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Sample records for nonlinear elastic response

  1. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  3. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  4. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  5. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  6. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  7. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  8. Equation of state, nonlinear elastic response, and anharmonic properties of diamond-cubic silicon and germanium. First-principles investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenju [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics; Gu, Jianbing [Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). College of Physical Science and Technology; Kuang, Xiaoyu [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Xiang, Shikai [Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear elastic properties of diamond-cubic silicon and germanium have not been investigated sufficiently to date. Knowledge of these properties not only can help us to understand nonlinear mechanical effects but also can assist us to have an insight into the related anharmonic properties, so we investigate the nonlinear elastic behaviour of single silicon and germanium by calculating their second- and third-order elastic constants. All the results of the elastic constants show good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Such a phenomenon indicates that the present values of the elastic constants are accurate and can be used to further study the related anharmonic properties. Subsequently, the anharmonic properties such as the pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants, Grueneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes, and ultrasonic nonlinear parameters are explored. All the anharmonic properties of silicon calculated in the present work also show good agreement with the existing experimental results; this consistency not only reveals that the calculation method of the anharmonic properties is feasible but also illuminates that the anharmonic properties obtained in the present work are reliable. For the anharmonic properties of germanium, since there are no experimental result and other theoretical data till now, we hope that the anharmonic properties of germanium first offered in this work would serve as a reference for future studies.

  9. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  10. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  11. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...

  12. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Lahmar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.

  14. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  15. Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction

  16. Nonlinear elasticity of disordered fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingchen; Levine, Herbert; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.

    One of the most striking mechanical properties in disordered biopolymer gels is strong nonlinearities. In the case of athermal gels (such as collagen- I) the nonlinearity has long been associated with a crossover from a bending dominated to a stretching dominated regime of elasticity. The physics of this crossover is related to the existence of a central-force isostatic point and to the small bending modulus for most gels. This crossover induces scaling behavior for the elastic moduli. In particular, for linear elasticity such a scaling law has been demonstrated by Broedersz et al. We generalize the scaling to the nonlinear regime with a two-parameter scaling law involving three critical exponents. We do numerical testing of the scaling law for two disordered lattice models, and find a good scaling collapse for the shear modulus in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. We compute all the critical exponents for the two lattice models and discuss the applicability of our results to real systems.

  17. Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Riviere, Jacques; Guyer, Robert; Johnson, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of illuminating observations at the Earth scale, for instance during strong ground motion and earthquake slip processes. A technique called Dynamic Acousto-Elastic Testing (DAET) is used to extract the nonlinear elastic response of disparate rocks (sandstone, granite and soapstone). DAET is the dynamic analogous to standard (quasi-static) acousto-elastic testing. It consists in measuring speed of sound with high-frequency low amplitude pulses (MHz range) across the sample while it is dynamically loaded with a low frequency, large amplitude resonance (kHz range). This particular configuration provides the instantaneous elastic response over a full dynamic cycle and reveals unprecedented details: instantaneous softening, tension/compression asymmetry as well as hysteretic behaviors. The strain-induced modulation of ultrasonic pulse velocities ('fast dynamics') is analyzed to extract nonlinearity parameters. A projection method is used to extract the harmonic content and a careful comparison of the fast dynamics response is made. In order to characterize the rate of elastic recovery ('slow dynamics'), we continue to monitor the ultrasonic wave velocity for about 30 minutes after the low-frequency resonance is turned off. In addition, the frequency, pressure and humidity dependences of the nonlinear parameters are reported for a subset of samples. We find that the nonlinear components can be clustered into two categories, which suggests that two main mechanisms are at play. The first one, related to the second harmonic, is likely related to the opening/closing of microstructural features such as cracks and grain/grain contacts. In contrast, the second mechanism is related to all other nonlinear parameters (transient softening, hysteresis area and higher order harmonics) and may arise from shearing mechanisms at grain interfaces.

  18. Nonlinear elasticity of alginate gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Alginate is a naturally occurring anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown algae. Because of biocompatibility, low toxicity, and simple gelation process, alginate gels are used in biomedical and food applications. Here, we report the rheological behavior of ionically crosslinked alginate gels, which are obtained by in situ gelation of alginates with calcium salts, in between two parallel plates of a rheometer. Strain stiffening behavior was captured using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) experiments. In addition, negative normal stress was observed for these gels, which has not been reported earlier for any polysaccharide networks. The magnitude of negative normal stress increases with applied strain and can exceed that of the shear stress at large strain. Rheological results fitted with a constitutive model that considers both stretching and bending of chains indicate that nonlinearity is likely related to the stretching of the chains between the crosslink junctions. The results provide an improved understanding of the deformation mechanism of ionically crosslinked alginate gel and the results will be important in developing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) from these materials.

  19. Dispersion characteristics of a nonlinear elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khajehtourian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study wave dispersion in a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic metamaterial consisting of a thin rod with periodically attached local resonators. Our model is based on an exact finite-strain dispersion relation for a homogeneous solid, utilized in conjunction with the standard transfer matrix method for a periodic medium. The nonlinearity considered stems from large elastic deformation in the thin rod, whereas the metamaterial behavior is associated with the dynamics of the local resonators. We derive an approximate dispersion relation for this system and provide an analytical prediction of band-gap characteristics. The results demonstrate the effect of the nonlinearity on the characteristics of the band structure, including the size, location, and character of the band gaps. For example, large deformation alone may cause a pair of isolated Bragg-scattering and local-resonance band gaps to coalesce. We show that for a wave amplitude on the order of one-eighth of the unit cell size, the effect of the nonlinearity in the structure considered is no longer negligible when the unit-cell size is one-fourteenth of the wavelength or larger.

  20. Manipulating acoustic wave reflection by a nonlinear elastic metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxin; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Bertoldi, Katia; Tournat, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    The acoustic wave reflection properties of a nonlinear elastic metasurface, derived from resonant nonlinear elastic elements, are theoretically and numerically studied. The metasurface is composed of a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with quadratic elastic nonlinearity. The possibility of converting, during the reflection process, most of the fundamental incoming wave energy into the second harmonic wave is shown, both theoretically and numerically, by means of a proper design of the nonlinear metasurface. The theoretical results from the harmonic balance method for a monochromatic source are compared with time domain simulations for a wave packet source. This protocol allows analyzing the dynamics of the nonlinear reflection process in the metasurface as well as exploring the limits of the operating frequency bandwidth. The reported methodology can be applied to a wide variety of nonlinear metasurfaces, thus possibly extending the family of exotic nonlinear reflection processes.

  1. Sapphire: A kinking nonlinear elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Kalidindi, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    Kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids are a recently identified large class of solids that deform fully reversibly by the formation of dislocation-based kink bands [Barsoum et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255508 (2004)]. We further conjectured that a high c/a ratio-that ensures that only basal slip is operative-is a sufficient condition for a solid to be KNE. The c/a ratio of sapphire is 2.73 and thus, if our conjecture is correct, it should be a KNE solid. Herein by repeatedly loading-up to 30 times-the same location of sapphire single crystals of two orientations-A and C-with a 1 μm radius spherical nanoindenter, followed by atomic force microscopy, we showed that sapphire is indeed a KNE solid. After pop-ins of the order of 100 nm, the repeated loadings give rise to fully reversible, reproducible hysteresis loops wherein the energy dissipated per unit volume per cycle Wd is of the order of 0.5 GJ/m3. Wd is due to the back and fro motion of the dislocations making up the incipient kink bands that are fully reversible. The results presented here strongly suggest that-like in graphite and mica-kink bands play a more critical role in the room temperature constrained deformation of sapphire than had hitherto been appreciated. Our interpretation is also in agreement with, and can explain most, recent nanoindentation results on sapphire.

  2. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2013-10-16

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.

  3. Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    application of the nonlinear elasticity complex is in developing mixed finite element methods for large deformations, which will be pursued in a future...framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these...conditions. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS geometric theory for nonlinear elasticity, discrete exterior calculus 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION

  4. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  5. Uniform stability of damped nonlinear vibrations of an elastic string

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we are concerned about uniform stability of damped nonlinear transverse vibrations of an elastic string fixed at its two ends. The vibrations governed by nonlinear integro-differential equation of Kirchoff type, is shown to possess energy uniformly bounded by exponentially decaying function of time. The result is ...

  6. Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, LW

    2003-01-01

    In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it

  7. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  9. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  10. Multiwave nonlinear couplings in elastic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This short contribution considers the essentials of nonlinear wave properties in typical mechanical systems such as an infinite straight bar, a circular ring, and a flat plate. It is found that nonlinear resonance is experienced in all the systems exhibiting continuous and discrete spectra, respectively. Multiwave interactions and the stability of coupled modes with respect to small perturbations are discussed. The emphasis is placed on mechanical phenomena, for example, stress amplification, although some analogies with some nonlinear optical systems are also obvious. The nonlinear resonance coupling in a plate within the Kirchhoff-Love approximation is selected as a two-dimensional example exhibiting a rich range of resonant wave phenomena. This is originally examined by use of Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method. In particular, the existence of three basic resonant triads between longitudinal, shear, and bending modes is shown. Some of these necessarily enter cascade wave processes related to the instability of some mode components of the triad under small perturbations.

  11. Effect of foundation nonlinearity on the nonlinear transient response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Nath, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Interaction of clamped orthotropic shallow spherical shells with nonlinear elastic foundations is studied under transient loads. The effect of softening and hardening foundation nonlinearities on the response behaviour of shallow shells has been investigated. Detailed analysis depicting the influence of hardening type foundation nonlinearity on the maximum response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells has been conducted. The numerical results suggest that for the shell-foundation interaction problems undergoing moderately large deformations, the nonlinear model for the foundation must be considered. (orig.) [de

  12. On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...

  13. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2017-08-16

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  14. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-06

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  15. Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)

  16. DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dyrda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear

  17. Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures E. Kim,1 F. Li,1 C. Chong,2 G. Theocharis ,3 J. Yang,1 and P.G. Kevrekidis2...Kevrekidis, IMA J. Appl. Math. 76, 389 (2011). [4] G. Theocharis , N. Boechler, and C. Daraio, in Phononic Crystals and Metamaterials, Ch. 6, Springer...9] N. Boechler, G. Theocharis , and C. Daraio, Nature Ma- terials 10, 665 (2011). [10] F. Li, P. Anzel, J. Yang, P.G. Kevrekidis, and C. Daraio, Nat

  18. Influence of elastic supports on non-linear steady-state vibrations of Zener material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Przemysław; Lewandowski, Roman

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports numerical results of analyses of steady-state harmonic vibrations of von Kármán non-linear plates made from Zener material with various elastic support conditions. Influences of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account, thus the model is able to predict the behaviour of plates with a moderate thickness. The amplitude equation for the plate is obtained using the time-averaged principle of virtual work for the assumed harmonic form of excitation and plate displacements as well as the harmonic balance method for Zener material and non-linear elastic supports. Plates are discretised using 8-noded rectangular plate finite elements. The discretised amplitude equation is solved for the response curves using a path-following method. Results of two numerical examples are presented and the qualitative and quantitative influence of support elastic properties is discussed.

  19. A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2014-02-01

    Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.

  20. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  1. Reliability analysis of beam on elastic nonlinear foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydrýšek K.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the solution of simple beam continually supported by elastic (Winkler's foundation. The foundation contains longitudinal nonlinearity. For the calculation of displacements and bending stresses are used analytical procedures (approximate solution in the form of polynomial function and probabilistic approaches (SBRA method, Monte Carlo Simulation Method, AntHill software. Probabilistic approach includes influences of variability of load, shape and material of the beam, and variability of modulus of the foundation. Probabilistic approach is used for the reliability expertise of the beam and calculation of safety.

  2. One-dimensional deformations of nonlinearly elastic micropolar bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenina, A.; Zubov, L. M.

    2010-08-01

    We find families of finite deformations of a Cosserat elastic continuum on which the system of equilibrium equations is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. These families can be used to describe the expansion, tension, and torsion of a hollow circular cylinder, cylindrical bending of a rectangular slab, straightening of a circular arch, reversing of a cylindrical tube, formation of screw and wedge dislocations in a hollow cylinder, and other types of deformations. In the case of a physically nonlinear material model, the above-listed families of deformations can be used to construct exact solutions of several problems of strong bending of micropolar bodies.

  3. Quasi-quadratic elements for nonlinear compressible and incompressible elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, A.; Favino, M.; Krause, R.

    2017-10-01

    This work deals with novel triangular and tetrahedral elements for nonlinear elasticity. While it is well-known that linear and quadratic elements perform, respectively, poorly and accurately in this context, their cost is very different. We construct an approximation that falls in-between these two cases, which we refer to as quasi-quadratic. We seek to satisfy the following: (1) absence of locking and pressure oscillations in the incompressible limit, (2) an exact equivalence to quadratic elements on linear problems, and (3) a computational cost comparable to linear elements on nonlinear problems. Our construction is formally based on the Hellinger-Reissner principle, where strains and displacement are interpolated linearly on nested meshes, but it can be recast in a pure displacement form via static condensation. We show that (1) and (2) are fulfilled via numerical studies on a series of benchmarks and analyze the cost of quadrature in order to show (3).

  4. Dumbbell formation for elastic capsules in nonlinear extensional Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Cross-slot and four-roll-mill microdevices are commonly used for particle manipulation and characterization owing to the stagnation-point flow at the device center. Because of the solid boundaries, these devices may generate extensional Stokes flows where the velocity is a nonlinear function of position associated with a decreased pressure at the particle edges and an increased pressure at the particle middle. Our computational investigation shows that in this class of Stokes flows, an elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane develops two distinct steady-state conformations at strong flows, i.e., an elongated weak dumbbell shape with rounded edges at low flow nonlinearity and a laterally extended dumbbell shape at high flow nonlinearity. These effects are more pronounced for the less strain-hardening capsules which develop a flat extended middle where the two sides of the membrane approach each other. The strong stability properties of the strain-hardening capsules (owing to the development of strong membrane tensions) contrast significantly with the behavior of droplets in these nonlinear flows which are unable to achieve highly deformed steady-state dumbbell shapes owing to their constant surface tension.

  5. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  6. Elastic response of graphene nanodomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sascha; Stradi, Daniele; Gnecco, Enrico; Barja, Sara; Kawai, Shigeki; Díaz, Cristina; Alcamí, Manuel; Martín, Fernando; Vázquez de Parga, Amadeo Lopez; Miranda, Rodolfo; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-04-23

    The mechanical behavior of a periodically buckled graphene membrane has been investigated by noncontact atomic force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. When a graphene monolayer is grown on Ru(0001), a regular arrangement of 0.075 nm high nanodomes forming a honeycomb lattice with 3 nm periodicity forms spontaneously. This structure responds in a perfectly reversible way to relative normal displacements up to 0.12 nm. Indeed, the elasticity of the nanodomes is proven by realistic DFT calculations, with an estimated normal stiffness k∼40 N/m. Our observations extend previous results on macroscopic graphene samples and confirm that the elastic behavior of this material is maintained down to nanometer length scales, which is important for the development of new high-frequency (terahertz) electromechanical devices.

  7. A Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Elasticity for Impact Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    simple shear are compared in figures 3a, b, and c, respectively. Stresses are normalized by ambient bulk modulus B0; Poisson’s ratio is . Stresses...0 is the ambient pressure derivative of the tangent bulk modulus. The pressure-volume response of the Eulerian model similar is similar to the...Magazine A 2000, 80, 2827–2840. 9. Gregoryanz, E.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao , H.; Gillet, P. High Pressure Elasticity of -Quartz: Instability and

  8. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)

  9. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  10. Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamine P Winer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.

  11. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  12. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic and static analysis of shallow spherical shell resting on two-parameters elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Ö.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study nonlinear static and dynamic responses of shallow spherical shells resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations are carried out. The formulation of the shells is based on the Donnell theory. The nonlinear governing equations of motion of shallow shells are discretized in space and time domains using the discrete singular convolution and the differential quadrature methods, respectively. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the open literature. The effects of the Winkler and Pasternak foundation parameters on nonlinear static and dynamic response of shells are investigated. Some results are also presented for circular plate as special case. Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is studied. It is important to state that the increase in damping parameter causes decrease in the dynamic response of the shells. It is shown that the shear parameter of the foundation has a significant influence on the dynamic and static response of the shells. Also, the response of the shell is decreased with the increasing value of the shear parameter of the foundation. Parametric studies considering different geometric variables have also been investigated. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear responses of shallow spherical shells are presented. • The effects of foundation parameters are investigated. • Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is also studied

  13. Lagrange multipliers in elastic-plastic torsion problem for nonlinear monotone operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, S.; Maugeri, A.; Puglisi, D.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of Lagrange multipliers as a Radon measure is ensured for an elastic-plastic torsion problem associated to a nonlinear strictly monotone operator. A regularization of this result, namely the existence of Lp Lagrange multipliers, is obtained under strong monotonicity assumption on the operator. Moreover, the relationships between elastic-plastic torsion problem and the obstacle problem are investigated. Finally, an example of the so-called "Von Mises functions" is provided, namely of solutions of the elastic-plastic torsion problem, associated to nonlinear monotone operators, which are not obtained by means of the obstacle problem in the case f =constant.

  14. On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elastic model structure is itself a generalization of most physical elastic structures in common use in Structural Engineering .The dynamic buckling load is obtained nontrivially and compared with related previous results of similar loading conditions. The result shows that the dynamic buckling load does not depend on ...

  15. On the vibrations of a simply supported square plate on a weakly nonlinear elastic foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarubinskaya, M.A.; Van Horssen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for a weakly nonlinear plate equation with a quadratic nonlinearity will be studied. This initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing free oscillations of a simply supported square plate on an elastic foundation. It is

  16. Magneto-elastic oscillator: Modeling and analysis with nonlinear magnetic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Aravind; Ali, Shaikh Faruque; Arockiarajan, A.

    2017-04-01

    The magneto-elastically buckled beam is a classic example of a nonlinear oscillator that exhibits chaotic motions. This system serves as a model to analyze the motion of elastic structures in magnetic fields. The system follows a sixth order magneto-elastic potential and may have up to five static equilibrium positions. However, often the non-dimensional Duffing equation is used to approximate the system, with the coefficients being derived from experiments. In few other instances, numerical methods are used to evaluate the magnetic field values. These field values are then used to approximate the nonlinear magnetic restoring force. In this manuscript, we derive analytical closed form expressions for the magneto-elastic potential and the nonlinear restoring forces in the system. Such an analytical formulation would facilitate tracing the effect of change in a parameter, such as the magnet dimension, on the dynamics of the system. The model is derived assuming a single mode approximation, taking into account the effect of linear elastic and nonlinear magnetic forces. The developed model is then numerically simulated to show that it is accurate in capturing the system dynamics and bifurcation of equilibrium positions. The model is validated through experiments based on forced vibrations of the magneto-elastic oscillator. To gather further insights about the magneto-elastic oscillator, a parametric study has been conducted based on the field strength of the magnets and the distance between the magnets and the results are reported.

  17. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  18. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  19. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Duc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions. The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta method. The results show the material properties, the elastic foundations, mechanical and thermal loads on the nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded plates.

  20. Locomotion based on nonlinear magneto-elastic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Boehm, V; Popp, J; Naletova, V; Turkov, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approximately steady motion of two equal mass points, connected by a non linear magneto-elastic element. It is supposed that the system moves along a straight line in the presence of internal excitation and non symmetric Coulomb dry frictional force acting from the surface upon each mass point opposite to the direction of motion. Thereby, the magnitude of this force is also dependent on the direction of motion. Excitation is carried out due to action internal harmonic forces. Such forces arise for a spring made of a magnetizable elastic material by the influence of an external magnetic field.

  1. Nonlinear Vibration of an Elastically Restrained Tapered Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimpour, S; Ganji, S.S; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical simulation of an elastically restrained tapered cantilever beam using the energy balance method (EBM) and the iteration perturbation method (IPM). To assess the accuracy of solutions, we compare the results with the harmonic balance method (HBM). The obtained re...

  2. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-01-01

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications

  4. Bulk Nonlinear Elastic Strain Waves in a Bilayer Coaxial Cylindrical Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, I. A.; Samsonov, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of the propagation of long nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bilayer coaxial cylindrical rod with an ideal contact between the layers has been considered. Expressions for transverse displacements through longitudinal displacements have been derived. The former satisfies free boundary conditions and continuity conditions for displacements and stresses at the interlayer interface with the desired accuracy. It has been shown how these expressions generalize the well-known plane-section and Love hypotheses for an isotropic homogeneous rod. An equation for the propagation of a nonlinearly elastic strain longitudinal wave has been derived, and its particular solution in the form of a solitary traveling wave has been studied.

  5. MODELING OF NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND BUCKLING OF ELASTIC INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the fundamentals of the method of solving static problems of geometrically nonlinear deformation, buckling, and postbuckling behavior of thin thermoelastic inhomogeneous shells with complex-shaped mid-surface, geometrical features throughout the thickness, and multilayer structure under complex thermomechanical loading. The method is based on the geometrically nonlinear equations of three-dimensional thermoelasticity and the moment finiteelement scheme. The method is justified numerically. Comparing solutions with those obtained by other authors and by software LIRA and SCAD is conducted.

  6. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonlinear elastic wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Matar, Olivier; Guerder, Pierre-Yves; Li, YiFeng; Vandewoestyne, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2012-05-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) to solve the linear and nonlinear elastic wave equation in heterogeneous media with arbitrary high order accuracy in space on unstructured triangular or quadrilateral meshes is presented. This DG-FEM method combines the geometrical flexibility of the finite element method, and the high parallelization potentiality and strongly nonlinear wave phenomena simulation capability of the finite volume method, required for nonlinear elastodynamics simulations. In order to facilitate the implementation based on a numerical scheme developed for electromagnetic applications, the equations of nonlinear elastodynamics have been written in a conservative form. The adopted formalism allows the introduction of different kinds of elastic nonlinearities, such as the classical quadratic and cubic nonlinearities, or the quadratic hysteretic nonlinearities. Absorbing layers perfectly matched to the calculation domain of the nearly perfectly matched layers type have been introduced to simulate, when needed, semi-infinite or infinite media. The developed DG-FEM scheme has been verified by means of a comparison with analytical solutions and numerical results already published in the literature for simple geometrical configurations: Lamb's problem and plane wave nonlinear propagation.

  7. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  8. Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in the gravitational field are written in the form convenient for numerical calculations. The energy-stress tensor is expressed through scalar and tensor products of three vectors frozen in the continuum. Examples of expansion of the energy-stress tensor into scalar and tensor invariants corresponding to some crystal classes are given. 47 refs

  9. A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik

    1984-03-01

    A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...

  10. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  11. Nonlinear to Linear Elastic Code Coupling in 2-D Axisymmetric Media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Explosions within the earth nonlinearly deform the local media, but at typical seismological observation distances, the seismic waves can be considered linear. Although nonlinear algorithms can simulate explosions in the very near field well, these codes are computationally expensive and inaccurate at propagating these signals to great distances. A linearized wave propagation code, coupled to a nonlinear code, provides an efficient mechanism to both accurately simulate the explosion itself and to propagate these signals to distant receivers. To this end we have coupled Sandia's nonlinear simulation algorithm CTH to a linearized elastic wave propagation code for 2-D axisymmetric media (axiElasti) by passing information from the nonlinear to the linear code via time-varying boundary conditions. In this report, we first develop the 2-D axisymmetric elastic wave equations in cylindrical coordinates. Next we show how we design the time-varying boundary conditions passing information from CTH to axiElasti, and finally we demonstrate the coupling code via a simple study of the elastic radius.

  12. Pump and probe waves in dynamic acousto-elasticity: Comprehensive description and comparison with nonlinear elastic theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, J.; Renaud, G.; Guyer, R. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    Standard nonlinear ultrasonic methods such as wave frequency mixing or resonance based measurements allow one to extract average, bulk variations of modulus and attenuation versus strain level. In contrast, dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) provides the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle including hysteresis and memory effects, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression. In this work, we address experimental difficulties and apply new processing methods, illustrating them with a Berea sandstone sample. A projection procedure is used to analyze the complex nonlinear signatures and extract the harmonic content. Amplitude dependences of the harmonic content are compared with existing models. We show that a combination of classical and hysteretic nonlinear models capture most of the observed phenomena. Some differences between existing models and experimental data are highlighted, however. A progressive decrease of the power-law amplitude dependence is found for harmonics larger than the second and for strains larger than 10-6. This observation is related to the phenomenon of acoustic conditioning that brings the material to a metastable state for each new excitation amplitude. Analysis of the steady-state regime provides additional information regarding acoustic conditioning, i.e., a progressive decrease of the amplitude of odd harmonics during excitation time with a log(t)-dependence. This observation confirms that the harmonic content is affected by the conditioning. Experimental challenges addressed include the fact that the compressional mode used for DAE can be affected by bending/torsion modes: their influence is evaluated, and guidances are given to minimize effects.

  13. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  14. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H.; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H.; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W.; Horsley, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  15. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H.; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H.; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W.; Horsley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes. PMID:25762243

  16. Stress corrosion crack depth investigation using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian E; Pieczonka, Lukasz; Remillieux, Marcel C; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of the ability to probe depth information of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are presented using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic (TREND). Depth estimation of SCC is important to determine when a stainless steel canister has been breached. TREND is a method to focus elastic energy to a point in space in order to probe that point for damage and its' depth penetration is used here to study depth information about SCC. High frequencies are used to probe near the surface, while low frequencies are used to probe deeper into a stainless steel section of a cylinder.

  17. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean val...

  18. Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Rungamornrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.

  19. Bulk nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bar with nanosize inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gula, Igor A.; Samsonov (†), Alexander M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model for propagation of the long nonlinearly elastic longitudinal strain waves in a bar, which contains nanoscale structural inclusions. The model is governed by a nonlinear doubly dispersive equation (DDE) with respect to the one unknown longitudinal strain function. We...... obtained the travelling wave solutions to DDE, and, in particular, the strain solitary wave solution, which was shown to be significantly affected by parameters of the inclusions. Moreover we found some critical inaccuracies, committed in papers by others in the derivation of a constitutive equation...... for the long strain waves in a microstructured medium, revised them, and showed an importance of improvements for correct estimation of wave parameters....

  20. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  1. A preconditioner for the finite element computation of incompressible, nonlinear elastic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    Large, incompressible elastic deformations are governed by a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. The finite element discretisation of these partial differential equations yields a system of nonlinear algebraic equations that are usually solved using Newton's method. On each iteration of Newton's method, a linear system must be solved. We exploit the structure of the Jacobian matrix to propose a preconditioner, comprising two steps. The first step is the solution of a relatively small, symmetric, positive definite linear system using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. This is followed by a small number of multigrid V-cycles for a larger linear system. Through the use of exemplar elastic deformations, the preconditioner is demonstrated to facilitate the iterative solution of the linear systems arising. The number of GMRES iterations required has only a very weak dependence on the number of degrees of freedom of the linear systems.

  2. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of doubly curved isotropic shells resting on elastic foundation by a combination of harmonic differential quadrature-finite difference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Oemer

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response of doubly curved shallow shells resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation has been studied for step and sinusoidal loadings. Dynamic analogues of Von Karman-Donnel type shell equations are used. Clamped immovable and simply supported immovable boundary conditions are considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the shell are discretized in space and time domains using the harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and finite differences (FD) methods, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed HDQ-FD coupled methodology is demonstrated by numerical examples. The shear parameter G of the Pasternak foundation and the stiffness parameter K of the Winkler foundation have been found to have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the shell. It is concluded from the present study that the HDQ-FD methodolgy is a simple, efficient, and accurate method for the nonlinear analysis of doubly curved shallow shells resting on two-parameter elastic foundation

  3. Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented

  4. Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy in symbiosis with time reversal for localization of defects: TR-NEWS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  5. A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ke; Kou Yong; Zheng Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles–Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops. - Highlights: ► A general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive materials is proposed. ► Model is thermodynamically motivated and the reversible magnetic domain rotation and irreversible domain wall motion are taken. ► The predictions are in good accordance with the experimental data including both rods and films. ► Magnetostrictive alloys are sensitive to environment temperature and pre-stress or residual stress.

  6. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...

  7. Optimal design for nonlinear response models

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, Valerii V

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors' many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss ada

  8. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Dinh Duc; Pham Hong Cong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM) plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions). The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta metho...

  9. Instantaneous stiffness and hysteresis of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Christina M; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet are designed to mimic the functional characteristics of the native foot/ankle joint. Numerous designs of dynamic elastic response feet exist which make the prescription process difficult, especially because of the lack of empirical evidence describing the objective performance characteristics of the feet. To quantify the mechanical properties of available dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet, specifically the stiffness and hysteresis. Mechanical testing of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Static Proof Testing in accordance with ISO 10328 was conducted on seven dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Load-displacement data were used to calculate the instantaneous stiffness in both the heel and forefoot regions, as well as hysteresis associated with each foot. Heel stiffness was greater than forefoot stiffness for all feet. The heel of the glass composite prosthetic foot was stiffer than the carbon fiber feet and it exhibited less hysteresis. Two different carbon fiber feet had the stiffest forefoot regions. Mechanical testing is a reproducible method that can be used to provide objective evidence about dynamic elastic response prosthetic foot performance and aid in the prescription process. Clinical relevance The quantitative stiffness and hysteresis data from this study can be used by prosthetists to aid the prescription process and make it more objective.

  10. The 'sixth sense' of ultrasound: probing nonlinear elasticity with acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B; Dontsov, Egor V; Urban, Matthew W; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2015-05-07

    Prompted by a recent finding that the magnitude of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) in isotropic tissue-like solids depends linearly on a particular third-order modulus of elasticity-hereon denoted by C, this study investigates the possibility of estimating C from the amplitude of the ARF-generated shear waves. The featured coefficient of nonlinear elasticity, which captures the incipient nonlinear interaction between the volumetric and deviatoric modes of deformation, has so far received only a limited attention in the context of soft tissues due to the fact that the latter are often approximated as (i) fluid-like when considering ultrasound waves, and (ii) incompressible under static deformations. On establishing the analytical and computational platform for the proposed sensing methodology, the study proceeds with applying the prototype technique toward estimating via ARF the third-order modulus C in a series of tissue-mimicking phantoms. To help validate the concept and its implementation, the germane third-order modulus is independently estimated in each phantom via an established technique known as acoustoelasticity. The C-estimates obtained respectively via acoustoelasticity and the new theory of ARF show a significant degree of consistency. The key features of the new sensing methodology are that: (a) it requires no external deformation of a material other than that produced by the ARF, and (b) it estimates the nonlinear C-modulus locally, over the focal region of an ultrasound beam-where the shear waves are being generated.

  11. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-07-10

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced birefringence, we can readily extract the twist elastic coefficient K 22 of thermotropic and lyotropic chiral nematics (N*). The value of K 22 we obtain for chiral doped 5CB thermotropic N* well matches those reported in the literature. With this same strategy, we could determine for the first time K 22 of the N* phase of concentrated aqueous solutions of DNA oligomers, bypassing the limitations that so far prevented measuring the elastic constants of this class of liquid crystalline materials. The present study also enlightens the significant nonlinear optical response of DNA liquid crystals.

  12. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  13. Postbuckling of magneto-electro-elastic CNT-MT composite nanotubes resting on a nonlinear elastic medium in a non-uniform thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, M.; Shamsi, M.; Saidi, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    As a first endeavor, the effect of nonlinear elastic foundation on the postbuckling behavior of smart magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) composite nanotubes is investigated. The composite nanotube is affected by a non-uniform thermal environment. A typical MEE composite nanotube consists of microtubules (MTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a MEE cylindrical nanoshell for smart control. It is assumed that the nanoscale layers of the system are coupled by a polymer matrix or filament network depending on the application. In addition to thermal loads, magneto-electro-mechanical loads are applied to the composite nanostructure. Length scale effects are taken into account using the nonlocal elasticity theory. The principle of virtual work and von Karman's relations are used to derive the nonlinear governing differential equations of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes. Using Galerkin's method, nonlinear critical buckling loads are determined. Various types of non-uniform temperature distribution in the radial direction are considered. Finally, the effects of various parameters such as the nonlinear constant of elastic medium, thermal loading factor and small scale coefficient on the postbuckling of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes are studied.

  14. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations

  15. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pugno, Nicola M. [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.

  16. A New Theory of Non-Linear Thermo-Elastic Constitutive Equation of Isotropic Hyperelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liao, Yufei

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of temperature and strain variables on materials. According to the relationship of conjugate stress-strain, a complete and irreducible non-linear constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is derived and the constitutive equations of 16 types of isotropic hyperelastic materials are given we study the transformation methods and routes of 16 kinds of constitutive equations and the study proves that transformation of two forms of constitutive equation. As an example of application, the non-linear thermo-elastic constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is combined with the natural vulcanized rubber experimental data in the existing literature base on MATLAB, The results show that the fitting accuracy is satisfactory.

  17. Study on Attenuation, Modulus of Elasticity and Nonlinearity in Thermowood Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.; Hoffren, H.; Hassinen, T.; Viitaniemi, P.

    2005-04-01

    We determined ultrasonically the attenuation, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and nonlinearity parameter (B/A) of dry defect-free thermally modified wood samples ("thick" 10 × 50 × 100 mm3 and "thin" 2 × 40 × 150 mm3) of Finnish pine, Pinus Sylvestris, as a function of treatment temperature (60-240 °C, three hours in protective water steam). The samples were cut as radial-tangential (RT) planes, and as longitudinal-radial (LR) planes. Two distinct regions of change in mechanical parameters were seen: one around 140 C where both the linear and nonlinear parameters increased and one around 230 C where the mechanical parameters decreased. These treatment temperatures thus serves as candidates for quality class delimiters for these soft wood samples.

  18. Nonlinear piping damping and response predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Weiner, E.O.; Lindquist, M.R.; Anderson, M.J.; Wagner, S.E.

    1986-10-01

    The high level dynamic testing of four prototypic piping systems, used to provide benchmarks for analytical prediction comparisons, is overviewed. The size of pipe tested ranged from one-inch to six-inches in diameter and consisted of carbon steel or stainless steel material. Failure of the tested systems included progressive gross deformation or some combination of ratchetting-fatigue. Pretest failure predictions and post test comparisons using simplified elastic and elasto-plastic methods are presented. Detailed non-linear inelastic analyses are also shown, along with a typical ratchet-fatigue failure calculation. A simplified method for calculating modal equivalent viscous damping for snubbers and plastic hinges is also described. Conclusions are made regarding the applicability of the various analytical failure predictive methods and recommendations are made for future analytic and test efforts

  19. Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...

  20. Nonlinear optical response in narrow graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Farhad; Knezevic, Irena

    We present an iterative method to calculate the nonlinear optical response of armchair graphene nanoribbons (aGNRs) and zigzag graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs) while including the effects of dissipation. In contrast to methods that calculate the nonlinear response in the ballistic (dissipation-free) regime, here we obtain the nonlinear response of an electronic system to an external electromagnetic field while interacting with a dissipative environment (to second order). We use a self-consistent-field approach within a Markovian master-equation formalism (SCF-MMEF) coupled with full-wave electromagnetic equations, and we solve the master equation iteratively to obtain the higher-order response functions. We employ the SCF-MMEF to calculate the nonlinear conductance and susceptibility, as well as to calculate the dependence of the plasmon dispersion and plasmon propagation length on the intensity of the electromagnetic field in GNRs. The electron scattering mechanisms included in this work are scattering with intrinsic phonons, ionized impurities, surface optical phonons, and line-edge roughness. Unlike in wide GNRs, where ionized-impurity scattering dominates dissipation, in ultra-narrow nanoribbons on polar substrates optical-phonon scattering and ionized-impurity scattering are equally prominent. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0008712.

  1. Interfacial elastic fingering in Hele-Shaw cells: A weakly nonlinear study

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.

