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Sample records for nonlinear effective coefficient

  1. Estimation of the Nonlinear Random Coefficient Model when Some Random Effects Are Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Stephen H. C.; Cudeck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for marginal maximum likelihood estimation of the nonlinear random coefficient model when the response function has some linear parameters. This is done by writing the marginal distribution of the repeated measures as a conditional distribution of the response given the nonlinear random effects. The resulting distribution…

  2. Dynamics of vector dark solitons propagation and tunneling effect in the variable coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musammil, N M; Porsezian, K; Subha, P A; Nithyanandan, K

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of vector dark solitons propagation using variable coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (Vc-CNLS) equation. The dark soliton propagation and evolution dynamics in the inhomogeneous system are studied analytically by employing the Hirota bilinear method. It is apparent from our asymptotic analysis that the collision between the dark solitons is elastic in nature. The various inhomogeneous effects on the evolution and interaction between dark solitons are explored, with a particular emphasis on nonlinear tunneling. It is found that the tunneling of the soliton depends on a condition related to the height of the barrier and the amplitude of the soliton. The intensity of the tunneling soliton either forms a peak or a valley, thus retaining its shape after tunneling. For the case of exponential background, the soliton tends to compress after tunneling through the barrier/well. Thus, a comprehensive study of dark soliton pulse evolution and propagation dynamics in Vc-CNLS equation is presented in the paper.

  3. General Symmetry Approach to Solve Variable-Coefficient Nonlinear Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN HangYu; CHEN YiXin; LOU SenYue

    2001-01-01

    After considering the variable coefficient of a nonlinear equation as a new dependent variable, some special types of variable-coefficient equation can be solved from the corresponding constant-coefficient equations by using the general classical Lie approach. Taking the nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a concrete example, the method is recommended in detail.``

  4. Inverse Coefficient Problems for Nonlinear Elliptic Variational Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-sheng Yang; Yun-hua Ou

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a class of inverse coefficient problems for nonlinear elliptic variational inequalities. The unknown coefficient of elliptic variational inequalities depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients. It is shown that the nonlinear elliptic variational inequalities is unique solvable for the given class of coefficients. The existence of quasisolutions of the inverse problems is obtained.

  5. Breather transition dynamics, Peregrine combs and walls, and modulation instability in a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua

    2016-06-01

    We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W -shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W -shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects.

  6. Some new solutions of nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Jasvinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    We construct the traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) with variable coefficients arising in physics. Some interesting nonlinear evolution equations are investigated by traveling wave solutions which are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and rational functions. The applied method will be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of such nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients arising in physics.

  7. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...... decomposition method that is unaffected by the rescaling or attenuation bias that arise in cross-model comparisons in nonlinear models. It recovers the degree to which a control variable, Z, mediates or explains the relationship between X and a latent outcome variable, Y*, underlying the nonlinear probability...

  8. Optical-Gravitation Nonlinearity: A Change of Gravitational Coefficient G induced by Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.

  9. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-09-28

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.

  10. Inverse Coefficient Problems for Nonlinear Parabolic Differential Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hua OU; Alemdar HASANOV; Zhen Hai LIU

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic differential equation.The unknown coefficient of the equation depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained in the appropriate class of admissible coefficients.

  11. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in modulation-doped quantum wells: Effects of the magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, M.; Karimi, M.J., E-mail: karimi@sutech.ac.ir; Keshavarz, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a modulation-doped GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic structure of modulation-doped quantum well is calculated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The effects of structure parameters, the applied magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the optical properties of the modulation-doped quantum well are studied. Results show that the resonant peaks shift toward the higher (lower) energies with the increase in the magnetic field (pressure). The magnitude of the resonant peaks of the optical properties decreases with the increasing magnetic field or pressure.

  12. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  13. Exact solutions to a nonlinear dispersive model with variable coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China); Lai Shaoyong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China)], E-mail: laishaoy@swufe.edu.cn; Qing Yin [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China)

    2009-05-15

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary differential equation and the symbolic computation system Maple is employed to investigate a prototypical and nonlinear K(n, n) equation with variable coefficients. The exact solutions to the equation are constructed analytically under various circumstances. It is shown that the variable coefficients and the exponent appearing in the equation determine the quantitative change in the physical structures of the solutions.

  14. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  15. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  16. Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a Henry´s law relationship...... can be applied, the over-all mass-transfer coefficient will be concentration independent. However, in mass-transfer operations, a linear equilibrium relationship is in most cases not a valid approximation wherefore the over-all mass-transfer coefficient becomes strongly concentration dependent...... as shown in this paper. In this case one has to discard the use of over-all mass-transfer coefficients and calculate the rate of mass transfer from the two film theory using the appropriate non-linear relationship to calculate the equilibrium ratio at the interface between the two films....

  17. Scaling properties of weakly nonlinear coefficients in the Faraday problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, A C; Porter, J

    2011-07-01

    Interesting and exotic surface wave patterns have regularly been observed in the Faraday experiment. Although symmetry arguments provide a qualitative explanation for the selection of some of these patterns (e.g., superlattices), quantitative analysis is hindered by mathematical difficulties inherent in a time-dependent, free-boundary Navier-Stokes problem. More tractable low viscosity approximations are available, but these do not necessarily capture the moderate viscosity regime of the most interesting experiments. Here we focus on weakly nonlinear behavior and compare the scaling results derived from symmetry arguments in the low viscosity limit with the computed coefficients of appropriate amplitude equations using both the full Navier-Stokes equations and a reduced set of partial differential equations due to Zhang and Vinãls. We find the range of viscosities over which one can expect "low viscosity" theories to hold. We also find that there is an optimal viscosity range for locating superlattice patterns experimentally-large enough that the region of parameters giving stable patterns is not impracticably small, yet not so large that crucial resonance effects are washed out. These results help explain some of the discrepancies between theory and experiment.

