of the procedure is demonstrated for the case of the logistic map, where we show that the improvement in performance is often factors of tens, and for small control stiffness, even factors of hundreds. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

6. A Stream Function Theory Based Calculation of Wave Kinematics for Very Steep Waves Using a Novel Non-linear Stretching Technique

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak

2016-01-01

A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...

7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

2007-01-01

. To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

8. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

2006-01-01

. To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

9. Developments in gamma-ray spectrometry: systems, software, and methods-I. 5. Nuclear Spectral Analysis with Nonlinear Robust Fitting Techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lasche, G.P.; Coldwell, R.L.

2001-01-01

A new approach to nuclear spectral analysis based on nonlinear robust fitting techniques has been recently developed into a package suitable for public use. The methodology behind this approach was originally made available to the public as the RobFit command-line code, but it was extremely slow and difficult to use. Recent advances in microprocessor power and the development of a graphical user interface to make its use more intuitive have made this approach, which is quite computationally intensive, feasible for more routine applications. A brief description of some of the fundamental differences in the approach used by RobFit from the more common methods of nuclear spectral analysis involving local peak searches is presented here. Popular nuclear spectral analysis applications generally perform a peak search at their heart. The continuum in the neighborhood of each peak is estimated from local data and is subtracted from the data to yield the area and the energy of the peak. These are matched to a user-selected library of radionuclides containing the energies and areas of the most significant peaks, after accounting for the effects of detector efficiency and attenuation. With these codes, the energy-to-channel calibration, the peak width as a function of energy (or 'resolution calibration'), the detector intrinsic efficiency, and attenuation effects must usually be predetermined and provided as static input for the analysis. Most of these codes focus on regions of interest that represent many small pieces of the sample spectrum. In contrast, the RobFit approach works with an entire continuous spectrum to simultaneously determine the coefficients of all of the user-selected free variables that yield the best fit to the data. Peak searches are generally used only in interim steps to help suggest new radionuclides to include in the search library. Rather than first concentrate on the location of peaks, RobFit first concentrates on the determination of the continuum

10. Nonlinear Filtering and Approximation Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

1991-09-01

filtering. UNIT8 Q RECERCE**No 1223 Programme 5 A utomatique, Productique, Traitement dui Signal et des Donnc~es CONSISTENT PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR...ue’e[71 E C 2.’(Rm x [0,7]; R) is the unique solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation 9u,’[7](x, t) - EAu "’[ 7](x,t) + He,’[ 7](x,t,Du,[ 7](x,t

11. Novel Nonlinear Laser Diagnostic Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

1993-07-01

a thermometric probe of reactive flows. Since the two-photon pump laser couples a Doppler broadened ground state velocity distribution to the excited...rism, and passed unfocused into an aluminum cell con- in frequency space. Regions for line fitting are found by taining 99% pure NO. The gas mixture...of ASE as a More recently, ASE has prompted interest as an thermometric probe of combustion environments optical diagnostic of combustion environments

12. Monitoring of Non-Linear Ground Movement in an Open Pit Iron Mine Based on an Integration of Advanced DInSAR Techniques Using TerraSAR-X Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

José Claudio Mura

2016-05-01

Full Text Available This work presents an investigation to determine ground deformation based on an integration of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI techniques aiming at detecting high rates of linear and non-linear ground movement. The combined techniques were applied in an open pit iron mine located in Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region, using a set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images acquired from March 2012 to April 2013 when, due to a different deformation behavior during the dry and wet seasons in the Amazon region, a non-linear deformation was detected. The DTS analysis was performed on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferograms using an extension of the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition, where a set of additional weighted constraints on the acceleration of the displacement was incorporated to control the smoothness of the time-series solutions, whose objective was to correct the atmospheric phase artifacts. The height errors and the deformation history provided by the DTS technique were used as previous information to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI technique to detect non-linear movement as well as to increase the numbers of point density of the final results. The results of the combined techniques are presented and compared with total station/prisms and ground-based radar (GBR measurements.

13. Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.

2000-01-01

Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)

14. Nonlinear optics

CERN Document Server

Bloembergen, Nicolaas

1996-01-01

Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

15. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Wilson, Paul P.; Sawan, Mohamed E.; Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.

2014-01-01

Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer

16. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chen Sheng

2004-01-01

17. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Leonessa Alexander

1999-01-01

Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

18. Making large class basic histology lectures more interactive: The use of draw-along mapping techniques and associated educational activities.

Science.gov (United States)

Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

2015-01-01

At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would focus students during large class lectures. After each lecture on three basic histology tissues, a guided draw-along mapping session covering the work from the lecture was introduced in the form of a click-advance PowerPoint presentation which was used to demonstrate the unfolding of an "ideal" map. The lecturer simultaneously drew a similar map using an overhead projector allowing the students to draw their own maps on blank sheets of paper along with the lecturer. Students remained attentive during the activity and many participated in answering informal questions posed by the lecturer as the map-making session progressed. After the last session, students completed an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire (response rate of 78%). The majority of students found the draw-along maps useful (94%) and believed that its use should be continued in the future (93%). A significant increase (P < 0.001) was found in the test results of student cohorts who were given the current intervention compared to cohorts from previous years who were given mind maps as handouts only or had no intervention. The use of the draw-along mapping sessions were successful in focusing students during large class lectures while also providing them with a useful tool for their studies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

19. Attention Filtering in the Design of Electronic Map Displays: A Comparison of Color-Coding, Intensity Coding, and Decluttering Techniques

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Yeh, Michelle; Wickens, Christopher D

2000-01-01

In a series of experiments, the use of color-coding, intensity coding, and decluttering were compared order to assess their potential benefits for accessing information from electronic map displays...

20. Computed tomography landmark-based semi-automated mesh morphing and mapping techniques: generation of patient specific models of the human pelvis without segmentation.

Science.gov (United States)

Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Wright, David; Whyne, Cari Marisa

2015-04-13

1. Introduction of digital soil mapping techniques for the nationwide regionalization of soil condition in Hungary; the first results of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project

Science.gov (United States)

Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Dobos, Endre

2014-05-01

Due to the former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. Present soil data requirements are mainly fulfilled with these available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable imperfection as for the accuracy and reliability of the delivered products. With a recently started project (DOSoReMI.hu; Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) we would like to significantly extend the potential, how countrywide soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil related maps which fulfil optimally the national and international demands from points of view of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. The spatial resolution of the targeted countrywide, digital, thematic maps is at least 1:50.000 (approx. 50-100 meter raster resolution). DOSoReMI.hu results are also planned to contribute to the European part of GSM.net products. In addition to the auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. In our paper we will present the first results. - Regression kriging (RK) has been used for the spatial inference of certain quantitative data, like particle size distribution components, rootable depth and organic matter content. In the course of RK-based mapping spatially segmented categorical information provided by the SMUs of Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) has been also used in the form of indicator variables. - Classification and regression trees (CART) were

2. Nonlinear Science

CERN Document Server

Yoshida, Zensho

2010-01-01

This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

3. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

CERN Document Server

Favini, Angelo

2012-01-01

The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

4. Topographic mapping

Science.gov (United States)

,

2008-01-01

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

5. Polythiophene derivative functionalized with disperse red 1 chromophore: Its third-order nonlinear optical properties through Z-scan technique under continuous and femtosecond irradiation

Science.gov (United States)

de la Garza-Rubí, R. M. A.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Mayorga-Cruz, D.; Basurto-Pensado, M. A.; Guerrero-Álvarez, J. A.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Maldonado, J. L.