    2013-11-11

    We study a variant of the classic viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells where the interface separating the fluids is elastic, and presents a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. By employing a second-order mode-coupling approach we investigate how the elastic nature of the interface influences the morphology of emerging interfacial patterns. This is done by focusing our attention on a conventionally stable situation in which the fluids involved have the same viscosity. In this framework, we show that the inclusion of nonlinear effects plays a crucial role in inducing sizable interfacial instabilities, as well as in determining the ultimate shape of the pattern-forming structures. Particularly, we have found that the emergence of either narrow or wide fingers can be regulated by tuning a rigidity fraction parameter. Our weakly nonlinear findings reinforce the importance of the so-called curvature weakening effect, which favors the development of fingers in regions of lower rigidity. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  2. Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehtourian, Romik

    Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The

  3. Transient response of an active nonlinear sandwich piezolaminated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic modelling and active vibration control of a piezolaminated plate with geometrical nonlinearities are investigated using a semi-analytical approach. For active vibration control purposes, the core orthotropic elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded with two piezo-layers on its top and bottom surfaces which act as sensor and actuator, respectively. In the modelling procedure, the piezo-layers are assumed to be connected via a proportional derivative (PD) feedback control law. Hamilton's principle is employed to acquire the strong form of the dynamic equation in terms of additional higher order strain expressions by means of von Karman strain-displacement correlation. The obtained nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) is converted to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NODEs) by engaging Galerkin method and using the orthogonality of shape functions for the simply supported boundary conditions. Then, the resulting system of NODEs is solved numerically by employing the built-in Mathematica function, "NDSolve". Next, the vibration attenuation performance is evaluated and sensitivity of the closed-loop system is investigated for several control parameters and the external disturbance parameters. The proposed solution in open loop configuration is validated by finite element (FE) package ABAQUS both in the spatial domain and for the time-/frequency-dependent response.

  4. Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccone, M.A. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Krauss, G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels, direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr-Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures, and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression and tension testing in the microstrain regime to determine the elastic limits and microplastic response of the microstructures. The retained austenite and matrix carbon content of the intercritically austenized specimens were measured by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elastic limit of the microstructures decreases with increasing amounts of retained austenite. Refining of the austenite distribution increases the elastic limit. Low elastic limits are mainly due to low flow stresses in the austenite and not internal stresses. The elastic limit correlates with the largest austenite free-mean path by a Hall-Petch type equation. The elastic limit increases with decreasing intercritical austenitizing temperature in the SAE 52100 due to a lower carbon content in the matrix reducing the retained austenite levels and retained carbides that refine grain size and, therefore, the austenite distribution in quenched specimens. In the microplastic region, the strain is accommodated by successively smaller austenite regions until the flow strength matches that of the martensite. Reheating and quenching refines the microstructure and renders the austenite unstable in the microplastic regime, causing transformation of the austenite to martensite by a strain-induced mechanism. The transformation of austenite to martensite occurs by a stress-assisted mechanism in medium carbon steels. The low elastic limits in medium carbon steels were due to the inability of the strain from the stress-assisted transformation to balance the plastic strain accumulated in the austenite.

  5. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  6. The Nonlinear Changes of Temperature Response Birefringence of Side-Hole Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Fu, Jianbo; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    For deeply investigate the birefringence responding of side-hole fiber caused by temperature, the response performance are analyzed by finite element method and elastic-optic theory, especially the nonlinear changes. The simulation results showed that the response birefringence is linear with temperature no matter how the geometry changed, but the response sensitivity is nonlinear with geometry parameters. The hole radius and hole-core distance both have their limit value to get obvious temperature sensitivity. Large hole radius and small hole-core distance is good to get high response sensitivity. Furthermore some interesting results are discussed about the response sensitivity changed with the square value of hole-core separation angle. The sensitivity is nonlinear with the square of hole-core separation angle for temperature, which is different to pressure response sensitivity.

  7. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  8. Geometric method for stability of non-linear elastic thin shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Jordanka

    2002-01-01

    PREFACE This book deals with the new developments and applications of the geometric method to the nonlinear stability problem for thin non-elastic shells. There are no other published books on this subject except the basic ones of A. V. Pogorelov (1966,1967,1986), where variational principles defined over isometric surfaces, are postulated, and applied mainly to static and dynamic problems of elastic isotropic thin shells. A. V. Pogorelov (Harkov, Ukraine) was the first to provide in his monographs the geometric construction of the deformed shell surface in a post-critical stage and deriving explicitely the asymptotic formulas for the upper and lower critical loads. In most cases, these formulas were presented in a closed analytical form, and confirmed by experimental data. The geometric method by Pogorelov is one of the most important analytical methods developed during the last century. Its power consists in its ability to provide a clear geometric picture of the postcritical form of a deformed shell surfac...

  9. Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle in the theory of nonlinear elasticity with the combined approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporykhin, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The assignment of a portion of the edge conditions in the deformed state and a portion of them in the initial state so that the initial and deformed states of the body are unknowns is a characteristic feature of the statement of a number of technological problems. Haber and Haber and Abel have performed studies in this direction, where constitutive relationships have been constructed within the framework of a linearly elastic material. Use of the displacements of individual particles as variable parameters in these relationships has required additional conditions that do not follow from the formulated problem. Use of familiar variational principles described in Euler coordinates is rendered difficult by the complexity of edge-condition formulation in the special case when the initial state is unknown. The latter is governed by the fact that variational principles are derived from the initial formulations open-quotes in Lagrangian coordinates,close quotes by recalculating the operation functional. Using Lagrange's principle, Novikov and Sporykhin constructed constitutive equations in the general case of a nonlinearly elastic body with edge conditions assigned in different configurations. An analogous problem is solved in this paper using the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle

  10. Nonlinear elastic properties of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M =Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili

    2014-05-22

    We present theoretical studies for the third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M = Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) using the density functional theory (DFT) and homogeneous deformation method. From the nonlinear least-square fitting, the elastic constants are extracted from a polynomial fit to the calculated strain-energy data. Calculated second-order elastic constants (SOECs) are compared with the previous theoretical calculations, and a very good agreement was found. The nonlinear effects often play an important role when the finite strains are larger than approximately 2.5 %. Besides, we have computed the pressure derivatives of SOECs and provided rough estimations for the Grüneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes by using the calculated TOECs. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Nonlinear dynamic response and active vibration control for piezoelectric functionally graded plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiqi, Mao; Yiming, Fu

    2010-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response and active vibration control of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are analyzed in this paper. Based on higher-order shear plate theory and elastic piezoelectric theory, the nonlinear geometric and constitutive relations of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are established, and then the nonlinear motion equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are obtained through Hamilton's variational principle. The nonlinear active vibration control of the structure is carried out with adoption of the negative velocity feedback control algorithm. By applying finite difference method, the whole problem is solved by using iterative method synthetically. In numerical examples, the effects of mechanical load, electric load, the volume fraction and the geometric parameters on the dynamic response and vibration control of the piezoelectric FGM plate are investigated.

  12. Quenching of the elastic magnetic response function of 49Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, A.M.; Suzuki, T.; Lapikas, L.; Witt Huberts, P.K.A. de; Platchkov, S.K.; Frois, B.; Mooy, R.B.M.; Zybert, L.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cross sections for elastic magnetic electron scattering from 49 Ti have been obtained in the momentum transfer range 0.75 -1 . Apart from the M1 and M7 moments the observed quenching of the response function cannot be described by the present large space shell-model calculations. Core-polarization calculations including the effect of meson-exchange currents yield a considerably better description of the present data. (orig.)

  13. Modeling complicated rheological behaviors in encapsulating shells of lipid-coated microbubbles accounting for nonlinear changes of both shell viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Matula, Thomas J.; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

    2013-02-01

    It has been accepted that the dynamic responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles will be significantly affected by the encapsulating shell properties (e.g., shell elasticity and viscosity). In this work, a new model is proposed to describe the complicated rheological behaviors in an encapsulating shell of UCA microbubbles by applying the nonlinear ‘Cross law’ to the shell viscous term in the Marmottant model. The proposed new model was verified by fitting the dynamic responses of UCAs measured with either a high-speed optical imaging system or a light scattering system. The comparison results between the measured radius-time curves and the numerical simulations demonstrate that the ‘compression-only’ behavior of UCAs can be successfully simulated with the new model. Then, the shell elastic and viscous coefficients of SonoVue microbubbles were evaluated based on the new model simulations, and compared to the results obtained from some existing UCA models. The results confirm the capability of the current model for reducing the dependence of bubble shell parameters on the initial bubble radius, which indicates that the current model might be more comprehensive to describe the complex rheological nature (e.g., ‘shear-thinning’ and ‘strain-softening’) in encapsulating shells of UCA microbubbles by taking into account the nonlinear changes of both shell elasticity and shell viscosity.

  14. Surface excess elasticity of gold: Ab initio coefficients and impact on the effective elastic response of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, B.A.M.; Müller, S.; Bargmann, S.; Weissmüller, J.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the influence of the surface on the effective elastic properties of nanoscale structures and nanomaterials remains a challenge, which we here address on both levels, continuum and atomic. Density Functional Theory (DFT) computation at the atomic level yields the first reliable surface excess elastic parameters for the (111) and (001) surfaces of gold. At the continuum level, we derive closed-form expressions for the effective elastic behavior that can be combined with the DFT-derived excess elastic parameters to obtain the effective axial, torsion, and bending stiffness of circular nanowires with surface excess elasticity. The two approaches use different reference frames, and we emphasize the need for consistent stress definitions and for conversion between the separate stress measures when transferring results between the approaches. We present excess elastic parameters separately for Cauchy and 2 nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses, demonstrating that the conversion substantially modifies their numerical value and may even invert their sign. The results afford an assessment of the contribution of the surface excess elastic parameters to the effective elastic response of nanoscale beams or wires. This assessment sheds doubt on earlier suggestions relating experimental observations of an effective stiffening or softening at small size to the excess elasticity of clean surfaces.

  15. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707

  16. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cordero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x − T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPB(x boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems.

  17. On elastic response of disordered triangular lattice during dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastilović Sreten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses on an observation regarding the initial elastic response of a triangular geometrically and structurally disordered lattice during medium-to-high strain rate loading. Namely: a transition from the short-time modulus of elasticity to the long-time one, which is not accompanied by the corresponding change of the stiffness tensor. It is demonstrated that the difference between the two moduli is, in the case of the homogeneous biaxial test simulations performed herein, a consequence of the geometrical and structural disorder "quenched" within the lattice. The investigation is performed on the triangular lattice with the first-neighbor central interactions under practically identical in-plane conditions over eight decades of strain rate.

  18. Gauge covariances and nonlinear optical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, G. B.; Passos, D. J.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.; Viana Parente Lopes, J. M.; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-07-01

    The formalism of the reduced density matrix is pursued in both length and velocity gauges of the perturbation to the crystal Hamiltonian. The covariant derivative is introduced as a convenient representation of the position operator. This allow us to write compact expressions for the reduced density matrix in any order of the perturbation which simplifies the calculations of nonlinear optical responses; as an example, we compute the first- and third-order contributions of the monolayer graphene. Expressions obtained in both gauges share the same formal structure, allowing a comparison of the effects of truncation to a finite set of bands. This truncation breaks the equivalence between the two approaches: its proper implementation can be done directly in the expressions derived in the length gauge, but requires a revision of the equations of motion of the reduced density matrix in the velocity gauge.

  19. Estimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoyannis, Paul; Hurley, Jeremiah; Grootendorst, Paul; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2005-09-01

    The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Influence of Vertical Loadings on Elastic System Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, Y.

    2010-10-01

    A model of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with suspended oscillators in series, which is a common technique for analyzing the dynamic response of bridge and gantry cranes, reloader bridges, etc., is employed here to study the influence of vertical loadings on the elastic system. The dynamic response of the model includes the beam partial differential equation that is solved through an effective numerical-analytic approach, based on the method of separation of variables and modal analysis. It is shown that the model is suitable for investigating the dynamic response for various vertical loadings which in the case of bridge cranes are due to the operation cycles of different hoisting and load handling mechanisms. Separate computer simulations of a real-world crane structure are carried out by the proposed numerical-analytic approach and by the finite element method. Results from both solutions are compared.

  1. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs

  2. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  3. Nonlinear Elasticity of Borocarbide Superconductor YNi2B2C: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available First-principles calculations combined with homogeneous deformation methods are used to investigate the second- and third-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C with tetragonal structure. The predicted lattice constants and second-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C agree well with the available data. The effective second-order elastic constants are obtained from the second- and third-order elastic constants for YNi2B2C. Based on the effective second-order elastic constants, Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, and Vickers hardness of YNi2B2C under high pressure are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility of YNi2B2C increases with increasing pressure.

  4. Effects of uncertainties in soil-structure interaction models on nonlinear seismic responses of nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, J.; Namba, H.; Komura, T.; Tuchiya, Y.; Saitoh, M.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of uncertainties in materials and modeling on seismic responses of nuclear reactor buildings are relatively small if responses remain in the elastic range of structures. However, under extremely severe earthquakes, responses are expected to go into nonlinear ranges, and responses may exhibit wider scatters due to the uncertainties and variabilities in materials and nonlinear characteristics of shear walls. Thus, it may be quite important to evaluate the effects of the uncertainties on nonlinear responses, especially, the maximum shear strain response, which is one of the most critical responses to the seismic safety of reinforced concrete shear walls and to reactor buildings as a whole. To this end, the sensitivities of nonlinear responses, mainly shear strain responses, to the uncertainties and variabilities of materials and nonlinear characteristics of shear walls arc evaluated for a reactor building of BWR Mark I type; then, the variabilities of nonlinear responses due to the uncertainties and variabilities are evaluated on the basis of the first-order approximation of response statistics as well as numerical simulations

  5. Effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on probabilistic response of a nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Alidad, E-mail: sahashem@bechtel.com; Elkhoraibi, Tarek; Ostadan, Farhang

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Probabilistic SSI analysis including structural nonlinearity and sliding are shown. • Analysis is done for a soil and a rock site and probabilistic demands are obtained. • Structural drift ratios and In-structure response spectra are evaluated. • Structural nonlinearity significantly impacts local demands in the structure. • Sliding generally reduces seismic demands and can be accommodated in design. - Abstract: This paper examines the effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on the results of probabilistic structural analysis of a typical nuclear structure where structural nonlinearity, foundation sliding and soil-structure interaction (SSI) are explicitly included. The evaluation is carried out for a soil and a rock site at 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5}, and 10{sup 6} year return periods (1E − 4, 1E − 5, and 1E − 6 hazard levels, respectively). The input motions at each considered hazard level are deaggregated into low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) motions and a sample size of 30 is used for uncertainty propagation. The statistical distribution of structural responses including story drifts, and in-structure response spectra (ISRS) as well as foundation sliding displacements are examined. The probabilistic implementation of explicit structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding in combination with the SSI effects are demonstrated using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of the structure with the foundation motions obtained from elastic SSI analyses, which are applied as input to fixed-base inelastic analyses. This approach quantifies the expected structural nonlinearity and sliding for the particular structural configuration and provides a robust analytical basis for the estimation of the probabilistic distribution of selected demands parameters both at the design level and beyond design level seismic input. For the subject structure, the inclusion of foundation sliding in the analysis is found to have

  6. Effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on probabilistic response of a nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Alidad; Elkhoraibi, Tarek; Ostadan, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Probabilistic SSI analysis including structural nonlinearity and sliding are shown. • Analysis is done for a soil and a rock site and probabilistic demands are obtained. • Structural drift ratios and In-structure response spectra are evaluated. • Structural nonlinearity significantly impacts local demands in the structure. • Sliding generally reduces seismic demands and can be accommodated in design. - Abstract: This paper examines the effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on the results of probabilistic structural analysis of a typical nuclear structure where structural nonlinearity, foundation sliding and soil-structure interaction (SSI) are explicitly included. The evaluation is carried out for a soil and a rock site at 10 4 , 10 5 , and 10 6 year return periods (1E − 4, 1E − 5, and 1E − 6 hazard levels, respectively). The input motions at each considered hazard level are deaggregated into low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) motions and a sample size of 30 is used for uncertainty propagation. The statistical distribution of structural responses including story drifts, and in-structure response spectra (ISRS) as well as foundation sliding displacements are examined. The probabilistic implementation of explicit structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding in combination with the SSI effects are demonstrated using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of the structure with the foundation motions obtained from elastic SSI analyses, which are applied as input to fixed-base inelastic analyses. This approach quantifies the expected structural nonlinearity and sliding for the particular structural configuration and provides a robust analytical basis for the estimation of the probabilistic distribution of selected demands parameters both at the design level and beyond design level seismic input. For the subject structure, the inclusion of foundation sliding in the analysis is found to have reduced both

  7. Characteristics of Jerk Response Spectra for Elastic and Inelastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerk is the time rate of acceleration and mainly represents the nonstationary component in high frequency band of the earthquake wave. The study on jerk and its response spectra can enhance the recognition of the nonstationary ground motion. The mechanical meaning and research value of jerk are described. Jerk is recommended to be solved by establishing state-space equations and Runge-Kutta method. The solution method of elastic and inelastic jerk response spectra under ground motion is established, and the accurate jerk spectrum should be calculated directly according to numerical computing instead of pseudo-acceleration spectrum. The characteristics of jerk response spectra are studied according to the influencing factors, such as site condition, amplification factor, ductility factor, and reduction factor. The concept of impact reduction factor is presented. The statistical results show that the jerk spectrum has similar rules as the acceleration spectrum, and the amplitude is relative to the predominant period, especially for structures with short or medium period. If the ductility is improved, the effective jerk will reduce obviously, and the impact reduction factor will be enhanced. Different from the strength reduction factor, the impact reduction factor is nearly not relevant to the period.

  8. A Photonic Basis for Deriving Nonlinear Optical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is generally first presented as an extension of conventional optics. Typically the subject is introduced with reference to a classical oscillatory electric polarization, accommodating correction terms that become significant at high intensities. The material parameters that quantify the extent of the nonlinear response are cast as…

  9. Stochastic response of nonlinear system in probability domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Stochastic average procedure; nonlinear single-DOF system; probability density function. Abstract. A stochastic averaging procedure for obtaining the probability density function (PDF) of the response for a strongly nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom system, subjected to both multiplicative and additive random ...

  10. Stochastic response of nonlinear system in probability domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic average procedure; nonlinear single-DOF system; proba- bility density function. 1. Introduction. Stochastic response analysis of nonlinear systems has been extensively studied in the fre- quency, time and probability domains. In the frequency domain, the stochastic linearization technique is generally used for ...

  11. Numerical simulation of the interaction between a nonlinear elastic structure and compressible flow by the discontinuous Galerkin method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosík, Adam; Feistauer, M.; Hadrava, Martin; Horáček, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 267, September (2015), s. 382-396 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous Galerkin method * nonlinear elasticity * compressible viscous flow * fluid–structure interaction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0096300315002453/pdfft?md5=02d46bc730e3a7fb8a5008aaab1da786&pid=1-s2.0-S0096300315002453-main.pdf

  12. Dynamic Response Analysis of an Asymmetric Coupled Vehicle-Track System Generated by Voided Elastic Two-Block Sleeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on vehicle-track coupled dynamic theory, a three-dimensional asymmetric vehicle-track coupling vibration model is developed to investigate the effect of voided elastic two-block sleepers on vehicle and track system dynamic responses. For the vehicle system, one car body, two frames, and four wheel sets are assumed to be rigid, with 35 degrees of freedom (DOF. For the track system, the rails and the concrete two-block sleepers are the main vibration components. The rails are modelled as Timoshenko beams, and the concrete two-block sleepers are assumed to be rigid mass with vertical and lateral movement. The pads under the rails and the rubber boots under the sleepers provide greater vertical and lateral elasticity for the track. The Hertz nonlinear elastic contact theory is used to calculate the normal wheel/rail force. The wheel/rail tangent creep force is first calculated using Kalker’s linear creep theory and then modified by the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins theory. The results show that the asymmetric voided elastic two-block sleepers have greater effects on the dynamic responses for fasteners and sleepers than on the car body and the wheel/rail forces under measured geometric irregularity and random irregularity. Two or more voided sleepers will greatly affect the vehicle running safety.

  13. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Yet, the eigen-value approach has not been applied in micropolar orthotropic medium. Mahalanabis & Manna (1989) applied eigen-value approach to linear micropolar elasticity by arranging basic equations of linear micropolar elasticity in the form of matrix differential equation. Mahalanabis & Manna (1997) discussed the ...

  14. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  15. Non-parametric system identification from non-linear stochastic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdinger, Finn; Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    An estimation method is proposed for identification of non-linear stiffness and damping of single-degree-of-freedom systems under stationary white noise excitation. Non-parametric estimates of the stiffness and damping along with an estimate of the white noise intensity are obtained by suitable...... processing of records of the stochastic response. The stiffness estimation is based on a local iterative procedure, which compares the elastic energy at mean-level crossings with the kinetic energy at the extremes. The damping estimation is based on a generic expression for the probability density...

  16. Approximate non-linear multiparameter inversion for multicomponent single and double P-wave scattering in isotropic elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian

    2018-03-01

    An asymptotic quadratic true-amplitude inversion method for isotropic elastic P waves is proposed to invert medium parameters. The multicomponent P-wave scattered wavefield is computed based on a forward relationship using second-order Born approximation and corresponding high-frequency ray theoretical methods. Within the local double scattering mechanism, the P-wave transmission factors are elaborately calculated, which results in the radiation pattern for P-waves scattering being a quadratic combination of the density and Lamé's moduli perturbation parameters. We further express the elastic P-wave scattered wavefield in a form of generalized Radon transform (GRT). After introducing classical backprojection operators, we obtain an approximate solution of the inverse problem by solving a quadratic non-linear system. Numerical tests with synthetic data computed by finite-differences scheme demonstrate that our quadratic inversion can accurately invert perturbation parameters for strong perturbations, compared with the P-wave single-scattering linear inversion method. Although our inversion strategy here is only syncretized with P-wave scattering, it can be extended to invert multicomponent elastic data containing both P-wave and S-wave information.

  17. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time History Forced Response in Nonlinear Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnevall M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A formulation of a digital filter method for computing the forced response of a linear MDOF mechanical system is proposed. It is shown how aliasing error effects can be avoided at the expense of a bias error. The bias error is however completely known and it is system independent, as it only depends on the sampling frequency used. The mechanical system is described by its modal parameters, poles and residues. The method is extended to include non-linear elements. A toolbox in MATLAB has been created where nonlinear elements with and without memory can be treated, as well as system described by coupled non-linear equations.

  19. Nonlinear aspects of shock response in isolated accelerometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hunter, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Numerous investigations have studied the potential for chaotic vibrations of nonlinear systems. It has been shown for many simple nonlinear systems, that when they are excited severely enough, or with the appropriate parametric combinations, that they will execute chaotic vibrations. The present investigation considers the potential for the occurrence of chaos in a practical nonlinear system -- the isolated accelerometer. A simple, first order model is proposed for the isolated accelerometer, and it is shown that chaos can occur in the isolated accelerometer. A preliminary investigation into the bearing that this chaos potential has on the measurement of shock response is summarized. 7 refs.

  20. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  1. Nonlinear Stochastic Analysis of Subharmonic Response of a Shallow Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the subharmonic response of a shallow cable due to time variations of the chord length of the equilibrium suspension, caused by time varying support point motions. Initially, the capability of a simple nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom model for the prediction of chaotic...... and stochastic subharmonic response is demonstrated upon comparison with a more involved model based on a spatial finite difference discretization of the full nonlinear partial differential equations of the cable. Since the stochastic response quantities are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, which is extremely...

  2. A sandwich bar element for geometric nonlinear thermo-elastic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murín J.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with a two-node straight sandwich composite bar element with constant double symmetric rectangular cross-sectional area. This new bar element (based on the non-linear second-order theory is intended to perform the non-incremental full geometric non-linear analysis. Stiffness matrix of this composite bar contains transfer constants, which accurately describe polynomial uniaxial variation of the material thermo-physical properties.In the numerical experiments the weak coupled thermo-structural geometric non-linear problem was solved. Obtained results were compared with several analyses made by ANSYS programme. Findings show good accuracy of this new finite element. The results obtained with this element do not depend on the element mesh density.

  3. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...... boundary value problems, but also are used as mathematical models in viscoelastic and inelastic flows. The purpose of this paper is to present the application of the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and variational iteration method (VIM) to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering...... and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However...

  4. On the Nonlinear Vibrational Responses of a Large Vessel with a Broad Bow Flare under Wave Excitation: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicheng Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled nonlinear three-dimensional (3D hydroelastic method is developed to investigate vibrational responses of a large ship with a pronounced bow flare subjected to high seas. This numerical model consists of a 3D boundary element method, 1D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, and a 2D generalized Wagner model. Green water loads were considered. Experimental study was carried out in a towing tank on a self-propelled segmented model with nonuniform steel backbones. The ship model was tested in regular incident waves of large amplitude. Impact pressure and nonlinear vertical bending moments were measured and compared with numerical predictions. The proposed nonlinear model produced similar results to the experimental model. Furthermore, the effects of elastic modes and nonlinearities on the numerical results were analyzed.

  5. The Role of Nonlinear Substrate Elasticity in the Wrinkling of Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of substrate nonlinearity on the stability of wrinkling of thin films bonded to compliant substrates is investigated within the initial post-bifurcation range when wrinkling first emerges. A fully nonlinear neo-Hookean bilayer composed of a thin film on a deep substrate is analyzed for a wide range of the film/substrate stiffness ratio, from films that are very stiff compared to the substrate to those only slightly stiffer. Substrate pre-stretch prior to film attachment is shown to h...

  6. Invester Response to Consumer Elasticity, Nordic Energy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Grenaa; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, Hans V.

    2004-01-01

    , and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity...... demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used...... the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand...

  7. The exploration of nonlinear elasticity and its efficient parameterization for crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2017-10-01

    Conventional approaches to analyzing the very large coherency strains that can occur during solid-state phase transformations are founded in linear elasticity and rely on infinitesimal strain metrics. Despite this, there are many technologically important examples where misfit strains of multi-phase mixtures are very large during their synthesis and/or application. In this paper, we present a framework for constructing strain-energy expressions and stress-strain relationships beyond the linear-elastic limit for crystalline solids. This approach utilizes group theoretical concepts to minimize both the number of free parameters in the strain-energy expression and amount of first-principles training data required to parameterize strain-energy models that are invariant to all crystal symmetries. Within this framework, the strain-energy and elastic stiffness can be described to high accuracy in terms of a set of conventional symmetry-adapted finite strain metrics that we define independent of crystal symmetry. As an illustration, we use first-principles electronic structure data to parameterize strain energy polynomials and employ them to explore the strain-energy surfaces of HCP Zr and Mg, as well as several important Zr-H and Mg-Nd phases that are known to precipitate coherently within the HCP matrices of Zr and Mg.

  8. Nonlinear random response prediction using MSC/NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. H.; Chiang, C. K.; Rizzi, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    An equivalent linearization technique was incorporated into MSC/NASTRAN to predict the nonlinear random response of structures by means of Direct Matrix Abstract Programming (DMAP) modifications and inclusion of the nonlinear differential stiffness module inside the iteration loop. An iterative process was used to determine the rms displacements. Numerical results obtained for validation on simple plates and beams are in good agreement with existing solutions in both the linear and linearized regions. The versatility of the implementation will enable the analyst to determine the nonlinear random responses for complex structures under combined loads. The thermo-acoustic response of a hexagonal thermal protection system panel is used to highlight some of the features of the program.

  9. Nonlinear random response prediction using MSC/NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. H.; Chiang, C. K.; Rizzi, S. A.

    1993-10-01

    An equivalent linearization technique was incorporated into MSC/NASTRAN to predict the nonlinear random response of structures by means of Direct Matrix Abstract Programming (DMAP) modifications and inclusion of the nonlinear differential stiffness module inside the iteration loop. An iterative process was used to determine the rms displacements. Numerical results obtained for validation on simple plates and beams are in good agreement with existing solutions in both the linear and linearized regions. The versatility of the implementation will enable the analyst to determine the nonlinear random responses for complex structures under combined loads. The thermo-acoustic response of a hexagonal thermal protection system panel is used to highlight some of the features of the program.

  10. Fast novel nonlinear optical NLC system with local response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljin, Andrey; Residori, Stefania; Bortolozzo, Umberto

    2017-06-01

    Nonlinear optical performance of a novel liquid crystalline (LC) cell has been studied in two-wave mixing experiments revealing high diffraction efficiency within extremely wide intensity range, fast recording times and spatial resolution. Photo-induced modulation of the LC order parameter resulting from trans-cis isomerisation of dye molecules causes consequent changes of refractive indices of the medium (Light-Induced Order Modification, LIOM-mechanism) and is proved to be the main mechanism of optical nonlinearity. The proposed arrangement of the electric-field-stabilised homeotropic alignment hinders the LC director reorientation, prevents appearance of surface effects and ensures the optical cell quality. The LIOM-type nonlinearity, characterised with the substantially local nonlinear optical response, could also be extended for the recording of arbitrary phase profiles as requested in several applications for light-beam manipulation, recording of dynamic volume holograms and photonic lattices.

  11. Response of multiphase magneto-electro-elastic sensors under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel beam with plane stress assumption is presented in this paper. The beam is subjected to harmonic excitation with a point load at tip and a uniformly distributed load along the bottom surface of the mild steel beam. Numerical ...

  12. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is concerned with the plane strain problem in homogeneous micropolar orthotropic elastic solids. The disturbance due to time harmonic concentrated source is investigated by employing eigen-value approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the ...

  13. DESTRUCTION CRITERION IN MODEL OF NON-LINEAR ELASTIC PLASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Shved

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a destruction criterion in a specific phenomenological model of elastic plastic medium which significantly differs from the known criteria. In case of vector interpretation of rank-2 symmetric tensors yield surface in the Cauchy stress space is formed by closed piecewise concave surfaces of its deviator sections with due account of experimental data. Section surface is determined by normal vector which is selected from two private vectors of criterial “deviator” operator. Such selection is not always possible in the case of anisotropy growth. It is expected that destruction can only start when a process point in the stress space is located in the current deviator section of the yield surface. It occurs when a critical point appears in the section, and a private value of an operator becomes N-fold in the point that determines the private vector corresponding to the normal vector. Unique and reasonable selection of the normal vector becomes impossible in the critical point and an yield criteria loses its significance in the point.When the destruction initiation is determined there is a possibility of a special case due to the proposed conic form of the yield surface. The deviator section degenerates into the point at the yield surface peak. Criterion formulation at the surface peak lies in the fact that there is no physically correct solution while using a state equation in regard to elastic distortion measures with a fixed tensor of elastic turn. Such usage of the equation is always possible for the rest points of the yield surface and it is considered as an obligatory condition for determination of the deviator section. A critical point is generally absent at any deviator section of the yield surface for isotropic material. A limiting value of the mean stress has been calculated at uniform tension.

  14. The role of nonlinear substrate elasticity in the wrinkling of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John W

    2013-06-28

    The role of substrate nonlinearity in the stability of wrinkling of thin films bonded to compliant substrates is investigated within the initial post-bifurcation range when wrinkling first emerges. A fully nonlinear neo-Hookean bilayer composed of a thin film on a deep substrate is analysed for a wide range of the film-substrate stiffness ratio, from films that are very stiff compared with the substrate to those only slightly stiffer. Substrate pre-stretch prior to film attachment is shown to have a significant effect on the nonlinearity relevant to wrinkling. Two dimensionless parameters are identified that control the stability and mode shape evolution of the bilayer: one specifying arbitrary uniform substrate pre-stretch and the other a stretch-modified modulus ratio. For systems with film stiffness greater than about five times that of the substrate the wrinkling bifurcation is stable, whereas for systems with smaller relative film stiffness bifurcation can be unstable, especially if substrate pre-stretch is not tensile.

  15. Breathing as a low frequency wave propagation in nonlinear elastic permeable medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Elizabeth; McKenzie, David R.; Suchowerska, Natalka; Fulton, Roger R.

    2007-01-01

    Breathing can be regarded as a type of low frequency wave propagation. Unlike sound propagation in open air, in breathing, the air compressibility is not as important as the flow of air, and to a first approximation the air can be regarded as incompressible. We have developed a one-dimensional analytical description of wave motion in a metamaterial consisting of a porous elastic medium contained within chambers, separated by plates with orifices representing the minor airways. The metamaterial is placed within a cylinder with impermeable sides representing the thorax, driven at one end by a piston representing the diaphragm. The incompressible air is able to escape from the top of the cylinder. The solutions to the wave equation have characteristics that depend on the values of permeability (defined by the size of the orifice in the plates), the Young's modulus of the elastic medium and the density of lung tissue. A 'normal' regime is identified in which the strain of the medium near the diaphragm is large and the strain at the top of the cylinder near the outlet is small. An 'abnormal' regime is also identified in which the opposite applies. A rapid transition between the two regimes can be caused by changing the parameters representing the lung tissue. This transition may represent the onset of a disease state such as asthma

  16. Nonlinear Response of Cantilever Beams to Combination and Subcombination Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Nayfeh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear planar response of cantilever metallic beams to combination parametric and external subcombination resonances is investigated, taking into account the effects of cubic geometric and inertia nonlinearities. The beams considered here are assumed to have large length-to-width aspect ratios and thin rectangular cross sections. Hence, the effects of shear deformations and rotatory inertia are neglected. For the case of combination parametric resonance, a two-mode Galerkin discretization along with Hamilton’s extended principle is used to obtain two second-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. For the case of subcombination resonance, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the Lagrangian and virtual-work term. Then using Hamilton’s extended principle, we obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. In both cases, the modulation equations are used to generate frequency- and force-response curves. We found that the trivial solution exhibits a jump as it undergoes a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. Similarly, the nontrivial solutions also exhibit jumps as they undergo saddle-node bifurcations.

  17. Modeling and non-linear responses of MEMS capacitive accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Harsha C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated beam has been illustrated when the electrostatic-ally actuated micro-cantilever beam is separated from the electrode by a moderately large gap for two distinct types of geometric configurations of MEMS accelerometer. Higher order nonlinear terms have been taken into account for studying the pull in voltage analysis. A nonlinear model of gas film squeezing damping, another source of nonlinearity in MEMS devices is included in obtaining the dynamic responses. Moreover, in the present work, the possible source of nonlinearities while formulating the mathematical model of a MEMS accelerometer and their influences on the dynamic responses have been investigated. The theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB has been verified with the results obtained in FE software and has been found in good agreement. Criterion towards stable micro size accelerometer for each configuration has been investigated. This investigation clearly provides an understanding of nonlinear static and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically micro cantilever based device in MEMS.

  18. Measurement of the nonlinear optical phase response of liquefying gallium

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, P.; Kim, H.S.; Richardson, D.J.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the nonlinear optical phase response of gallium/silica interface close to the metal's melting point. A reversible phase modulation of ~0.15 radians and ~30% change in reflectivity was observed for 5mW of power at 1549nm.

  19. Periodic response of nonlinear dynamical system with large number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a methodology based on shooting technique and Newmark's time integration scheme is proposed for predicting the periodic responses of nonlinear systems directly from solution of second order equations of motion without transforming to double first order equations. The proposed methodology is quite ...

  20. Periodic response of nonlinear dynamical system with large number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a methodology based on shooting technique and New- mark's time integration scheme is proposed for predicting the periodic responses of nonlinear systems directly from solution of second order equations of motion without transforming to double first order equations. The proposed methodology.

  1. Coherent nonlinear electromagnetic response in twisted bilayer and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 4. Coherent nonlinear electromagnetic response in twisted bilayer and few-layer graphene ... These oscillations in the population and polarization at the Dirac point in -layer graphene are seen in the nth harmonic termin the external driving frequency.

  2. A nonlinear theory for fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Favata, Antonino; Tomassetti, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We derive a model for the finite motion of a fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rod. The reinforcing particles are assumed weakly and uniformly magnetized, rigid and firmly embedded into the elastomeric matrix. We deduce closed-form expressions of the quasi-static motion of the rod in terms of the external magnetic field and of the body forces. The dependences of the motion on the shape of the inclusions, their orientation, their anisotropic magnetic properties and the Young modulus of the matrix are analysed and discussed. Two case studies are presented, in which the rod is used as an actuator suspended in a cantilever configuration. This work can foster new applications in the field of soft-actuators.

  3. On the compatibility equations of nonlinear and linear elasticity in the presence of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2015-12-01

    We use Hodge-type orthogonal decompositions for studying the compatibility equations of the displacement gradient and the linear strain with prescribed boundary displacements. We show that the displacement gradient is compatible if and only if for any equilibrated virtual first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor field, the virtual work done by the displacement gradient is equal to the virtual work done by the prescribed boundary displacements. This condition is very similar to the classical compatibility equations for the linear strain. Since these compatibility equations for linear and nonlinear strains involve infinite-dimensional spaces and consequently are not easy to use in practice, we derive alternative compatibility equations, which are written in terms of some finite-dimensional spaces and are more useful in practice. Using these new compatibility equations, we present some non-trivial examples that show that compatible strains may become incompatible in the presence of prescribed boundary displacements.