  18. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BHARDWAJ S B; SINGH RAM MEHAR; SHARMA KUSHAL; MISHRA S C

    2016-06-01

    Attempts have been made to explore the exact periodic and solitary wave solutions of nonlinear reaction diffusion (RD) equation involving cubic–quintic nonlinearity along with timedependent convection coefficients. Effect of varying model coefficients on the physical parameters of solitary wave solutions is demonstrated. Depending upon the parametric condition, the periodic,double-kink, bell and antikink-type solutions for cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation are extracted. Such solutions can be used to explain various biological and physical phenomena.

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  20. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  1. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  2. Performance analysis of damaged buildings applying scenario of related non-linear analyses and damage coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with methodology developed and presented for analyzing the damage on structures exposed to accidental and seismic actions. The procedure is based on non-linear numerical analysis, taking into account the principles of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD. The stiffness matrix of the effects of vertical action is used as the initial stiffness matrix in non-linear analysis which simulates the collapse of individual ground-floor columns, forming thereby a number of possible scenarios. By the end of the analysis that simulates the collapse of individual columns, the stiffness matrix is used as the initial stiffness matrix for Non-linear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA of bi-directional seismic action (X and Y directions. Target displacement analyses were conducted using the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM. The structure's conditions/state was assessed based on the calculated global and inter-storey drifts and the damage coefficient developed. The damage level to the building was established using an integrated approach based on global and inter-storey drifts, so that, depending on the level of displacements for which the drifts are identified, a more reliable answer can be obtained. Applying the damage coefficient, a prompt, reliable and accurate indication can be obtained on the damage level to the entire structure in the capacitive domain, from elastic and non-linear to collapse state.

  3. Nonlinear peltier effect in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1998-11-01

    A theoretical analysis of the Peltier effect in two-dimensional quantum point contacts, in field-free conditions and under the influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated.

  4. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-07

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function.

  5. Measurement of nonlinear coefficient and phase matching characteristics of AgGaS sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canarelli, P.; Benko, Z.; Hielscher, A.H.; Curl, R.F.; Tittle, F.K. (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice Quantum Inst., Rice Univ., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a nonlinear optical characteristics of AgGaS{sub 2} that were investigated by measuring visible parametric fluorescence with a pump wavelength of 600 nm. A value of d{sub 36}(AgGaS{sub 2}) = 31 {plus minus} 5 10{sup {minus}12} m/V for the nonlinear coefficient was determined. The temperature dependence of phase matching up to 100{degrees}C was studied. A significant temperature effect, although much smaller than the LiNbO{sub 3}, was found and results in a change in the infrared difference frequency generated of {approximately}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1} {center dot} {degrees}C{sup {minus}1}.

  6. Adaptive neural control of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Fan; Lee, Tong Heng

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural control is presented for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The proposed design method does not require a priori knowledge of the signs of the unknown virtual control coefficients. The unknown time delays are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. It is proved that the proposed backstepping design method is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop. In addition, the output of the system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Variational Problem with Complex Coefficient of a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nigar Yildirim Aksoy; Bunyamin Yildiz; Hakan Yetiskin

    2012-08-01

    An optimal control problem governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex coefficient is investigated. The paper studies existence, uniqueness and optimality conditions for the control problem.

  8. A FINITE DIFFERENCE SCHEME FOR THE GENERALIZED NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATION WITH VARIABLE COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-zhong Dai; Raja Nassar

    2000-01-01

    A finite difference scheme for the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with variable coefficients is developed. The scheme is shown to satisfy two conser vation laws. Numerical results show that the scheme is accurate and efficient.

  9. Influence of nonlinear chemical reactions on the transport coefficients in oscillatory Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Swarup; Dalal, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    A multiple-scale method of averaging is applied to the study of transport of a chemical species in oscillatory Couette flow where the species may undergoes a reversible phase exchange with the boundary wall and nonlinear chemical reactions both within the fluid and at the boundary wall. Analytical expressions are obtained for transport coefficients. The results shows how the transport coefficients are influenced by the reversible phase exchange reaction kinetics and the rate and degree of the nonlinear decay chemical reaction.

  10. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-06-01

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the heterogeneity across studies. To interpret the size of heterogeneity, an accurate estimate of ICC and its confidence interval is required. The goal is to apply a recently proposed generic beta-approach for construction the confidence intervals on ICCs for linear mixed effects models to nonlinear mixed effects models using four estimation methods. These estimation methods are the maximum likelihood, second-order generalized estimating equations and two two-step procedures. The beta-approach is compared with a large sample normal approximation (delta method) and bootstrapping. The confidence intervals based on the delta method and the nonparametric percentile bootstrap with various resampling strategies failed in our settings. The beta-approach demonstrates good coverages with both two-step estimation methods and consequently, it is recommended for the computation of confidence interval for ICCs in nonlinear mixed effects models for small studies.

  11. A modified WTC algorithm for the Painlevé test of nonlinear variable-coefficient PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yin-Long; Liu, Yin-Ping; Li, Zhi-Bin

    2009-11-01

    A modified WTC algorithm for the Painlevé test of nonlinear PDEs with variable coefficients is proposed. Compared to the Kruskal's simplification algorithm, the modified algorithm further simplifies the computation in the third step of the Painlevé test for variable-coefficient PDEs to some extent. Two examples illustrate the proposed modified algorithm.