2015-08-01

A copolymer of 3-hexylthiophene and thiophene functionalized with disperse red 1, poly(3-HT-co-TDR1), was synthesized. Chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, optical and thermal properties of this copolymer were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, GPC and DSC-TGA. An optical nonlinear analysis by Z-scan method was also performed for both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed laser pumping. In the CW regime the nonlinearities were evaluated in solid films, and a negative nonlinear refractive index in the range 2.7-4.1 × 10-4 cm2/W was obtained. These values are notoriously high and allowed to observe self-defocusing effects at very low laser intensities: below 1 mW. Further, nonlinear self-phase modulation patterns, during laser irradiation, were also observed. In the pulsed excitation the nonlinear response was evaluated in solution resulting in large two-photon absorption cross section of 5725 GM for the whole copolymer chain and with a value of 232 GM per repeated monomeric unit.

6. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

Science.gov (United States)

Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

2009-04-01

This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

7. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

Science.gov (United States)

Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

2015-01-01

At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

8. Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

2013-01-01

The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…

9. Dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator and a low-amplitude frequency-modulated wave

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White, R.C.; McNamara, B.

1987-01-01

When the frequency of a small amplitude plane wave is varied slowly over a large enough bandwidth and this wave is incident upon a nonlinear oscillator, the resulting perturbed motion can exhibit stochastic behavior. Applications for the study of this system are wide and varied. We apply Lie-transform perturbation theory and mapping techniques in the analysis of the stochastic transition and the consequent induced diffusion in the oscillator phase space. A constant of the motion to the first order in a peturbation parameter is calculated, a mapping approximation is derived, and diffusion calculations from the mapping are given. Copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

10. Elastic and nonlinear behaviour of argillaceous rocks under combined moisture and mechanical loads investigated by means of multiscale full-field strain measurement techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang, D.S.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Chanchole, S.; Gharbi, H.; Valli, P.; Bornert, M.

2010-01-01

Document available in extended abstract form only. The construction of underground nuclear waste repositories will strongly disturb the initial thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical equilibrium of the site. In addition to direct mechanical perturbations during excavation, which induce redistribution of the stresses and possible damage of the surrounding rock mass, the ventilation of the galleries will also modify the moisture content of the rock, resulting in shrinking or swelling, and more generally modifying the physical-chemical properties of the material. Safety concerns about preservation of confining properties of rock mass at short and long time scales require a deep understanding of the hydro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. In particular the dependence of elastic, possibly anisotropic, moduli and nonlinear properties (plasticity, damage, creep...) as a function of the moisture level, need to be quantified. In addition, in order to construct physically based micromechanical models of these dependencies, the various micro-mechanisms at their origin and their characteristic scales need to be identified. Various independent studies agree on the decrease of overall rigidity and failure stress of argillite with increasing humidity. A recent study making use of optical full-field strain measurement techniques on centi-metric samples under uniaxial compression suggests that this apparent decrease of elastic properties on wet samples can be essentially explained by the presence of a millimetric network of 'meso-cracks', induced by the preliminary unconfined hydration process. Indeed, thanks to the full-field measurement technique, it was possible to show that the mechanical response of undamaged areas, in-between cracks, was very similar at all moisture contents, both in terms of average strains and strain fluctuations at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of the rock (matrix clay + other mineral inclusions). The preliminary hydro

11. Mapping of the surface rupture induced by the M 7.3 Kumamoto Earthquake along the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault using image correlation techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Ekhtari, N.; Glennie, C. L.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.

2016-12-01

Near field surface deformation is vital to understanding the shallow fault physics of earthquakes but near-field deformation measurements are often sparse or not reliable. In this study, we use the Co-seismic Image Correlation (COSI-Corr) technique to map the near-field surface deformation caused by the M 7.3 April 16, 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Kyushu, Japan. The surface rupture around the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault is mapped using a pair of panchromatic 1.5 meter resolution SPOT 7 images. These images were acquired on January 16 and April 29, 2016 (3 months before and 13 days after the earthquake respectively) with close to nadir (less than 1.5 degree off nadir) viewing angle. The two images are ortho-rectified using SRTM Digital Elevation Model and further co-registered using tie points far away from the rupture field. Then the COSI-Corr technique is utilized to produce an estimated surface displacement map, and a horizontal displacement vector field is calculated which supplies a seamless estimate of near field displacement measurements along the Eastern segment of the Futagawa fault. The COSI-Corr estimated displacements are then compared to other existing displacement observations from InSAR, GPS and field observations.