  4. Dynamic Response Analysis of Microflow Electrochemical Sensors with Two Types of Elastic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Molecular Electric Transducer (MET, widely applied for vibration measurement, has excellent sensitivity and dynamic response at low frequencies. The elastic membrane in the MET is a significant factor with an obvious effect on the performance of the MET in the low frequency domain and is the focus of this paper. In simulation experiments, the elastic membrane and the reaction cavity of the MET were analysed in a model based on the multiphysics finite element method. Meanwhile, the effects caused by the elastic membrane elements are verified in this paper. With the numerical simulation and practical experiments, a suitable elastic membrane can be designed for different cavity structures. Thus, the MET can exhibit the best dynamic response characteristics to measure the vibration signals. With the new method presented in this paper, it is possible to develop and optimize the characteristics of the MET effectively, and the dynamic characteristics of the MET can be improved in a thorough and systematic manner.

  5. Elastic Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear subs...

  6. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  7. Alternative Modal Basis Selection Procedures for Nonlinear Random Response Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of the three reduced-order analyses are compared with the results of the computationally taxing simulation in the physical degrees of freedom. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.

  8. Role of architecture in the elastic response of semiflexible polymer and fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussinger, Claus; Frey, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    We study the elasticity of cross-linked networks of thermally fluctuating stiff polymers. As compared to their purely mechanical counterparts, it is shown that these thermal networks have a qualitatively different elastic response. By accounting for the entropic origin of the single-polymer elasticity, the networks acquire a strong susceptibility to polydispersity and structural randomness that is completely absent in athermal models. In extensive numerical studies we systematically vary the architecture of the networks and identify a wealth of phenomena that clearly show the strong dependence of the emergent macroscopic moduli on the underlying mesoscopic network structure. In particular, we highlight the importance of the polymer length, which to a large extent controls the elastic response of the network, surprisingly, even in parameter regions where it does not enter the macroscopic moduli explicitly. Understanding these subtle effects is only possible by going beyond the conventional approach that considers the response of typical polymer segments only. Instead, we propose to describe the elasticity in terms of a typical polymer filament and the spatial distribution of cross-links along its backbone. We provide theoretical scaling arguments to relate the observed macroscopic elasticity to the physical mechanisms on the microscopic and mesoscopic scales.

  9. Effects of Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress on the Buckling Response of Compression-Loaded Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should also be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  10. Combined effects of traveling seismic waves and soil nonlinearity on nuclear power plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ground motion nonuniformity on the seismic input have been actively studied in recent years by considering the passage of traveling seismic waves. These studies gave rise to a new class of soil-structure interaction problems in which the seismic input is modified as a result of the spatial variations of ground motion. The phenomena were usually studied by using the elastic half-space simulation or discrete spring-models for modeling the soil medium. Finite element methods were also used recently on a limited scope. Results obtained from these investigations are often manifested by an attenuation of translational excitation along with an addition of rotational ground motion input. The decrease in structural response resulting from the input loss in the translational component was often insignificant since the response reduction tends to be offset by the effects from rotational input. The traveling wave effects have, so far, been investigated within the framework of linear theory with soil nonlinearity ignored. Conversely, the incorporation of soil nonlinearity in soil-structure interaction analyses has been done without including wave effect. Seismic analyses considering the hysteretic behavior of soil have been performed using highly idealized models for steady-state solution. More elaborate nonlinear seismic models deal with only the strain-dependent soil modulus rather than the transient unloading-reloading type of hysteretic characteristics of soil under a time-function input of earthquake trace. Apparently, the traveling wave effect and soil nonlinearity have been separately treated in the past. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these two major effects can be combined in one model such that the influence of wave passage is reflected through the hysteretic behavior of soil particles, and thereby achieving significant reduction in seismic loads. (orig./RW)

  11. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two......-degrees-of-freedom system with one modal coordinate for the in-plane displacement and one for the out-of-plane displacement. At first harmonic varying chord elongation at excitation frequencies close to the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the cable is considered in order to identify stable modes of vibration. Depending......, the chord elongation is modelled as a narrow-banded Gaussian stochastic process, and it is shown that all the indicated harmonic solutions now become instable with probability one. Instead, the cable jumps randomly back and forth between the two in-plane and the whirling mode of vibration. A theory...

  12. Nonlinearity response correction in phase-shifting deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Manh The; Kang, Pilseong; Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the nonlinearity response of digital devices such as screens and cameras in phase-shifting deflectometry, non-sinusoidal phase-shifted fringe patterns are generated and additional measurement errors are introduced. In this paper, a new deflectometry technique is described for overcoming these problems using a pre-distorted pattern combined with an advanced iterative algorithm. The experiment results show that this method can reconstruct the 3D surface map of a sample without fringe print-through caused by the nonlinearity response of digital devices. The proposed technique is verified by measuring the surface height variations in a deformable mirror and comparing them with the measurement result obtained using a coordinate measuring machine. The difference between the two measurement results is estimated to be less than 13 µm.

  13. Comparison of elastic and inelastic seismic response of high temperature piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.M.; McCabe, S.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A study of high temperature power piping systems is presented. The response of the piping systems is determined when subjected to seismic disturbances. Two piping systems are presented, a main steam line, and a cold reheat line. Each of the piping systems are modeled using the ANSYS computer program and two analyses are performed on each piping system. First, each piping system is subjected to a seismic disturbance and the pipe material is assumed to remain linear and elastic. Next the analysis is repeated for each piping system when the pipe material is modeled as having elastic-plastic behavior. The results of the linear elastic analysis and elastic-plastic analysis are compared for each of the two pipe models. The pipe stresses, strains, and displacements, are compared. These comparisons are made so that the effect of the material yielding can be determined and to access what error is made when a linear analysis is performed on a system that yields

  14. Mesoscale Modeling of Nonlinear Elasticity and Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals Under Dynamic Shear and Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 24 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON J. D. Clayton a. REPORT...elsewhere for SiC (Lee et al., 2005), follows from a cap plasticity model formulated in the context of geomechanics (Sandler and Rubin, 1979):rections, and

  15. Static response of coated microbubbles compressed between rigid plates: Simulations and asymptotic analysis including elastic and adhesive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, A.; Pelekasis, N.

    2018-03-01

    The static response of coated microbubbles is investigated with a novel approach employed for modeling contact between a microbubble and the cantilever of an atomic force microscope. Elastic tensions and moments are described via appropriate constitutive laws. The encapsulated gas is assumed to undergo isothermal variations. Due to the hydrophilic nature of the cantilever, an ultrathin aqueous film is formed, which transfers the force onto the shell. An interaction potential describes the local pressure applied on the shell. The problem is solved in axisymmetric form with the finite element method. The response is governed by the dimensionless bending, k^ b=kb/(χ R02 ), pressure, P^ A=(PAR0 )/χ , and interaction potential, W ^ =w0/χ . Hard polymeric shells have negligible resistance to gas compression, while for the softer lipid shells gas compressibility is comparable with shell elasticity. As the external force increases, numerical simulations reveal that the force versus deformation (f vs d) curve of polymeric shells exhibits a transition from the linear O(d) (Reissner) regime, marked by flattened shapes around the contact region, to a non-linear O(d1/2) (Pogorelov) regime dominated by shapes exhibiting crater formation due to buckling. When lipid shells are tested, buckling is bypassed as the external force increases and flattened shapes prevail in an initially linear f vs d curve. Transition to a curved upwards regime is observed as the force increases, where gas compression and area dilatation form the dominant balance providing a nonlinear regime with an O(d3) dependence. Asymptotic analysis recovers the above patterns and facilitates estimation of the shell mechanical properties.

  16. Nonlinear Dielectric Response of Water Treed XLPE Cable Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidsten, Sverre

    1999-07-01

    Condition assessment of XLPE power cables is becoming increasingly important for the utilities, due to a large number of old cables in service with high probability of failure caused by water tree degradation. The commercial available techniques are generally based upon measurements of the dielectric response, either by time (polarisation/depolarisation current or return voltage) or frequency domain measurements. Recently it has been found that a high number of water trees in XLPE insulated cables causes the dielectric response to increase more than linearly with increasing test voltage. This nonlinear feature of water tree degraded XLPE insulation has been suggested to be of a great importance, both for diagnostic purposes, and for fundamental understanding of the water tree phenomenon itself. The main purpose of this thesis have been to study the nonlinear feature of the dielectric response measured on watertreed XLPE insulation. This has been performed by dielectric response measurements in both time and frequency domain, numerical calculations of losses of simplified water tree models, and fmally water content and water permeation measurements on single water trees. The dielectric response measurements were performed on service aged cable samples and laboratory aged Rogowski type objects. The main reason for performing laboratory ageing was to facilitate diagnostic testing as a function of ageing time of samples containing mainly vented water trees. A new method, based upon inserting NaC1 particles at the interface between the upper semiconductive screen and the insulation, was found to successfully enhance initiation and growth of vented water trees. AC breakdown strength testing show that it is the vented water trees that reduce the breakdown level of both the laboratory aged test objects and service aged cable samples. Vented water treeing was found to cause the dielectric response to become nonlinear at a relatively low voltage level. However, the measured

  17. Nonlinear optical response of relativistic energy bands: Application to phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-06-01

    The energy dispersion relation of massive relativistic particles is characterized by a gradual transition from parabolic to linear momentum dependence. A similar pseudorelativistic behavior is found in the energy bands of certain two-dimensional semiconductors. Focusing on phosphorene, we investigate the response of pseudorelativistic electrons to electromagnetic fields. It is demonstrated that a near-analytical expression for the induced current containing the field to all orders can be obtained. We analyze the harmonic content of the current and study the field-, frequency-, and band-gap dependence of the nonlinear response. A detailed analysis of third-harmonic generation and saturable absorption is made.

  18. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlinear responses of chiral fluids from kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pu, Shi; Yang, Di-Lun

    2018-01-01

    The second-order nonlinear responses of inviscid chiral fluids near local equilibrium are investigated by applying the chiral kinetic theory (CKT) incorporating side-jump effects. It is shown that the local equilibrium distribution function can be nontrivially introduced in a comoving frame with respect to the fluid velocity when the quantum corrections in collisions are involved. For the study of anomalous transport, contributions from both quantum corrections in anomalous hydrodynamic equations of motion and those from the CKT and Wigner functions are considered under the relaxation-time (RT) approximation, which result in anomalous charge Hall currents propagating along the cross product of the background electric field and the temperature (or chemical-potential) gradient and of the temperature and chemical-potential gradients. On the other hand, the nonlinear quantum correction on the charge density vanishes in the classical RT approximation, which in fact satisfies the matching condition given by the anomalous equation obtained from the CKT.

  20. Non-linear elastic behaviour of carbon fibres of different structural and mechanical characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISIDOR M. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polyacrylonitrile, PAN, based carbon fibres, differing in modulus, breaking strain and in crystallite orientation, have been studied. Non-Hookean behaviour was investigated by computing the tangent tensile and compression moduli as a function of strain, from the axial stress–strain response obtained in standard tensile, compression, as well as in modified flexural tests of unidirectional carbon/ epoxy composites. The dependences of the tensile modulus on tensile strain of the carbon fibres were extracted from data obtained in single-filament tensile tests. Analytical expressions for the tensile modulus–tensile strain and compression modulus–compression strain dependences in the performed test were deduced. The structural characterization of the carbon fibres was performed by X-ray diffraction on bundle of parallel fibres. The interlayer spacing d002 and the apparent lateral dimension of the crystallites Lc were deduced by processing the 002 diffraction profiles. The established modulus–strain dependences were correlated with the fibre characteristics (breaking strain and mean modulus values, as well as with the characteristic of the 002 diffraction profile and the d002 and Lc values.

  1. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Models of the delayed nonlinear Raman response in diatomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Pearson, A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the delayed response of a diatomic gas to a polarizing laser field with the goal of obtaining computationally efficient methods for use with laser pulse propagation simulations. We demonstrate that for broadband pulses, heavy molecules such as O 2 and N 2 , and typical atmospheric temperatures, the initial delayed response requires only classical physics. The linear kinetic Green's function is derived from the Boltzmann equation and shown to be in excellent agreement with full density-matrix calculations. A straightforward perturbation approach for the fully nonlinear, kinetic impulse response is also presented. With the kinetic theory a reduced fluid model of the diatomic gas' orientation is derived. Transport coefficients are introduced to model the kinetic phase mixing of the delayed response. In addition to computational rapidity, the fluid model provides intuition through the use of familiar macroscopic quantities. Both the kinetic and the fluid descriptions predict a nonlinear steady-state alignment after passage of the laser pulse, which in the fluid model is interpreted as an anisotropic temperature of the diatomic fluid with respect to motion about the polarization axis.

  3. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-10

    We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Vibration responses analysis of an elastic-support cantilever beam with crack and offset boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Hui; Zeng, Jin; Wu, Shuang; Wen, Bangchun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a finite element model of an elastic-support cantilever beam with crack and offset boundary is established by using mixed elements in ANSYS software. In the proposed model, different contact elements are adopted to describe the breathing effect of crack and offset boundary, and spring elements are used to simulate the elastic support, and the model is also validated by comparing the natural frequencies with those in published literatures. Based on the developed model, the combined effects of the crack and offset boundary on the system dynamic characteristics are studied. The results indicate that the amplitude of double frequency component (2fe) firstly decreases and then increases with the offset values when the crack position is on the opposite side of offset boundary. 2fe may disappear when the crack and the offset boundary locate at a certain position. In addition, the more distant the offset boundary is, the more intense the system nonlinearity becomes. The amplitude of 2fe increases with the offset values when the crack position is on the same side of offset boundary under a constant crack depth and location. Moreover, it also shows some complicated frequency components due to the gradually strengthened nonlinearity of the system with the increasing offset values, and the obvious distortion phenomenon in the phase plane portraits can be observed near the super-harmonic resonance region. This study can provide some basis for the diagnosis of beam-like structures with crack.

  5. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu, E-mail: wqzhu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  6. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  7. Extracting Earth's Elastic Wave Response from Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Larose, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that noise can be turned from a nuisance into a useful seismic source. In seismology and other fields in science and engineering, the estimation of the system response from noise measurements has proven to be a powerful technique. To convey the essence of the method, we first treat the simplest case of a homogeneous medium to show how noise measurements can be used to estimate waves that propagate between sensors. We provide an overview of physics research—dating back more than 100 years—showing that random field fluctuations contain information about the system response. This principle has found extensive use in surface-wave seismology but can also be applied to the estimation of body waves. Because noise provides continuous illumination of the subsurface, the extracted response is ideally suited for time-lapse monitoring. We present examples of time-lapse monitoring as applied to the softening of soil after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the detection of a precursor to a landslide, and temporal changes in the lunar soil.

  8. Microstructural Origins of Nonlinear Response in Associating Polymers under Oscillatory Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of associating polymers with oscillatory shear is studied through large-scale simulations. A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD, Monte Carlo (MC algorithm is employed. Polymer chains are modeled as a coarse-grained bead-spring system. Functionalized end groups, at both ends of the polymer chains, can form reversible bonds according to MC rules. Stress-strain curves show nonlinearities indicated by a non-ellipsoidal shape. We consider two types of nonlinearities. Type I occurs at a strain amplitude much larger than one, type II at a frequency at which the elastic storage modulus dominates the viscous loss modulus. In this last case, the network topology resembles that of the system at rest. The reversible bonds are broken and chains stretch when the system moves away from the zero-strain position. For type I, the chains relax and the number of reversible bonds peaks when the system is near an extreme of the motion. During the movement to the other extreme of the cycle, first a stress overshoot occurs, then a yield accompanied by shear-banding. Finally, the network restructures. Interestingly, the system periodically restores bonds between the same associating groups. Even though major restructuring occurs, the system remembers previous network topologies.

  9. Desmin modulates lung elastic recoil and airway responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardonofsky, Felix R; Capetanaki, Yassemi; Boriek, Aladin M

    2006-05-01

    Desmin is a structural protein that is expressed in smooth muscle cells of both airways and alveolar ducts. Therefore, desmin could be well situated to participate in passive and contractile force transmission in the lung. We hypothesized that desmin modulates lung compliance, lung recoil pressure, and airway contractile response. To test this hypothesis, respiratory system complex impedance (Zin,rs) at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and quasi-static pressure-volume data were obtained in desmin-null and wild-type mice at baseline and during methacholine administration. Airways and lung tissue properties were partitioned by fitting Zin,rs to a constant-phase model. Relative to controls, desmin-null mice showed 1) lower values for lung stiffness and recoil pressure at baseline and induced airway constriction, 2) greater negative PEEP dependence of H and airway resistance under baseline conditions and cholinergic stimulation, and 3) airway hyporesponsiveness. These results demonstrate that desmin is a load-bearing protein that stiffens the airways and consequently the lung and modulates airway contractile response.

  10. The influence of fully nonlinear wave forces on aero-hydro-elastic calculations of monopile wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2016-01-01

    and nonlinear irregular wave realizations are calculated using the fully nonlinear potential flow wave model OceanWave3D [1]. The linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared using both a static analysis on a fixed monopile and dynamic calculations with the aeroelastic code Flex5 [2]. The conclusion from...

  11. Dynamic response of a linear elastic/linear strain-hardening thin ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.J.

    1974-03-01

    In studying the dynamic response of fluid filled cylindrical shells to large internal pressure pulses, it would be advantageous to have a rapid method of computing the final deformed shape of the shell. In treating the dynamic response of liquid metal heat transport system to pressures generated by large sodium/water reactions, determinations of the structural response of various components is only a fraction of the information required to describe the entire event. The problem treated in this report is an initial investigation of the value of correlation parameters for removing the effect of pulse shape on predicted plastic deformation. It is an attempt to extend previous studies by inclusion of elastic/plastic response rather than limiting the model to a rigid/plastic description. Since many of the pressure pulses of interest in piping system analysis do not involve pressures that produce large plastic deformation, it is necessary to include the effect of elastic response. A simple bilinear elastic/strain hardening model was thus chosen for this study. The dynamic response of a bilinear thin ring to various spacially uniform pressure pulses is analyzed. Solutions have been obtained for rectangular and for linear and exponentially decaying pulses. Numerical procedures have been employed to obtain maximum inelastic displacement as a function of material and pulse parameters

  12. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  14. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  15. Modeling of demand response in electricity markets : effects of price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, E.C.; Tuan, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A design mechanism for the optimal participation of customer load in electricity markets was presented. In particular, this paper presented a modified market model for the optimal procurement of interruptible loads participating in day-ahead electricity markets. The proposed model considers the effect of price elasticity and demand-response functions. The objective was to determine the role that price elasticity plays in electricity markets. The simulation model can help the Independent System Operator (ISO) identify customers offering the lowest price of interruptible loads and load flow patterns that avoid problems associated with transmission congestion and transmission losses. Various issues associated with procurement of demand-response offerings such as advance notification, locational aspect of load, and power factor of the loads, were considered. It was shown that demand response can mitigate price volatility by allowing the ISO to maintain operating reserves during peak load periods. It was noted that the potential benefits of the demand response program would be reduced when price elasticity of demand is taken into account. This would most likely occur in actual developed open electricity markets, such as Nordpool. This study was based on the CIGRE 32-bus system, which represents the Swedish high voltage power system. It was modified for this study to include a broad range of customer characteristics. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  16. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Response of Light Sensor Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Weisz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available For potential ultrafast optical sensor application, both VO2 thin films andnanocomposite crystal-Si enriched SiO2 thin films grown on fused quartz substrates weresuccessfully prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD and RF co-sputteringtechniques. In photoluminescence (PL measurement c-Si/SiO2 film containsnanoparticles of crystal Si exhibits strong red emission with the band maximum rangingfrom 580 to 750 nm. With ultrashort pulsed laser excitation all films show extremelyintense and ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO response. The recorded holography fromall these thin films in a degenerate-four-wave-mixing configuration shows extremelylarge third-order response. For VO2 thin films, an optically induced semiconductor-tometalphase transition (PT immediately occurred upon laser excitation. it accompanied.It turns out that the fast excited state dynamics was responsible to the induced PT. For c-Si/SiO2 film, its NLO response comes from the contribution of charge carriers created bylaser excitation in conduction band of the c-Si nanoparticles. It was verified byintroducing Eu3+ which is often used as a probe sensing the environment variations. Itturns out that the entire excited state dynamical process associated with the creation,movement and trapping of the charge carriers has a characteristic 500 ps duration.

  17. Confidence bounds for nonlinear dose-response relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baayen, C; Hougaard, P

    2015-01-01

    . It is well known that Wald confidence intervals are based on linear approximations and are often unsatisfactory in nonlinear models. Apart from incorrect coverage rates, they can be unreasonable in the sense that the lower confidence limit of the difference to placebo can be negative, even when an overall...... test shows a significant positive effect. Bootstrap confidence intervals solve many of the problems of the Wald confidence intervals but are computationally intensive and prone to undercoverage for small sample sizes. In this work, we propose a profile likelihood approach to compute confidence...... intervals for the dose-response curve. These confidence bounds have better coverage than Wald intervals and are more precise and generally faster than bootstrap methods. Moreover, if monotonicity is assumed, the profile likelihood approach takes this automatically into account. The approach is illustrated...

  18. Nonlinear mechanical response of supercooled melts under applied forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Heliana; Frahsa, Fabian; Fritschi, Sebastian; Nicolas, Alexandre; Papenkort, Simon; Voigtmann, Thomas; Fuchs, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    We review recent progress on a microscopic theoretical approach to describe the nonlinear response of glass-forming colloidal dispersions under strong external forcing leading to homogeneous and inhomogeneous flow. Using mode-coupling theory (MCT), constitutive equations for the rheology of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids are obtained. These are, in suitably simplified form, employed in continuum fluid dynamics, solved by a hybrid-Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm that was developed to deal with long-lasting memory effects. The combined microscopic theoretical and mesoscopic numerical approach captures a number of phenomena far from equilibrium, including the yielding of metastable states, process-dependent mechanical properties, and inhomogeneous pressure-driven channel flow.

  19. Nonlinear Parameter-Varying AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Aerostructural Sensing and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV),...

  20. The role of beneficial bacteria wall elasticity in regulating innate immune response

    OpenAIRE

    ?okrozub, Viktoria V.; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M.; Sichel, Liubov M.; Babenko, Lidia P.; Lytvyn, Petro M.; Demchenko, Olga M.; Melnichenko, Yulia O.; Boyko, Nadiya V.; Biavati, Bruno; DiGioia, Diana; Bubnov, Rostyslav V.; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2015-01-01

    Background Probiotics have great potential to contribute to development of healthy dietary regimes, preventive care, and an integrated approach to immunity-related disease management. The bacterial wall is a dynamic entity, depending on many components and playing an essential role in modulating immune response. The impact of cell wall elasticity on the beneficial effects of probiotic strains has not been sufficiently studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB...

  1. First-Principles Study of the Nonlinear Elasticity of Rare-Earth Hexaborides REB6 (RE = La, Ce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshi Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complete set of independent second- and third-order elastic constants of rare-earth hexaborides LaB 6 and CeB 6 are determined by the combination method of first-principles calculations and homogeneous deformation theory. The ground-state lattice parameters, second-order elastic constants, and bulk modulus are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The third-order elastic constant of longitudinal mode C 111 has a larger absolute value than other shear modes, showing the contribution to lattice vibrations from longitudinal modes to be greater. The pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants related to the third-order elastic constants are calculated to be positive for the two hexaborides, which are consistent with those of their polycrystalline bulk modulus and shear modulus. Furthermore, the effect of pressure on the structural stability, mechanical property, and elastic anisotropy of the two hexaborides are investigated, showing a reduction in mechanical stability and an increase in ductility and anisotropy with increasing pressure.

  2. Polymorphism and Elastic Response of Molecular Materials from First Principles: How Hard Can it Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Molecular materials are of great fundamental and applied importance in science and industry, with numerous applications in pharmaceuticals, electronics, sensing, and catalysis. A key challenge for theory has been the prediction of their stability, polymorphism and response to perturbations. While pairwise models of van der Waals (vdW) interactions have improved the ability of density functional theory (DFT) to model these systems, substantial quantitative and even qualitative failures remain. In this contribution we show how a many-body description of vdW interactions can dramatically improve the accuracy of DFT for molecular materials, yielding quantitative description of stabilities and polymorphism for these challenging systems. Moreover, the role of many-body vdW interactions goes beyond stabilities to response properties. In particular, we have studied the elastic properties of a series of molecular crystals, finding that many-body vdW interactions can account for up to 30% of the elastic response, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in elastic behavior. We will illustrate these crucial effects with the challenging case of the polymorphs of aspirin, leading to a better understanding of the conflicting experimental and theoretical studies of this system.

  3. Nonlinearity of the Extratropical Response to Tropical Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Derome, Jacques

    2004-07-01

    A primitive equations dry atmospheric model is used to investigate the atmospheric response to a tropical diabatic forcing pattern and explore how the atmospheric response changes as a function of the amplitude of the forcing. The forcing anomaly represents a linear fit of the model forcing to a tropical SST pattern of an El Niño/La Niña type. The time-averaged 500-hPa geopotential height anomaly responses of two long integrations, with forcing anomalies of equal amplitudes but opposite signs, show an asymmetric feature that is similar to observations and to previous modeling results related to El Niño and La Niña. Ensemble experiments with 61 different amplitudes of this forcing pattern are conducted. An EOF analysis of the ensemble mean of the 90-day-averaged 500-hPa height for different amplitudes of forcings shows that the leading mode of the forced variability resembles the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, while the second mode is a wave train across the North Atlantic to Eurasia. The relationship between the amplitude of the PNA mode and the amplitude of the forcing is linear, while the amplitude of the Atlantic/Eurasian mode has a nearly parabolic relationship with the amplitude of the forcing. A set of linear experiments with forcing perturbations and eddy flux anomalies associated with the positive and negative amplitudes of forcing conditions indicates that the nonlinearity of the extratropical response primarily results from the modification of the “basic state” caused by the large-amplitude forcing and the subsequent sensitivity of the response to that modified basic flow. A La Niña type basic state yields a stronger response in the North Atlantic to the tropical Pacific forcing than does an El Niño type basic state.

  4. Nonlinear free vibration analysis of elastically supported carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beam with the thermal environment in non-deterministic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Virendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of nonlinear free vibration behavior of elastically supported carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC beam subjected to thermal loading with random system properties. Material properties of each constituent’s material, volume fraction exponent and foundation parameters are considered as uncorrelated Gaussian random input variables. The beam is supported by a Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT with von-Karman non-linearity is used to formulate the governing equation using Hamilton principle. Convergence and validation study is carried out through the comparison with the available results in the literature for authenticity and accuracy of the present approach used in the analysis. First order perturbation technique (FOPT,Second order perturbation technique (SOPT and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS methods are employed to investigate the effect of geometric configuration, volume fraction exponent, foundation parameters, distribution of reinforcement and thermal loading on nonlinear vibration characteristics CNTRC beam.The present work signifies the accurate analysis of vibrational behaviour influences by different random variables. Results are presented in terms of mean, variance (COV and probability density function (PDF for various aforementioned parameters.

  5. Rotational elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833

  6. Nonlinear Allometric Equation for Crop Response to Soil Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Misle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop response to soil salinity has been extensively studied, from empirical works to modelling approach, being described by different equations, first as a piecewise linear model. The equation employed can differ with actual response, causing miscalculation in practical situations, particularly at the higher extremes of the curve. The aim of this work is to propose a new equation, which allows determining the full response to salinity of plant species and to provide a verification using different experimental data sets. A new nonlinear equation is exposed supported by the allometric approach, in which the allometric exponent is salinity-dependent and decreases with the increase in relative salinity. A conversion procedure of parameters of the threshold-slope model is presented; also, a simple procedure for estimating the maximum salinity (zero-yield point when data sets are incomplete is exposed. The equation was tested in a wide range of experimental situations, using data sets from published works, as well as new measurements on seed germination. The statistical indicators of quality (R2, absolute sum of squares and standard deviation of residuals showed that the equation accurately fits the tested empirical results. The new equation for determining crop response to soil salinity is able to follow the response curve of any crop with remarkable accuracy and flexibility. Remarkable characteristics are: a maximum at minimum salinity, a maximum salinity point can be found (zero-yield depending on the data sets, and a meaningful inflection point, as well as the two points at which the slope of the curve equals unity, can be found.

  7. The peak response distributions of structure-DVA systems with nonlinear damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. S.; Tait, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs) with nonlinear damping are often modelled using a power-law equivalent viscous damping relationship. There is currently not a method available to predict the peak response of this type of nonlinear DVA without resorting to computationally expensive nonlinear simulations. Since the peak response of the DVA is required during the design process, it is advantageous to have a simplified method to estimate the peak response. In this study, statistical linearization is employed to represent the nonlinear damping as amplitude-dependent viscous damping and predict the rms response of the structure-DVA system. Subsequently, statistical nonlinearization is used to describe the probability density function of the DVA response amplitude. A probability density function is developed, which enables the peak response expected during an interval of time (e.g. 1-h) to be estimated from the rms response of the structure-DVA system. Higher power-law damping exponents are shown to result in smaller peak factors. Results of nonlinear simulations reveal that the model can estimate the peak structural and DVA responses with acceptable accuracy. A plot is developed to show the peak factors for nonlinear DVAs as a function of the number of system cycles for several power-law damping exponents. This plot can be used to estimate the peak response of a nonlinear DVA as a function of its rms response.

  8. Multi-Objective Demand Response Model Considering the Probabilistic Characteristic of Price Elastic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR programs provide an effective approach for dealing with the challenge of wind power output fluctuations. Given that uncertain DR, such as price elastic load (PEL, plays an important role, the uncertainty of demand response behavior must be studied. In this paper, a multi-objective stochastic optimization problem of PEL is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the relationship between price elasticity and probabilistic characteristic, which is about stochastic demand models for consumer loads. The analysis aims to improve the capability of accommodating wind output uncertainty. In our approach, the relationship between the amount of demand response and interaction efficiency is developed by actively participating in power grid interaction. The probabilistic representation and uncertainty range of the PEL demand response amount are formulated differently compared with those of previous research. Based on the aforementioned findings, a stochastic optimization model with the combined uncertainties from the wind power output and the demand response scenario is proposed. The proposed model analyzes the demand response behavior of PEL by maximizing the electricity consumption satisfaction and interaction benefit satisfaction of PEL. Finally, a case simulation on the provincial power grid with a 151-bus system verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed mechanism and models.

  9. Price elasticity matrix of demand in power system considering demand response programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinyao; Hui, Hongxun; Yang, Shengchun; Li, Yaping; Ding, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The increasing renewable energy power generations have brought more intermittency and volatility to the electric power system. Demand-side resources can improve the consumption of renewable energy by demand response (DR), which becomes one of the important means to improve the reliability of power system. In price-based DR, the sensitivity analysis of customer’s power demand to the changing electricity prices is pivotal for setting reasonable prices and forecasting loads of power system. This paper studies the price elasticity matrix of demand (PEMD). An improved PEMD model is proposed based on elasticity effect weight, which can unify the rigid loads and flexible loads. Moreover, the structure of PEMD, which is decided by price policies and load types, and the calculation method of PEMD are also proposed. Several cases are studied to prove the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Harmonic Response of Magneto-electro-elastic Sensors Bonded to Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Biju

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with semi analytical finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel cylindrical shell. The cylinder is subjected to harmonically varying internal pressure with clamped free and clamped-clamped boundary condition. Numerical results are presented for the first three axial modes associated with the axisymmetric mode of the shell with different sensor locations. The sensor response is controlled mainly by its radial displacement in all the modes. The third mode response becomes significant when the sensor is placed at the free end of the mild steel cylinder for clamped free boundary condition.

  11. A simple non-linear model of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnikov, Sergei; Melnikov, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    It is still unknown why the adaptive immune response in the natural immune system based on clonal proliferation of lymphocytes requires interaction of at least two different cell types with the same antigen. We present a simple mathematical model illustrating that the system with separate types of cells for antigen recognition and patogen destruction provides more robust adaptive immunity than the system where just one cell type is responsible for both recognition and destruction. The model is over-simplified as we did not have an intention of describing the natural immune system. However, our model provides a tool for testing the proposed approach through qualitative analysis of the immune system dynamics in order to construct more sophisticated models of the immune systems that exist in the living nature. It also opens a possibility to explore specific features of highly non-linear dynamics in nature-inspired computational paradigms like artificial immune systems and immunocomputing . We expect this paper to be of interest not only for mathematicians but also for biologists; therefore we made effort to explain mathematics in sufficient detail for readers without professional mathematical background

  12. Simulations of the Ocean Response to a Hurricane: Nonlinear Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2009-10-01

    Superinertial internal waves generated by a tropical cyclone can propagate vertically and laterally away from their local generation site and break, contributing to turbulent vertical mixing in the deep ocean and maintenance of the stratification of the main thermocline. In this paper, the results of a modeling study are reported to investigate the mechanism by which superinertial fluctuations are generated in the deep ocean. The general properties of the superinertial wave wake were also characterized as a function of storm speed and central latitude. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) was used to simulate the open ocean response to realistic westward-tracking hurricane-type surface wind stress and heat and net freshwater buoyancy forcing for regions representative of midlatitudes in the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and low latitudes in the eastern Pacific. The model had high horizontal [Δ(x, y) = 1/6°] and vertical (Δz = 5 m in top 100 m) resolution and employed a parameterization for vertical mixing induced by shear instability. In the horizontal momentum equation, the relative size of the nonlinear advection terms, which had a dominant frequency near twice the inertial, was large only in the upper 200 m of water. Below 200 m, the linear momentum equations obeyed a linear balance to 2%. Fluctuations at nearly twice the inertial frequency (2f) were prevalent throughout the depth of the water column, indicating that these nonlinear advection terms in the upper 200 m forced a linear mode below at nearly twice the inertial frequency via vorticity conservation. Maximum variance at 2f in horizontal velocity occurred on the south side of the track. This was in response to vertical advection of northward momentum, which in the north momentum equation is an oscillatory positive definite term that constituted a net force to the south at a frequency near 2f. The ratio of this term to the Coriolis force was larger on the

  13. The role of beneficial bacteria wall elasticity in regulating innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Мokrozub, Viktoria V; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Sichel, Liubov M; Babenko, Lidia P; Lytvyn, Petro M; Demchenko, Olga M; Melnichenko, Yulia O; Boyko, Nadiya V; Biavati, Bruno; DiGioia, Diana; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have great potential to contribute to development of healthy dietary regimes, preventive care, and an integrated approach to immunity-related disease management. The bacterial wall is a dynamic entity, depending on many components and playing an essential role in modulating immune response. The impact of cell wall elasticity on the beneficial effects of probiotic strains has not been sufficiently studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria strains on phagocytic system cells (macrophages) as related to bacterial wall elasticity, estimated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conducted studies on Balb/c line mice 18-20 g in weight using lyophilized strains of LAB-Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279, Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMV B-7281, and bifidobacteria-Bifidobacterium animalis VKL and Bifidobacterium animalis VKB. We cultivated the macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavity of mice individually with the strains of LAB and bifidobacteria and evaluated their effect on macrophages, oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity, nitric oxide production, and immunoregulatory cytokines. We used AFM scanning to estimate bacterial cell wall elasticity. All strains had a stimulating effect on the functional activity of macrophages and ability to produce NO/NO2 in vitro. Lactobacilli strains increased the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ in vitro. The AFM demonstrated different cell wall elasticity levels in various strains of LAB and bifidobacteria. The rigidity of the cell walls among lactobacilli was distributed as follows: Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279 > Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 > Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMV B-7281; among the strains of bifidobacteria: B. animalis VKB > B. animalis VKL. Probiotic strain survival in the macrophages depended on the bacterial cell wall elasticity and on the time of their joint cultivation. LAB

  14. Extension of a nonlinear systems theory to general-frequency unsteady transonic aerodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

  15. Tailoring the nonlinear response of MEMS resonators using shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lily L.; Polunin, Pavel M.; Dou, Suguang

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate systematic control of mechanical nonlinearities in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonators using shape optimization methods. This approach generates beams with non-uniform profiles, which have nonlinearities and frequencies that differ from uniform beams. A set of bridge-type mic...