  12. Exploring non-linear cosmological matter diffusion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano

    2014-01-01

    Since microscopic velocity diffusion can be incorporated into general relativity in a consistent way, we study cosmological background solutions when the diffusion phenomena takes place in an expanding universe. Our focus here relies on the nature of the diffusion coefficient $\\sigma$ which measures the magnitude of such transport phenomena. We test dynamics where $\\sigma$ has a phenomenological dependence on the scale factor, the matter density, the dark energy and the expansion rate.

  13. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  14. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    the reason for change in effective stress coefficient under stress. Our model suggests that change in effective stress coefficient will be higher at uniaxial stress condition than at hydrostatic condition. We derived equations from the original definition of Biot to estimate effective stress coefficient from...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  15. Determination of optical constants and nonlinear optical coefficients of Violet 1-doped polyvinyl alcohol thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hussain A Badran; Alaa Y Al-Ahmad; Qusay M Ali Hassan; Chassib A Emshary

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties of Violet 1-doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been investigated using Wemble and Didomenico (WD) method. The optical constants such as refractive index , the dispersion energy , the oscillation energy 0, the lattice dielectric constant ∞, light frequency dielectric constant 0 and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass /* have been determined using reflection spectra in the wavelength range 300–900 nm. The singlebeam Z-scan technique was used to determine the nonlinear optical properties of Violet 1:polyvinylalcohol (PVA) thin film. The experiments were performed using continuous wave (cw) laser with a wavelength of 635 nm. The calculated nonlinear refractive index of the film, $n_{2} = -2.79 \\times 10^{-7}$ cm2/Wand nonlinear absorption coefficient, $\\beta = 6.31\\times10^{−3}$ cm/W. Optical limiting characteristics of the dye-doped polymer film was studied. The result reveals that Violet 1 can be a promising material for optical limiting applications.

  16. A Finite Mixture of Nonlinear Random Coefficient Models for Continuous Repeated Measures Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear random coefficient models (NRCMs) for continuous longitudinal data are often used for examining individual behaviors that display nonlinear patterns of development (or growth) over time in measured variables. As an extension of this model, this study considers the finite mixture of NRCMs that combine features of NRCMs with the idea of finite mixture (or latent class) models. The efficacy of this model is that it allows the integration of intrinsically nonlinear functions where the data come from a mixture of two or more unobserved subpopulations, thus allowing the simultaneous investigation of intra-individual (within-person) variability, inter-individual (between-person) variability, and subpopulation heterogeneity. Effectiveness of this model to work under real data analytic conditions was examined by executing a Monte Carlo simulation study. The simulation study was carried out using an R routine specifically developed for the purpose of this study. The R routine used maximum likelihood with the expectation-maximization algorithm. The design of the study mimicked the output obtained from running a two-class mixture model on task completion data.

  17. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s2, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  20. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of pulsed laser deposited MgZnO thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Arpana, E-mail: agrawal.arpana01@gmail.com; Dar, Tanveer A.; Solanki, Ravi; Sen, Pratima [Laser Bhawan, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India); Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    We report the imaginary part of 3{sup rd} order nonlinear susceptibility and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Mg doped ZnO thin film using standard Z-scan technique. The origin of nonlinear absorption is attributed to the two photon absorption followed by the free carrier absorption because of the presence of oxygen vacancy defects. We have also confirmed the experimental results with the theoretical results obtained by considering the steady state response of a two level atom with the monochromatic field models.

  1. Soliton solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations with time-dependent coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hitender Kumar; Anand Malik; Fakir Chand

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we obtain exact soliton solutions of the modified KdV equation, inho-mogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation and (, ) equation with variable coefficients using solitary wave ansatz. The constraint conditions among the time-dependent coefficients turn out as necessary conditions for the solitons to exist. Numerical simulations for dark and bright soliton solutions for the mKdV equation are also given.

  2. The influence of dispersion slope to the higher-order dispersion coefficients for highly-nonlinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Shah, N. S. M.; Tay, K. G.; Pakarzadeh, H.; Cholan, N. A.; Talib, R.

    2017-09-01

    The highly-nonlinear fiber is the ideal gain medium for many applications particularly because its dispersion can be easily engineered. However, the modification of the fiber dispersion will affect the higher-order dispersion coefficients. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of highly-nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber dispersion profile on the higher-order dispersion coefficients which are the fourth-order and sixth-order dispersion coefficients. The dispersion profile was modified by varying the slope at zero-dispersion wavelength. The fourth-order dispersion coefficient exhibits changes from positive to negative value as the slope at zero-dispersion wavelength is getting higher. Meanwhile, sixth-order dispersion coefficient remains with the positive value even though it shows the reduction as the slope is increased, however it will eventually become negative when the dispersion is high enough. In short, the values of both fourth-order and sixth-order dispersion coefficients at zero-dispersion wavelength decrease when the slope increases.

  3. Optical rogue waves in the generalized inhomogeneous higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation with modulating coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    The higher-order dispersive and nonlinear effects (alias {\\it the perturbation terms}) like the third-order dispersion, the self-steepening, and the self-frequency shift play important roles in the study of the ultra-short optical pulse propagation. We consider optical rogue wave solutions and interactions for the generalized higher-order nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation with space- and time-modulated parameters. A proper transformation is presented to reduce the generalized higher-order NLS equation to the integrable Hirota equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of exact solutions of the generalized higher-order NLS equation to the variety of solutions of the integrable Hirota equation. In particular, we illustrate the approach in terms of two lowest-order rational solutions of the Hirota equation as seeding functions to generate rogue wave solutions localized in time that have complicated evolution in space with or without the differential gain or lo...