12. Mapping the intracellular distribution of carbon nanotubes after targeted delivery to carcinoma cells using confocal Raman imaging as a label-free technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lamprecht, C; Unterauer, B; Plochberger, B; Brameshuber, M; Hinterdorfer, P; Ebner, A; Gierlinger, N; Hild, S; Heister, E

2012-01-01

The uptake of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by mammalian cells and their distribution within cells is being widely studied in recent years due to their increasing use for biomedical purposes. The two main imaging techniques used are confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The former, however, requires labeling of the CNTs with fluorescent dyes, while the latter is a work-intensive technique that is unsuitable for in situ bio-imaging. Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, presents a direct, straightforward and label-free alternative. Confocal Raman microscopy can be used to image the CNTs inside cells, exploiting the strong Raman signal connected to different vibrational modes of the nanotubes. In addition, cellular components, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus, can be mapped. We first validate our method by showing that only when using the CNTs’ G band for intracellular mapping accurate results can be obtained, as mapping of the radial breathing mode (RBM) only shows a small fraction of CNTs. We then take a closer look at the exact localization of the nanotubes inside cells after folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and show that, after 8-10 h incubation, the majority of CNTs are localized around the nucleus. In summary, Raman imaging has enormous potential for imaging CNTs inside cells, which is yet to be fully realized. (paper)

13. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

Science.gov (United States)

Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

2011-07-01

Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

14. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gandino, E; Garibaldi, L; Marchesiello, S

2011-01-01

Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled M onitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing , financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

15. An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana

Science.gov (United States)

Landgrebe, D.

1974-01-01

A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

16. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

Science.gov (United States)

Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

2015-04-01

17. Nonlinear optics

CERN Document Server

Boyd, Robert W

2013-01-01

Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

18. Application of a mapping function technique to the design of damped detuned structures and rapid calculation of their wakefields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.

1998-08-01

In order to reduce the dipole wake encountered by the first few bunches accelerated in a multi-bunch NLC scenario the DDS (damped detuned structure) was redesigned such that a much improved Gaussian fall-off occurs in the initial wake-function. From the 9 parameterized model of DDS1 the authors use a mapping function to allow DDS 3 and 4 to be modeled and hence avoid additional and prohibitively time consuming MAFIA runs. The equivalent circuit parameters and geometrical parameters are treated as functions of the synchronous frequency and are readily mapped onto the new synchronous frequencies. The new geometrical parameters form a family where each is associated with the iris diameter

19. Characterization of myocardial T1-mapping bias caused by intramyocardial fat in inversion recovery and saturation recovery techniques

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kellman, Peter; Bandettini, W Patricia; Mancini, Christine

2015-01-01

BACKGROUND: Quantitative measurement of T1 in the myocardium may be used to detect both focal and diffuse disease processes such as interstitial fibrosis or edema. A partial volume problem exists when a voxel in the myocardium also contains fat. Partial volume with fat occurs at tissue boundaries...... imaging protocols using balanced steady state free precession are considered. In-vivo imaging with T1-mapping, water/fat separated imaging, and late enhancement imaging was performed on subjects with chronic myocardial infarction. RESULTS: In n = 17 subjects with chronic myocardial infarction, lipomatous...... agreement with simulation of the specific imaging protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the myocardial T1 by widely used balanced steady state free precession mapping methods is subject to bias when there is a mixture of water and fat in the myocardium. Intramyocardial fat is frequently present...

20. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-04-01

Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

1. Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Mapping for EPA EnviroAtlas Using Machine Learning and OBIA Remote Sensing Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.; Riegel, J.; Rudder, C.; Endres, K.

2013-12-01

US EPA EnviroAtlas is an online collection of tools and resources that provides geospatial data, maps, research, and analysis on the relationships between nature, people, health, and the economy (http://www.epa.gov/research/enviroatlas/index.htm). Using EnviroAtlas, you can see and explore information related to the benefits (e.g., ecosystem services) that humans receive from nature, including clean air, clean and plentiful water, natural hazard mitigation, biodiversity conservation, food, fuel, and materials, recreational opportunities, and cultural and aesthetic value. EPA developed several urban land cover maps at very high spatial resolution (one-meter pixel size) for a portion of EnviroAtlas devoted to urban studies. This urban mapping effort supported analysis of relations among land cover, human health and demographics at the US Census Block Group level. Supervised classification of 2010 USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) digital aerial photos produced eight-class land cover maps for several cities, including Durham, NC, Portland, ME, Tampa, FL, New Bedford, MA, Pittsburgh, PA, Portland, OR, and Milwaukee, WI. Semi-automated feature extraction methods were used to classify the NAIP imagery: genetic algorithms/machine learning, random forest, and object-based image analysis (OBIA). In this presentation we describe the image processing and fuzzy accuracy assessment methods used, and report on some sustainability and ecosystem service metrics computed using this land cover as input (e.g., carbon sequestration from USFS iTREE model; health and demographics in relation to road buffer forest width). We also discuss the land cover classification schema (a modified Anderson Level 1 after the National Land Cover Data (NLCD)), and offer some observations on lessons learned. Meter-scale urban land cover in Portland, OR overlaid on NAIP aerial photo. Streets, buildings and individual trees are identifiable.

2. Use of Modulus Mapping Technique to Investigate Cross-sectional Material Properties of Extracted Single Human Trabeculae

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Doktor, Tomáš; Šepitka, J.; Lukeš, J.

2012-01-01

Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 442-445 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : modulus mapping * trabecular bone * nanoindentation * micromechanical testing Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012 http://www.chemicke-listy.cz/common/content-issue_s3-volume_106-year_2012.html

3. A short-breath-hold technique for lung pO2 mapping with 3He MRI.

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, G Wilson; Mugler, John P; Altes, Talissa A; Cai, Jing; Mata, Jaime F; de Lange, Eduard E; Tobias, William A; Cates, Gordon D; Brookeman, James R

2010-01-01

A pulse-sequence strategy was developed for generating regional maps of alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in a single 6-sec breath hold, for use in human subjects with impaired lung function. Like previously described methods, pO2 values are obtained by measuring the oxygen-induced T1 relaxation of inhaled hyperpolarized 3He. Unlike other methods, only two 3He images are acquired: one with reverse-centric and the other with centric phase-encoding order. This phase-encoding arrangement minimizes the effects of regional flip-angle variations, so that an accurate map of instantaneous pO2 can be calculated from two images acquired a few seconds apart. By combining this phase-encoding strategy with variable flip angles, the vast majority of the hyperpolarized magnetization goes directly into the T1 measurement, minimizing noise in the resulting pO2 map. The short-breath-hold pulse sequence was tested in phantoms containing known O2 concentrations. The mean difference between measured and prepared pO2 values was 1 mm Hg. The method was also tested in four healthy volunteers and three lung-transplant patients. Maps of healthy subjects were largely uniform, whereas focal regions of abnormal pO2 were observed in diseased subjects. Mean pO2 values varied with inhaled O2 concentration. Mean pO2 was consistent with normal steady-state values in subjects who inhaled 3He diluted only with room air. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

4. Application of fuzzy weight of evidence and data mining techniques in construction of flood susceptibility map of Poyang County, China.