  16. Nonlinear response of superconductors to alternating fields and currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    This report discusses the following topics on superconductivity: nonlinearities in hard superconductors such as surface impedance of a type II superconductimg half space and harmonic generation and intermodulation due to alternating transport currents; and nonlinearities in superconducting weak links such as harmonic generation by a long Josephson Junction in a superconducting slab.

  17. Nonlinear dynamic stability of the orthotropic functionally graded cylindrical shell surrounded by Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kang; Gao, Wei; Wu, Di; Song, Chongmin

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic stability behaviors of the functionally graded (FG) orthotropic circular cylindrical shell surrounded by the two-parameter (Winkler-Pasternak) elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load with the consideration of damping effect. The material properties are assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction based on an exponential distribution function of the volume fraction of constituent materials. Equations of motion are derived from Hamilton's principle and the nonlinear compatibility equation is considered by the means of modified Donnell shell theory including large deflection. Then the nonlinear dynamic buckling equation is solved by a hybrid analytical-numerical method (combined Galerkin method and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The nonlinear dynamic stability of the FG orthotropic cylindrical shell is assessed based on Budiansky-Roth criterion. Additionally, effects of different parameters such as various inhomogeneous parameters, loading speeds, damping ratios and aspect ratios and thickness ratios of the structure on dynamic buckling are discussed in details. Finally, the proposed method is validated with published literature.

  18. An analytical approach to activating demand elasticity with a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate analytically the conditions under which activating the elasticity of consumer demand could benefit social welfare. We have developed an analytical equilibrium model to quantify the effect of deploying demand response on social welfare and energy trade. The novelty of this research is that it demonstrates the existence of an optimal area for the price signal in which demand response enhances social welfare. This optimal area is negatively correlated to the degree of competitiveness of generation technologies and the market size of the system. In particular, it should be noted that the value of un-served energy or energy reduction which the producers could lose from such a demand response scheme would limit its effectiveness. This constraint is even greater if energy trade between countries is limited. Finally, we have demonstrated scope for more aggressive demand response, when only considering the impact in terms of consumer surplus. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Particle rearrangement and softening contributions to the nonlinear mechanical response of glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous materials such as metallic, polymeric, and colloidal glasses exhibit complex preparation-dependent mechanical response to applied shear. In particular, glassy solids yield, with a mechanical response that transitions from elastic to plastic, with increasing shear strain. We perform numerical simulations to investigate the mechanical response of binary Lennard-Jones glasses undergoing athermal, quasistatic pure shear as a function of the cooling rate R used to prepare them. The ensemble-averaged stress versus strain curve 〈σ (γ )〉 resembles the spatial average in the large size limit, which appears smooth and displays a putative elastic regime at small strains, a yielding-related peak in stress at intermediate strain, and a plastic flow regime at large strains. In contrast, for each glass configuration in the ensemble, the stress-strain curve σ (γ ) consists of many short nearly linear segments that are punctuated by particle-rearrangement-induced rapid stress drops. To explain the nonlinearity of 〈σ (γ )〉 , we quantify the shape of the small stress-strain segments and the frequency and size of the stress drops in each glass configuration. We decompose the stress loss [i.e., the deviation in the slope of 〈σ (γ )〉 from that at 〈σ (0 )〉 ] into the loss from particle rearrangements and the loss from softening [i.e., the reduction of the slopes of the linear segments in σ (γ ) ], and then compare the two contributions as a function of R and γ . For the current studies, the rearrangement-induced stress loss is larger than the softening-induced stress loss, however, softening stress losses increase with decreasing cooling rate. We also characterize the structure of the potential energy landscape along the strain direction for glasses prepared with different R , and observe a dramatic change of the properties of the landscape near the yielding transition. We then show that the rearrangement-induced energy loss per strain can serve as

  1. Influence of the aircraft crash induced local nonlinearities on the overall dynamic response of a RC structure through a parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, C.; Gatuingt, F.; Hervé, G.; Moussallam, N.; Dorival, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Structures could resist to the induced accelerations which they might undergo. • The characterization of non-linearities in the signal of an aircraft impact. • The non linear impact area are studied through a sensitivity analysis. • This analysis should allow to achieve a link between aircraft impact parameters. - Abstract: In the process of nuclear power plant design, the safety of structures is an important aspect. Civil engineering structures have to resist the accelerations induced by, for example, seismic loads or shaking loads resulting from the aircraft impact. This is even more important for the in-structures equipments that have also to be qualified against the vibrations generated by this kind of hazards. In the case of aircraft crash, as a large variety of scenarios has to be envisaged, it is necessary to use methods that are less CPU-time consuming and that consider appropriately the nonlinearities. The analysis presented in this paper deals with the problem of the characterization of nonlinearities (damaged area, transmitted force) in the response of a structure subjected to an aircraft impact. The purpose of our study is part of the development of a new decoupled nonlinear and elastic way for calculating the shaking of structures following an aircraft impact which could be very numerically costly if studied with classical finite element methods. The aim is to identify which parameters control the dimensions of the nonlinear zone and so will have a direct impact on the induced vibrations. In a design context, several load cases (and simulations) are analyzed in order to consider a wide range of impact (different loading surfaces, momentum) and data sets of the target (thickness, reinforcements). In this work, the nonlinear area generated by the impact is localized and studied through a parametric analysis associated with a sensitivity analysis to identify the boundaries between the elastic domain and this nonlinear area.

  2. A dynamic elastic-visco-plastic unilateral contact problem with normal damped response and Coulomb friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eck, Ch.; Jarušek, Jiří; Sofonea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2010), s. 229-251 ISSN 0956-7925 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elastic-vosco plastic material * dynamic contact problem * normal damped response * unilateral constraint * Coulomb friction * weak solution * penalitazion * smoothing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7675484&fileId=S0956792510000045

  3. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced bi...

  4. Design of the Elastic Modulus of Nanoparticles-Containing PVA/PVAc Films by the Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, N.; Kalnins, M.; Kovalovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2015-11-01

    By the surface response method, a regression equation is constructed, and the tensile elastic modulus of films made from polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate (PVA/PVAc) blends filled with montmorillonite clay and microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles is investigated. It is established that the introduction of the nanoparticles improves the mechanical properties of the blends in tension considerably: their strength and elastic modulus increase with content of the particles. Using the regression equation, the optimum composition of nanoparticlefilled PVA/PVAc blends with the highest value of elastic modulus is found.

  5. Pulsed-laser-activated impulse response encoder: Sensitive detection of surface elastic waves on biomimetic microsized gel spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukuni, Ryohei; Fukushima, Ryosuke; Iino, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2017-11-01

    A femtosecond-laser-induced impulsive force was applied to microsized calcium alginate (CaAlg) gel spheres as an external force to excite elastic waves. To evaluate elasticity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to detect vibration propagation. The sphere size dependence of the vibration was well reproduced by finite element method (FEM) simulation for pressure waves and surface acoustic waves. The obtained results indicate that the pulsed-laser-activated impulse response encoder (PLAIRE) enables the sensitive detection of elasticities, not only on inside but also on the surface.

  6. Elastic regimes of subisostatic athermal fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licup, A. J.; Sharma, A.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Athermal models of disordered fibrous networks are highly useful for studying the mechanics of elastic networks composed of stiff biopolymers. The underlying network architecture is a key aspect that can affect the elastic properties of these systems, which include rich linear and nonlinear elasticity. Existing computational approaches have focused on both lattice-based and off-lattice networks obtained from the random placement of rods. It is not obvious, a priori, whether the two architectures have fundamentally similar or different mechanics. If they are different, it is not clear which of these represents a better model for biological networks. Here, we show that both approaches are essentially equivalent for the same network connectivity, provided the networks are subisostatic with respect to central force interactions. Moreover, for a given subisostatic connectivity, we even find that lattice-based networks in both two and three dimensions exhibit nearly identical nonlinear elastic response. We provide a description of the linear mechanics for both architectures in terms of a scaling function. We also show that the nonlinear regime is dominated by fiber bending and that stiffening originates from the stabilization of subisostatic networks by stress. We propose a generalized relation for this regime in terms of the self-generated normal stresses that develop under deformation. Different network architectures have different susceptibilities to the normal stress but essentially exhibit the same nonlinear mechanics. Such a stiffening mechanism has been shown to successfully capture the nonlinear mechanics of collagen networks.

  7. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.

    2013-03-01

    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Artificial Neural Networks for Nonlinear Dynamic Response Simulation in Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how artificial neural networks can be trained to predict dynamic response of a simple nonlinear structure. Data generated using a nonlinear finite element model of a simplified wind turbine is used to train a one layer artificial neural network. When trained properly the network is able...

  9. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from diff...

  10. Non-Linear Analysis of Compressively/thermally Stressed Elastic Shell Structures on the Steelpan and the Underlying Theory of the Tuning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achong, A.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a non-linear analysis of the dome-shaped notes on the steelpan under compressive and thermal stresses. Equations are derived for the static and dynamic response of symmetrically distorted notes. Analytical results are obtained for modal frequencies, non-linear coupling coefficients and the buckling parameter. Experimental results demonstrate the vibration characteristics and their dependence on temperature. Experimental results were also obtained for the effects of stress relaxation which follows the shaping and tuning process of these notes by hammer peening. The results of the analysis are applicable to other shell-like structures not necessarily designed for musical purposes.

  11. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...... scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... on the North Atlantic, while the three largest ships are operated on the Europe - Asia route. In the design rules of the classification societies for container ships the minimum design sagging bending moment amidships is larger than the hogging bending moment. Due to their design (full midship section...

  12. Mode coupling in the nonlinear response of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlochower, Yosef; Gomez, Roberto; Husa, Sascha; Lehner, Luis; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We study the properties of the outgoing gravitational wave produced when a nonspinning black hole is excited by an ingoing gravitational wave. Simulations using a numerical code for solving Einstein's equations allow the study to be extended from the linearized approximation, where the system is treated as a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole, to the fully nonlinear regime. Several nonlinear features are found which bear importance to the data analysis of gravitational waves. When compared to the results obtained in the linearized approximation, we observe large phase shifts, a stronger than linear generation of gravitational wave output and considerable generation of radiation in polarization states which are not found in the linearized approximation. In terms of a spherical harmonic decomposition, the nonlinear properties of the harmonic amplitudes have simple scaling properties which offer an economical way to catalog the details of the waves produced in such black hole processes

  13. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  14. Application of the R-Functions Method for Nonlinear Bending of Orthotropic Shallow Shells on an Elastic Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurpa, Lidiya; Lyubitska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Geometrically nonlinear behavior of orthotropic shallow shells subjected to the transverse load and resting on Winkler’s foundation is investigated. On base of the R-function theory and variational methods problem's solution for shells with complex plan form is proposed. The algorithm to finding upper and lower critical loads is developed. The stress-strain state of shallow shells with the complex planform is investigated including different boundary conditions, properties of mate...

  15. Modeling of nonlinear responses for reciprocal transducers involving polarization switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Linxiang

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinearities and hysteresis effects in a reciprocal PZT transducer are examined by use of a dynamical mathematical model on the basis of phase-transition theory. In particular, we consider the perovskite piezoelectric ceramic in which the polarization process in the material can be modeled...... by Landau theory for the first-order phase transformation, in which each polarization state is associated with a minimum of the Landau free-energy function. Nonlinear constitutive laws are obtained by using thermodynamical equilibrium conditions, and hysteretic behavior of the material can be modeled...

  16. A homogenization procedure for geometrically non-linear free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular plates with porosities, resting on elastic foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoucine Boutahar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some Functionally Graded Materials contain pores due to the result of processing; this influences their elastic and mechanical properties. Therefore, it may be very useful to examine the vibration behavior of thin Functionally Graded Annular Plates Clamped at both edges including porosities. In the present study, the rule of mixture is modified to take into account the effect of porosity and to approximate the material properties assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the examined annular plate. A semi-analytical model based on Hamilton’s principle and spectral analysis is adopted using a homogenization procedure to reduce the problem under consideration to that of an equivalent isotropic homogeneous annular plate. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative method. The effects of porosity, material property, and elastic foundations characteristics on the CCFGAP axisymmetric large deflection response are presented and discussed in detail.

  17. Inferring bread doneness with air-pulse/ultrasonic ranging measurements of the loaf elastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Loren Elbert

    This research marks the discovery of a method by which bread doneness may be determined based on the elastic properties of the loaf as it bakes. The purpose of the study was to determine if changes in bread characteristics could be determined by non-contact methods during baking, as the basis for improved control of the baking process. Current control of the baking process is based on temperature and dwell time, which are determined by experience to produce a produce which is approximately ``done.'' There is no direct measurement of the property of interest, doneness. An ultrasonic measurement system was developed to measure the response of the loaf to an external stimulus. ``Doneness,'' as reflected in the internal elastic consistency of the bakery product, is assessed in less than 1/2 second, and requires no closer approach to the moving bakery product than about 2 inches. The system is designed to be compatible with strapped bread pans in a standard traveling-tray commercial oven.

  18. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.

  19. Ultrafast nonlinear response of silicon carbide to intense THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast nonlinear absorption induced by strong, single-cycle THz fields in bulk, lightly doped 4H silicon carbide. A combination of Zener tunneling and intraband transitions makes the effect as at least as fast as the excitation pulse. The sub-picosecond recovery time makes...

  20. Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... appropriate pre-processing scheme for electrically addressed input gray-scale images, particularly important in several optical processing and imaging applications, is suggested. Further, the necessity to compensate the SLM image nonlinearities in a volume holographic data storage and retrieval system is demonstrated.

  1. Tracing the transition of a macro electron shuttle into nonlinear response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chulki [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136791 (Korea, Republic of); Prada, Marta [I. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 9, Hamburg 20355 (Germany); Qin, Hua [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Industrial Park, Suzhou City, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Kim, Hyun-Seok [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Blick, Robert H., E-mail: rblick@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin-53706 (United States); Center for Hybrid Nanostructures, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11c, Hamburg 20355 (Germany); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Dr. Madison, Wisconsin-53706 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We present a study on a macroscopic electron shuttle in the transition from linear to nonlinear response. The shuttle consists of a classical mechanical pendulum situated between two capacitor plates. The metallic pendulum enables mechanical transfer of electrons between the plates, hence allowing to directly trace electron shuttling in the time domain. By applying a high voltage to the plates, we drive the system into a controlled nonlinear response, where we observe period doubling.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2013-09-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and Implementation of Nonlinear Transducer Response over a Wider Response Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s automation systems transducers are making core elements in the instruments and the circuits used for measurement, control and industrial applications. The task of a transducer is to reproduce a physical quantity as an electrical signal which with the help of conditioning circuits, is transformed into a form that suits a corresponding ADC requirement before a digital equivalent output of the required physical quantity is produced. In the most ideal cases a digital quantity is a true replica of the physical quantity when the transducer has got a linear response. However, in most of the cases the transducers characteristics are nonlinear, and hence at very points along the whole range of the transducer characteristics, the corresponding digital output is an exact replica of the concerned physical parameter. This work is about how a physical read more accurately in the case of nonlinear sensor characteristics, and then a microcontroller is programmed with the same technique while reading from an input over the entire range. The data of the microcontroller reading shows very closely matched with the actual sensors response. Further, the reading error is considerably reduced to within 10 % of the actual physical which shows the utility of the technique in very sensitive applications.

  4. Terahertz-Driven Nonlinear Spin Response of Antiferromagnetic Nickel Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, S.; Mentink, J. H.; Hohenleutner, M.; Braun, L.; Do, T.-M.; Lange, C.; Sell, A.; Fiebig, M.; Woltersdorf, G.; Kampfrath, T.; Huber, R.

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz magnetic fields with amplitudes of up to 0.4 Tesla drive magnon resonances in nickel oxide while the induced dynamics is recorded by femtosecond magneto-optical probing. We observe distinct spin-mediated optical nonlinearities, including oscillations at the second harmonic of the 1 THz magnon mode. The latter originate from coherent dynamics of the longitudinal component of the antiferromagnetic order parameter, which are probed by magneto-optical effects of second order in the spin deflection. These observations allow us to dynamically disentangle electronic from lattice-related contributions to magnetic linear birefringence and dichroism—information so far only accessible by ultrafast THz spin control. The nonlinearities discussed here foreshadow physics that will become essential in future subcycle spin switching.

  5. Nonlinear optical response of planar and spherical CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selyukov, A. S., E-mail: bachelor89@inbox.ru; Isaev, A. A.; Vitukhnovsky, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Litvak, V. L. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Katsaba, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Korshunov, V. M. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, R. B. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The nonlinear optical response of a colloidal solution of planar CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (nanoplatelets) is studied for the first time. The nonlinear optical response of these nanoparticles is compared to that of spherical CdSe nanocrystals (quantum dots). The photoinduced nonlinearity is attributed to the optical generation of long-lived charge carriers in the nanoobjects under study. It is shown that, upon the exposure of a cell with the solution of nanoparticles to focused continuous-wave (cw) laser radiation with a wavelength of 473 nm, the nonlinear optical responses of CdSe nanoplatelets and quantum dots are somewhat different at identical optical densities at the above-indicated wavelength. The differences are supposedly associated with a higher diffusion rate of spherical nanoparticles in the solution because of their smaller size compared to that of nanoplatelets.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  7. A novel two-layer, coupled finite element approach for modeling the nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic behavior of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Thomas; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2011-07-01

    A novel finite element approach is presented to simulate the mechanical behavior of human red blood cells (RBC, erythrocytes). As the RBC membrane comprises a phospholipid bilayer with an intervening protein network, we propose to model the membrane with two distinct layers. The fairly complex characteristics of the very thin lipid bilayer are represented by special incompressible solid shell elements and an anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model. Properties of the protein network are modeled with an isotropic hyperelastic third-order material. The elastic behavior of the model is validated with existing optical tweezers studies with quasi-static deformations. Employing material parameters consistent with literature, simulation results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Available models in literature neglect either the surface area conservation of the RBC membrane or realistic loading conditions of the optical tweezers experiments. The importance of these modeling assumptions, that are both included in this study, are discussed and their influence quantified. For the simulation of the dynamic motion of RBC, the model is extended to incorporate the cytoplasm. This is realized with a monolithic fully coupled fluid-structure interaction simulation, where the fluid is described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian framework. It is shown that both membrane viscosity and cytoplasm viscosity have significant influence on simulation results. Characteristic recovery times and energy dissipation for varying strain rates in dynamic laser trap experiments are calculated for the first time and are found to be comparable with experimental data.

  8. Vibrational Analysis of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Continuum mechanics and an elastic beam model were employed in the nonlinear force vibrational analysis of an embedded, curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The analysis considered the effects of the curvature or waviness and midplane stretching of the nanotube on the nonlinear frequency....... By utilizing He’s Energy Balance Method (HEBM), the relationships of the nonlinear amplitude and frequency were expressed for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The amplitude frequency response curves of the nonlinear free vibration were obtained for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube embedded...... in a Pasternak elastic foundation. Finally, the influence of the amplitude of the waviness, midplane stretching nonlinearity, shear foundation modulus, surrounding elastic medium, radius, and length of the curved carbon nanotube on the amplitude frequency response characteristics are discussed. As a result...

  9. Minimax passband group delay nonlinear FIR filter design without imposing desired phase response

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Wing-Kuen; Dam, Hai Huyen; Yeo, Kok-Lay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed without imposing a desired phase response. The maximum passband group delay of the filter is minimized subject to a positivity constraint on the passband group delay response of the filter as well as a specification on the maximum absolute difference between the desired magnitude square response and the designed magnitude square response over both the passband and the stopband. This filter design problem is a no...

  10. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, AliReza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates under Different Internal Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded rectangular plates under combined transverse and in-plane excitations is investigated under the conditions of 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 internal resonance. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and vary along the thickness direction. The thermal effect due to one-dimensional temperature gradient is included in the analysis. The governing equations of motion for FGM rectangular plates are derived by using Reddy's third-order plate theory and Hamilton's principle. Galerkin's approach is utilized to reduce the governing differential equations to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system including quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms, which are then solved numerically by using 4th-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The effects of in-plane excitations on the internal resonance relationship and nonlinear dynamic response of FGM plates are studied.

  12. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  13. Giant nonlinear response at a plasmonic nanofocus drives efficient four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michael P.; Shi, Xingyuan; Dichtl, Paul; Maier, Stefan A.; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2017-12-01

    Efficient optical frequency mixing typically must accumulate over large interaction lengths because nonlinear responses in natural materials are inherently weak. This limits the efficiency of mixing processes owing to the requirement of phase matching. Here, we report efficient four-wave mixing (FWM) over micrometer-scale interaction lengths at telecommunications wavelengths on silicon. We used an integrated plasmonic gap waveguide that strongly confines light within a nonlinear organic polymer. The gap waveguide intensifies light by nanofocusing it to a mode cross-section of a few tens of nanometers, thus generating a nonlinear response so strong that efficient FWM accumulates over wavelength-scale distances. This technique opens up nonlinear optics to a regime of relaxed phase matching, with the possibility of compact, broadband, and efficient frequency mixing integrated with silicon photonics.

  14. Weak field nonlinear optical response of fermions in Frenkel exciton chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spano, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the third order nonlinear optical response of a Frenkel chain composed of N dipole-dipole coupled two-level molecules is reviewed. The fundamantal electronic excitations of such a system are, in fact, fermions, a property which greatly simplifies the eigenspectrum for multiexciton states. The introduction of site disorder does not disrupt the fermion nature and is therefore easily incorporated into a general expression of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility

  15. Modeling of Nonlinear Optical Response in Gaseous Media and Its Comparison with Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi

    This thesis demonstrates the model and application of nonlinear optical response with Metastable Electronic State Approach (MESA) in ultrashort laser propagation and verifies accuracy of MESA through extensive comparison with experimental data. The MESA is developed from quantum mechanics to describe the nonlinear off-resonant optical response together with strong-field ionization in gaseous medium. The conventional light-matter interaction models are based on a piece-wise approach where Kerr effect and multi-photon ionization are treated as independent nonlinear responses. In contrast, MESA is self-consistent as the response from freed electrons and bound electrons are microscopically linked. It also can be easily coupled to the Unidirectional Pulse Propagation Equations (UPPE) for large scale simulation of experiments. This work tests the implementation of MESA model in simulation of nonlinear phase transients of ultrashort pulse propagation in a gaseous medium. The phase transient has been measured through Single-Shot Supercontinuum Spectral Interferometry. This technique can achieve high temporal resolution (10 fs) and spatial resolution (5 mum). Our comparison between simulation and experiment gives a quantitive test of MESA model including post-adiabatic corrections. This is the first time such a comparison was achieved for a theory suitable for large scale numerical simulation of modern nonlinear-optics experiments. In more than one respect, ours is a first-of-a-kind achievement. In particular, • Large amount of data are compared. We compare the data of nonlinear response induced by different pump intensity in Ar and Nitrogen. The data sets are three dimensions including two transverse spacial dimensions and one axial temporal dimension which reflect the whole structure of nonlinear response including the interplay between Kerr and plasma-induced effects. The resolutions of spatial and temporal dimension are about a few micrometer and several femtosecond

  16. Response and correlation functions of nonlinear systems in equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lubo; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study systematically a serial of correlation functions in some one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. Due to the energy conservation law, they are implicitly interdependent. Various transport coefficients are thus also connected. In the studies of the autocorrelations of local energy density and of local heat current, a general relation between diverging heat conduction and super heat diffusion has been proposed recently. We clarify that such a relation is valid only in systems without temperature pressure. In those with temperature pressure, a constant but nontrivial term appears. This term explains a previously observed fact that heat diffusion in such systems is always ballistic but heat conduction can diverge very slowly. Such a result not only disproves the existence of any general relation between diverging heat conduction and super heat diffusion, but it also breaks the long-term presumption that ballistic heat conduction and diffusion always coexist.

  17. Nonlinear ecosystem services response to groundwater availability under climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater has been accelerating at regional to global scales. Besides serving domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, in situ groundwater is also a key control on biological, physical and chemical processes across the critical zone, all of which underpin supply of ecosystem services essential for humanity. While there is a rich history of research on groundwater effects on subsurface and surface processes, understanding interactions, nonlinearity and feedbacks between groundwater and ecosystem services remain limited, and almost absent in the ecosystem service literature. Moreover, how climate extremes may alter groundwater effects on services is underexplored. In this research, we used a process-based ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) to quantify groundwater effects on eight ecosystem services related to food, water and biogeochemical processes in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. We asked: (1) Which ecosystem services are more susceptible to shallow groundwater influences? (2) Do effects of groundwater on ecosystem services vary under contrasting climate conditions (i.e., dry, wet and average)? (3) Where on the landscape are groundwater effects on ecosystem services most pronounced? (4) How do groundwater effects depend on water table depth? Overall, groundwater significantly impacted all services studied, with the largest effects on food production, water quality and quantity, and flood regulation services. Climate also mediated groundwater effects with the strongest effects occurring under dry climatic conditions. There was substantial spatial heterogeneity in groundwater effects across the landscape that is driven in part by spatial variations in water table depth. Most ecosystem services responded nonlinearly to groundwater availability, with most apparent groundwater effects occurring when the water table is shallower than a critical depth of 2.5-m. Our findings provide compelling evidence that groundwater plays a vital

  18. Nonlinear Response Of MSSS Bridges Under Earthquake Ground Motions: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the results of the second phase of a comprehensive analytical study on the seismic response of highway bridges in New Jersey. The overall objective of this phase of the study was to evaluate the nonlinear seismic response of actu...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of cortical responses to color in the human cVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Shapley, Robert M; Gordon, James

    2017-09-01

    The main finding of this paper is that the human visual cortex responds in a very nonlinear manner to the color contrast of pure color patterns. We examined human cortical responses to color checkerboard patterns at many color contrasts, measuring the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP) with a dense electrode array. Cortical topography of the cVEPs showed that they were localized near the posterior electrode at position Oz, indicating that the primary cortex (V1) was the major source of responses. The choice of fine spatial patterns as stimuli caused the cVEP response to be driven by double-opponent neurons in V1. The cVEP waveform revealed nonlinear color signal processing in the V1 cortex. The cVEP time-to-peak decreased and the waveform's shape was markedly narrower with increasing cone contrast. Comparison of the linear dynamics of retinal and lateral geniculate nucleus responses with the nonlinear dynamics of the cortical cVEP indicated that the nonlinear dynamics originated in the V1 cortex. The nature of the nonlinearity is a kind of automatic gain control that adjusts cortical dynamics to be faster when color contrast is greater.

  20. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  1. Nonlinear terahertz response of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qinjun [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao, E-mail: czhang@uow.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2015-08-24

    Without breaking the topological order, HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can have two types of bulk band structure: direct gap type (type I) and indirect gap type (type II). We report that the strong nonlinear optical responses exist in both types of bulk states under a moderate electric field in the terahertz regime. Interestingly, for the type II band structure, the third order conductivity changes sign when chemical potentials lies below 10 meV due to the significant response of the hole excitation close to the bottom of conduction band. Negative nonlinear conductivities suggest that HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can find application in the gain medium of a laser for terahertz radiation. The thermal influences on nonlinear optical responses of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are also studied.

  2. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A

    2008-12-02

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90 degrees in approximately 1 cm) and linear stretching to "rubber-band" levels of strain (e.g., up to approximately 140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics.

  3. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528

  4. A modal approach based on perfectly matched layers for the forced response of elastic open waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, M.; Treyssède, F.; Laguerre, L.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the computation of the forced response of elastic open waveguides with a numerical modal approach based on perfectly matched layers (PML). With a PML of infinite thickness, the solution can theoretically be expanded as a discrete sum of trapped modes, a discrete sum of leaky modes and a continuous sum of radiation modes related to the PML branch cuts. Yet with numerical methods (e.g. finite elements), the waveguide cross-section is discretized and the PML must be truncated to a finite thickness. This truncation transforms the continuous sum into a discrete set of PML modes. To guarantee the uniqueness of the numerical solution of the forced response problem, an orthogonality relationship is proposed. This relationship is applicable to any type of modes (trapped, leaky and PML modes) and hence allows the numerical solution to be expanded on a discrete sum in a convenient manner. This also leads to an expression for the modal excitability valid for leaky modes. The physical relevance of each type of mode for the solution is clarified through two numerical test cases, a homogeneous medium and a circular bar waveguide example, excited by a point source. The former is favourably compared to a transient analytical solution, showing that PML modes reassemble the bulk wave contribution in a homogeneous medium. The latter shows that the PML mode contribution yields the long-term diffraction phenomenon whereas the leaky mode contribution prevails closer to the source. The leaky mode contribution is shown to remain accurate even with a relatively small PML thickness, hence reducing the computational cost. This is of particular interest for solving three-dimensional waveguide problems, involving two-dimensional cross-sections of arbitrary shapes. Such a problem is handled in a third numerical example by considering a buried square bar.

  5. On the Response of a Nonlinear Structure to High Kurtosis Non-Gaussian Random Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a follow-on to recent work by the authors in which the response and high-cycle fatigue of a nonlinear structure subject to non-Gaussian loadings was found to vary markedly depending on the nature of the loading. There it was found that a non-Gaussian loading having a steady rate of short-duration, high-excursion peaks produced essentially the same response as would have been incurred by a Gaussian loading. In contrast, a non-Gaussian loading having the same kurtosis, but with bursts of high-excursion peaks was found to elicit a much greater response. This work is meant to answer the question of when consideration of a loading probability distribution other than Gaussian is important. The approach entailed nonlinear numerical simulation of a beam structure under Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitations. Whether the structure responded in a Gaussian or non-Gaussian manner was determined by adherence to, or violations of, the Central Limit Theorem. Over a practical range of damping, it was found that the linear response to a non-Gaussian loading was Gaussian when the period of the system impulse response is much greater than the rate of peaks in the loading. Lower damping reduced the kurtosis, but only when the linear response was non-Gaussian. In the nonlinear regime, the response was found to be non-Gaussian for all loadings. The effect of a spring-hardening type of nonlinearity was found to limit extreme values and thereby lower the kurtosis relative to the linear response regime. In this case, lower damping gave rise to greater nonlinearity, resulting in lower kurtosis than a higher level of damping.

  6. Analysis of the Thermo-Elastic Response of Space Reflectors to Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Ivagnes, M. M.; Marchetti, M.; Poscente, F.

    2002-01-01

    high pressure Xenon lamps to simulate the direct solar irradiation and a cryogenic heat exchanger to reproduce the earth shadowing of sunlight. The temperature of the thermal cycles ranges from -80°C up to 100°C: the thermo-elastic response of the antenna has been surveyed by employing strain gauges place on the structures at several different locations. The structure has been subjected to 100 thermal cycles, each of which lasting two hours: the total duration of the exposition to the vacuum environment has been equal to 300 hours. Finally the antenna has been disassembled and its elements have been examined to evaluate the effects of the simulated exposition on each of them: the total mass loss and the final thermo-mechanical properties of the polymeric based materials which constitute the structural core of the antenna have been surveyed. The experimental results have been compared to numerical simulation performed by the NASTRAN code: the basic FEM model, developed for the unexposed antenna, has been updated to take into account the thermo-mechanical degradation of the structural elements and materials. This has allowed to obtain, by extrapolation, a FEM based prevision of the antenna thermo-elastic response for long-term operative conditions. References. [1] D. Hastings, H. Garret "Spacecraft environment interactions", Cambridge University Press, Atmospheric Series, Cambridge, 1996. [2] IAF-01-I.6.05 "On the Reliability of Honeycomb Core Bonding Joint in Sandwich Composite Materials for Space Applications" G. Allegri, U. Lecci, M. Marchetti, F. Poscente, 52° IAF Congress, 2001. [3] Meguro A. and alii, "Technology status of the 13 m aperture deployment antenna reflectors for Engineering Test Satellite VIII", Acta Astronautica, Volume: 47, Issue: 2-9, July - November, 2000, pp. 147-152. [4] Novikov L. S. "Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research" Radiation Measurements, Volume: 30, Issue: 5, October, 1999, pp. 661-667. [5] IAF-01-I.1

  7. Giant-spin nonlinear response theory of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia: A field dependence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrião, M. S.; Aquino, V. R. R.; Landi, G. T.; Verde, E. L.; Sousa, M. H.; Bakuzis, A. F.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding high-field amplitude electromagnetic heat loss phenomena is of great importance, in particular, in the biomedical field, because the heat-delivery treatment plans might rely on analytical models that are only valid at low field amplitudes. Here, we develop a nonlinear response model valid for single-domain nanoparticles of larger particle sizes and higher field amplitudes in comparison to the linear response theory. A nonlinear magnetization expression and a generalized heat loss power equation are obtained and compared with the exact solution of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation assuming the giant-spin hypothesis. The model is valid within the hyperthermia therapeutic window and predicts a shift of optimum particle size and distinct heat loss field amplitude exponents, which is often obtained experimentally using a phenomenological allometric function. Experimental hyperthermia data with distinct ferrite-based nanoparticles and third harmonic magnetization data support the nonlinear model, which also has implications for magnetic particle imaging and magnetic thermometry.

  8. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW's as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H → ∞. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed

  9. ON-LINE NONLINEAR CHROMATICITY CORRECTION USING OFF-MOMENTUM TUNE RESPONSE MATRIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; FISCHER, W.; MALISKY, N.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TROBJEVIC, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we propose a method for the online nonlinear chromaticity correction at store in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be minimized online by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted tunes given by the linear chromaticities. The Newton method is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the online accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. In this article, the correction algorithm for the RHIC is presented. Simulations are also carried out to verify the method. The preliminary results from the beam experiments taken place in the RHIC 2007 Au run are reviewed

  10. Multifractal and nonlinear assessment of autonomous nervous system response during transient myocardial ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrans, R; Gomis, P; Caminal, P; Wagner, G

    2010-01-01

    We assess autonomic nervous system response during prolonged percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) using heart rate variability analysis with multifractal indices. These indices are used to evaluate the effects of the PTCA procedures at different arteries and locations. A total of 55 patients from the Staff3 database, with no prior history of myocardial infarction, were included in the study. The indices increased significantly during the transient ischaemia and reperfusion periods, indicating an increase in nonlinear multifractal characteristics and a change in temporal correlations in heartbeat fluctuations. This indicates that significant multifractal and nonlinear complex reactions in the autonomic control of the heart rate occurred during coronary artery occlusions and suggests that the multifractal indices may be a promising nonlinear technique for evaluating autonomic nervous system response in the presence of transient myocardial ischaemia

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  12. Wind energy conversion. Volume VI. Nonlinear response of wind turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, I.

    1978-09-01

    The nonlinear equations of motor for a rigid rotor restrained by three flexible springs representing, respectively, the flapping, lagging, and feathering motions are derived using Lagrange's equations, for arbitrary angular rotations. These are reduced to a consistent set of nonlinear equations using nonlinear terms up to third order. The complete analysis is divided into three parts, A, B, and C. Part A consists of forced response of two-degree flapping-lagging rotor under the excitation of pure gravitational field (i.e., no aerodynamic forces). In Part B, the effect of aerodynamic forces on the dynamic response of two-degree flapping-lagging rotor is investigated. In Part C, the effect of third degree of motion, feathering, is considered.

  13. On the Boundary between Nonlinear Jump Phenomenon and Linear Response of Hypoid Gear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model of a hypoid gear pair system with time-dependent mesh point, line-of-action vector, mesh stiffness, mesh damping, and backlash nonlinearity is formulated to analyze the transitional phase between nonlinear jump phenomenon and linear response. It is found that the classical jump discontinuity will occur if the dynamic mesh force exceeds the mean value of tooth mesh force. On the other hand, the propensity for the gear response to jump disappears when the dynamic mesh force is lower than the mean mesh force. Furthermore, the dynamic analysis is able to distinguish the specific tooth impact types from analyzing the behaviors of the dynamic mesh force. The proposed theory is general and also applicable to high-speed spur, helical and spiral bevel gears even though those types of gears are not the primary focus of this paper.

  14. ON-LINE NONLINEAR CHROMATICITY CORRECTION USING OFF-MOMENTUM TUNE RESPONSE MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUO,Y.; FISCHER, W.; MALISKY, N.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TROBJEVIC, D.

    2007-06-25

    In this article, we propose a method for the online nonlinear chromaticity correction at store in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be minimized online by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted tunes given by the linear chromaticities. The Newton method is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the online accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. In this article, the correction algorithm for the RHIC is presented. Simulations are also carried out to verify the method. The preliminary results from the beam experiments taken place in the RHIC 2007 Au run are reviewed.