  4. The bright soliton solutions of two variable-coefficient coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations in optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dengshan [CEMA and CIAS, Central Univ. of Finance and Economics, BJ (China); BNLCMP, Inst. of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Liu Yifang [School of Economics, Central Univ. of Finance and Economics, BJ (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation the bright soliton solutions of two variable-coefficient coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations are obtained by Hirota's method. Some figures are plotted to illustrate the properties of the obtained solutions. The properties are meaningful for the investigation on the stability of soliton propagation in the optical soliton communications. (orig.)

  5. Nonlinear perturbations of systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J. Vanegas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of solutions to boundary-value problems, consisting of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. For this purpose, we use the right inverse of an associated operator and a fix point argument. As illustrations, we apply this method to Helmholtz equations and to second order systems of elliptic equations.

  6. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the

  7. Exact boundary controllability for higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equations with constant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ceballos V.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The exact boundary controllability of the higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation with constant coefficients on a bounded domain with various boundary conditions is studied. We derive the exact boundary controllability for this equation for sufficiently small initial and final states.

  8. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the hetero

  9. ESTIMATE ACCURACY OF NONLINEAR COEFFICIENTS OF SQUEEZEFILM DAMPER USING STATE VARIABLE FILTER METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The estimate model for a nonlinear system of squeeze-film damper (SFD) is described.The method of state variable filter (SVF) is used to estimate the coefficients of SFD.The factors which are critical to the estimate accuracy are discussed.

  10. Variable-Coefficient Mapping Method Based on Elliptical Equation and Exact Solutions to Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equations with Variable Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian-Ya; WANG Rui-Min; DAI Chao-Qing; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, by means of the variable-coefficient mapping method based on elliptical equation, we obtain explicit solutions of nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with variable-coefficient. These solutions include Jacobian elliptic function solutions, solitary wave solutions, soliton-like solutions, and trigonometric function solutions, among which some are found for the first time. Six figures are given to illustrate some features of these solutions. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  11. The near optimality of the stabilizing control in a weakly nonlinear system with state-dependent coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Mikhail G.; Makarov, Dmitry A.

    2016-08-01

    We carried out analysis of near optimality of one computationally effective nonlinear stabilizing control built for weakly nonlinear systems with coefficients depending on the state and the formal small parameter. First investigation of that problem was made in [M. G. Dmitriev, and D. A. Makarov, "The suboptimality of stabilizing regulator in a quasi-linear system with state-depended coefficients," in 2016 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON) Proceedings, National Research University, Moscow, 2016]. In this paper, another optimal control and gain matrix representations were used and theoretical results analogous to cited work above were obtained. Also as in the cited work above the form of quality criterion on which this close-loop control is optimal was constructed.

  12. Variable-coefficient discrete ((G{sup '})/G )-expansion method for nonlinear differential-difference equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bo [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); He, Yinnian, E-mail: heyn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wei, Leilei; Wang, Shaoli [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2011-09-05

    In this Letter, a variable-coefficient discrete ((G{sup '})/G )-expansion method is proposed to seek new and more general exact solutions of nonlinear differential-difference equations. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the (2+1)-dimension Toda equation. As a result, many new and more general exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving a great many nonlinear differential-difference equations in mathematical physics. -- Highlights: → We propose a novel method for non-linear differential-difference equations. → Some new exact traveling wave solutions of Toda equation are obtained. → Some solutions develop a singularity at a finite point. → It appears that these singular solutions will model the physical phenomena.

  13. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  14. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  15. Stable estimation of two coefficients in a nonlinear Fisher-KPP equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofol, Michel; Roques, Lionel

    2013-09-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining two non-constant coefficients in a nonlinear parabolic equation of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov type. For the equation ut = DΔu + μ(x) u - γ(x)u2 in (0, T) × Ω, which corresponds to a classical model of population dynamics in a bounded heterogeneous environment, our results give a stability inequality between the couple of coefficients (μ, γ) and some observations of the solution u. These observations consist in measurements of u: in the whole domain Ω at two fixed times, in a subset ω⊂⊂Ω during a finite time interval and on the boundary of Ω at all times t ∈ (0, T). The proof relies on parabolic estimates together with the parabolic maximum principle and Hopf’s lemma which enable us to use a Carleman inequality. This work extends previous studies on the stable determination of non-constant coefficients in parabolic equations, as it deals with two coefficients and with a nonlinear term. A consequence of our results is the uniqueness of the couple of coefficients (μ, γ), given the observation of u. This uniqueness result was obtained in a previous paper but in the one-dimensional case only.

  16. Partial Regularity for Nonlinear Subelliptic Systems with Dini Continuous Coefficients in Heisenberg Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with partial regularity to nonlinear subelliptic systems with Dini continuous coefficients under quadratic controllable growth conditions in the Heisenberg group ℍn. Based on a generalization of the technique of -harmonic approximation introduced by Duzaar and Steffen, partial regularity to the sub-elliptic system is established in the Heisenberg group. Our result is optimal in the sense that in the case of Hölder continuous coefficients we establish the optimal Hölder exponent for the horizontal gradients of the weak solution on its regular set.

  17. Application of Exp-function method for nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Madkour, M.A. [Theoretical Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Abdou, M.A. [Theoretical Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Faculty of Education for Girls, Physics Department, King Kahlid University, Bisha, Kingdom Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: m_abdou_eg@yahoo.com

    2007-09-10

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method with the aid of symbolic computational system Maple is used to obtain generalized solitary solutions and periodic solutions of a generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics.