Science.gov (United States)

Hong, Haoyuan; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei

2018-06-01

In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods. The novelty of the presented approach is the usage of fuzzy-WofE that had a twofold purpose. Firstly, to create an initial flood susceptibility map in order to identify non-flood areas and secondly to weight the importance of flood related variables which influence flooding. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented considering eleven flood related variables, namely: lithology, soil cover, elevation, slope angle, aspect, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, plan curvature, profile curvature and distance from river network. The efficiency of this new approach was evaluated using area under curve (AUC) which measured the prediction and success rates. According to the outcomes of the performed analysis, the fuzzy WofE-SVM model was the model with the highest predictive performance (AUC value, 0.9865) which also appeared to be statistical significant different from the other predictive models, fuzzy WofE-RF (AUC value, 0.9756) and fuzzy WofE-LR (AUC value, 0.9652). The proposed methodology and the produced flood susceptibility map could assist researchers and local governments in flood mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

5. Identification of areas of recharge and discharge using Landsat-TM satellite imagery and aerial photography mapping techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Salama, R. B.; Tapley, I.; Ishii, T.; Hawkes, G.

1994-10-01

Aerial photographs (AP) and Landsat (TM) colour composites were used to map the geomorphology, geology and structures of the Salt River System of Western Australia. Geomorphic features identified are sand plains, dissected etchplain, colluvium, lateritic duricrust and rock outcrops. The hydrogeomorphic units include streams, lakes and playas, palaeochannels and palaeodeltas. The structural features are linear and curvilinear lineaments, ring structures and dolerite dykes. Suture lines control the course of the main river channel. Permeable areas around the circular granitic plutons were found to be the main areas of recharge in the uplands. Recharge was also found to occur in the highly permeable areas of the sandplains. Discharge was shown to be primarily along the main drainage lines, on the edge of the circular sandplains, in depressions and in lakes. The groundwater occurrence and hydrogeological classification of the recharge potential of the different units were used to classify the mapped areas into recharge and discharge zones. The results also show that TM colour composites provide a viable source of data comparable with AP for mapping and delineating areas of recharge and discharge on a regional scale.

6. Measuring Trace Gas Emission from Multi-Distributed Sources Using Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM and Backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Thomas K. Flesch

2011-09-01

Full Text Available Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS techniques with an open-path optical spectroscopic sensor were evaluated for relative accuracy for multiple emission-source and sensor configurations. The relative accuracy was calculated by dividing the measured emission rate by the actual emission rate; thus, a relative accuracy of 1.0 represents a perfect measure. For a single area emission source, the VRPM technique yielded a somewhat high relative accuracy of 1.38 ± 0.28. The bLS technique resulted in a relative accuracy close to unity, 0.98 ± 0.24. Relative accuracies for dual source emissions for the VRPM and bLS techniques were somewhat similar to single source emissions, 1.23 ± 0.17 and 0.94 ± 0.24, respectively. When the bLS technique was used with vertical point concentrations, the relative accuracy was unacceptably low,

7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

2008-01-01

. To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

8. Nonlinear systems

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Drazin, P. G

1992-01-01

This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

9. Nonlinear analysis

CERN Document Server

Gasinski, Leszek

2005-01-01

Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

10. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

CERN Document Server

Avriel, Mordecai

2012-01-01

This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

11. Nonlinear transformations of random processes

CERN Document Server

Deutsch, Ralph

2017-01-01

This concise treatment of nonlinear noise techniques encountered in system applications is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It is also a valuable reference for systems analysts and communication engineers. 1962 edition.

12. Building Daily 30-meter Spatial Resolution Maps of Surface Water Bodies from MODIS Data Using a Novel Technique for Transferring Information Across Space and Time

Science.gov (United States)

Khandelwal, A.; Karpatne, A.; Kumar, V.