  15. A novel nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation effect for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2017-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a theoretical model able to predict the generation of nonlinear elastic effects associated to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the steady-state nonlinear response of local defect resonance (LDR). The LDR effect is used in nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy to enhance the excitation of the material damage at its local resonance, thus to dramatically increase the vibrational amplitude of material nonlinear phenomena. The main result of this work is to prove both analytically and experimentally the generation of novel nonlinear elastic wave effects, here named as nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation, which correspond to a nonlinear intermodulation between the driving frequency and the LDR one. Beside this intermodulation effect, other nonlinear elastic wave phenomena such as higher harmonics of the input frequency and superharmonics of LDR frequency were found. The analytical model relies on solving the nonlinear equation of motion governing bending displacement under the assumption of both quadratic and cubic nonlinear defect approximation. Experimental tests on a damaged composite laminate confirmed and validated these predictions and showed that using continuous periodic excitation, the nonlinear structural phenomena associated to LDR could also be featured at locations different from the damage resonance. These findings will provide new opportunities for material damage detection using nonlinear ultrasounds.

  16. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  17. Synchronous and non-synchronous responses of systems with multiple identical nonlinear vibration absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jimmy S.; Shaw, Steven W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we investigate the nonlinear dynamic response of systems composed of a primary inertia to which multiple identical vibration absorbers are attached. This problem is motivated by observations of systems of centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers that are designed to reduce engine order torsional vibrations in rotating systems, but the results are relevant to translational systems as well. In these systems the total absorber mass is split into multiple equal masses for purposes of distribution and/or balance, and it is generally expected that the absorbers will act in unison, corresponding to a synchronous response. In order to capture nonlinear effects of the responses of the absorbers, specifically, their amplitude-dependent frequency, we consider them to possess nonlinear stiffness. The equations of motion for the system are derived and it is shown how one can uncouple the equations for the absorbers from that for the primary inertia, resulting in a system of identical resonators that are globally coupled. These symmetric equations are scaled for weak nonlinear effects, near resonant forcing, and small damping. The method of averaging is applied, from which steady-state responses and their stability are investigated. The response of systems with two, three, and four absorbers are considered in detail, demonstrating a rich variety of bifurcations of the synchronous response, resulting in responses with various levels of symmetry in which sub-groups of absorbers are mutually synchronous. It is also shown that undamped models with more than two absorbers possess a degenerate response, which is made robust by the addition of damping to the model. Design guidelines are proposed based on the nature of the system response, with the aim of minimizing the acceleration of the primary system. It is shown that the desired absorber parameters are selected so that the system achieves a stable synchronous response which does not undergo jumps via saddle

  18. Brownian diffusion of a particle at an air/liquid interface: the elastic (not viscous) response of the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan; Rodriguez-Lopez, Gieberth; Paredes-Altuve, Oscar

    2017-03-29

    Here, the effect of the elastic response of the surface on the translational diffusion coefficient of a partly submerged-in-water spherical Brownian particle is considered. The elastic nature of the surface, mediated by the surface tension, generates an additional dissipative mechanism. Therefore, the collisions at the surface contribute to the diffusion as the source of the driving force and the dissipation results from the combined action of both elastic reaction of the surface and viscous dissipation. However, it can be estimated that the surface elastic mechanism is several orders of magnitude greater than the viscous one. This simple yet physically plausible approach leads us to assume that the diffusion on the surface is proportional to a power of the number of collisions and, consequently, the dissipative mechanisms are proportional to an inverse power of it. The lowering in dimensionality from 3 (bulk) to 2 (surface) also contributes to the decrease of diffusion. This model allows the reproduction of the reported experimental values of the surface/bulk dissipative force ratio. Additionally, we also compared the traditional viscous approach with other theoretical hydrodynamic treatments of the problem, which drastically failed to explain the experiments.

  19. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  20. Implicit three-dimensional finite-element formulation for the nonlinear structural response of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1975-09-01

    The formulation of a finite-element procedure for the implicit transient and static analysis of plate/shell type structures in three-dimensional space is described. The triangular plate/shell element can sustain both membrane and bending stresses. Both geometric and material nonlinearities can be treated, and an elastic-plastic material law has been incorporated. The formulation permits the element to undergo arbitrarily large rotations and translations; but, in its present form it is restricted to small strains. The discretized equations of motion are obtained by a stiffness method. An implicit integration algorithm based on trapezoidal integration formulas is used to integrate the discretized equations of motion in time. To ensure numerical stability, an iterative solution procedure with equilibrium checks is used

  1. Elastic-plastic response of a piping system due to simulated double-ended guillotine break events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Diem, H.; Hunger, H.; Katzenmeier, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the blowdown experiments performed on the HDR feedwater line with feedwater check valve the conclusion can be drawn that high transient loads of up to plastic strains of 3%, acting on an initially integer piping system, can be sustained without loss of integrity for a low number of load cycles due to the plasticizing capacity of the pipework materials nowadays used in reactor technology. In the experiments carried out with ferritic piping of ND 400 pressure peaks up to about 31,5 MPa were achieved which resulted in excessive strains of up to 3%. By nonlinear finite element computations (ABAQUS) it was possible to describe the elastic-plastic behaviour of the piping in a good approximation. (orig./GL)

  2. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  3. Stability of abstract nonlinear nonautonomous differential-delay equations with unbounded history-responsive operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil', M. I.

    2005-08-01

    We consider a class of nonautonomous functional-differential equations in a Banach space with unbounded nonlinear history-responsive operators, which have the local Lipshitz property. Conditions for the boundedness of solutions, Lyapunov stability, absolute stability and input-output one are established. Our approach is based on a combined usage of properties of sectorial operators and spectral properties of commuting operators.

  4. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  5. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  6. A nonlinear delayed model for the immune response in the presence of viral mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, D.; Gleria, Iram; Albuquerque, S. S.; Canabarro, Askery; Stanley, H. E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider a delayed nonlinear model of the dynamics of the immune system against a viral infection that contains a wild-type virus and a mutant. We consider the finite response time of the immune system and find sustained oscillatory behavior as well as chaotic behavior triggered by the presence of delays. We present a numeric analysis and some analytical results.

  7. Nonlinear optical response in condensed phases : A microscopic theory using the multipolar Hamiltonian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1990-01-01

    A general scheme is presented for calculating the nonlinear optical response in condensed phases that provides a unified picture of excitons, polaritons, retardation, and local-field effects in crystals and in disordered systems. A fully microscopic starting point is taken by considering the

  8. Inducing nonlinear dynamic response via piezoelectric circuitry integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J.

    2014-04-01

    Owing to the two-way electro-mechanical coupling characteristics, piezoelectric transducers have been widely used as sensors and actuators in sensing and control applications. In this research, we explore the integration of piezoelectric transducer with the structure, in which the transducer is connected with a Wheatstone bridge based circuitry subjected to chaotic excitation. It is shown that a type of Wheatstone bridge circuit with proper parameters configuration can increase sensitivity in detecting structural anomaly. Such integration has the potential to significantly amplify the response change when the underlying structure is subject to property change. Comprehensive analytical and experimental studies are carried out to demonstrate the concept and validate the performance improvement.

  9. Nonlinear electrostrictive lattice response of EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P.; Calamiotou, M.; Köhler, J.; Bussmann-Holder, A.; Liarokapis, E.

    2017-07-01

    An epitaxial EuTiO3 (ETO) film grown on the SrTiO3 substrate was studied at room temperature with synchrotron XRD and in situ application of an electric field (nominally up to 7.8 kV/cm) in near grazing incidence geometry, in order to monitor the response of the lattice to the field. 2D diffraction images show that apparently misoriented coherently diffracting domains are present close to the surface whereas the film diffracts more as a single crystal towards the interface. Diffraction intensity profiles recorded from the near surface region of the EuTiO3 film showed systematic modifications upon the application of the electric field, indicating that at a critical electric field (nominally above 3.1 kV/cm), there is a clear change in the lattice response to the field, which was much stronger when the field was almost parallel to the diffraction vector. The data suggest that the ETO film, nominally paraelectric at room temperature, transforms under the application of a critical electric field to piezoelectric in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on a double-well potential. In order to exclude effects arising from the substrate, this has been investigated separately and shown not to be affected by the field.

  10. Nonlinearities in the Response of Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, B; Prochnow, J

    2000-01-01

    At the LEP e+/e- collider at CERN, Geneva, a Spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4. The Spectrometer measures the change in bending angle in a dipole magnet, the beam trajectory being obtained using beam position monitors (BPMs), which must have an accuracy close to 1 micron in order to achieve the desired precision. The BPMs used feature an aluminium block with an elliptical aperture and capacitive pickup electrodes. The response depends on the electrode geometry and also on the shape of the monitor aperture. In addition, the size of the beam itself contributes if the beam is off-centre. The beam size varies according to the beta and dispersion functions at the Spectrometer, so that each BPM may exhibit a systematic shift of the measured beam position. We have investigated the implications of such shifts on the performance of the Spectrometer. We present analytical results, a computer model of the BPM response, and comparison with measurements. The model suggest...

  11. Elastic-plastic response of a piping system due to simulated double-ended guillotine break events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Diem, H.; Hunger, H.; Katzenmeier, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the blowdown experiments performed on the HDR feedwater line with feedwater check valve the conclusion can be drawn that high transient loads of up to plastic strains of 3%, acting on an initially integer piping system, can be sustained without loss of integrity for a low number of load cycles due to the plasticizing capacity of the pipework materials nowadays used in the reactor technology. In the experiments carried out with ferritic piping of ND 400 pressure peaks up to about 31,5 mPA were achieved which resulted in excessive strains of up to 3%. By nonlinear finite element computations (ABAQUS) it was possible to describe the elastic-plastic behaviour of the piping in a good approximation. On account of the safety margins proved in the experiments, potential inaccuracies in theoretical structure analyses are recommended so as to be on the safe side. On the other hand, it appears that designing pipework with reference to elastic stress categories does not adequately take into account the actual reserves of the pipework material

  12. Adjustment Costs, Firm Responses, and Micro vs. Macro Labor Supply Elasticities: Evidence from Danish Tax Records*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Friedman, John N.; Olsen, Tore; Pistaferri, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    We show that the effects of taxes on labor supply are shaped by interactions between adjustment costs for workers and hours constraints set by firms. We develop a model in which firms post job offers characterized by an hours requirement and workers pay search costs to find jobs. We present evidence supporting three predictions of this model by analyzing bunching at kinks using Danish tax records. First, larger kinks generate larger taxable income elasticities. Second, kinks that apply to a larger group of workers generate larger elasticities. Third, the distribution of job offers is tailored to match workers' aggregate tax preferences in equilibrium. Our results suggest that macro elasticities may be substantially larger than the estimates obtained using standard microeconometric methods. PMID:21836746

  13. A Semi-Analytical Approach for the Response of Nonlinear Conservative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Barari, Amin; Fooladi, M

    2011-01-01

    This work applies Parameter expanding method (PEM) as a powerful analytical technique in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in the classical dynamics. Lagrange method is employed to derive the governing equations. The nonlinear governing equations are solved analytically...... by means of He’s Parameter expanding method. It is demonstrated that one term in series expansion is sufficient to generate a highly accurate solution, which is valid for the whole domain of the solution and system response. Comparison of the obtained solutions with the numerical ones indicates...

  14. A Semi-Analytical Approach for the Response of Nonlinear Conservative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Barari, Amin; Fooladi, M

    2011-01-01

    This work applies Parameter expanding method (PEM) as a powerful analytical technique in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in the classical dynamics. Lagrange method is employed to derive the governing equations. The nonlinear governing equations are solved analytically...... by means of He’s Parameter expanding method. It is demonstrated that one term in series expansion is sufficient to generate a highly accurate solution, which is valid for the whole domain of the solution and system response. Comparison of the obtained solutions with the numerical ones indicates...... that this method is an effective and convenient tool for solving these types of problems....

  15. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  16. Nonlinear disruption of ecological interactions in response to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is affecting species interactions and causing a rapid decline in biodiversity. In this study, I present a new Ecosystem Disruption Index to quantify the impacts of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 10, 20, and 50 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1  + 6-7 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 background) on abiotic and biotic ecological interactions. This comparative index is based on pairwise linear and quadratic regression matrices. These matrices, calculated at the N treatment level, were constructed using a range of abiotic and biotic ecosystem constituents: soil pH, shrub cover, and the first component of several separate principal component analyses using soil fertility data (total carbon and N) and community data (annual plants, microorganisms, biocrusts, edaphic fauna) for a total of seven ecosystem constituents. Four years of N fertilization in a semiarid shrubland completely disrupted the network of ecological interactions, with a greater proportional increase in ecosystem disruption at low N addition levels. Biotic interactions, particularly those involving microbes, shrubs, and edaphic fauna, were more prone to be lost in response to N, whereas interactions involving soil properties were more resilient. In contrast, edaphic fauna was the only group directly affected by N addition, with mites and collembolans increasing their abundance with up to 20 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 and then decreasing, which supports the idea of higher-trophic-level organisms being more sensitive to disturbance due to more complex links with other ecosystem constituents. Future experimental studies evaluating the impacts of N deposition, and possibly other GEC drivers, on biodiversity and biotic and abiotic interactions may be able to explain results more effectively in the context of ecological networks as a key feature of ecosystem sensitivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Seismic response analysis of a nuclear reactor structure considering nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaumik, Lopamudra, E-mail: lbhaumi2@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Raychowdhury, Prishati, E-mail: prishati@iitk.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a reactor is done. • Incremental dynamic analysis is performed with 30 recorded ground motions. • Equivalent viscous damping increases up to twice when nonlinear SSI is considered. • Roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity. • Base shear, base moment and ductility reduce up to 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively. - Abstract: This study focuses on the seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a typical Indian reactor resting on a medium dense sandy silty soil, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-foundation interface. The modeling is done in an open-source finite element framework, OpenSees, where the soil-structure interaction (SSI) is modeled using a Beam-on-Nonlinear-Winkler-Foundation (BNWF) approach. Static pushover analysis and cyclic analysis are performed followed by an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) with 30 recorded ground motions. For performing IDA, the spectral acceleration of each motion corresponding to the fundamental period, S{sub a}(T{sub 1})is incremented from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment step of 0.1 g. It is observed from the cyclic analysis that the equivalent viscous damping of the system increases upto twice upon incorporation of inelastic SSI. The IDA results demonstrate that the average peak base shear, base moment and displacement ductility demand reduces as much as 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity for the highest intensity motion. These observations indicate the need of critical consideration of nonlinear soil-structure interaction as any deficient modeling of the same may lead to an inaccurate estimation of the seismic demands of the structure.

  18. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of an embedded reactor building based on the substructure approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1987-01-01

    A practical method to calculate the elasto-plastic seismic response of structures considering the dynamic soil-structure interaction is presented. The substructure technique in the time domain is utilized in the proposed method. A simple soil spring system with the coupling effects which are usually evaluated by the impedance matrix is introduced to consider the soil-structure interaction for embedded structures. As a numerical example, the response of a BWR-MARK II type reactor building embedded in the layered soil is calculated. The accuracy of the present method is verified by comparing its numerical results with exact solutions. The nonlinear behaivor and the soil-structure interaction effects on the response of the reactor building are also discussed in detail. It is concluded that the present method is effective for the aseismic design considering both the material nonlinearity of the nuclear reactor building and the dynamic soil-structure interaction. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis of Curved and Skewed Bridge System with Spherical Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D modeling approach to investigate nonlinear seismic response of a curved and skewed bridge system is proposed. The approach is applied to a three-span curved and skewed steel girder bridge in the United States. The superstructure is modeled using 3D frame elements for the girders, truss elements for the cross-frames, and equivalent frame elements to represent the deck. Spherical bearings are modeled with zero-length elements coupled with hysteretic material models. Nonlinear seismic responses of the bearings subjected to actual ground motions are examined in various directions. Findings indicate that the bearings experience moderate damage for most loading scenarios based on FEMA seismic performance criteria. Further, the bearing responses are different for the loading scenarios because of seismic effects caused by interactions between excitation direction and radius of curvature.

  20. A nonlinear energy sink with an energy harvester: Harmonically forced responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Daniel; Liu, Kefu

    2017-12-01

    This study intends to achieve simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting using a variant form of nonlinear energy sink (NES). The proposed apparatus is not a true NES as its spring is not essentially nonlinear. In a previous study [22] (Journal of Sound and Vibration, 333 (20) (2014)), it has been shown that the apparatus demonstrates the transient behaviors similar to those of the NES. As a sequel, the present paper focuses on harmonically forced responses of the system. First, the approximate solutions of steady state responses are derived. Using the approximate solutions, the steady state behaviors are investigated by using the numerical continuation method. This is followed by an experimental study. The study has shown that under harmonic excitation, the proposed apparatus functions similarly to the NES with the typical behaviors such as strongly modulated responses, amplitude jumping, excitation level dependence, etc. Overall, the apparatus meets the design objectives: the vibration suppression and energy harvesting in a broadband manner.

  1. Alternative modal basis selection procedures for reduced-order nonlinear random response simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2012-08-01

    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of a computationally taxing full-order analysis in physical degrees of freedom are taken as the benchmark for comparison with the results from the three reduced-order analyses. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.

  2. Growth on elastic silicone substrate elicits a partial myogenic response in periodontal ligament derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pelaez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of cellular differentiation and phenotypic maintenance can be influenced by stimuli from a variety of different factors. One commonly overlooked factor is the mechanical properties of the growth substrate in which stem cells are maintained or differentiated down various lineages. Here we explored the effect that growth on an elastic silicone substrate had on the myogenic expression and cytoskeletal morphology of periodontal ligament derived stem cells. Cells were grown on either collagen I coated tissue culture polystyrene plates or collagen I coated elastic silicone membranes for a period of 4 days without further induction from soluble factors in the culture media. Following the 4-day growth, gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis for key cardiomyogenic markers was performed along with a morphological assessment of cytoskeletal organization. Results show that cells grown on the elastic substrate significantly upregulate key markers associated with contractile activity in muscle tissues. Namely, the myosin light chain polypeptides 2 and 7, as well as the myosin heavy chain polypeptide 7 genes underwent a statistically significant upregulation in the cells grown on elastic silicone membranes. Similarly, the cells on the softer elastic substrate stained positive for both sarcomeric actin and cardiac troponin t proteins following just 4 days of growth on the softer material. Cytoskeletal analysis showed that substrate stiffness had a marked effect on the organization and distribution of filamentous actin fibers within the cell body. Growth on silicone membranes produced flatter and shorter cellular morphologies with filamentous actin fibers projecting anisotropically throughout the cell body. These results demonstrate how crucial the mechanical properties of the growth substrate of cells can be on the ultimate cellular phenotype. These observations highlight the need to further optimize differentiation protocols to enhance

  3. Nonlinearity measurement for low-pressure encapsulated MEMS gyroscopes by transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yumiao; Dong, Yonggui; Huang, Xianxiang; Zhang, Zhili

    2018-02-01

    To measure the nonlinear dynamic features of micromechanical gyroscopes, a non-parametric method based on Hilbert transform is proposed. Using a sequence of frequency stepping sinusoidal pulses as the excitation signal, a set of transient responses in the vicinity of the resonant frequency are obtained. The envelopes of the time-domain response signals are calculated by Hilbert transform. The location of the resonant frequency, as well as whether the gyroscope is working in linear or nonlinear region, can be approximately assessed from the waveform of the envelopes. In order to obtain the dynamic parameters of the gyroscope, a modified FREEVIB algorithm is designed for analyzing the free damped oscillation signals. The instantaneous amplitudes and instantaneous frequencies that extracted by Hilbert transform are further processed by singular spectrum analysis (SSA). Numerical simulation results indicate that the algorithm behaves better anti-noise performance and can be practically used for processing the experimentally sampled transient signals. Vibrating ring microgyroscopes are experimentally tested under different air pressure (10-100 Pa). From the largest response segment of the response sequences, qualification of the operation state, i.e. whether the gyroscope is working in the nonlinear region, is obtained from the envelope of the forced transient signal. Other parameters, including the Backbone, frequency response function (FRF) and Q-value curves, are calculated from the free damped oscillation signals. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by traditional frequency sweeping method.

  4. A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maruccio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid computational framework is described here in order to assess the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. The proposed strategy basically consists of two steps. First, fully coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analyses are performed to evaluate the nonlinear static response of the device. An enhanced reduced-order model is then derived, where the global dynamic response is formulated in the state-space using lumped coefficients enriched with the information derived from the FE simulations. The electromechanical response of piezoelectric beams under forced vibrations is studied by means of the proposed approach, which is also validated by comparing numerical predictions with some experimental results. Such numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the main aim of studying the influence of material and geometrical parameters on the global nonlinear response. The advantage of the presented approach is that the overall computational and experimental efforts are significantly reduced while preserving a satisfactory accuracy in the assessment of the global behavior.

  5. Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phenological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amy M.; Høye, Toke T.; Inouye, David W.; Schmidt, Niels M.

    2013-01-01

    Many alpine and subalpine plant species exhibit phenological advancements in association with earlier snowmelt. While the phenology of some plant species does not advance beyond a threshold snowmelt date, the prevalence of such threshold phenological responses within plant communities is largely unknown. We therefore examined the shape of flowering phenology responses (linear versus nonlinear) to climate using two long-term datasets from plant communities in snow-dominated environments: Gothic, CO, USA (1974–2011) and Zackenberg, Greenland (1996–2011). For a total of 64 species, we determined whether a linear or nonlinear regression model best explained interannual variation in flowering phenology in response to increasing temperatures and advancing snowmelt dates. The most common nonlinear trend was for species to flower earlier as snowmelt advanced, with either no change or a slower rate of change when snowmelt was early (average 20% of cases). By contrast, some species advanced their flowering at a faster rate over the warmest temperatures relative to cooler temperatures (average 5% of cases). Thus, some species seem to be approaching their limits of phenological change in response to snowmelt but not temperature. Such phenological thresholds could either be a result of minimum springtime photoperiod cues for flowering or a slower rate of adaptive change in flowering time relative to changing climatic conditions. PMID:23836793

  6. Probing the Elastic-Plastic, Time-Dependant Response of Test Fasteners using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Renauld; H Lien

    2004-12-13

    The evolution of global and local stress/strain conditions in test fasteners under test conditions is investigated using elastic-plastic, time-dependent finite element analyses (FEA). For elastic-plastic response, tensile data from multiple specimens, material heats and test temperatures are integrated into a single, normalized flow curve from which temperature dependency is extracted. A primary creep model is calibrated with specimen- and fastener-based thermal relaxation data generated under a range of times, temperatures, stress levels and environments. These material inputs are used in analytical simulations of experimental test conditions for several types of fasteners. These fastener models are constructed with automated routines and contact conditions prescribed at all potentially mating surfaces. Thermal or mechanical room temperature pre-loading, as appropriate for a given fastener, is followed by a temperature ramp and a dwell time at constant temperature. While the amount of thermal stress relaxation is limited for the conditions modeled, local stress states are highly dependent upon geometry (thread root radius, for example), pre-loading history and thermal expansion differences between the test fastener and test fixture. Benefits of this FE approach over an elastic methodology for stress calculation will be illustrated with correlations of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) initiation time and crack orientations in stress concentrations.

  7. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of embedded reactor buildings based on the substructure approach in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1985-01-01

    A practical method for elasto-plastic seismic response analysis is described under considerations of nonlinear material law of a structure and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The method is essentially based on the substructure approach of time domain analysis. Verification of the present method is carried out for typical BWR-MARK II type reactor building which is embedded in a soil, and the results are compared with those of the frequency response analysis which gives good accuracy for linear system. As a result, the present method exhibits sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, elasto-plastic analyses considering the soil-structure interaction are made as an application of the present method, and nonlinear behaviors of the structure and embedment effects are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Effect of adhesion force between crack planes on subharmonic and DC responses in nonlinear ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yoshikazu; Mihara, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2006-02-01

    Subharmonic and DC responses in nonlinear ultrasound have been expected as a possible means of detecting closed cracks. Recently, it has been reported that subharmonics in a closed crack markedly increases above a certain input wave amplitude. Such a phenomenon is called "threshold behavior". However, the mechanism of threshold behavior has yet to be elucidated. To clarify this, we introduced adhesion force as a short-range force into the previous analytical model, which expresses the nonlinear contact vibrations of crack planes with intense ultrasound and provides a DC displacement as an approximation of the subharmonic response. Consequently, upward convex curves of displacement against input wave amplitude above the threshold were reproduced for the first time. The validity of the derived analytical solution is discussed by comparison with experimentally observed subharmonics.

  9. Beyond the perturbative description of the nonlinear optical response of low-index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Orad; Giese, Enno; Zahirul Alam, M; De Leon, Israel; Upham, Jeremy; Boyd, Robert W

    2017-08-15

    We show that standard approximations in nonlinear optics are violated for situations involving a small value of the linear refractive index. Consequently, the conventional equation for the intensity-dependent refractive index, n(I)=n 0 +n 2 I, becomes inapplicable in epsilon-near-zero and low-index media, even in the presence of only third-order effects. For the particular case of indium tin oxide, we find that the χ (3) , χ (5) , and χ (7) contributions to refraction eclipse the linear term; thus, the nonlinear response can no longer be interpreted as a perturbation in these materials. Although the response is non-perturbative, we find no evidence that the power series expansion of the material polarization diverges.

  10. Linear and nonlinear response matrix and its application to the SIS18 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis is dedicated to the numerical as well as the experimental study of beam dynamics in circular accelerators. The experimental part was undertaken in the SIS18 synchrotron. The detailed description of the experiments contained in this work can be considered as a starting point for future experiments and machine development. The work has the following structure. In Chapter 2 an overview of the GSI and FAIR accelerator facilities, and a general description of the SIS18 instrumentation related to the study of this work are given. The expected SIS18 performance in view of the upgrade program for FAIR project are outlined. The main beam dynamics issues connected with the purpose of this work are discussed. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of linear beam dynamics in the SIS18. The resonance beam loss measurements were carried out with residual gas profile monitor in the SIS18 (Chapter 4). In the frame of this work a novel technique 'nonlinear tune response matrix method' to identify strengths, polarities and locations of nonlinear errors in circular accelerators is developed (Chapter 5). In the method the feed down effect of the nonlinear components at level of linear tune response to the closed-orbit change is explored. The closed-orbit change is introduced by varying correction steerers. The tune values are retrieved from the spectrum of coherent betatron oscillations excited by a fast kick. The theoretical background, the robustness of the method and numerical examples for the SIS18 using numerical library MICROMAP are presented. The technique to measure lattice nonlinearities was experimentally validated in the SIS18 where two normal as well as two skew sextupolar errors of the order of natural errors were reconstructed with a tolerant precision. It was shown how this technique can be applied to reconstruct sextupolar nonlinear errors in the complete machine. In Chapter 6 the main results and the conclusions of this work are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Probing the non-linear transient response of a carbon nanotube mechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Kyle; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Baugh, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) electromechanical resonators have demonstrated unprecedented sensitivities for detecting small masses and forces. The detection speed in a cryogenic setup is usually limited by the CNT contact resistance and parasitic capacitance of cabling. We report the use of a cold heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifying circuit near the device to measure the mechanical amplitude at microsecond timescales. A Coulomb rectification scheme, in which the probe signal is at much lower frequency than the mechanical drive signal, allows investigation of the strongly non-linear regime. The behaviour of transients in both the linear and non-linear regimes is observed and modeled by including Duffing and non-linear damping terms in a harmonic oscillator equation. We show that the non-linear regime can result in faster mechanical response times, on the order of 10 μs for the device and circuit presented, potentially enabling the magnetic moments of single molecules to be measured within their spin relaxation and dephasing timescales.

  12. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  13. Magnetically-responsive, multifunctional drug delivery nanoparticles for elastic matrix regenerative repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Moore, Lee; Fox, Jonathan; Seshadri, Dhruv; Dahal, Shataakshi; Stoilov, Ivan; Zborowski, Maciej; Mecham, Robert; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2017-04-01

    Arresting or regressing growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), localized expansions of the abdominal aorta are contingent on inhibiting chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)-2 and -9 that disrupt elastic matrix within the aortic wall, concurrent with providing a stimulus to augmenting inherently poor auto-regeneration of these matrix structures. In a recent study we demonstrated that localized, controlled and sustained delivery of doxycycline (DOX; a tetracycline-based antibiotic) from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), enhances elastic matrix deposition and MMP-inhibition at a fraction of the therapeutically effective oral dose. The surface functionalization of these NPs with cationic amphiphiles, which enhances their arterial uptake, was also shown to have pro-matrix regenerative and anti-MMP effects independent of the DOX. Based on the hypothesis that the incorporation of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) within these PLGA NPs would enhance their targetability to the AAA site under an applied external magnetic field, we sought to evaluate the functional effects of NPs co-encapsulating DOX and SPIONs (DOX-SPION NPs) on elastic matrix regeneration and MMP synthesis/activity in vitro within aneurysmal smooth muscle cell (EaRASMC) cultures. The DOX-SPION NPs were mobile under an applied external magnetic field, while enhancing elastic matrix deposition 1.5-2-fold and significantly inhibiting MMP-2 synthesis and MMP-2 and -9 activities, compared to NP-untreated control cultures. These results illustrate that the multifunctional benefits of NPs are maintained following SPION co-incorporation. Additionally, preliminary studies carried out demonstrated enhanced targetability of SPION-loaded NPs within proteolytically-disrupted porcine carotid arteries ex vivo, under the influence of an applied external magnetic field. Thus, this dual-agent loaded NP system proffers a potential non-surgical option for treating small

  14. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  15. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  16. Linear and nonlinear winter atmospheric responses to extreme phases of low frequency Pacific sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dandan; Wu, Qigang; Hu, Aixue; Yao, Yonghong; Liu, Shizuo; Schroeder, Steven R.; Yang, Fucheng

    2018-02-01

    This study examines Northern Hemisphere winter (DJFM) atmospheric responses to opposite strong phases of interdecadal (low frequency, LF) Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing, which resembles El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on a longer time scale, in observations and GFDL and CAM4 model simulations. Over the Pacific-North America (PNA) sector, linear observed responses of 500-hPa height (Z500) anomalies resemble the PNA teleconnection pattern, but show a PNA-like nonlinear response because of a westward Z500 shift in the negative (LF-) relative to the positive LF (LF+) phase. Significant extratropical linear responses include a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like Z500 anomaly, a dipole-like Z500 anomaly over northern Eurasia associated with warming over mid-high latitude Eurasia, and a Southern Annular anomaly pattern associated with warming in southern land areas. Significant nonlinear Z500 responses also include a NAO-like anomaly pattern. Models forced by LF+ and LF- SST anomalies reproduce many aspects of observed linear and nonlinear responses over the Pacific-North America sector, and linear responses over southern land, but not in the North Atlantic-European sector and Eurasia. Both models simulate PNA-like linear responses in the North Pacific-North America region similar to observed, but show larger PNA-like LF+ responses, resulting in a PNA nonlinear response. The nonlinear PNA responses result from both nonlinear western tropical Pacific rainfall changes and extratropical transient eddy feedbacks. With LF tropical Pacific forcing only (LFTP+ and LFTP-, climatological SST elsewhere), CAM4 simulates a significant NAO response to LFTP-, including a linear negative and nonlinear positive NAO response.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of THUNDER actuators—pre-stress-induced nonlinearity in the actuation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghoon; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Ling; Usher, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an experimental and theoretical investigation into characterizing the mechanical configurations and performances of THUNDER actuators, a type of piezoelectric actuator known for their large actuation displacements, through fabrication, measurements and finite element analysis. Five groups of such actuators with different dimensions were fabricated using identical fabrication parameters. The as-fabricated arched configurations, resulting from the thermo-mechanical mismatch among the constituent layers, and their actuation performances were characterized using an experimental set-up based on a laser displacement sensor and through numerical simulations with ANSYS, a widely used commercial software program for finite element analysis. This investigation shows that the presence of large residual stresses within the piezoelectric ceramic layer, built up during the fabrication process, leads to significant nonlinear electromechanical coupling in the actuator response to the driving electric voltage, and it is this nonlinear coupling that is responsible for the large actuation displacements. Furthermore, the severity of the residual stresses, and thus the nonlinearity, increases with increasing substrate/piezoelectric thickness ratio and, to a lesser extent, with decreasing in-plane dimensions of the piezoelectric layer

  18. Forced phase-locked response of a nonlinear system with time delay after Hopf bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J.C.; Hansen, Colin H.

    2005-01-01

    The trivial equilibrium of a nonlinear autonomous system with time delay may become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation of multiplicity two, as the time delay reaches a critical value. This loss of stability of the equilibrium is associated with two coincident pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis. The resultant dynamic behaviour of the corresponding nonlinear non-autonomous system in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation is investigated based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional problem to a four-dimensional centre manifold. As a result of the interaction between the Hopf bifurcating periodic solutions and the external periodic excitation, a primary resonance can occur in the forced response of the system when the forcing frequency is close to the Hopf bifurcating periodic frequency. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain four first-order ordinary differential equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the phase-locked periodic solutions. The first-order approximations of the periodic solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the delay-differential equation. It is also found that the steady state solutions of the nonlinear non-autonomous system may lose their stability via either a pitchfork or Hopf bifurcation. It is shown that the primary resonance response may exhibit symmetric and asymmetric phase-locked periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions, chaotic motions, and coexistence of two stable motions

  19. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  20. Coupled Thermo-Electro-Magneto-Elastic Response of Smart Stiffened Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the procedures developed for incorporating smart laminate and panel analysis capabilities within the HyperSizer aerospace structural sizing software package. HyperSizer analyzes stiffened panels composed of arbitrary composite laminates through stiffener homogenization, or "smearing " techniques. The result is an effective constitutive equation for the stiffened panel that is suitable for use in a full vehicle-scale finite element analysis via MSC/NASTRAN. The existing thermo-elastic capabilities of HyperSizer have herein been extended to include coupled thermo-electro-magneto-elastic analysis capabilities. This represents a significant step toward realization of design tools capable of guiding the development of the next generation of smart aerospace structures. Verification results are presented that compare the developed smart HyperSizer capability with an ABAQUS piezoelectric finite element solution for a facesheet-flange combination. These results show good agreement between HyperSizer and ABAQUS, but highlight a limitation of the HyperSizer formulation in that constant electric field components are assumed.

  1. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M., E-mail: zenkour@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516 (Egypt); Abbas, Ibrahim A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts-Khulais, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green–Naghdi's (G–N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. - Highlights: • The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of a FG cylinder is studied. • A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. • The results are investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. • It provides interesting information for all researchers working on this subject.

  2. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-01-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green–Naghdi's (G–N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. - Highlights: • The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of a FG cylinder is studied. • A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. • The results are investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. • It provides interesting information for all researchers working on this subject

  3. Data-Interpretation Methodologies for Non-Linear Earthquake Response Predictions of Damaged Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Reuland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic exposure of buildings presents difficult engineering challenges. The principles of seismic design involve structures that sustain damage and still protect inhabitants. Precise and accurate knowledge of the residual capacity of damaged structures is essential for informed decision-making regarding clearance for occupancy after major seismic events. Unless structures are permanently monitored, modal properties derived from ambient vibrations are most likely the only source of measurement data that are available. However, such measurement data are linearly elastic and limited to a low number of vibration modes. Structural identification using hysteretic behavior models that exclusively relies on linear measurement data is a complex inverse engineering task that is further complicated by modeling uncertainty. Three structural identification methodologies that involve probabilistic approaches to data interpretation are compared: error-domain model falsification, Bayesian model updating with traditional assumptions as well as modified Bayesian model updating. While noting the assumptions regarding uncertainty definitions, the accuracy and robustness of identification and subsequent predictions are compared. A case study demonstrates limits on non-linear parameter identification performance and identification of potentially wrong prediction ranges for inappropriate model uncertainty distributions.