  18. Rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger eqution with variable coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changfu Liu; Yan Yan Li; Meiping Gao; Zeping Wang; Zhengde Dai; Chuanjian Wang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a unified formula of a series of rogue wave solutions for the standard (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is obtained through exp-function method. Further, by means of an appropriate transformation and previously obtained solutions, rogue wave solutions of the variable coefficient Schrödinger equation are also obtained. Two free functions of time and several arbitrary parameters are involved to generate a large number of wave structures.

  19. A New Variable-Coefficient Riccati Subequation Method for Solving Nonlinear Lattice Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanwei Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new variable-coefficient Riccati subequation method to establish new exact solutions for nonlinear differential-difference equations. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the discrete (2 + 1-dimensional Toda lattice equation. As a result, some new and generalized traveling wave solutions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational function solutions are obtained.

  20. Measurement of nonlinear coefficient of optical fiber based on small chirped soliton transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We measure the waveform and phase curves of short optical pulses before and after transmission over different lengths of fibers by use of the pulse analyzer with the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG),and numerically simulate pulse evolution under the experimental conditions.The nonlinear coefficient of the fiber is given by comparing the experimental results with the numerical ones.Difference between the experiment and numerical simulation is analyzed.

  1. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describ...

  2. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size...

  3. Singular 1-soliton solution of the nonlinear variable-coefficient diffusion reaction and mKdV equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet; Unsal, Omer; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we pay attention to the analytical method named, ansatz method for finding the exact solutions of the variable-coefficient modified KdV equation and variable coefficient diffusion-reaction equation. As a result the singular 1-soliton solution is obtained. These solutions are important for the explanation of some practical physical problems. The obtained results show that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equations with variable coefficients. This method can be extended to solve other variable coefficient nonlinear partial differential equations.

  4. Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.

  5. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  6. Hadronic Transport Coefficients from Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Rincon, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the calculation of transport coefficients in the matter created in a relativistic heavy-ion collision after the chemical freeze-out. This matter can be well approximated by a pion gas out of equilibrium. We describe the theoretical framework to obtain the shear and bulk viscosities, the thermal and electrical conductivities and the flavor diffusion coefficients of a meson gas at low temperatures. To describe the interactions of the degrees of freedom, we use effective field theories with chiral and heavy quark symmetries. We introduce the unitarization methods in order to obtain a scattering amplitude that satisfies the unitarity condition exactly. We perform the calculation of the transport properties of the low temperature phase of quantum chromodynamics -the hadronic medium- that can be used in the hydrodynamic simulations of a relativistic heavy-ion collision and its subsequent evolution. We show that the shear viscosity over entropy density exhibits a minimum in a phase trans...

  7. New Exact Solutions for the Generalized (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation with Variable Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-ping

    2012-01-01

    With the help of the variable-coefficient generalized projected Ricatti equation expansion method,we present exact solutions for the generalized (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with variable coefficients.These solutions include solitary wave solutions,soliton-like solutions and trigonometric function solutions.Among these solutions,some are found for the first time.

  8. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  9. Non-linear dynamo waves in an incompressible medium when the turbulence dissipative coefficients depend on temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pataraya

    Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.

  10. Ageing effect of chloride diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the currently used models to predict chloride ingress a constant diffusion coefficient over time. However, a reduction of the diffusion coefficient over time, is ob-served at specimens that are exposed to chlorides. This reduction of the diffusion coefficient is expressed with the ageing coe

  11. On a nonlinear degenerate parabolic transport-diffusion equation with a discontinuous coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Towers

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear (possibly strongly degenerate parabolic transport-diffusion equation $$ partial_t u + partial_x (gamma(xf(u=partial_x^2 A(u, quad A'(cdotge 0, $$ where the coefficient $gamma(x$ is possibly discontinuous and $f(u$ is genuinely nonlinear, but not necessarily convex or concave. Existence of a weak solution is proved by passing to the limit as $varepsilondownarrow 0$ in a suitable sequence ${u_{varepsilon}}_{varepsilon>0}$ of smooth approximations solving the problem above with the transport flux $gamma(xf(cdot$ replaced by $gamma_{varepsilon}(xf(cdot$ and the diffusion function $A(cdot$ replaced by $A_{varepsilon}(cdot$, where $gamma_{varepsilon}(cdot$ is smooth and $A_{varepsilon}'(cdot>0$. The main technical challenge is to deal with the fact that the total variation $|u_{varepsilon}|_{BV}$ cannot be bounded uniformly in $varepsilon$, and hence one cannot derive directly strong convergence of ${u_{varepsilon}}_{varepsilon>0}$. In the purely hyperbolic case ($A'equiv 0$, where existence has already been established by a number of authors, all existence results to date have used a singular maolinebreak{}pping to overcome the lack of a variation bound. Here we derive instead strong convergence via a series of a priori (energy estimates that allow us to deduce convergence of the diffusion function and use the compensated compactness method to deal with the transport term. Submitted April 29, 2002. Published October 27, 2002. Math Subject Classifications: 35K65, 35D05, 35R05, 35L80 Key Words: Degenerate parabolic equation; nonconvex flux; weak solution; discontinuous coefficient; viscosity method; a priori estimates; compensated compactness

  12. First integrals and analytical solutions of the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    EMRULLAH YA¸SAR; YAKUP YILDIRIM; ILKER BURAK GIRESUNLU

    2016-08-01

    Fin materials can be observed in a variety of engineering applications. They are used to ease the dissipation of heat from a heated wall to the surrounding environment. In this work, we consider a nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. The equation(s) under study are highly nonlinear. Both the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient are given as arbitrary functions of temperature. Firstly, we consider the Lie group analysis for different cases of thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficients. These classifications are obtained from the Lie group analysis. Then, the first integrals of the nonlinear straight fin problem are constructed by three methods, namely, Noether’s classical method, partial Noether approach and Ibragimov’s nonlocal conservation method. Some exact analytical solutions are also constructed. The obtained result is also compared with the result obtained by other methods.