2017-12-01

In this paper, we present novel methods for producing surface water maps at 30 meter spatial resolution at a daily temporal resolution. These new methods will make use of the MODIS spectral data from Terra (available daily since 2000) to produce daily maps at 250 meter and 500 meter resolution, and then refine them using the relative elevation ordering of pixels at 30 meter resolution. The key component of these methods is the use of elevation structure (relative elevation ordering) of a water body. Elevation structure is not explicitly available at desired resolution for most water bodies in the world and hence it will be estimated using our previous work that uses the history of imperfect labels. In this paper, we will present a new technique that uses elevation structure (unlike existing pixel based methods) to enforce temporal consistency in surface water extents (lake area on nearby dates is likely to be very similar). This will greatly improve the quality of the MODIS scale land/water labels since daily MODIS data can have a large amount of missing (or poor quality) data due to clouds and other factors. The quality of these maps will be further improved using elevation based resolution refinement approach that will make use of elevation structure estimated at Landsat scale. With the assumption that elevation structure does not change over time, it provides a very effective way to transfer information between datasets even when they are not observed concurrently. In this work, we will derive elevation structure at Landsat scale from monthly water extent maps spanning 1984-2015, publicly available through a joint effort of Google Earth Engine and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). This elevation structure will then be used to refine spatial resolution of Modis scale maps from 2000 onwards. We will present the analysis of these methods on a large and diverse set of water bodies across the world.

13. Engineered nonlinear lattices

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

1999-01-01

We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...... discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term...

14. In-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving beam

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco

2013-01-01

In the present study, the nonlinear forced dynamics of an axially moving beam is investigated numerically taking into account the in-plane and out-of-plane motions. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the motion of the system are derived via Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin scheme is then introduced to these partial differential equations yielding a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms. This set is transformed into a new set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of a change of variables. A direct time integration technique is conducted upon the new set of equations resulting in the bifurcation diagrams of Poincaré maps of the system. The dynamical characteristics of the system are investigated for different system parameters and presented through use of time histories, phase-plane portraits, Poincaré sections, and fast Fourier transforms

15. Stochasticity in the Josephson map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Filippov, A.T.

1996-04-01

The Josephson map describes nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by standard map with the uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase space portrait of the Josephson map are examined on the basis of the tangent map associated with the Josephson map. Numerical observation of the stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is examined in comparison with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated by the method of characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at the values of far smaller stochastic parameter than the case of the standard map. (author)

16. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

2003-01-01

Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

17. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps.

Science.gov (United States)

2018-03-19

During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM) were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters' relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl - a), water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

18. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-03-01

Full Text Available During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters’ relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

19. Friction force microscopy: a simple technique for identifying graphene on rough substrates and mapping the orientation of graphene grains on copper

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marsden, A J; Wilson, N R; Phillips, M

2013-01-01

At a single atom thick, it is challenging to distinguish graphene from its substrate using conventional techniques. In this paper we show that friction force microscopy (FFM) is a simple and quick technique for identifying graphene on a range of samples, from growth substrates to rough insulators. We show that FFM is particularly effective for characterizing graphene grown on copper where it can correlate the graphene growth to the three-dimensional surface topography. Atomic lattice stick–slip friction is readily resolved and enables the crystallographic orientation of the graphene to be mapped nondestructively, reproducibly and at high resolution. We expect FFM to be similarly effective for studying graphene growth on other metal/locally crystalline substrates, including SiC, and for studying growth of other two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride. (paper)

20. Boundary controllability for a nonlinear beam equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiao-Min Cao

2015-09-01

Full Text Available This article concerns a nonlinear system modeling the bending vibrations of a nonlinear beam of length \$L>0\$. First, we derive the existence of long time solutions near an equilibrium. Then we prove that the nonlinear beam is locally exact controllable around the equilibrium in \$H^4(0,L\$ and with control functions in \$H^2(0,T\$. The approach we used are open mapping theorem, local controllability established by linearization, and the induction.