  4. Combining in silico evolution and nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign responses of signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M; Abel, Steven M

    2017-01-13

    The rational design of network behavior is a central goal of synthetic biology. Here, we combine in silico evolution with nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign the responses of fixed-topology signaling networks and to characterize sets of kinetic parameters that underlie various input-output relations. We first consider the earliest part of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling network and demonstrate that it can produce a variety of input-output relations (quantified as the level of TCR phosphorylation as a function of the characteristic TCR binding time). We utilize an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to identify sets of kinetic parameters that give rise to: (i) sigmoidal responses with the activation threshold varied over 6 orders of magnitude, (ii) a graded response, and (iii) an inverted response in which short TCR binding times lead to activation. We also consider a network with both positive and negative feedback and use the EA to evolve oscillatory responses with different periods in response to a change in input. For each targeted input-output relation, we conduct many independent runs of the EA and use nonlinear dimensionality reduction to embed the resulting data for each network in two dimensions. We then partition the results into groups and characterize constraints placed on the parameters by the different targeted response curves. Our approach provides a way (i) to guide the design of kinetic parameters of fixed-topology networks to generate novel input-output relations and (ii) to constrain ranges of biological parameters using experimental data. In the cases considered, the network topologies exhibit significant flexibility in generating alternative responses, with distinct patterns of kinetic rates emerging for different targeted responses.

  5. Combining in silico evolution and nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign responses of signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The rational design of network behavior is a central goal of synthetic biology. Here, we combine in silico evolution with nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign the responses of fixed-topology signaling networks and to characterize sets of kinetic parameters that underlie various input-output relations. We first consider the earliest part of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling network and demonstrate that it can produce a variety of input-output relations (quantified as the level of TCR phosphorylation as a function of the characteristic TCR binding time). We utilize an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to identify sets of kinetic parameters that give rise to: (i) sigmoidal responses with the activation threshold varied over 6 orders of magnitude, (ii) a graded response, and (iii) an inverted response in which short TCR binding times lead to activation. We also consider a network with both positive and negative feedback and use the EA to evolve oscillatory responses with different periods in response to a change in input. For each targeted input-output relation, we conduct many independent runs of the EA and use nonlinear dimensionality reduction to embed the resulting data for each network in two dimensions. We then partition the results into groups and characterize constraints placed on the parameters by the different targeted response curves. Our approach provides a way (i) to guide the design of kinetic parameters of fixed-topology networks to generate novel input-output relations and (ii) to constrain ranges of biological parameters using experimental data. In the cases considered, the network topologies exhibit significant flexibility in generating alternative responses, with distinct patterns of kinetic rates emerging for different targeted responses.

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-11-01

    We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

  7. Responses of two nonlinear microbial models to warming or increased carbon input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Jiang, J.; Chen-Charpentier, B.; Agusto, F. B.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K.; Wang, Y.; Xu, X.; Luo, Y. Q.

    2015-09-01

    A number of nonlinear microbial models of soil carbon decomposition have been developed. Some of them have been applied globally but have yet to be shown to realistically represent soil carbon dynamics in the field. Therefore a thorough analysis of their key differences will be very useful for the future development of these models. Here we compare two nonlinear microbial models of soil carbon decomposition: one is based on reverse Michaelis-Menten kinetics (model A) and the other on regular Michaelis-Menten kinetics (model B). Using a combination of analytic solutions and numerical simulations, we find that the oscillatory responses of carbon pools model A to a small perturbation in the initial pool sizes have a higher frequency and damps faster than model B. In response to soil warming, soil carbon always decreases in model A; but likely decreases in cool regions and increases in warm regions in model B. Maximum CO2 efflux from soil carbon decomposition (Fmax) after an increased carbon addition decreases with an increase in soil temperature in both models, and the sensitivity of Fmax to the amount of carbon input increases with soil temperature in model A; but decreases monotonically with an increase in soil temperature in model B. These differences in the responses to soil warming and carbon input between the two nonlinear models can be used to differentiate which model is more realistic with field or laboratory experiments. This will lead to a better understanding of the significance of soil microbial processes in the responses of soil carbon to future climate change at regional or global scales.

  8. A three-dimensional computer code for the nonlinear dynamic response of an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Lasker, L.; Koplik, B.; Curreri, J.; Goradia, H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic code has been developed to determine the nonlinear response of an HTGR core. The HTGR core consists of several thousands of hexagonal core blocks. These are arranged in layers stacked together. Each layer contains many core blocks surrounded on their outer periphery by reflector blocks. The entire assembly is contained within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Gaps exist between adjacent blocks in any horizontal plane. Each core block in a given layer is connected to the blocks directly above and below it via three dowell pins. The present analytical study is directed towards an investigation of the nonlinear response of the reactor core blocks in the event of a seismic occurrence. The computer code is developed for a specific mathematical model which represents a vertical arrangement of layers of blocks. This comprises a 'block module' of core elements which would be obtained by cutting a cylindrical portion consisting of seven fuel blocks per layer. It is anticipated that a number of such modules properly arranged could represent the entire core. Hence, the predicted response of this module would exhibit the response characteristics of the core. (orig.)

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Hydrological Cycle Responses to Increasing Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masaki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    An effective mechanism for determining tropical rainfall patterns in response to sea surface temperature (SST) increases with varying magnitude and horizontal distribution has not been developed thus far in climate change studies. In order to examine changes in precipitation pattern with increasing SST, we conducted a series of atmospheric general circulation model experiments using a 30 year record of observed SST for which either globally uniform SST increases of 1 K, 2 K, and 4 K or El Niño/La Niña-like patterned SST anomaly has been imposed. Although the global-mean precipitation linearly increases with the SST increase irrespective of its spatial distribution, regional precipitation changes were found to occur nonlinearly depending on the magnitude of the uniform SST increase. Owing to nonlinearity in the atmospheric circulation response, the regional hydrological sensitivity was larger with a smaller increase in SST. The precipitation response to the SST pattern was, however, quasi-linear to the magnitude of the SST change and can be separated from the response to the uniform SST increase. This study thus emphasizes the importance of relative amplitudes of uniform and structured SST increases for future rainfall projection.

  10. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  11. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R

    2014-01-01

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  12. Dynamic elastic-plastic response of a 2-DOF mass-spring system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the work presented here arose from abnormal, drop scenarios and specifically the question of how the accelerations and accumulation of plastic strains of internal components could be a ected by the material properties of the external structure. In some scenarios, the impact loads can induce cyclic motion of the internal components. Therefore, a second objective was to explore di erences that could be expected when simulations are conducted using isotropic hardening vs. kinematic hardening plasticity models. The simplest model that can be used to investigate the objectives above is a two-degree-offreedom mass/spring model where the springs exhibit elastic-plastic behavior. The purpose of this memo is to develop such model and present a few results that address the objectives.

  13. Mean-state SST Response to global warming caused by the ENSO Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, T.; Hartmann, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) exhibit El Niño-like trends under global warming. GFDL-ESM2M, however, is an exception that exhibits a La Niña-like response with strengthened trade winds. Our previous studies have shown that this La Niña-like trend could be a physically consistent warming response, and we proposed the Nonlinear ENSO Warming Suppression (NEWS) mechanism to explain this La Niña-like response to global warming. The most important necessary condition of NEWS is the ENSO skewness (El Niños are stronger than La Niñas). Most CMIP5 models do not reproduce the observed ENSO skewness, while GFDL-ESM2M exhibits the realistic ENSO skewness, which suggests that, despite being in the minority, the La Niña-like trend of GFDL-ESM2M could be a plausible equatorial Pacific response to warming. In this study, we introduce another interesting outlier, MIROC5, which reproduces the observed skewness, yet exhibits an El Niño-like response. By decomposing the source of the ENSO nonlinearity into the following three components: "SST anomalies modulate winds", "winds excite oceanic waves", and "oceanic waves modulate the subsurface temperature", we show that the large inter-model spread of the third component appears to explain the most important cause of the poor reproducibility of the ENSO nonlinearity in CMIP5 models. It is concluded that the change in the response of subsurface temperature to oceanic waves is the primary explanation for the different warming response of GFDL-ESM2M and MIROC5. Our analyses suggest that the difference of the warming response are caused by difference in the climatological thermal stratification. This study may shed new light on the fundamental question of why observed ENSO has a strong skewness and on the implications of this skewed ENSO for the mean-state sea surface temperature response to global warming.

  14. Reflections on the nature of non-linear responses of the climate to forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2017-04-01

    On centennial to multi-millennial time scales the paleoclimatic record shows that climate responds in a very non-linear way to the external forcing. Perhaps most puzzling is the change in glacial period duration at the Middle Pleistocene Transition. From a dynamical systems perspective, this could be a change in frequency locking between the orbital forcing and the climatic response or it could be a non-linear resonance phenomenon. In both cases the climate system shows a non-trivial oscillatory behaviour. From the records it seems that this behaviour can be described by an effective dynamics on a low-dimensional slow manifold. These different possible dynamical behaviours will be discussed. References: Arianna Marchionne, Peter Ditlevsen, and Sebastian Wieczorek, "Three types of nonlinear resonances", arXiv:1605.00858 Peter Ashwin and Peter Ditlevsen, "The middle Pleistocene transition as a generic bifurcation on a slow manifold", Climate Dynamics, 45, 2683, 2015. Peter D. Ditlevsen, "The bifurcation structure and noise assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles", Paleoceanography, 24, PA3204, 2009

  15. Nonlinear coupling between evoked rCBF and BOLD signals: a simulation study of hemodynamic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, A; Price, C J; Friston, K J

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the dependence of BOLD responses on different patterns of stimulus input/neuronal changes. In an earlier report, we described an input-state-output model that combined (i) the Balloon/Windkessel model of nonlinear coupling between rCBF and BOLD signals, and (ii) a linear model of how regional flow changes with synaptic activity. In the present investigation, the input-state-output model was used to explore the dependence of simulated PET (rCBF) and fMRI (BOLD) signals on various parameters pertaining to experimental design. Biophysical simulations were used to estimate rCBF and BOLD responses as functions of (a) a prior stimulus, (b) epoch length (for a fixed SOA), (c) SOA (for a fixed number of events), and (d) stimulus amplitude. We also addressed the notion that a single neuronal response may differ, in terms of the relative contributions of early and late neural components, and investigated the effect of (e) the relative size of the late or "endogenous" neural component. We were interested in the estimated average rCBF and BOLD responses per stimulus or event, not in the statistical efficiency with which these responses are detected. The BOLD response was underestimated relative to rCBF with a preceding stimulus, increasing epoch length, and increasing SOA. Furthermore, the BOLD response showed some highly nonlinear behaviour when varying stimulus amplitude, suggesting some form of hemodynamic "rectification." Finally, the BOLD response was underestimated in the context of large late neuronal components. The difference between rCBF and BOLD is attributed to the nonlinear transduction of rCBF to BOLD signal. Our simulations support the idea that varying parameters that specify the experimental design may have differential effects in PET and fMRI. Moreover, they show that fMRI can be asymmetric in its ability to detect deactivations relative to activations when an absolute baseline is stipulated. Finally, our simulations

  16. A study on stability and response analysis of a nonlinear rotor system with mass unbalance and side load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Ting N.; Hwang, Jon L.; Chang, Yuan B.

    1992-06-01

    The stability of steady state synchronous and nonsynchronous response of a nonlinear rotor system supported by squeeze-film dampers is investigated. The nonlinear differential equations which govern the motion of rotor bearing system are obtained by using the Generalized Polynomial Expansion Method. The steady state response of system is obtained by using the hybrid numerical method which combines the merits of the harmonic balance and collocation methods. The stability of system response is examined using Floquet-Liapunov theory. Using the theory, the performance may be evaluated with the calculation of derivatives of nonlinear hydrodynamic forces of the squeeze-film damper with respect to displacement and velocity of the journal center. In some cases, these derivatives can be expressed in closed form and the prediction of the dynamic characteristic of the nonlinear rotor system will be more effective. The stability results are compared to those using a direct numerical integration method and both are in good agreement.

  17. Responses of two nonlinear microbial models to warming and increased carbon input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Jiang, J.; Chen-Charpentier, B.; Agusto, F. B.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K.; Wang, Y.; Xu, X.; Luo, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    A number of nonlinear microbial models of soil carbon decomposition have been developed. Some of them have been applied globally but have yet to be shown to realistically represent soil carbon dynamics in the field. A thorough analysis of their key differences is needed to inform future model developments. Here we compare two nonlinear microbial models of soil carbon decomposition: one based on reverse Michaelis-Menten kinetics (model A) and the other on regular Michaelis-Menten kinetics (model B). Using analytic approximations and numerical solutions, we find that the oscillatory responses of carbon pools to a small perturbation in their initial pool sizes dampen faster in model A than in model B. Soil warming always decreases carbon storage in model A, but in model B it predominantly decreases carbon storage in cool regions and increases carbon storage in warm regions. For both models, the CO2 efflux from soil carbon decomposition reaches a maximum value some time after increased carbon input (as in priming experiments). This maximum CO2 efflux (Fmax) decreases with an increase in soil temperature in both models. However, the sensitivity of Fmax to the increased amount of carbon input increases with soil temperature in model A but decreases monotonically with an increase in soil temperature in model B. These differences in the responses to soil warming and carbon input between the two nonlinear models can be used to discern which model is more realistic when compared to results from field or laboratory experiments. These insights will contribute to an improved understanding of the significance of soil microbial processes in soil carbon responses to future climate change.

  18. Interpreting the nonlinear dielectric response of glass-formers in terms of the coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements at high electric fields of glass-forming glycerol and propylene carbonate initially were carried out to elucidate the dynamic heterogeneous nature of the structural α-relaxation. Recently, the measurements were extended to sufficiently high frequencies to investigate the nonlinear dielectric response of faster processes including the so-called excess wing (EW), appearing as a second power law at high frequencies in the loss spectra of many glass formers without a resolved secondary relaxation. While a strong increase of dielectric constant and loss is found in the nonlinear dielectric response of the α-relaxation, there is a lack of significant change in the EW. A surprise to the experimentalists finding it, this difference in the nonlinear dielectric properties between the EW and the α-relaxation is explained in the framework of the coupling model by identifying the EW investigated with the nearly constant loss (NCL) of caged molecules, originating from the anharmonicity of the intermolecular potential. The NCL is terminated at longer times (lower frequencies) by the onset of the primitive relaxation, which is followed sequentially by relaxation processes involving increasing number of molecules until the terminal Kohlrausch α-relaxation is reached. These intermediate faster relaxations, combined to form the so-called Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, are spatially and dynamically heterogeneous, and hence exhibit nonlinear dielectric effects, as found in glycerol and propylene carbonate, where the JG β-relaxation is not resolved and in D-sorbitol where it is resolved. Like the linear susceptibility, χ 1 (f), the frequency dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility, χ 3 (f), was found to depend primarily on the α-relaxation time, and independent of temperature T and pressure P. I show this property of the frequency dispersions of χ 1 (f) and χ 3 (f) is the characteristic of the many-body relaxation

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics Response of a Planar Mechanism with Two Driving Links and Prismatic Pair Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the joint clearance on the dynamic response of a planar mechanism with two driving links and prismatic pair clearance is investigated under variable input speeds of the system. The simulation model was built with a nonlinear impact model. The normal contact force is characterized by Hertz contact theory and an energy dissipation term. A tangential friction force is involved in the simulation model based on Coulomb’s friction law. The simulation results indicate that the largest Lyapunov exponents are dependent on the clearance size and the input speed.

  20. Distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems: A nonlinear fixed-time protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xi; He, Bing; Dong, Yunfeng

    2017-11-01

    The distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems is investigated in this paper. A novel nonlinear protocol is proposed to ensure that the tracking errors converge to zeros in a fixed-time. By comparison with previous synchronization methods, the present method considers more practical conditions and the synchronization time is not dependent of arbitrary initial conditions but can be offline pre-assign according to the task assignment. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the presented protocol have been illustrated by a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  2. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1987-01-01

    In the earthquake response analysis for a rigid and massive structure as a nuclear reactor building, it is important to estimate the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) appropriately. In case of strong earthquakes, the nonlinearity, such as the wall-ground separation, the base mat uplift of sliding, makes the behavior of the soil-structure system complex. But, if the nuclear reactor building is embedded in a relatively soft ground with surface layer, the wall-ground separation plays the most important role in the response of soil-structure system. Because, it is expected that the base uplift and slide would be less significant due to the effect of the embedment, and the wall-ground friction is usually neglected in design. But, the nonlinearity of ground may have some effect on the wall-ground separation and the response of the structure. These problems have been studied by use of FEM. Others used joint elements between the ground and the structure which does not resist tensile force. Others studied the effect of wall-ground separation with non-tension springs. But the relationship between the ground condition and the effect of the separation has not been clarified yet. To clarify the effect the analyses by FE model and lumped mass model (sway-rocking model) are performed and compared. The key parameter is the ground profile, namely the stiffness of the side soil

  3. Nonlinear responses of soil respiration to precipitation changes in a semiarid temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuan; Han, Hongyan; Du, Yue; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Lin; Hui, Dafeng; Wan, Shiqiang

    2017-03-31

    Extreme precipitation events are predicted to occur more frequently and will have significant influences on terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) cycling in the future. However, response patterns of soil respiration to precipitation changes remain uncertain in terrestrial ecosystems. A field experiment with seven precipitation treatments (i.e. from -60% to +60% of ambient precipitation to form a drought to wet precipitation gradient) was conducted over three growing seasons (2010-2012) in a semiarid temperate steppe of Northern China. Results showed a nonlinear response pattern of soil respiration along the experimental precipitation gradient, with soil respiration suppressed by decreased precipitation and enhanced by increased precipitation. Over the three growing seasons, soil respiration was reduced more under the three drought treatments (by 45.8, 32.8, and 15.9% under the -60, -40, and -20% treatments, respectively) than stimulated under the three wet treatments (by 8.9, 14.3, and 18.5% under the +20, +40, and +60% treatments, respectively). Our results indicate that soil respiration was more sensitive to decreased than increased precipitation treatments. The nonlinear and asymmetric responses of soil respiration to precipitation changes should be built into ecosystem models to project ecosystem C cycling associated with climate change.

  4. Density functional response approach for the linear and nonlinear electric properties of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophy, K. B.; Pal, Sourav

    2003-06-01

    This is a preliminary study toward implementation of analytic density functional response approach for molecules to obtain linear and nonlinear electric properties. The Kohn-Sham framework has been used with Gaussian basis sets. We propose a fully variational approach to obtain the response of electronic density in terms of the atomic orbital basis (contracted Gaussians). As a first step, this derivative of the Kohn-Sham operator is obtained by a finite field method using five different values of electric field. Using this, we obtain the energy derivatives up to third order using fully analytic expressions. We calculate the dipole moment, polarizability, and hyperpolarizability of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecule as a test case using different exchange-correlation functionals and basis sets within the present methodology. We also explore the feasibility of this response approach by studying the properties of the HF molecule for different H-F distances.

  5. Modeling non-linear growth responses to temperature and hydrology in wetland trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, R.; Allen, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    Growth responses of wetland trees to flooding and climate variations are difficult to model because they depend on multiple, apparently interacting factors, but are a critical link in hydrological control of wetland carbon budgets. To more generally understand tree growth to hydrological forcing, we modeled non-linear responses of tree ring growth to flooding and climate at sub-annual time steps, using Vaganov-Shashkin response functions. We calibrated the model to six baldcypress tree-ring chronologies from two hydrologically distinct sites in southern Louisiana, and tested several hypotheses of plasticity in wetlands tree responses to interacting environmental variables. The model outperformed traditional multiple linear regression. More importantly, optimized response parameters were generally similar among sites with varying hydrological conditions, suggesting generality to the functions. Model forms that included interacting responses to multiple forcing factors were more effective than were single response functions, indicating the principle of a single limiting factor is not correct in wetlands and both climatic and hydrological variables must be considered in predicting responses to hydrological or climate change.

  6. Nonlinear response analysis and experimental verification for thin-walled plates to thermal-acoustic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundong SHA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For large deflection strongly nonlinear response problem of thin-walled structure to thermal-acoustic load, thermal-acoustic excitation test and corresponding simulation analysis for clamped metallic thin-walled plate have been implemented. Comparing calculated values with experimental values shows the consistency and verifies the effectiveness of calculation method and model for thin-walled plate subjected to thermal-acoustic load. Then this paper further completes dynamic response calculation for the cross reinforcement plate under different thermal-acoustic load combinations. Based on the obtained time-domain displacement response, analyses about structure vibration forms are mainly focused on three typical motions of post-buckled plate, indicating that the relative strength between thermal load and acoustic load determines jump forms of plate. The Probability spectrum Density Functions (PDF of displacement response were drawn and analyzed by employing statistical analysis method, and it clearly shows that the PDF of post-buckled plate exhibits bimodal phenomena. Then the Power Spectral Density (PSD functions were used to analyze variations of response frequencies and corresponding peaks with the increase of temperatures, as well as how softening and hardening areas of the plate are determined. In the last section, this paper discusses the change laws of tensile stress and compressive stress in pre/post buckling areas, and gives the reasons for N glyph trend of the stress Root Mean Square (RMS. Keywords: Buckling, Experimental verification, Nonlinear response, Power spectral density, Probability spectrum density, Snap-through, Thermal-acoustic load, Thin-walled structure

  7. Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine (June 8-10, 2004). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships

  8. Maximalist vs. minimalist shoes: dose-effect response of elastic compression on muscular oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellaerts, Jules; Pirard, Maxime; Muzic, Jessie; Peseux, Maxime; Ménétrier, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether maximalist shoes engender fewer muscular oscillations than minimalist shoes and determine to what extent these shoes, when combined with elastic compression (EC), help reduce muscle oscillations. For that purpose, we tested the effects of various levels of compression on the muscular oscillations in maximalist and minimalist footwear. Eleven volunteers executed 16 one-minute passages on a flat treadmill in a randomized order: maximalists or minimalists, walking (6 km/h) or running (10 km/h), without EC (control condition [CON]) or with EC applying different pressures (9.6 mmHg, 14.5 mmHg and 20.4 mmHg). The muscular oscillations were measured on both thighs, on the rectus femoris and on the vastus medialis with tri-axial accelerometers. Muscular oscillations are lower in maximalist shoes than in minimalist shoes, for both walking to 6 km/h and running to 10 km/h (Pshoes reduces muscular oscillations as much as maximalist shoes, when combined with lower compression.

  9. Dynamic Response of a Circular Tunnel in an Elastic Half Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Coşkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of a circular tunnel in an elastic half space subjected to uniformly distributed dynamic pressure at the inner boundary is studied in this paper. For comparison purposes, two different ground materials (soft and hard soil are considered for the half space. Under the assumption of plane strain, the equations of motion for the tunnel and the surrounding medium are reduced to two wave equations in polar coordinates using Helmholtz potentials. The method of wave expansion is used to construct the displacement fields in terms of displacement potentials. The boundary conditions associated with the problem are satisfied exactly at the inner surface of the tunnel and at the interface between the tunnel and surrounding medium, and they are satisfied approximately at the free surface of the half space. A least-squares technique is used for satisfying the stress-free boundary conditions at the half space. It is shown by comparison that the stresses and displacements are significantly influenced by the properties of the surrounding soil, wave number (i.e., the frequency, depth of embedment, and thickness of the tunnel wall.

  10. Convergence Property of Response Matrix Method for Various Finite-Difference Formulations Used in the Nonlinear Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2005-01-01

    Convergence properties were investigated for the response matrix method with various finite-difference formulations that can be utilized in the nonlinear acceleration method. The nonlinear acceleration method is commonly used for the diffusion calculation with the advanced nodal method or the transport calculation with the method of characteristics. Efficiency of the nonlinear acceleration method depends on convergences on two different levels, i.e., those of the finite-difference calculation and the correction factor. This paper focuses on the former topic, i.e., the convergence property of finite-difference calculations using the response matrix method. Though various finite-difference formulations can be used in the nonlinear acceleration method, systematic analysis of the convergence property for the finite-difference calculation has not been carried out so far. The spectral radius of iteration matrixes was estimated for the various finite-difference calculations assuming the response matrix method with the red-black sweep. From the calculation results, numerical stability of the various finite-difference formulations was clarified, and a favorable form of the finite-difference formulation for the nonlinear iteration was recommended. The result of this paper will be useful for implementation of the nonlinear acceleration scheme with the response matrix method

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of a sliding beam on two supports under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The beam is referred to as a Gospodnetic–Frisch-Fay beam, after the researchers who reported its static deformation in closed form. The freedom of the beam to slide on its supports imparts a nonlinear characteristic to the force-deflection response. The restoring elastic force of the beam possesses characteristics similar to ...

  12. The response of an elastic three-dimensional half-space to random correlated displacement perturbations on the boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalimova, I. A.; Sabelfeld, K. K.

    2010-11-01

    The response of an elastic half-space to random excitations of displacements on the boundary under the condition of no shearing forces is studied. We analyze the white noise excitations and general random fluctuations of displacements prescribed on the boundary. We consider the case of partially ordered defects on the boundary whose positions are governed by an exponential-cosine-type correlation function. The analysis is based on a Poisson-type integral formula which we derive here for the case of zero shearing forces on the boundary. We obtain exact representations for the displacement correlation tensor and the Karhunen-Loève expansion for the solution of the Lamé equation itself, and analyze some features of the correlation structure of the displacements. The Monte Carlo technique developed can be applied to a wide class of differential equations with random boundary conditions.

  13. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  14. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    constant. In the context of this investigation we refer psuedoelastic behavior in the most general sense as any deviation from linearity in the unloading curve. The non-linearity leads to a hysteresis loop upon reloading. The approach is based on the non-conventional theory with a vanishing elastic region as advanced by Dafalias and Popov. The treatment is purely phenomenological where we don't distinguish between macroscopic plasticity and micro-plasticity. The macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curve is used to define effective plastic response in the same manner as classical plasticity theory except that the nonlinearity during unloading and reloading are incorporated into plasticity. It is shown that such models can be easily formulated within the context of elastoplasticity without violating any physical mechanisms of deformation. Springback for a plane strain bending model is used to demonstrate the potential effect if such a model is applied

  15. Thermomechanical Elastic Post-Buckling of Functionally Graded Materials Plate with Random System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, K. R.; Lal, Achchhe; Singh, B. N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the stochastic post-buckling response of elastically supported FGM plate with random system properties subjected to uniform and nonuniform temperature change with temperature-dependent and -independent material properties. The FGMs plate is supported with two parameters of Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The basic formulation is based on higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) with von-Karman nonlinearity using modified C0 continuity. A direct iterative-based nonlinear finite element method combined with first-order perturbation technique is used to compute the second-order statistics (mean and coefficient of variation) of post-buckling response of FGM plates.

  16. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  17. Optical response of two coupled optomechanical systems in the presence of nonlinear mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate response of a hybrid optomechanical system in different situations. This system is composed of two coupled optomechanical cavities, which one of them is filled with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other one encompasses a nonlinear Kerr medium. The Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame. The dynamics of the system is obtained by the quantum Langevin equations of motion in a steady state regime. The results show that the presence of OPA and the Kerr medium in the system can considerably change the behavior of both cavities. For this reason, we show that by choosing different values for the optical parameters of the system, one can switches the behaviors of the cavities between mono-, bi- and tristability. Also, we show that by changing the detunings of the cavities, one can obtain uncommon responses from the system. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to create proper optical multistability regions for both cavities.

  18. Multiscale numerical study on ferroelectric nonlinear response of PZT thin films (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    PZT thin films have excellent performance in deformation precision and response speed, so it is used widely for actuators and sensors of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Although PZT thin films outputs large piezoelectricity at morphotropic phase bounfary (MPB), it shows a complicated hysteresis behavior caused by domain switching and structural phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral. In general, PZT thin films have some characteristic crystal morphologies. Additionally mechanical strains occur by lattice mismatch with substrate. Therefore it is important for fabrication and performance improvement of PZT thin films to understand the relation between macroscopic hysteresis response and microstructural changes. In this study, a multiscale nonlinear finite element simulation was proposed for PZT thin films at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) on the substrate. The homogenization theory was employed for scale-bridging between macrostructure and microstructure. Figure 1 shows the proposed multiscale nonlinear simulation [1-3] based on the homogenization theory. Macrostructure is a homogeneous structure to catch the whole behaviors of actuators and sensors. And microstructure is a periodic inhomogeneous structure consisting of domains and grains. Macrostructure and microstructure are connected perfectly by homogenization theory and are analyzed by finite element method. We utilized an incremental form of fundamental constitutive law in consideration with physical property change caused by domain switching and structural phase transition. The developed multiscale finite element method was applied to PZT thin films with lattice mismatch strain on the substrate, and the relation between the macroscopic hysteresis response and microscopic domain switching and structural phase transition were investigated. Especially, we discuss about the effect of crystal morphologies and lattice mismatch strain on hysteresis response.

  19. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  20. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  1. Evolutionary geomorphology: thresholds and nonlinearity in landform response to environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Phillips

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic systems are typically nonlinear, owing largely to their threshold-dominated nature (but due to other factors as well. Nonlinear geomorphic systems may exhibit complex behaviors not possible in linear systems, including dynamical instability and deterministic chaos. The latter are common in geomorphology, indicating that small, short-lived changes may produce disproportionately large and long-lived results; that evidence of geomorphic change may not reflect proportionally large external forcings; and that geomorphic systems may have multiple potential response trajectories or modes of adjustment to change. Instability and chaos do not preclude predictability, but do modify the context of predictability. The presence of chaotic dynamics inhibits or excludes some forms of predicability and prediction techniques, but does not preclude, and enables, others. These dynamics also make spatial and historical contingency inevitable: geography and history matter. Geomorphic systems are thus governed by a combination of "global" laws, generalizations and relationships that are largely (if not wholly independent of time and place, and "local" place and/or time-contingent factors. The more factors incorporated in the representation of any geomorphic system, the more singular the results or description are. Generalization is enhanced by reducing rather than increasing the number of factors considered. Prediction of geomorphic responses calls for a recursive approach whereby global laws and local contingencies are used to constrain each other. More specifically a methodology whereby local details are embedded within simple but more highly general phenomenological models is advocated. As landscapes and landforms change in response to climate and other forcings, it cannot be assumed that geomorphic systems progress along any particular pathway. Geomorphic systems are evolutionary in the sense of being path dependent, and historically and geographically

  2. Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-10-11

    This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.

  3. Thermomechanical responses of nonlinear torsional vibration with NiTi shape memory alloy - Alternative stable states and their jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic response of nonlinear torsional vibration system with phase transformable NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire is investigated by experiment in this paper. The thermomechanical responses of the NiTi wire as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are measured by synchronized acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external excitation. Frequency Response Curves (FRCs) at fixed excitation amplitude and Amplitude Response Curves (ARCs) at fixed frequency are obtained in the frequency and amplitude domains respectively. It is found that, as the deformation of NiTi wire goes into the softening nonlinear phase transition region, the smooth and stable dynamic responses along one branch of FRC or ARC will gradually enter into metastable region and eventually become unstable and drastically switch to a new contrasting alternative stable state along the other branch. The jump phenomenon between the alternative stable states on the lower and upper branches of the FRC or ARC and the hysteresis between the jump-up and jump-down are identified by experiments. In addition, the effects of external disturbance (both magnitude and direction) on triggering the jumps between the alternative stable states along the two metastable branches are examined in the time domain. The stability of the nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed by the Duffing oscillator model and interpreted via the stability landscape. For the first time, we directly reveal the alternative stable states and jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses by experiments in the frequency, amplitude and time domains. The results not only show the important roles of phase transition nonlinearity in bringing multiple equilibrium states and their fast switches, but also provide a solid experimental base for the identification of metastable regions as well as further management of the undesired dynamic responses of vibration system where NiTi is used as a nonlinear

  4. Nonlinear ultrasound modelling and validation of fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, G. P. Malfense; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Onder, E.; Meo, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear ultrasound techniques have shown greater sensitivity to microcracks and they can be used to detect structural damages at their early stages. However, there is still a lack of numerical models available in commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools that are able to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the materials nonlinear behaviour. In this study, a nonlinear constitutive material model was developed to predict the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of a fatigued isotropic sample that showed anharmonic effects. Particularly, by means of Landau's theory and Kelvin tensorial representation, this model provided an understanding of the elastic nonlinear phenomena such as the second harmonic generation in three-dimensional solid media. The numerical scheme was implemented and evaluated using a commercially available FEA software LS-DYNA, and it showed a good numerical characterisation of the second harmonic amplitude generated by the damaged region known as the nonlinear response area (NRA). Since this process requires only the experimental second-order nonlinear parameter and rough damage size estimation as an input, it does not need any baseline testing with the undamaged structure or any dynamic modelling of the fatigue crack growth. To validate this numerical model, the second-order nonlinear parameter was experimentally evaluated at various points over the fatigue life of an aluminium (AA6082-T6) coupon and the crack propagation was measured using an optical microscope. A good correlation was achieved between the experimental set-up and the nonlinear constitutive model.

  5. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  6. On the nonlinear steady state response of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings - Theory and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    , hence accurate prediction of their response is important. This paper gives theoretical and experimental contributions by implementing and validating a new method to simulate the nonlinear steady-state response of a rotor supported by three pads segmented AFBs. The fluid film pressures, foil deflections...

  7. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  8. Elastic stress transfer as a diffusive process due to aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid injection is often followed by observations of an enlarging cloud of microseismicity. The cloud's diffusive growth is thought to be a direct response to the diffusion of elevated pore fluid pressure reaching pre-stressed faults, triggering small instabilities; the observed high rates of this growth are interpreted to reflect a relatively high permeability of a fractured subsurface [e.g., Shapiro, GJI 1997]. We investigate an alternative mechanism for growing a microseismic cloud: the elastic transfer of stress due to slow, aseismic slip on a subset of the pre-existing faults in this damaged subsurface. We show that the growth of the slipping region of the fault may be self-similar in a diffusive manner. While this slip is driven by fluid injection, we show that, for critically stressed faults, the apparent diffusion of this slow slip may quickly exceed the poroelastically driven diffusion of the elevated pore fluid pressure. Under these conditions, microseismicity can be first triggered by the off-fault stress perturbation due to the expanding region of slip on principal faults. This provides an alternative interpretation of diffusive growth rates in terms of the subsurface stress state rather than an enhanced hydraulic diffusivity. That such aseismic slip may occur, outpace fluid diffusion, and in turn trigger microseismic events, is also suggested by on- and near-fault observations in past and recently reported fluid injection experiments [e.g., Cornet et al., PAGEOPH 1997; Guglielmi et al., Science 2015]. The model of injection-induced slip assumes elastic off-fault behavior and a fault strength determined by the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. The sliding region is enlarged by the pore pressure increase resolved on the fault plane. Remarkably, the rate of self-similar expansion may be determined by a single parameter reflecting both the initial stress state and the magnitude of the pore pressure

  9. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  10. Nonlinear optical responses to circularly polarized lights of the surface state of a topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi

    2012-02-01

    Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).

  11. Contributions of nonlinear fluxes to the temporal response of fluid plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byunghoon; An, Chan-Yong; Kim, Chang-Bae

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear energy fluxes are known to redistribute energy according to detailed conservation laws. In addition, the temporal response of plasma is altered by the linear reaction due to the nonlinear fluxes that are not involved in the transport of the energy. Simulations for three cases of the adiabaticity parameter α =0.1 , 1.0 and 10.0 are performed in relation to the Hasegawa-Wakatani model and the frequency alterations are found to be notable for k{ρ\\text{s}}\\gt0.5 where k is the Fourier scale and {ρ\\text{s}} is the ion gyro-radius computed at the electron temperature. The levels of the density fluctuation {{n}{k}} and the potential {{\\varphi}{k}} get closer to each other as α increases and they are equal for α =10 . Yet, the frequencies are still discernible for α =10.0 . Non-transporting fluxes (NTFs) turned out to be anisotropic because the phase difference {δ{k}} between {{n}{k}} and {{\\varphi}{k}} has symmetry so that \\text{cos}{δ{k}} is isotropic in the Fourier space while \\text{sin}{δ{k}} is odd in k y . The NTF of the energy is approximated to be proportional to the gradient of the energy in the y direction of the Fourier space with the proportionality coefficient being dimensionally advecting velocity.