  13. Dynamics of solitons of the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with distributed coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Bei; Li Biao

    2011-01-01

    We present three families of soliton solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with distributed coefficients. We investigate the dynamics of these solitons in nonlinear optics with some selected parameters.Different shapes of bright solitons,a train of bright solitons and dark solitons are observed.The obtained results may raise the possibilities of relevant experiments and potential applications.

  14. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  15. Dissipative Non-linear Schrodinger equation with variable coefficient in a stenosed elastic tube filled with a viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gaik Tay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, by considering the artery as a prestressed thin-walled elastic tube with a symmetrical stenosis and the blood as an incompressible viscous fluid, we have studied the amplitude modulation of nonlinear waves in such a composite medium through the use of the reductive perturbation method [23]. The governing evolutions can be reduced to the dissipative non-linear Schrodinger (NLS equation with variable coefficient. The progressive wave solution to the above non-linear evolution equation is then sought.

  16. Nonlinear stability of oscillatory core-annular flow: A generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with time periodic coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Adrian V.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the nonlinear stability of two-phase core-annular flow in a pipe is examined when the acting pressure gradient is modulated by time harmonic oscillations and viscosity stratification and interfacial tension is present. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is used as the background state to develop an asymptotic theory valid for thin annular layers, which leads to a novel nonlinear evolution describing the spatio-temporal evolution of the interface. The evolution equation is an extension of the equation found for constant pressure gradients and generalizes the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with dispersive effects found by Papageorgiou, Maldarelli & Rumschitzki, Phys. Fluids A 2(3), 1990, pp. 340-352, to a similar system with time periodic coefficients. The distinct regimes of slow and moderate flow are considered and the corresponding evolution is derived. Certain solutions are described analytically in the neighborhood of the first bifurcation point by use of multiple scales asymptotics. Extensive numerical experiments, using dynamical systems ideas, are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the oscillatory pressure gradient on the solutions in the presence of a constant pressure gradient.

  17. Solitons for the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with time- and space-modulated coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte-Beitia, J [Departamento de Matematicas, E T S de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la IngenierIa (IMACI), Avda Camilo Jose Cela, 3 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Cuevas, J [Grupo de Fisica No Lineal, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, C/Virgen de Africa, 7, 41011 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: juan.belmonte@uclm.es, E-mail: jcuevas@us.es

    2009-04-24

    In this paper, we construct, by means of similarity transformations, explicit solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending on both time and spatial coordinates. We present the general approach and use it to calculate bright and dark soliton solutions for nonlinearities and potentials of physical interest in applications to Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics.

  18. Understanding nonlinear effects and losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1995-10-01

    With the planned construction of a large hadron collider (LHC) and a major upgrade of LEP (LEP-II) at CERN, a {Phi}-factory at Frascatti, and B-factories at SLAC (PEP-II) and KEK (KEK-B), we are now entering new energy and intensity regimes in both electron and proton circular colliders. Understanding and accurately estimating dynamic apertures and particle loss rates under both injection and colliding beam conditions is of primary importance. This paper summarizes discussions on Understanding Nonlinear Effects and Losses that took place in Working Group Three at the September 1994 Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics in Particle Accelerators at Arcidosso, Italy. Questions addressed were: {open_quotes}What do simulations indicate as the underlying causes of particle loss?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Do experiments agree with simulations-and if not, why not?{close_quotes} Special attention was given to a discrepancy between dynamic aperture measurements and theoretical predictions at HERA.

  19. Estimation of coefficients of multivariable power series approximating magnetic nonlinearity of AC machines*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Tadeusz J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy based approach was used in the study to formulate a set of functions approximating the magnetic flux linkages versus independent currents. The simplest power series that approximates field co-energy and linked fluxes for a two winding core of an induction machine are described by a set of common unknown coefficients. The authors tested three algorithms for the coefficient estimation using Weighted Least-Squared Method for two different positions of the coils. The comparison of the approximation accuracy was accomplished in the specified area of the currents. All proposed algorithms of the coefficient estimation have been found to be effective. The algorithm based solely on the magnetic field co-energy values is significantly simpler than the method based on the magnetic flux linkages estimation concept. The algorithm based on the field co-energy and linked fluxes seems to be the most suitable for determining simultaneously the coefficients of power series approximating linked fluxes and field co-energy.

  20. Some Exact Solutions of Variable Coefficient Cubic-Quintic Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation with an External Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jia-Min; LIU Yu-Lu

    2009-01-01

    By constructing appropriate transformations and an extended elliptic sub-equation approach, we find some exact solutions of variable coefficient cubic-qulntic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external potential, which include bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions, singular solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and so on.

  1. Superconvergence of Continuous Finite Elements with Interpolated Coefficients for Initial Value Problems of Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguang Xiong; Chuanmiao Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,n-degree continuous finite element method with interpolated coefficients for nonlinear initial value problem of ordinary differential equation is introduced and analyzed. An optimal superconvergence u - uh = O(hn+2),n ≥ 2,at (n + 1)-order Lobatto points in each element respectively is proved. Finally the theoretical results are tested by a numerical example.