  12. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    non-linéarité sous fort confinement, et qui pourraient engendrer un signal résultant d'une interaction onde-onde . Tempérant ce pessimisme, il faut noter qu'un éventuel signal d'interaction non linéaire présenterait l'avantage, quant à sa détection, d'être dans une bande de fréquence différente de celle des ondes utilisées pour l'engendrer. Bien que nous n'ayons pas connaissance d'essais d'application actuels, les perspectives paraissent plus encourageantes dans le domaine du génie civil ou minier. C'est dans le domaine diagraphique, où des distances de propagation sont très faibles, que des applications semblent possibles à moyen terme. Si l'on en juge par le dépôt très récent de plusieurs brevets, les compagnies de logging poursuivraient des recherches dans cette voie. A general and important characteristic of rocks is their elastically nonlinear behavior resulting in significant effects on wave propagation. The nonlinear response of rock is a direct consequence of the compliant nature of rock : the macro-and micro-structure of the material (microcracks, grain-to-grain contacts, etc. . As a result, the material modulus varies as a function of the applied pressure. Interest has grown significantly in the last several years, as illustrated by the increasing number of publications regarding this topic. Here we present a summary of the fundamentals of theory and of experimental observations characteristic of rock, and we address possible applications in geophysics. Two disciplines regarding the nonlinear elasticity of rock have been developed over recent years in tandem :- Acoustoelasticity where wave propagation in statically, prestressed materials is studied. Here one relates the variation in applied pressure to the elastic wavespeed in order to extract the nonlinear coefficients. This area of study includes the topic of stress-induced anisotropy. - Acoustic nonlinearity where we are interested in the temporary and local variation in the elastic

  14. Improved modeling accuracy of the elastic object response by inclusion of higher order scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, M.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods of automatic target detection and classification using low- to mid- frequency sonar are based on correlating the measured Target In the Environment Response (TIER) of potential targets with the TIERs in a database of known objects. Obtaining experimental TIER measurements of proud,

  15. Coherent source interaction, third-order nonlinear response of synthesized PEG coated magnetite nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, S. Veena; Chitrambalam, S.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2018-01-01

    Third-order nonlinear response of synthesized polyethylene glycol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in a suitable solvent, polyethylene glycol has been studied. The structural characterization of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were carried out. The linear optical property of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles was investigated using UV-visible technique. Both closed and open aperture Z-scan techniques have been performed at 532 nm with pulse width 5 ns and repetition rate 10 Hz. It was found that polyethylene glycol coated magnetite exhibits reverse saturable absorption, with significant nonlinear absorption coefficient. Two-photon absorption intensity dependent positive nonlinear refraction coefficients indicate self focusing phenomena. Results show that higher concentration gives better nonlinear and optical limiting properties.

  16. Nonlinear response surface in the study of interaction analysis of three combination drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wen; Pei, Xin-Yan; Grant, Steven; Birch, Jeffrey B; Felthousen, Jessica; Dai, Yun; Fang, Hong-Bin; Tan, Ming; Sun, Shumei

    2017-01-01

    Few articles have been written on analyzing three-way interactions between drugs. It may seem to be quite straightforward to extend a statistical method from two-drugs to three-drugs. However, there may exist more complex nonlinear response surface of the interaction index (II) with more complex local synergy and/or local antagonism interspersed in different regions of drug combinations in a three-drug study, compared in a two-drug study. In addition, it is not possible to obtain a four-dimensional (4D) response surface plot for a three-drug study. We propose an analysis procedure to construct the dose combination regions of interest (say, the synergistic areas with II≤0.9). First, use the model robust regression method (MRR), a semiparametric method, to fit the entire response surface of the II, which allows to fit a complex response surface with local synergy/antagonism. Second, we run a modified genetic algorithm (MGA), a stochastic optimization method, many times with different random seeds, to allow to collect as many feasible points as possible that satisfy the estimated values of II≤0.9. Last, all these feasible points are used to construct the approximate dose regions of interest in a 3D. A case study with three anti-cancer drugs in an in vitro experiment is employed to illustrate how to find the dose regions of interest. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-09

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  18. Application of HPEM to investigate the response and stability of nonlinear problems in vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, M.H.; Mohammadi, A.; Kimiaeifar, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a powerful analytical method, called He's Parameter Expanding Methods (HPEM) is used to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in nonlinear vibration. In this work, the governing equation is obtained by using Lagrange method, then the nonlinear governing equation is solved...

  19. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  20. Interpreting the nonlinear dielectric response of glass-formers in terms of the coupling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngai, K. L. [CNR-IPCF, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-21

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements at high electric fields of glass-forming glycerol and propylene carbonate initially were carried out to elucidate the dynamic heterogeneous nature of the structural α-relaxation. Recently, the measurements were extended to sufficiently high frequencies to investigate the nonlinear dielectric response of faster processes including the so-called excess wing (EW), appearing as a second power law at high frequencies in the loss spectra of many glass formers without a resolved secondary relaxation. While a strong increase of dielectric constant and loss is found in the nonlinear dielectric response of the α-relaxation, there is a lack of significant change in the EW. A surprise to the experimentalists finding it, this difference in the nonlinear dielectric properties between the EW and the α-relaxation is explained in the framework of the coupling model by identifying the EW investigated with the nearly constant loss (NCL) of caged molecules, originating from the anharmonicity of the intermolecular potential. The NCL is terminated at longer times (lower frequencies) by the onset of the primitive relaxation, which is followed sequentially by relaxation processes involving increasing number of molecules until the terminal Kohlrausch α-relaxation is reached. These intermediate faster relaxations, combined to form the so-called Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, are spatially and dynamically heterogeneous, and hence exhibit nonlinear dielectric effects, as found in glycerol and propylene carbonate, where the JG β-relaxation is not resolved and in D-sorbitol where it is resolved. Like the linear susceptibility, χ{sub 1}(f), the frequency dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility, χ{sub 3}(f), was found to depend primarily on the α-relaxation time, and independent of temperature T and pressure P. I show this property of the frequency dispersions of χ{sub 1}(f) and χ{sub 3}(f) is the characteristic of the many

  1. Non-collocated fuzzy logic and input shaping control strategy for elastic joint manipulator: vibration suppression and time response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin; Rashidifar, Ali Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)

  2. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the wall-ground separation depends on the relation between the fundamental frequency of the SSI system and that of the surface layer. The maximum accelerations of the upper floors are increased if the side soil is soft. The building shear force is decreased below the ground level if the fundamental frequency of the SSI system is nearly equal to that of the surface layer. The floor response spectra are slightly increased in the high frequency range. Yielding of the soil occurred only in case that the side soil is soft, and the yield zone was restricted in the upper part of the surface layer. Therefore, the material nonlinearity did not affect the results so much. The results of the sway-rocking model (lumped mass model) analysis showed good agreements with those of the FEM models. (orig./HP)

  3. RIA-analysis by means of non-linearized response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, P.; Goetz, U.; Vetaeu, J.P.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we present a new mathematical model for curve-fitting in radioimmunoassay (RIA) by means of non-linearized response function. The computer program developed is applicable to any protein-binding assay performed to present and is demonstrated together with a RIA for rat-growth hormone. This RIA is sensitive to 2 ng/ml, reproducible and shows no cross-reaction, particularly with prolactin. The assay is performed on the modified automatic module system RIA-E 6,000. This system, which is especially designed for a high throughput of samples, was modified such that the filtration unit is replaced by a centrifugation step, which allows the use of a conventional gamma-counter. (orig.) [de

  4. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...

  5. Matsu: An Elastic Cloud Connected to a SensorWeb for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of cloud computing combined with the SensorWeb in aiding disaster response planning. Included is an overview of the architecture of the SensorWeb, and overviews of the phase 1 of the EO-1 system and the steps to improve it to transform it to an On-demand product cloud as part of the Open Cloud Consortium (OCC). The effectiveness of this system is demonstrated in the SensorWeb for the Namibia flood in 2010, using information blended from MODIS, TRMM, River Gauge data, and the Google Earth version of Namibia the system enabled river surge predictions and could enable planning for future disaster responses.

  6. Global Stability of Delayed Viral Infection Models with Nonlinear Antibody and CTL Immune Responses and General Incidence Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Hui; Teng, Zhidong; Li, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors for a five-dimensional viral infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses, and nonlinear incidence rate are investigated. The threshold values for viral infection, antibody response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition, and antibody competition, respectively, are established. Under certain assumptions, the threshold value conditions on the global stability of the infection-free, im...

  7. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO 2 substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T 2 temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures

  8. Nonlinear dynamic failure process of tunnel-fault system in response to strong seismic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihua; Lan, Hengxing; Zhang, Yongshuang; Gao, Xing; Li, Langping

    2013-03-01

    Strong earthquakes and faults have significant effect on the stability capability of underground tunnel structures. This study used a 3-Dimensional Discrete Element model and the real records of ground motion in the Wenchuan earthquake to investigate the dynamic response of tunnel-fault system. The typical tunnel-fault system was composed of one planned railway tunnel and one seismically active fault. The discrete numerical model was prudentially calibrated by means of the comparison between the field survey and numerical results of ground motion. It was then used to examine the detailed quantitative information on the dynamic response characteristics of tunnel-fault system, including stress distribution, strain, vibration velocity and tunnel failure process. The intensive tunnel-fault interaction during seismic loading induces the dramatic stress redistribution and stress concentration in the intersection of tunnel and fault. The tunnel-fault system behavior is characterized by the complicated nonlinear dynamic failure process in response to a real strong seismic event. It can be qualitatively divided into 5 main stages in terms of its stress, strain and rupturing behaviors: (1) strain localization, (2) rupture initiation, (3) rupture acceleration, (4) spontaneous rupture growth and (5) stabilization. This study provides the insight into the further stability estimation of underground tunnel structures under the combined effect of strong earthquakes and faults.

  9. Nonlinear feedback drives homeostatic plasticity in H2O2 stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulev, Youlian; Morlot, Sandrine; Matifas, Audrey; Huang, Bo; Molin, Mikael; Toledano, Michel B; Charvin, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Homeostatic systems that rely on genetic regulatory networks are intrinsically limited by the transcriptional response time, which may restrict a cell’s ability to adapt to unanticipated environmental challenges. To bypass this limitation, cells have evolved mechanisms whereby exposure to mild stress increases their resistance to subsequent threats. However, the mechanisms responsible for such adaptive homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging and microfluidics to investigate the adaptive response of budding yeast to temporally controlled H2O2 stress patterns. We demonstrate that acquisition of tolerance is a systems-level property resulting from nonlinearity of H2O2 scavenging by peroxiredoxins and our study reveals that this regulatory scheme induces a striking hormetic effect of extracellular H2O2 stress on replicative longevity. Our study thus provides a novel quantitative framework bridging the molecular architecture of a cellular homeostatic system to the emergence of nonintuitive adaptive properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23971.001 PMID:28418333

  10. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  11. Nonlinear optical response in intersubband transitions of a symmetric quantum well: Role of electron-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    We investigate theoretically the saturation problem of the nonlinear intersubband response in a symmetric quantum well. We first obtain the analytical expressions for the absorption/dispersion spectra from the steady-state solutions of the nonlinear density matrix equations. This expressions include the depolarization effect that results from the electron-electron interactions and also depends on the population difference between the first two subbands. We calculate the line shape of the dispersion spectrum and show that the dispersion spectrum becomes non-antisymetric as the intensity of the radiation increases. For larger values of the electron sheet density, this distortion becomes more apparent. We also find that the optical bistability can be obtained for appropriate values of the electron sheet density and the intensity of the optical radiation. Our results also show that the electron redistribution among the subbands by additional external factor has a dramatic effect on the nonlinear intersubband response.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics between linear and impact limits

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, Valery N; Wriggers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book examines nonlinear dynamic analyses based on the existence of strongly nonlinear but simple counterparts to the linear models and tools. Discusses possible application to periodic elastic structures with non-smooth or discontinuous characteristics.

  13. Investigation of Effects of Material Architecture on the Elastic Response of a Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2012-01-01

    To develop methods for quantifying the effects of the microstructural variations of woven ceramic matrix composites on the effective properties and response of the material, a research program has been undertaken which is described in this paper. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, CVI SiC/SiC, composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents and collect relevant statistics such as within ply tow spacing. This information was then used to build two dimensional finite element models that approximated the observed section geometry. With the aid of geometrical models generated by the microstructural characterization process, finite element models were generated and analyses were performed to quantify the effects of the microstructure and its variation on the effective stiffness and areas of stress concentration of the material. The results indicated that the geometry and distribution of the porosity appear to have significant effects on the through-thickness modulus. Similarly, stress concentrations on the outer surface of the composite appear to correlate to regions where the transverse tows are separated by a critical amount.

  14. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  15. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Richard Paul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  16. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  17. Dynamics of electron wave packet in a disordered chain with delayed nonlinear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongjun; Xiong Shijie

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of one electron wave packet in a linear chain with random on-site energies and a nonadiabatic electron-phonon interaction which is described by a delayed cubic nonlinear term in the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that in the regime where the wave packet is delocalized in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, the wave packet becomes localized when the disorder is added and the localization is enhanced by increasing the disorder. In the regime where the self-trapping phenomenon occurs in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, by adding the disorder the general dynamical features of the wave packet do not change if the nonlinearity parameter is small, but the dynamics shows the subdiffusive behavior if the nonlinearity parameter is large. The numerical results demonstrate complicated wave packet dynamics of systems with both the disorder and nonlinearity.

  18. Elastic strips

    OpenAIRE

    Chubelaschwili, David; Pinkall, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding an explicit description of a developable narrow Moebius strip of minimal bending energy, which was first formulated by M. Sadowsky in 1930, we will develop the theory of elastic strips. Recently E.L. Starostin and G.H.M. van der Heijden found a numerical description for an elastic Moebius strip, but did not give an integrable solution. We derive two conservation laws, which describe the equilibrium equations of elastic strips. In applying these laws we find...

  19. How Do Terrestrial Determinants Impact the Response of Water Quality to Climate Drivers?—An Elasticity Perspective on the Water–Land–Climate Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afed U. Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigating water–land–climate interactions is critical for urban development and watershed management. This study examined this nexus by elasticity and statistical approaches through the lens of three watersheds: The Yukon, Mekong and Murray. Here, this study reports the fundamental characteristics, explanations and ecological and management implications of terrestrial determinant influence on the response of water quality to climate drivers. The stability of the response, measured by climate elasticity of water quality (CEWQ, is highly dependent on terrestrial determinants, with strong impacts from anthropogenic biomes and low impacts from surficial geology. Compared to temperature elasticity, precipitation elasticity of water quality is more unstable due to its possible linkages with many terrestrial determinants. Correlation and linear models were developed for the interaction system, which uncovered many interesting scenarios. The results implied that watersheds with a higher ratio of rangeland biomes have a lower risk of instability as compared to watersheds with a higher proportion of dense settlement, cropland and forested biomes. This study discusses some of the most essential pathways where instability might adversely affect CEWQ parameters and recommends suggestions for policy makers to alleviate the instability impacts to bring sustainability to the water environment.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  2. International Benchmark on Numerical Simulations for 1D, Nonlinear Site Response (PRENOLIN) : Verification Phase Based on Canonical Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régnier, Julie; Bonilla, Luis-Fabian; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Bertrand, Etienne; Hollender, Fabrice; Kawase, Hiroshi; Sicilia, Deborah; Arduino, Pedro; Amorosi, Angelo; Asimaki, Dominiki; Pisano, F.

    2016-01-01

    PREdiction of NOn‐LINear soil behavior (PRENOLIN) is an international benchmark aiming to test multiple numerical simulation codes that are capable of predicting nonlinear seismic site response with various constitutive models. One of the objectives of this project is the assessment of the

  3. Nonlinear optical response of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in the IR and THz ranges studied with the femtosecond resolution in time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanova, E.; Guizard, S.; Wang, Tianwu

    2017-01-01

    Two time-resolved experimental methods have been used for characterization of the non-linear optical response of chalcogenide glasses of the system As-S-Se-Te in IR and THz ranges upon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Photoinduced conductivity and refractivity were stu...

  4. A finite element scheme to study the nonlinear optical response of a finite grating without and with defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryanto, A.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Hammer, Manfred; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We present a simple numerical scheme based on the finite element method (FEM) using transparent-influx boundary conditions to study the nonlinear optical response of a finite one-dimensional grating with Kerr medium. Restricting first to the linear case, we improve the standard FEM to get a fourth

  5. Multi-cracks identification based on the nonlinear vibration response of beams subjected to moving harmonic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouiyakh H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nonlinear forced vibration of beams containing an arbitrary number of cracks and to perform a multi-crack identification procedure based on the obtained signals. Cracks are assumed to be open and modelled trough rotational springs linking two adjacent sub-beams. Forced vibration analysis is performed by a developed time differential quadrature method. The obtained nonlinear vibration responses are analyzed by Huang Hilbert Transform. The instantaneous frequency is used as damage index tool for cracks detection.

  6. Estimation of nonlinearities from pseudodynamic and dynamic responses of bridge structures using the Delay Vector Variance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksic, Vesna; Mandic, Danilo P.; Karoumi, Raid; Basu, Bidroha; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the variability in the responses of large structural systems and quantification of their linearity or nonlinearity as a potential non-invasive means of structural system assessment from output-only condition remains a challenging problem. In this study, the Delay Vector Variance (DVV) method is used for full scale testing of both pseudo-dynamic and dynamic responses of two bridges, in order to study the degree of nonlinearity of their measured response signals. The DVV detects the presence of determinism and nonlinearity in a time series and is based upon the examination of local predictability of a signal. The pseudo-dynamic data is obtained from a concrete bridge during repair while the dynamic data is obtained from a steel railway bridge traversed by a train. We show that DVV is promising as a marker in establishing the degree to which a change in the signal nonlinearity reflects the change in the real behaviour of a structure. It is also useful in establishing the sensitivity of instruments or sensors deployed to monitor such changes.

  7. Design Wave Load Prediction by Non-Linear Strip Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    Some methods for predicting global stochastic wave load responses in ships are presented. The methods take into account the elastic behaviour of the ship and at least some of the non-linearities in the wave-induced loadings.Numerical rsults obtained for actual ships are reviewed with special...... emphasis on their usefulness in design procedures covering both extreme responses and fatigue damage predictions....

  8. Predominant nonlinear atmospheric response to meridional shift of the Gulf Stream path from the WRF atmospheric model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Kwon, Y. O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    A remarkably strong nonlinear behavior of the atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST anomalies (SSTA) is revealed from a set of large-ensemble, high-resolution, and hemispheric-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. The model is forced with the SSTA associated with meridional shift of the Gulf Stream (GS) path, constructed from a lag regression of the winter SST on a GS Index from observation. Analysis of the systematic set of experiments with SSTAs of varied amplitudes and switched signs representing various GS-shift scenarios provides unique insights into mechanism for emergence and evolution of transient and equilibrium response of atmospheric circulation to extratropical SSTA. Results show that, independent of sign of the SSTA, the equilibrium response is characterized by an anomalous trough over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Western Europe concurrent with enhanced storm track, increased rainfall, and reduced blocking days. To the north of the anomalous low, an anomalous ridge emerges over the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas accompanied by weakened storm track, reduced rainfall and increased blocking days. This nonlinear component of the total response dominates the weak and oppositely signed linear response that is directly forced by the SSTA, yielding an anomalous ridge (trough) downstream of the warm (cold) SSTA. The amplitude of the linear response is proportional to that of the SSTA, but this is masked by the overwhelmingly strong nonlinear behavior showing no clear correspondence to the SSTA amplitude. The nonlinear pattern emerges 3-4 weeks after the model initialization in November and reaches its first peak amplitude in December/January. It appears that altered baroclinic wave activity due to the GS SSTA in November lead to low-frequency height responses in December/January through transient eddy vorticity flux convergence.

  9. A Formalism for the Consistent Description of Non-Linear Elasticity of Anisotropic Media Formalisme pour une description cohérente de l'élasticité non linéaire des milieux anisotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbig K.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of elastic waves is generally treated under four assumptions: - that the medium is isotropic,- that the medium is homogeneous, - that there is a one-to-one relationship between stress and strain, - that stresses are linearly related to strains (equivalently, that strains are linearly related to stresses. Real media generally violate at least some-and often all-of these assumptions. A valid theoretical description of wave propagation in real media thus depends on the qualitative and quantitative description of the relevant inhomogeneity, anisotropy, and non-linearity: one either has to assume (or show that the deviation from the assumption can - for the problem at hand - be neglected, or develop a theoretical description that is valid even under the deviation. While the effect of a single deviation from the ideal state is rather well understood, difficulties arise in the combination of several such deviations. Non-linear elasticity of anisotropic (triclinic rock samples has been reported, e. g. by P. Rasolofosaon and H. Yin at the 6th IWSA in Trondheim (Rasolofosaon and Yin, 1996. Non-linear anisotropic elasticity matters only for non-infinitesimalamplitudes, i. e. , at least in the vicinity of the source. How large this vicinity is depends on the accuracy of observation and interpretation one tries to maintain, on the source intensity, and on the level of non-linearity. This paper is concerned with the last aspect, i. e. , with the meaning of the numbers beyond the fact that they are the results of measurements. As a measure of the non-linearity of the material, one can use the strain level at which the effective stiffness tensor deviates significantly from the zero-strain stiffness tensor. Particularly useful for this evaluation is the eigensystem (six eigenstiffnesses and six eigenstrains of the stiffness tensor : the eigenstrains provide suitable strain typesfor the calculation of the effective stiffness tensor, and the

  10. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the Camus data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  11. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the CAMUS data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  12. Coherent nonlinear optical response of single-layer black phosphorus: third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Vladimir A.; Muryumin, Evgeny E.; Gaiduk, Evgeny A.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the nonlinear optical (NLO) response of phosphorene (a black phosphorus monolayer) to a normally incident and linearly polarized coherent laser radiation of frequency ω, resulting in the generation of radiation at frequency 3ω. We derive explicit analytic expressions for four independent nonvanishing elements of the third-order NLO susceptibility tensor, describing the third-harmonic generation (THG) from phosphorene. The final formulas are numerically evaluated for typical values of the system's parameters to explore how the efficiency of the THG varies with both the frequency and the polarization direction of the incident radiation. The results obtained show a resonant enhancement of the THG efficiency when the pump photon energy ℏω approaches a value of one third of the bandgap energy Eg (≈1.5 eV) of phosphorene. It is also shown that the THG efficiency exhibits a specific polarization dependence, allowing the THG to be used for determining the orientation of phosphorene's crystallographic axes. Our findings highlight the material's potential for practical application in nanoscale photonic devices such as frequency convertors operating in the near-infrared spectral range.

  13. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  14. Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Habtour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i effect of dynamic couplings, (ii modal interaction, (iii modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.

  15. Nonperturbative non-Markovian quantum master equation: Validity and limitation to calculate nonlinear response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2008-05-01

    Based on the influence functional formalism, we have derived a nonperturbative equation of motion for a reduced system coupled to a harmonic bath with colored noise in which the system-bath coupling operator does not necessarily commute with the system Hamiltonian. The resultant expression coincides with the time-convolutionless quantum master equation derived from the second-order perturbative approximation, which is also equivalent to a generalized Redfield equation. This agreement occurs because, in the nonperturbative case, the relaxation operators arise from the higher-order system-bath interaction that can be incorporated into the reduced density matrix as the influence operator; while the second-order interaction remains as a relaxation operator in the equation of motion. While the equation describes the exact dynamics of the density matrix beyond weak system-bath interactions, it does not have the capability to calculate nonlinear response functions appropriately. This is because the equation cannot describe memory effects which straddle the external system interactions due to the reduced description of the bath. To illustrate this point, we have calculated the third-order two-dimensional (2D) spectra for a two-level system from the present approach and the hierarchically coupled equations approach that can handle quantal system-bath coherence thanks to its hierarchical formalism. The numerical demonstration clearly indicates the lack of the system-bath correlation in the present formalism as fast dephasing profiles of the 2D spectra.

  16. Orientation phenomena in chromophore DR1-containing polymer films and their non-linear optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moencke, Doris; Mountrichas, Grigoris; Pispas, Stergios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of chromophore alignment in polymer films following corona poling can be assessed by the generated second harmonic signal. Optimization of the stability and strength of this nonlinear optical response may improve with a better understanding of the underlying principal order phenomena. Structural analysis by vibrational, optical, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy reveals side chain tacticity, aggregation effects, and changes in orientation as a function of temperature. Co-polymers with the functionalized chromophore Disperse Red 1 methacrylate (MDR1) were prepared for three different methacrylate types. High side chain polarity and short side chain length increase generally chromophore aggregation in films, whereas the very long poly-ether side chains in PMEO based co-polymers are wrapped separately around the DR1 entities. Side chain tacticity depends on space requirements, but also on the capacity of side groups to form OH-bridges. Side chain tacticity might present an additional parameter for the assessment of chromophore aggregation and poling induced alignments. Stepwise heating of co-polymer films causes an increase in the number of random over ordered side chain arrangements. Cross-linking by anhydride formation is observed after heating the methacrylic acid based co-polymer.

  17. Ionospheric Responses to Nonlinear Acoustic Waves Generated by Natural Hazard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) fluctuations following large-magnitude earthquakes and resulting tsunamis, e.g. Tohoku in 2011, have been noted in many recent investigations [e.g., Galvan et al., Radio Science, 47(4), 2012]. Earthquakes impact the atmosphere through vertical displacements of the Earth's crust or ocean surfaces producing, as one effect, low-frequency acoustic waves. These waves can achieve significant amplitudes during propagation through the rarefied upper atmosphere, and are capable of driving sizable ionospheric electron density (TEC) fluctuations and electrical currents. Earthquake-generated acoustic waves are readily identifiable in GPS observations as 0.1-2 TECU, 3-5 mHz, oscillations, which are delayed from the quake occurrence by roughly the sound travel time between the ground and ionosphere. In some extreme cases, the onset of acoustic oscillations is concurrent with a persistent, sharp decrease in TEC (~5 TECU) above the epicenter [e.g., Kakinami et al., GRL, 39(13), 2012]. Ionospheric responses to large amplitude acoustic waves are investigated using a coupled atmosphere-ionosphere model [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. Of particular interest are effects of acoustic wave amplitude and nonlinearity on ionospheric responses, including production of detectable TEC oscillations and longer-lived responses like TEC depletions. The atmospheric dynamics model solves a Navier-Stokes' system of equations and incorporates generation of acoustic waves through acceleration source terms at ground-level. The ionospheric model solves a fluid system of equations for each of the major ionospheric species, and includes an electrostatic description of dynamo currents. The coupled model enables direct computation of observable quantities, such as vertical TEC and magnetic field fluctuations. Here we construct simulation case studies for realistic earthquake events and compare results against published TEC and magnetic field data. This

  18. When Winners Become Losers: Predicted Nonlinear Responses of Arctic Birds to Increasing Woody Vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Thompson

    Full Text Available Climate change is facilitating rapid changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation at northern latitudes, raising questions about the responses of wildlife that rely on arctic ecosystems. One widely observed change occurring in arctic tundra ecosystems is an increasing dominance of deciduous shrub vegetation. Our goals were to examine the tolerance of arctic-nesting bird species to existing gradients of vegetation along the boreal forest-tundra ecotone, to predict the abundance of species across different heights and densities of shrubs, and to identify species that will be most or least responsive to ongoing expansion of shrubs in tundra ecosystems. We conducted 1,208 point counts on 12 study blocks from 2012-2014 in northwestern Alaska, using repeated surveys to account for imperfect detection of birds. We considered the importance of shrub height, density of low and tall shrubs (i.e. shrubs >0.5 m tall, percent of ground cover attributed to shrubs (including dwarf shrubs <0.5 m tall, and percent of herbaceous plant cover in predicting bird abundance. Among 17 species considered, only gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus abundance was associated with the highest values of all shrub metrics in its top predictive model. All other species either declined in abundance in response to one or more shrub metrics or reached a threshold where further increases in shrubs did not contribute to greater abundance. In many instances the relationship between avian abundance and shrubs was nonlinear, with predicted abundance peaking at moderate values of the covariate, then declining at high values. In particular, a large number of species were responsive to increasing values of average shrub height with six species having highest abundance at near-zero values of shrub height and abundance of four other species decreasing once heights reached moderate values (≤ 33 cm. Our findings suggest that increases in shrub cover and density will negatively

  19. Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension delasticity) and a=1-4/9(2-d)+... (long-ranged elasticity). We show how the dynamical theory recovers the avalanche-size distribution

  20. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  1. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-04-21

    Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.

  3. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  4. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  5. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10 -5 cm 2 /W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of time-history elastic plastic piping analysis with measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavuzzo, R.J.; Sansalone, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The GE/ETEC Green piping system was subjected to high seismic inputs from hydraulic sleds at each pipe foundation. These inputs were high enough to force bending stresses into the plastic regime. Strain gages recorded the pipe response at various positions within the system. The ABAQUS finite element code was used to model this piping system and the dynamic input. Problems associated with the dynamic input are discussed. Various types of finite elements were evaluated for accurancy. Both an elastic time-history analysis and an elastic-plastic time-history analysis of the system were conducted. Results of these analyses are compared to each other and the experimental data. These comparisons indicated that elastic analysis of dynamic strains are conservative at all points of comparison and that there is good agreement between the nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis and experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Elastic and failure response of imperfect three-dimensional metallic lattices: the role of geometric defects induced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Kamm, Paul; García-Moreno, Francisco; Banhart, John; Pasini, Damiano

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines three-dimensional metallic lattices with regular octet and rhombicuboctahedron units fabricated with geometric imperfections via Selective Laser Sintering. We use X-ray computed tomography to capture morphology, location, and distribution of process-induced defects with the aim of studying their role in the elastic response, damage initiation, and failure evolution under quasi-static compression. Testing results from in-situ compression tomography show that each lattice exhibits a distinct failure mechanism that is governed not only by cell topology but also by geometric defects induced by additive manufacturing. Extracted from X-ray tomography images, the statistical distributions of three sets of defects, namely strut waviness, strut thickness variation, and strut oversizing, are used to develop numerical models of statistically representative lattices with imperfect geometry. Elastic and failure responses are predicted within 10% agreement from the experimental data. In addition, a computational study is presented to shed light into the relationship between the amplitude of selected defects and the reduction of elastic properties compared to their nominal values. The evolution of failure mechanisms is also explained with respect to strut oversizing, a parameter that can critically cause failure mode transitions that are not visible in defect-free lattices.

  9. Broken space-time symmetries and mechanisms of rectification of ac fields by nonlinear (non)adiabatic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denisov, S.; Flach, S.; Ovchinnikov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response is em...... is employed to explain the effect. We consider a case of a particle in a periodic potential as an example and discuss the relevant symmetry breakings and the mechanisms of rectification of the current in such a system.......We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response...

  10. Real-time monitoring of tumor response to preoperative radiochemotherapy for rectal carcinoma by nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianhuang; Chen, Zhifen; Wang, Xingfu; Jiang, Weizhong; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-03-01

    The continuing advancement of nonlinear optical imaging techniques has opened many new windows in biological exploration. In this work, the nonlinear optical microscopy, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), was extended to probe tumor response to preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal carcinoma. It was found that MPM has the ability of direct visualization of histopathologic changes in rectal carcinoma following preoperative RCT including stromal fibrosis, colloid response and residual tumors. Our results also showed the capability of MPM using the quantitative analyses of images to quantify these changes. This work may provide the groundwork for further exploration into the application of multiphoton-based endoscopy in a clinical setting.

  11. Effects of layer interface slip on the response and performance of elastic multi-layered flexible airport pavement systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available that simulate pavement layer interface slip and introduced into the multi-layered elastic analysis freeware known as GAMES are presented in this paper. The GAMES software is capable of analyzing effects of five different types of airport pavement surface loading...

  12. Identification of defect distribution at ferroelectric domain walls from evolution of nonlinear dielectric response during the aging process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), č. článku 064114. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nonlinear dielectric response * ferroelectric domain walls * aging process * phase field simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064114

  13. Analysis of the quasiperiodic response of a generalized van der Pol nonlinear system in the resonance zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    -, - (2018), , , --- ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * generalized van der Pol system * quasiperiodic response * synchronization effects * stability of auto-oscillation Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S004579491730278X

  14. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, William R; Dodd, Tony J; Anderson, Sean R; Wilson, Emma D; Porrill, John; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input–output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics. (paper)

  15. Nonlinear feature extraction for objective classification of complex auditory brainstem responses to diotic perceptually critical consonant-vowel syllables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpisheh, Amir Salar; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Abolhassani, Mohammadjavad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Sadjedi, Hamed; Pourbakht, Akram; Shirzhiyan, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    To examine if nonlinear feature extraction method yields appropriate results in complex brainstem response classification of three different consonant vowels diotically presented in normal Persian speaking adults. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses were obtained in 27 normal hearing young adults by using G.tec EEG recording system. 170ms synthetic consonant-vowel stimuli /ba/, /da/, /ga/ were presented binaurally and the recurrence quantification analysis was performed on the responses. The recurrence time of second type was proposed as a suitable feature. ANOVA was also used for testing the significance of extracted feature. Post-comparison statistical method was used for showing which means are significantly different from each other. Dimension embedding and state space reconstruction were helpful for visualizing nonlinearity in auditory system. The proposed feature was successful in the objective classification of responses in window time 20.1-35.3ms, which belonged to formant transition period of stimuli. Also the p value behavior of recurrence time of second type feature as a discriminant feature was close to the nature of the response that includes transient and sustained parts. On the other hand, the /ba/ and /ga/ classification period was wider than the others. The extracted feature shown in this paper is helpful for the objective of distinguishing individuals with auditory processing disorders in the structurally similar voices. On the other hand, differing nonlinear feature is meaningful in a special region of response, equal to formant transition period, and this feature is related to the state space changes of brainstem response. It can be assumed that more information is within this region of signal and it is a sign of processing role of brainstem. The state changes of system are dependent on input stimuli, so the existence of top down feedback from cortex to brainstem forces the system to act differently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  16. Effect of Intrinsic Ripples on Elasticity of the Graphene Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun

    2015-12-01

    The effect of intrinsic ripples on the mechanical response of the graphene monolayer is investigated under uniaxial loading using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a focus on nonlinear behavior at a small strain. The calculated stress-strain response shows a nonlinear relation through the entire range without constant slopes as a result of the competition between ripple softening and bond stretching hardening. For a small strain, entropic contribution is dominant due to intrinsic ripples, leading to elasticity softening. As the ripples flatten at increasing strain, the energetic term due to C-C bonds stretching competes with the entropic contribution, followed by energetic dominant deformation. Elasticity softening is enhanced at increased temperature as the ripple amplitude increases. The study shows that the intrinsic ripple of graphene affects elasticity. This result suggests that a change of ripple amplitudes due to various environmental conditions such as temperature, and substrate interactions can lead to a change of the mechanical properties of graphene. The understanding of the rippling effect on the mechanical behavior of 2D materials is useful for strain-based ripple manipulation for their engineering applications.

  17. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  18. Enhancement of nonlinear optical response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films by spectrally rectangle-shape-pulse-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O; Isu, T; Ishi-Hayase, J; Sasaki, M; Tsuchiya, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the nonlinear optical response of the weakly confined excitons with use of spectrally rectangular pulse. The nonlinear optical response was investigated as a function of excitation energy by a degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM) technique. In the case that the laser pulse with the controlled spectral shape excites the plural exciton states simultaneously, the DFWM signal intensity is enhanced by a factor of two in comparison with the intensity under the excitation of a single exciton state. This enhancement is caused by the superposition of the nonlinear optical responses from the plural exciton states

  19. A 1-D model of the nonlinear dynamics of the human lumbar intervertebral disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Giacomo; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Lumped parameter models of the spine have been developed to investigate its response to whole body vibration. However, these models assume the behaviour of the intervertebral disc to be linear-elastic. Recently, the authors have reported on the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the human lumbar intervertebral disc. This response was shown to be dependent on the applied preload and amplitude of the stimuli. However, the mechanical properties of a standard linear elastic model are not dependent on the current deformation state of the system. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a model that is able to describe the axial, nonlinear quasi-static response and to predict the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the disc. The ability to adapt the model to an individual disc's response was a specific focus of the study, with model validation performed against prior experimental data. The influence of the numerical parameters used in the simulations was investigated. The developed model exhibited an axial quasi-static and dynamic response, which agreed well with the corresponding experiments. However, the model needs further improvement to capture additional peculiar characteristics of the system dynamics, such as the change of mean point of oscillation exhibited by the specimens when oscillating in the region of nonlinear resonance. Reference time steps were identified for specific integration scheme. The study has demonstrated that taking into account the nonlinear-elastic behaviour typical of the intervertebral disc results in a predicted system oscillation much closer to the physiological response than that provided by linear-elastic models. For dynamic analysis, the use of standard linear-elastic models should be avoided, or restricted to study cases where the amplitude of the stimuli is relatively small.