  2. A NON-LINEAR STRUCTURE-PROPERTY MODEL FOR OCTANOL-WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Krishna M; Neely, Brian J; Gasem, Khaled A M

    2012-10-25

    Octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) is an important thermodynamic property used to characterize the partitioning of solutes between an aqueous and organic phase and has importance in such areas as pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, chemical production and environmental toxicology. We present a non-linear quantitative structure-property relationship model for determining K(ow) values of new molecules in silico. A total of 823 descriptors were generated for 11,308 molecules whose K(ow) values are reported in the PhysProp dataset by Syracuse Research. Optimum network architecture and its associated inputs were identified using a wrapper-based feature selection algorithm that combines differential evolution and artificial neural networks. A network architecture of 50-33-35-1 resulted in the least root-mean squared error (RMSE) in the training set. Further, to improve on single-network predictions, a neural network ensemble was developed by combining five networks that have the same architecture and inputs but differ in layer weights. The ensemble predicted the K(ow) values with RMSE of 0.28 and 0.38 for the training set and internal validation set, respectively. The ensemble performed reasonably well on an external dataset when compared with other popular K(ow) models in the literature.

  3. Design PID Baseline Fuzzy Tuning Proportional- Derivative Coefficient Nonlinear Controller with Application to Continuum Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Yazdanpanah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robot manipulators are optimized to meet best trajectory requirements. Closed loop control is a key technology that is used to optimize the system output process to achieve this goal. In order to conduct research in the area of closed loop control, a control oriented cycle-to-cycle continuum robot model, containing dynamic model information for each individual continuum robot manipulator, is a necessity. In this research, the continuum robot manipulator is modeled according to information between joint variable and torque, which is represented by the nonlinear dynamic equation. After that, a multi-input-multi-output baseline computed torque control scheme is used to simultaneously control the torque load of system to regulate the joint variables to desired levels. One of the most important challenge in control theory is on-line tuning therefore fuzzy supervised optimization is used to tune the modified baseline and computed torque control coefficient. The performance of the modified baseline computed torque controller is compared with that of a baseline proportional, integral, and derivative (PID controller.

  4. Nonlinear Effects in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    2000-01-01

    Major advances in the observation and theory of cosmic microwave background anisotropies have opened up a new era in cosmology. This has encouraged the hope that the fundamental parameters of cosmology will be determined to high accuracy in the near future. However, this optimism should not obscure the ongoing need for theoretical developments that go beyond the highly successful but simplified standard model. Such developments include improvements in observational modelling (e.g. foregrounds, non-Gaussian features), extensions and alternatives to the simplest inflationary paradigm (e.g. non-adiabatic effects, defects), and investigation of nonlinear effects. In addition to well known nonlinear effects such as the Rees-Sciama and Ostriker-Vishniac effects, further nonlinear effects have recently been identified. These include a Rees-Sciama-type tensor effect, time-delay effects of scalar and tensor lensing, nonlinear Thomson scattering effects and a nonlinear shear effect. Some of the nonlinear effects and th...

  5. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    and vice versa. However, as the effective stress working on the rock decreases with increased effective stress coefficient, the reduction of elastic region will have less effect on pore collapse strength if we consider the change in the effective stress coefficient. This finding will help estimate a more...

  6. The Effective AC Response of Nonlinear Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI En-Bo; GU Guo-Qing

    2001-01-01

    A perturbative approach is used to study the AC response of nonlinear composite media, which obey a current-field relation of the form J = σ E + χ|E|2 E with components having nonlinear response at finite frequencies. For a sinusoidal applied field, we extend the local potential in terms of sinusoidal components at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonic frequencies to treat the nonlinear composites. For nonlinear composite media vith a low concentrations of spherical inclusions, we give the formulae of the nonlinear effective AC susceptibility χ*3ω at the third harmonic frequency.

  7. Modulation instability and two types of non-autonomous rogue waves for the variable-coefficient AB system in fluid mechanics and nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qi, Feng-Hua; Tang, Bing; Shi, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient AB (vcAB) system, which describes marginally unstable baroclinic wave packets in geophysical fluids and ultra-short pulses in nonlinear optics. The modulation instability analysis of solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. The modified Darboux transformation (mDT) of the vcAB system is constructed via a gauge transformation. The first-order non-autonomous rogue wave solutions of the vcAB system are presented based on the mDT. It is found that the wave amplitude of B exhibits two types of structures, i.e. the double-peak structure appears if the plane-wave solution parameter ω is equal to zero, while selecting ω≠0 yields a single-peak one. Effects of the variable coefficients on the rogue waves are graphically discussed in detail. The periodic rogue wave and composite rogue wave are obtained with different inhomogeneous parameters. Additionally, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves through a conventional hyperbolic nonlinear well and barrier are investigated.

  8. Jump-Preserving Varying-Coefficient Models for Nonlinear Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, Pavel; Koo, Chao

    2017-01-01

    An important and widely used class of semiparametric models is formed by the varyingcoefficient models. Although the varying coefficients are traditionally assumed to be smooth functions, the varying-coefficient model is considered here with the coefficient functions containing a finite set of disco

  9. Effective Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Coefficient Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Yu; Wang, Wen-Fong

    2016-03-01

    This study presents two types of data hiding methods based on coefficient alignment for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, namely, lossy and reversible ECG steganographys. The lossy method is divided into high-quality and high-capacity ECG steganography, both of which are capable of hiding confidential patient data in ECG signals. The reversible data hiding method can not only hide secret messages but also completely restore the original ECG signal after bit extraction. Simulations confirmed that the perceived quality generated by the lossy ECG steganography methods was good, while hiding capacity was acceptable. In addition, these methods have a certain degree of robustness, which is rare in conventional ECG stegangraphy schemes. Moreover, the proposed reversible ECG steganography method can not only successfully extract hidden messages but also completely recover the original ECG data.