  20. Non-Linear Response of Light Equipment System in a Torsional Building to Bi-Directional Ground Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit K. Agrawal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic response of a light equipment item attached to a non-linear and torsionally coupled main system is evaluated under bi-directional earthquake excitation. To account for the effect of translations and torsion, each story of the building is modelled as three degrees-of-freedom (DOFs, with two DOFs for translation in two orthogonal directions and third DOF for torsion. The responses (relative displacement between the equipment system and the floor of the primary system on which the equipment system is mounted and absolute acceleration of the equipment system itself, are determined under random ground motion in two orthogonal directions, which is idealized as a stationary random process represented by a white noise excitation. The responses are obtained by time domain simulation procedure. The response behavior of the light equipment is examined under a set of parametric variations. These parameters include the uncoupled lateral frequency of the primary and the equipment systems, the ratio of uncoupled lateral to rotational frequencies of the primary system, eccentricity ratios of the primary and the equipment systems in X and Y directions, damping ratio of the primary and the equipment systems and the mass ratio of the two systems. Results of the study indicate that under some parametric conditions the responses of the equipment system are significantly affected by torsional coupling and non-linearity of the primary system. It is also observed that the responses of the equipment system can be alleviated by increasing the damping ratio of the equipment system.

  1. Local-field enhancement effect on the nonlinear optical response of gold-silver nanoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesca, T; Calvelli, P; Battaglin, G; Mazzoldi, P; Mattei, G

    2012-02-13

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of Au-Ag nanoplanets produced by ion implantation and irradiation in silica, experimentally investigated by means of the single beam z-scan technique. The measurements provided experimental evidence of the intense local-field enhancement effect theoretically demonstrated for these plasmonic nanosystems. In particular, this has a dramatic impact on their nonlinear absorption behavior and results in a tunable changeover from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption by slightly varying the pump intensity and in the possibility to activate and observe nonlinear phenomena of the electron dynamics otherwise unaccessible in the intensity range that can be employed to study these materials. Finally, for the nanoplanet configuration we found a dramatic decrease of the intensity-dependent absorption coefficient, which could be very promising for obtaining optical gain materials.

  2. Computation of the frequency response of a nonlinearly loaded antenna within a cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gronwald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a nonlinearly loaded dipole antenna which is located within a rectangular cavity and excited by an electromagnetic signal. The signal is composed from two different frequencies. In order to calculate the spectrum of the resulting electromagnetic field within the resonator we transform the antenna problem into a network problem. This requires to precisely determine the antenna impedance within the cavity. The resulting nonlinear equivalent network is solved by means of the harmonic balance technique. As a result the occurrence of low intermodulation frequencies within the spectrum is verified.

  3. Impact of stoichiometry on the linear and nonlinear optical response of SnOx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-guo; Liang, Ling-yan; Cao, Hong-tao; Song, Ying-lin

    2017-06-01

    SnO is a promising p-type oxide semiconductor materials for applications such as transparent electronics and solar cells. However, further improvement of its performance is hindered by its diverse stoichiometry. We investigated the nonlinear and saturable absorption characteristics of pristine SnO and O-rich SnOx films by femtosecond degenerate pump-probe measurements at 515 nm. UV-Vis absorption data indicate bandgap blueshift with increasing oxygen concentration. Pristine SnO film exhibit saturable absorption while nonlinear absorption is observed in O-rich SnOx films. Our results shed light on the utilization of SnO in future device applications.

  4. Transient Response of a Fluid-Filled, Thick-Walled Spherical Shell Embedded in an Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahari Ako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of transient elastodynamics analysis of a thick-walled, fluid-filled spherical shell embedded in an elastic medium with an analytical approach. This configuration is investigated at first step for a full-space case. Different constitutive relations for the elastic medium, shell material and filling fluid can be considered, as well as different excitation sources (including S/P wave or plane/spherical incident wave at different locations. With mapmaking visualisation, the wave propagation phenomena can be described and better understood. The methodology is going to be applied to analysis of the tunnels or other shell like structures under the effect of nearby underground explosion.

  5. Rotation, inversion and perversion in anisotropic elastic cylindrical tubes and membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2013-03-06

    Cylindrical tubes and membranes are universal structural elements found in biology and engineering over a wide range of scales.Working in the framework of nonlinear elasticity, we consider the possible deformations of elastic cylindrical shells reinforced by one or two families of fibres. We consider both small and large deformations and the reduction from thick cylindrical shells (tubes) to thin shells (cylindrical membranes). In particular, a number of universal parameter regimes can be identified where the response behaviour of the cylinder is qualitatively different. This include the possibility of inversion of twist or axial strain when the cylinder is subject to internal pressure. Copyright © The Royal Society 2013.

  6. The effects of elastic supports on the transient vibroacoustic response of a window caused by sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Dayi; Mak, Cheuk Ming

    2011-08-01

    The transient vibration and sound radiation (TVSR) of plate-like structures with general elastic boundary conditions was investigated using the time-domain finite element method (TDFEM) and time-domain boundary element method (TDBEM). In this model, the structure can have arbitrary elastic boundary conditions and hence the effects of the boundary conditions on the TVSR can be effectively studied. The predicted results agreed well with existing experimental data using two classical boundary conditions: simply supported at all edges and clamped-free-free-free. The TVSR of a single panel with a more general boundary condition in two connected chambers was also measured. The predicted results agreed well with these experimental results. The prediction method was subsequently applied to evaluate the effects of elastic boundary supports on the TVSR of a window caused by a sonic boom. Loudness, non-audible acoustic perception, and tactile vibration thresholds were analyzed for different boundary conditions (varying between clamped and simply supported). The possibility of improving the transient vibration and noise isolation performance by selecting an appropriate boundary condition was thereby demonstrated.

  7. Forests, fire, floods and fish: nonlinear biophysical responses to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. L.; Baxter, C.; Yager, E. M.; Fremier, A. K.; Crosby, B. T.; Smith, A. M.; Kennedy, B.; Hicke, J. A.; Feris, K.

    2009-12-01

    One goal of interdisciplinarity is to develop a more holistic understanding of a set of interlinked, complex system processes. Studies rarely couple both a mechanistic understanding of individual processes with their coupled influence on the entire system structure, yet the prospects for climate driven changes in western river systems provide justification for such an effort. We apply such a mechanistic and systems approach to understanding the effects of climate on fire frequency, plant-soil infiltration, sediment transport and stream community and ecosystem dynamics in a large wilderness setting that is likely to experience shifts in the timing or intensity of physical forces if projected climate change scenarios are realized. The Middle Fork Salmon River in central Idaho runs through the Frank Church Wilderness area and is the largest roadless area in the conterminous United States. The relatively southern continental position, complex mountain terrain and wealth of long-term landscape and ecological data in this region make it a tractable system to study the multifaceted and potentially non-linear processes of system change. This presents a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change in the absence of substantial management effects in a system on the cusp of change. This collection of studies investigates the effects of climate-driven changes in hillslope processes on stream geomorphic and ecologic processes. We investigate 1) how wildfire alters the magnitude, timing and size of sediment delivered to stream channels, 2) how climate-driven changes in the proportion of rain vs. snow dominated basins alter stream hydrology, 3) how wildfire and insect disturbances modify aquatic ecosystems through inputs of nutrients and changes to habitat, 4) how paleo-records of drought, fire, and fire-related debris flows compare with recent data, 5) how fire-related inputs of sediment and wood influence the structure and dynamics of aquatic habitats, and their

  8. Documentation for assessment of modal pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of "ordinary standard" bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground-motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case for the central United States), or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case for San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure recently was developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records, such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of 'true' median structural responses. The adjective 'accurate' refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective 'efficient' refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. Herein, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing 'ordinary standard' bridges typical of reinforced-concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi span bridge, curved-bridge, and skew-bridge. As compared to benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Thus, the MPS procedure is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of 'ordinary standard' bridges.

  9. Moving around the cosmological parameter space: A nonlinear power spectrum reconstruction based on high-resolution cosmic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Bernardeau, Francis; Taruya, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    We present numerical measurements of the power spectrum response function of the gravitational growth of cosmic structures, defined as the functional derivative of the nonlinear spectrum with respect to the linear counterpart, based on 1400 cosmological simulations. We develop a simple analytical model based on a regularization of the standard perturbative calculation. Using the model prediction, we show that this function gives a natural way to interpolate the nonlinear power spectrum over cosmological parameter space from single- or multistep interpolations. We demonstrate that once an accurate numerical spectrum template is available for one (or a small number of) cosmological model(s), it doubles the range in k for which percent-level accuracy can be obtained even for a large change in the cosmological parameters. The Python package RESPRESSO we developed to make those predictions is publicly available.

  10. Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.

  11. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  12. Fuzzy predictive filtering in nonlinear economic model predictive control for demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a model predictive controller (MPC) is highly correlated with the model's accuracy. This paper introduces an economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme based on a nonlinear model, which uses a branch-and-bound tree search for solving the inherent non-convex optimization...

  13. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  14. The Price Elasticity of Residential Energy Use,

    Science.gov (United States)

    household energy- consumption behavior : The difference between the own-price elasticity of total consumption and that of saturation is a measure of the responsiveness of ’conservation’ to price....estimates of the own-price elasticities of total consumption but almost surely will produce erroneous estimates of the cross-price elasticities. As regards

  15. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  16. Assessment of modal-pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of ordinary standard bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Kwong, N.

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case in the central United States) or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case in San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure was recently developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of “true” median structural responses. The adjective “accurate” refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective “efficient” refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. In this paper, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing Ordinary Standard bridges typical of reinforced concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi-span bridge, curved bridge, and skew bridge. As compared with benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the EDPs. Thus, it is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of Ordinary Standard bridges.

  17. Nonlinear Whirl Response of a High-Speed Seal Test Rotor With Marginal and Extended Squeeze-Film Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

    2005-01-01

    Synchronous and nonsynchronous whirl response analysis of a double overhung, high-speed seal test rotor with ball bearings supported in 5.84- and 12.7-mm-long, un-centered squeeze-film oil dampers is presented. Test performance with the original damper of length 5.84 mm was marginal, with nonsynchronous whirling at the overhung seal test disk and high amplitude synchronous response above 32,000 rpm near the drive spline section occurring. A system critical speed analysis of the drive system and the high-speed seal test rotor indicated that the first two critical speeds are associated with the seal test rotor. Nonlinear synchronous unbalance and time transient whirl studies were conducted on the seal test rotor with the original and extended damper lengths. With the original damper design, the nonlinear synchronous response showed that unbalance could cause damper lockup at 33,000 rpm. Alford cross-coupling forces were also included at the overhung seal test disk for the whirl analysis. Sub-synchronous whirling at the seal test disk was observed in the nonlinear time transient analysis. With the extended damper length of 12.7 mm, the sub-synchronous motion was eliminated and the rotor unbalance response was acceptable to 45,000 rpm with moderate rotor unbalance. However, with high rotor unbalance, damper lockup could still occur at 33,000 rpm, even with the extended squeeze-film dampers. Therefore, the test rotor must be reasonably balanced in order for the un-centered dampers to be effective.

  18. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  19. Analytical Solutions to Nonlinear Conservative Oscillator with Fifth-Order Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfahania, M. G.; Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    are presented to obtain an approximate solution. The major concern is to assess the accuracy of these approximate methods in predicting the system response within a certain range of system parameters by examining their ability to establish an actual (numerical) solution. Therefore, the analytical results......This paper describes analytical and numerical methods to analyze the steady state periodic response of an oscillator with symmetric elastic and inertia nonlinearity. A new implementation of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and an ancient Chinese method called the max-min approach...

  20. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the piezoelectric response of unpoled ferroelectric ceramics from elastic and dielectric measurements: Tetragonal BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, F.

    2018-03-01

    A method is proposed for evaluating the potential piezoelectric response, that a ferroelectric material would exhibit after full poling, from elastic and dielectric measurements of the unpoled ceramic material. The method is based on the observation that the softening in a ferroelectric phase with respect to the paraelectric phase is of piezoelectric origin, and is tested on BaTiO3. The angular averages of the piezoelectric softening in unpoled ceramics are calculated for ferroelectric phases of different symmetries. The expression of the orientational average with the piezoelectric and dielectric constants of single crystal tetragonal BaTiO3 from the literature reproduces well the softening of the Young's modulus of unpoled ceramic BaTiO3, after a correction for the porosity. The agreement is good in the temperature region sufficiently far from the Curie temperature and from the transition to the orthorhombic phase, where the effect of fluctuations should be negligible, but deviations are found outside this region, and possible reasons for this are discussed. This validates the determination of the piezoelectric response by means of purely elastic measurements on unpoled samples. The method is indirect and, for quantitative assessments, requires the knowledge of the dielectric tensor. On the other hand, it does not require poling of the sample, and therefore is insensitive to inaccuracies from incomplete poling, and can even be used with materials that cannot be poled, for example, due to excessive electrical conductivity. While the proposed example of the Young's modulus of a ceramic provides an orientational average of all the single crystal piezoelectric constants, a Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy measurement of a single unpoled ceramic sample through the ferroelectric transition can in principle measure all the piezoelectric constants, together with the elastic ones.

  2. Mechanism of nonlinearity in the response characteristics of thermoluminescent dosimeters: a further comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The recent letter by Jain (J. Phys. D.; 15: L43 (1982)) which criticises the present author's recent work (Lakshmanan et al Nucl. Instium. Meth.; 153: 581 (1978) and J. Phys. D.; 14: 1683 (1981)) on the nonlinearity mechanism of TLD, is discussed. It is concluded that the criticism ignores several experimental results which support the work on the competing trap mechanism and is thus misleading. (author)

  3. Modeling transonic aerodynamic response using nonlinear systems theory for use with modern control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.

  4. On nonlinear thermo-electro-elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Mehnert, Markus; Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Electro-active polymers (EAPs) for large actuations are nowadays well-known and promising candidates for producing sensors, actuators and generators. In general, polymeric materials are sensitive to differential temperature histories. During experimental characterizations of EAPs under electro-mechanically coupled loads, it is difficult to maintain constant temperature not only because of an external differential temperature history but also because of the changes in internal temperature caus...

  5. On nonlinear thermo-electro-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Markus; Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Electro-active polymers (EAPs) for large actuations are nowadays well-known and promising candidates for producing sensors, actuators and generators. In general, polymeric materials are sensitive to differential temperature histories. During experimental characterizations of EAPs under electro-mechanically coupled loads, it is difficult to maintain constant temperature not only because of an external differential temperature history but also because of the changes in internal temperature caused by the application of high electric loads. In this contribution, a thermo-electro-mechanically coupled constitutive framework is proposed based on the total energy approach. Departing from relevant laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations are formulated. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed thermo-electro-mechanically coupled framework, a frequently used non-homogeneous boundary-value problem, i.e. the extension and inflation of a cylindrical tube, is solved analytically. The results illustrate the influence of various thermo-electro-mechanical couplings.

  6. Nonlinearly coupled thermo-visco-elasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 1243-1275 ISSN 1021-9722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kelvin-voigt rheology * small strains * nonsimple materials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00030-012-0207-9

  7. Linear and nonlinear modulus surfaces in stress space, from stress-strain measurements on Berea sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boudjema

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic response of many rocks to quasistatic stress changes is highly nonlinear and hysteretic, displaying discrete memory. Rocks also display unusual nonlinear response to dynamic stress changes. A model to describe the elastic behavior of rocks and other consolidated materials is called the Preisach-Mayergoyz (PM space model. In contrast to the traditional analytic approach to stress-strain, the PM space picture establishes a relationship between the quasistatic data and a number density of hysteretic mesoscopic elastic elements in the rock. The number density allows us to make quantitative predictions of dynamic elastic properties. Using the PM space model, we analyze a complex suite of quasistatic stress-strain data taken on Berea sandstone. We predict a dynamic bulk modulus and a dynamic shear modulus surface as a function of mean stress and shear stress. Our predictions for the dynamic moduli compare favorably to moduli derived from time of flight measurements. We derive a set of nonlinear elastic constants and a set of constants that describe the hysteretic behavior of the sandstone.

  8. Consideration on the dynamic behavior and the structural design of large scale floating structure. 2nd Report. Stability of elastic structure and design of elastic response; Choogata futai no kozo kyodo oyobi kozo sekkei ni kansuru kosatsu. 2. Dansei henkei wo koryoshita fukugensei oyobi kozo oto no sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A policy of improving a very large floating body was planned based on its dynamic characteristics, and a proposal was made thereon. Furthermore, discussions were given on stability that considers effect of elastic deformation required when a structure is mounted on a floating body. With respect to a structural design of a very large floating body in which elastic response is governing, and upon modeling the very large floating body into an aeolotropic plate on an elastic supporting floor, it was shown that the existing range of natural vibration speed in the elastic response is in higher range than the natural vibration speed of heave. It was also indicated that the peak height of response to waves in resonance is inversely proportional to wave frequency, and furthermore, degree of flowing in of vibration energy during the resonance is determined by an inner product of spatial vibration patterns of wave force and the excited mode shape. A proposal was made on a floating body improved of excessive response in the floating body edges by changing the characteristics of the floating body edges. In addition, discussions were given on stability that considers elastic deformation of a floating body that becomes necessary when a structure, such as a building, is built on a very large floating body. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Elasticity of population growth with respect to the intensity of biotic or abiotic driving factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T

    2017-04-01

    Demographic analysis can elucidate how driving factors, such as climate or species interactions, affect populations. One important question is how growth would respond to future changes in the mean intensity of a driving factor or in its variability, such as might be expected in a fluctuating and shifting climate. Here I develop an approach to computing new stochastic elasticities to address this question. The linchpin of this novel approach is the multidimensional demographic difference that expresses how a population responds to change in the driving factor between two discrete levels of intensity. I use this difference to design a perturbation matrix that links data from common empirical sampling schemes with rigorous theory for stochastic elasticities. Although the starting point is a difference, the products of this synthesis are true derivatives: they are elasticity with respect to the mean intensity of a driving factor, and elasticity with respect to variability in a driving factor. Applying the methods to published data, I demonstrate how these new elasticities can shed light on growth rate response within and at the boundary of the previously observed range of the driving factor, thus helpfully indicating nonlinearity in the observed and in the potential future response. The stochastic approach simplifies in a fixed environment, yielding a compact formula for deterministic elasticity to a driving factor. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion.

  11. Orbital-scale nonlinear response of East Asian summer monsoon to its potential driving forces in the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Shi, Zhengguo; Tan, Liangcheng; Deng, Chenglong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a statistical study to characterize the nonlinear response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to its potential forcing factors over the last 260 ka on orbital timescales. We find that both variation in solar insolation and global ice volume were responsible for the nonlinear forcing of orbital-scale monsoonal variations, accounting for 80% of the total variance. Specifically, EASM records with dominated precession variance exhibit a more sensitive response to changes in solar insolation during intervals of enhanced monsoon strength, but are less sensitive during intervals of reduced monsoon strength. In the case of global ice volume with 100-ka variance, this difference is not one of sensitivity but rather a difference in baseline conditions, such as the relative areas of land and sea which affected the land-sea thermal gradient. We therefore suggest that EASM records with dominated precession variance recorded the signal of a shift in the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, and the associated changes in the incidence of torrential rainfall; while for proxies with dominated 100-ka variance, it recorded changes in the land-sea thermal gradient via its effects on non-torrential precipitation.

  12. Influence of fiber orientation on the inherent acoustic nonlinearity in carbon fiber reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel J; Dayal, Vinay

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the study of non-classical nonlinear response of fiber-reinforced composites. Nonlinear elastic wave methods such as nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy have been used earlier to detect damages in several materials. It was observed that applying these techniques to composites materials becomes difficult due to the significant inherent baseline nonlinearity. Understanding the non-classical nonlinear nature of the composites plays a vital role in implementing nonlinear acoustic techniques for material characterization as well as qualitative nondestructive testing of composites. Since fiber reinforced composites are orthotropic in nature, the baseline response variation with fiber orientation is very important. This work explores the nature of the inherent nonlinearity by performing nonlinear resonant spectroscopy (NRS) in intact unidirectional carbon/epoxy samples with different fiber orientations with respect to major axis of the sample. Factors such as frequency shifts, modal damping ratio, and higher harmonics were analyzed to explore the non-classical nonlinear nature of these materials. Conclusions were drawn based on the experimental observations.

  13. Dynamic response of a single-walled carbon nanotube under a moving harmonic load by considering modified nonlocal elasticity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, O.; Shokrnia, M.; Golmohammadi, H.; Hosseini, S. A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Transverse forced vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) under excitation of a moving harmonic load has been analyzed based on modified nonlocal elasticity theory. In the parametric study, influences of nonlocal parameter, velocity of the moving load, excitation frequency, order of derivative and their interactive effects on forced deflection of the nanotube have been investigated in details. Numerical amounts of the dimensionless static deflection of the SWCNT have been calculated and compared with those of existing papers and an excellent agreement has been achieved. The results show that the variation of N affects the dynamic deflection and natural frequency of SWCNTs, significantly. Also by amplification of the excitation frequency, differences between the amounts of dynamic deflection become smaller for various values of N . Furthermore, decreasing the frequency ratio causes a reduction of the maximum deflection and increasing the frequency ratio causes an increase of the maximum deflection for values of load velocity which are greater than a specified value.

  14. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  15. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-08-05

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  16. Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: Identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater decline is widespread, yet its implications for natural systems are poorly understood. Previous research has revealed links between groundwater depth and tree condition; however, critical thresholds which might indicate ecological ‘tipping points’ associated with rapid and potentially irreversible change have been difficult to quantify. This study collated data for two dominant floodplain species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum and E. populnea (poplar box from 118 sites in eastern Australia where significant groundwater decline has occurred. Boosted regression trees, quantile regression and Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis were used to investigate the relationship between tree condition and groundwater depth. Distinct non-linear responses were found, with groundwater depth thresholds identified in the range from 12.1 m to 22.6 m for E. camaldulensis and 12.6 m to 26.6 m for E. populnea beyond which canopy condition declined abruptly. Non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition in these species may be linked to rooting depth, with chronic groundwater decline decoupling trees from deep soil moisture resources. The quantification of groundwater depth thresholds is likely to be critical for management aimed at conserving groundwater dependent biodiversity. Identifying thresholds will be important in regions where water extraction and drying climates may contribute to further groundwater decline.

  17. Nonlinear optical response of gold/silicon nanocomposite prepared by consecutive laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Majid; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, Fereshteh; Motamedi, AsmaSadat; Golian, Yasaman

    2015-06-01

    A gold/silicon nanocomposite has been prepared by a consecutive laser ablation method and characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, x-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy methods. The Au/Si nanocomposite was formed by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation on a gold plate in a silicon nanoparticle colloidal solution which has been prepared by laser ablation of Si plate ethanol. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of nanocomposite colloidal solution shows a 40 nm red shift of the surface plasmon peak compared with an Au nanoparticle in ethanol. The presence of Si nanoparticles in the solution was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectrum. X-ray diffraction pattern of Au/Si nanocompsite powder only contains gold structures, and thus Si nanoparticles are amorphous. The diameter of Si nanoparticles and Au/Si nanocomposites are determined by transmission electron microscopy images about 13 and 30 nm, respectively. The nonlinear absorption coefficient of colloidal Au/Si was studied by the open aperture Z-scan method. The value of the nonlinear absorption is measured 5.8   ×   10-3 cm W-1 with a positive sign which illustrates the two photon absorption phenomena.

  18. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongwaketsi, N., E-mail: nanky@tlabs.ac.za [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); CSIR Biosciences, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Khamlich, S. [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pranaitis, M. [LUNAM Universite, Universite d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 ANGERS cedex (France); Sahraoui, B., E-mail: bouchta.sahraoui@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM Universite, Universite d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 ANGERS cedex (France); Khammar, F. [Universite Cherif Messadia, BP: 1553, Souk-Ahras 41000 (Algeria); Garab, G. [Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, P.O. Box 521, Szeged H-6701 (Hungary); Sparrow, R. [CSIR Biosciences, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Maaza, M. [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-06-15

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H{sub 4}TPPS{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and [SnTPyP]{sup 2+} mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  19. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, Jaime H. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Correa, J.D., E-mail: jcorrea@udem.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  20. Free Vibration Response of a Frame Structural Model Controlled by a Nonlinear Active Mass Driver System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Venanzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Active control devices, such as active mass dampers, are mainly employed for the reduction of wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings, with the final aim of satisfying vibration serviceability limit state requirements and of meeting appropriate comfort criteria. When such active devices, normally operating under wind loads associated with short return periods, are subjected to seismic events, they can experience large amplitude vibrations and exceed stroke limits. This may lead to a reduced performance of the control system that can even worsen the performance of the whole structure. In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy based on a modified direct velocity feedback algorithm is proposed for handling stroke limits of an active mass driver (AMD system. In particular, a suitable nonlinear braking term proportional to the relative AMD velocity is included in the control law in order to slowdown the device in the proximity of the stroke limits. Experimental and numerical free vibration tests are carried out on a scaled-down five-story frame structure equipped with an AMD to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  2. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth

  3. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Jaime H.; Correa, J.D.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  4. A generalized nonlinear tempeature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a major factor that affects metabolic processes in living organisms. Thermal time has been widely used to account for the effects of temperature on crop growth and development. However, the thermal time approach has been criticized because it assumes a linear relationship between the rate of crop growth or development and temperature. The response of the rate of crop growth and development to temperature is nonlinear. The objective of this study was to develop a generalized nonlinear temperature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson. The nonlinear function has three coefficients (the cardinal temperatures, which were 0ºC, 25ºC, and 40ºC. Data of temperature response of relative growth rate, relative leaf area growth, net photosynthesis rate, and leaf appearance rate in kiwifruit (female cv. Hayward at two light levels, which are from published research, were used as independent data for evaluating the performance of the nonlinear and the thermal time functions. The results showed that the generalized nonlinear response function is better than the thermal time approach, and the temperature response of several growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit can be described with the same response function.

  5. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, M.K.; Jangid, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  6. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  7. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  8. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  9. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  10. Nonlinear Modeling of Cables with Flexural Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lacarbonara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A geometrically exact formulation of cables suffering axis stretching and flexural curvature is presented. The dynamical formulation is based on nonlinearly viscoelastic constitutive laws for the tension and bending moment with the additional constitutive nonlinearity accounting for the no-compression condition. A continuation method, combined with a mixed finite-difference spatial discretization, is then employed to path-follow the static responses of cables subject to forces or support displacements. These computations, conducted in the quasistatic regime, are based on cables with linearly elastic material behaviors, whereas the nonlinearity is in the geometric stiffness terms and the no-compression behavior. The finite-difference results have been confirmed employing a weak formulation based on quadratic Lagrangian finite elements. The influence of the flexural stiffness on the nonlinear static responses is assessed comparing the results with those obtained for purely extensible cables. The properties of the frequencies of the linear normal modes of cables with flexural stiffness are also investigated and compared with those of purely extensible cables.

  11. Investigating the non-linearity of the BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity response to targeted hypo/hypercapnia at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Alex A; Siero, Jeroen C W; Fisher, Joseph A; Froeling, Martijn; Luijten, Peter; Philippens, Marielle; Hoogduin, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is a mechanism responsible for maintaining stable perfusion pressure within the brain via smooth muscle mediated modulations of vascular tone. The amplitude of cerebral blood flow (CBF) change in response to a stimulus has been evaluated using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI, however the relationship between the stimulus and the measured signal remains unclear. CVR measured invasively in animal models and using blood-velocity based measurements in humans has demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between cerebral blood flow and CO2 partial pressure. Using an ultra-high magnetic field strength (7T) MRI scanner and a computer controlled gas delivery system, we examined the regional and voxel-wise CVR response in relation to a targeted progressively increasing hypo- to hypercapnic stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess the non-linearity/sigmoidal behavior of the CVR response at varying arterial CO2 (PaCO2) levels. We find that a sigmoidal model provides a better description of the BOLD signal response to increasing PaCO2 than a linear model. A distinct whole-brain and gray matter BOLD-CVR signal plateau was observed in both voxel-wise and regional analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a progressively increasing stimulus in combination with a sigmoidal response model can be used to obtain CVR values and provides additional physiologically relevant information (such as linear and non-linear response domains, and maximum response amplitudes) that may be more difficult to obtain from blocked CVR experiments. Considering these results, we propose an alternative way in which to define CVR based on the derivative of the BOLD-CVR response curve, which can potentially be used to differentiate between healthy and diseased vascular states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An elastic second skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  13. Nonlinear response arising from non self-similar crack growth in finite thickness plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.; Chen, C.

    1982-07-01

    Described in this report is a three-dimensional finite element procedure for finding the stresses in a finite thickness plate with a through crack. The Mode I loading is increased incrementally such that crack growth occurs in segments. The individual crack profiles are assumed to coincide with the locations of minimum strain energy density, (dW/dV)/sub min/. Its shape is found to change during growth. Each successive crack growth increment will increase even though the rising load increment is kept constant. Three different plate thickness to half crack length ratios were analyzed. An average critical crack ligament distance r/sub c/ = 0.172 in (0.437 cm) being independent of crack and specimen size was obtained. This corresponds to an analytically predicted fracture toughness S/sub c/ = r/sub c/ (dW/dV)/sub c/ = 15.489 lb/in (2708.825 N/m) for A533B steel at -10 0 F. Data at low temperature were used in order to confine crack growth within the linear elastic range

  14. Characterizing the Quasi-Static and Dynamic Response of a Non-Contact Magneto-Elastic Torque Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Brooks

    Advances in the development of rolled-sheet magnetostrictive materials led to testing of a prototype wireless magneto-elastic torque (WiMET) sensor using the iron alloy Galfenol. As torque was applied to a shaft, stress-induced changes in the magnetic state of Galfenol that was bonded to the shaft were proportional to the applied torque. Building on that work, this thesis investigates strategies to improve both repeatability and the signal to noise ratio of WiMET sensor output. Multi-physics models of WiMET stress and magnetic states under applied torques are used to improve understanding of sensor operation. Testing to validate simulations is performed using Galfenol and Alfenol, a newer rolled-sheet alloy, for torsional loads of 0 - 200 in-lb, and under quasi-static and dynamic (0 - 2000 RPM) loading conditions. The experimental results presented support the potential of WiMET sensor use for dynamic torque measurement and health monitoring of drive train systems.

  15. Biocompatibility and inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo to gelatin-based biomaterials with tailorable elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullm, Sandra; Krüger, Anne; Tondera, Christoph; Gebauer, Tim P; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich; Pietzsch, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogels prepared from gelatin and lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester provide tailorable elastic properties and degradation behavior. Their interaction with human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) as well as human macrophages (Mɸ) and granulocytes (Gɸ) were explored. The experiments revealed a good biocompatibility, appropriate cell adhesion, and cell infiltration. Direct contact to hydrogels, but not contact to hydrolytic or enzymatic hydrogel degradation products, resulted in enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in all cell types, indicating a weak inflammatory activation in vitro. Only Mɸ altered their cytokine secretion profile after direct hydrogel contact, indicating a comparably pronounced inflammatory activation. On the other hand, in HAEC the expression of tight junction proteins, as well as cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase secretion were not influenced by the hydrogels, suggesting a maintained endothelial cell function. This was in line with the finding that in HAEC increased thrombomodulin synthesis but no thrombomodulin membrane shedding occurred. First in vivo data obtained after subcutaneous implantation of the materials in immunocompetent mice revealed good integration of implants in the surrounding tissue, no progredient fibrous capsule formation, and no inflammatory tissue reaction in vivo. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential of gelatin-based hydrogels for temporal replacement and functional regeneration of damaged soft tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear transcriptomic response to dietary fat intake in the small intestine of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyima, Tenzin; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; Morine, Melissa J; Scotti, Marco

    2016-02-09

    A high caloric diet, in conjunction with low levels of physical activity, promotes obesity. Many studies are available regarding the relation between dietary saturated fats and the etiology of obesity, but most focus on liver, muscle and white adipose tissue. Furthermore, the majority of transcriptomic studies seek to identify linear effects of an external stimulus on gene expression, although such an assumption does not necessarily hold. Our work assesses the dose-dependent effects of dietary fat intake on differential gene expression in the proximal, middle and distal sections of the small intestine in C57BL/6J mice. Gene expression is analyzed in terms of either linear or nonlinear responses to fat intake. The highest number of differentially expressed genes was observed in the middle section. In all intestine sections, most of the identified processes exhibited a linear response to increasing fat intake. The relative importance of logarithmic and exponential responses was higher in the proximal and distal sections, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis highlighted a constantly linear regulation of acute-phase response along the whole small intestine, with up-regulation of Serpina1b. The study of gene expression showed that exponential down-regulation of cholesterol transport in the middle section is coupled with logarithmic up-regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. A shift from linear to exponential response was observed in genes involved in the negative regulation of caspase activity, from middle to distal section (e.g., Birc5, up-regulated). The transcriptomic signature associated with inflammatory processes preserved a linear response in the whole small intestine (e.g., up-regulation of Serpina1b). Processes related to cholesterol homeostasis were particularly active in the middle small intestine and only the highest fat intake down-regulated cholesterol transport and efflux (with a key role played by the down-regulation of ATP binding cassette

  17. Nonlinearity effect of electro-optical modulator response in double spread CDMA radio-over-fiber transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yen, Chih-Ta; Li, Tzung-Yen

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a double-spread code-division multiple-access (CDMA) scheme for radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmissions. The network coder/decoders (codecs) are implemented using arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers coded with maximal-length sequence ( M-sequence) codes. The effects of phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) on the system performance are evaluated numerically for different values of the optical modulation index (OMI) during the nonlinear electro-optical modulator (EOM) response. At low OMI optical device noise is dominant, but at high OMI nonlinear effect becomes significant. Numerical result shows that the system performance is highly sensitive to the OMI. Therefore, specifying an appropriate value of the OMI is essential in optimizing the system performance. The influence of the degree of polarization (DOP) in the system is also discussed. By employing the scrambler in front of the balanced photo-detector, the system performance can be enhanced. The high-performance, low-cost characteristics of the double-spread CDMA render the scheme an ideal solution for radio-CDMA wireless system cascaded with optical CDMA network.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic response of a simply supported rectangular functionally graded material plate under the time-dependent thermal mechanical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. X. [Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China); Zhang, W. [Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Yang, J. [RMIT University, Bundoora (Australia); Li, S. Y. [Ttianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin (China)

    2011-07-15

    An analysis on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a simply supported functionally graded materials (FGMs) rectangular plate subjected to the transversal and in-plane excitations is presented in the time dependent thermal environment. Here we look the FGM Plates as isotropic materials which is assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. The geometrical nonlinearity using Von Karman's assumption is introduced. The formulation also includes in-plane and rotary inertia effects. In the framework of Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, the governing equations of motion for the FGM plate are derived by the Hamilton's principle. Then the equations of motion with two degree- of-freedom under combined the time-dependent thermomechanical loads can be obtained by using Galerkin's method. Using numerical method, the control equations are analyzed to obtain the response curves. Under certain conditions the periodic and chaotic motions of the FGM plate are found. It is found that because of the existence of the temperature which relate to the time the motions of the FGM plate show the great difference. A period motion can be changed into the chaotic motions which are affected by the time dependent temperature.

  19. The Retrograde Frequency Response of Passive Dendritic Trees Constrains the Nonlinear Firing Behaviour of a Reduced Neuron Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojeong; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate how the propagation of alternating signals (i.e. AC), like action potentials, into the dendrites influenced nonlinear firing behaviour of motor neurons using a systematically reduced neuron model. A recently developed reduced modeling approach using only steady-current (i.e. DC) signaling was analytically expanded to retain features of the frequency-response analysis carried out in multicompartment anatomically reconstructed models. Bifurcation analysis of the extended model showed that the typically overlooked parameter of AC amplitude attenuation was positively correlated with the current threshold for the activation of a plateau potential in the dendrite. Within the multiparameter space map of the reduced model the region demonstrating “fully-bistable” firing was bounded by directional DC attenuation values that were negatively correlated to AC attenuation. Based on these results we conclude that analytically derived reduced models of dendritic trees should be fit on DC and AC signaling, as both are important biophysical parameters governing the nonlinear firing behaviour of motor neurons. PMID:22916290

  20. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)