  10. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Effective stress coefficient is a measure of how chalk grains are connected with each other. The stiffness of chalk may decrease if the amount of contact cements between the grains decreases, which may lead to an increase of the effective stress coefficient. We performed CO2 injection in chal...

  11. Exponential function method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients on a semi-infinite domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edmund Chadwick; Ali Hatam; Saeed Kazem

    2016-02-01

    A new approach, named the exponential function method (EFM) is used to obtain solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients in a semi-infinite domain. The form of the solutions of these problems is considered to be an expansion of exponential functions with unknown coefficients. The derivative and product operational matrices arising from substituting in the proposed functions convert the solutions of these problems into an iterative method for finding the unknown coefficients. The method is applied to two problems: viscous flow due to a stretching sheet with surface slip and suction; and mageto hydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a stretching sheet. The two resulting solutions are compared against some standard methods which demonstrates the validity and applicability of the new approach.

  12. STATE-FEEDBACK ADAPTIVE STABILIZING CONTROL DESIGN FOR A CLASS OF HIGH-ORDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH UNKNOWN CONTROL COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongyao SUN; Yungang LIU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is successfully addressed to design the state-feedback adaptive stabilizing control law for a class of high-order nonlinear systems in triangular form and with unknown and nonidentical control coefficients, whose stabilizing control has been investigated recently under the knowledge that the lower bounds of the control coefficients are exactly known. In the present paper,without any knowledge of the lower bounds of the control coefficients, based on the adaptive technique and appropriately choosing design parameters, we give the recursive design procedure of the stabilizing control law by utilizing the approach of adding a power integrator together with tuning functions. The state-feedback adaptive control law designed not only preserves the equilibrium at the origin, but also guarantees the global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop states and the uniform boundedness of all the other closed-loop signals.

  13. PID Controller Design of Nonlinear System using a New Modified Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying Constriction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrijadjis .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportional integral derivative (PID controllers have been widely used in most process control systems for a long time. However, it is a very important problem how to choose PID parameters, because these parameters give a great influence on the control performance. Especially, it is difficult to tune these parameters for nonlinear systems. In this paper, a new modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is presented to search for optimal PID parameters for such system. The proposed algorithm is to modify constriction coefficient which is nonlinearly decreased time-varying for improving the final accuracy and the convergence speed of PSO. To validate the control performance of the proposed method, a typical nonlinear system control, a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR process, is illustrated. The results testify that a new modified PSO algorithm can perform well in the nonlinear PID control system design in term of lesser overshoot, rise-time, settling-time, IAE and ISE. Keywords: PID controller, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO,constriction factor, nonlinear system.

  14. Measurement of nonlinear coefficients of crystals at terahertz frequencies via High Field THzat the FELIX FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    Naftaly NPL MANAGEMENT LTD Final Report 04/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOE...ADDRESS(ES) NPL MANAGEMENT LTD HAMPTON RD TEDDINGTON, TW11 0LW GB 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...refractive index and () is the incident electric field. The imaginary component of nonlinear refractive index, i.e. nonlinear or multi-photon

  15. Variational principles for some nonlinear partial differential equations with variable coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2004-03-01

    Variational principles for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation and nonlinear Schroedinger's equation are obtained by the semi-inverse method. The most interesting features of the proposed method are its extreme simplicity and concise forms of variational functionals for a wide range of nonlinear problems. Comparison with the results obtained by the Noether's theorem is made, revealing the present theorem is a straightforward and attracting mathematical tool.

  16. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  17. A new branch solution for the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanian, Elyas; Hosseini Ghoncheh, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient is revisited. In this problem, it has been assumed that the heat transfer coefficient is expressed in a power-law form and the thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature. A method based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method is applied, the so-called shooting homotopy analysis method (SHHAM), to the governing nonlinear differential equation. In this technique, more high-order approximate solutions are computable and multiple solutions are easily searched and discovered due to being free of the symbolic variable. It is found that the solution might be empty, unique or dual depending on the values of the parameters of the model. Furthermore, corresponding fin efficiencies with high accuracy are computed. As a consequence, a new branch solution for this nonlinear problem by a new proposed method, based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method, is obtained.

  18. Wave intensity amplification and attenuation in non-linear flow: implications for the calculation of local reflection coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Jonathan; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J

    2008-12-05

    Local reflection coefficients (R) provide important insights into the influence of wave reflection on vascular haemodynamics. Using the relatively new time-domain method of wave intensity analysis, R has been calculated as the ratio of the peak intensities (R(PI)) or areas (R(CI)) of incident and reflected waves, or as the ratio of the changes in pressure caused by these waves (R(DeltaP)). While these methods have not yet been compared, it is likely that elastic non-linearities present in large arteries will lead to changes in the size of waves as they propagate and thus errors in the calculation of R(PI) and R(CI). To test this proposition, R(PI), R(CI) and R(DeltaP) were calculated in a non-linear computer model of a single vessel with various degrees of elastic non-linearity, determined by wave speed and pulse amplitude (DeltaP(+)), and a terminal admittance to produce reflections. Results obtained from this model demonstrated that under linear flow conditions (i.e. as DeltaP(+)-->0), R(DeltaP) is equivalent to the square-root of R(PI) and R(CI) (denoted by R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p)). However for non-linear flow, pressure-increasing (compression) waves undergo amplification while pressure-reducing (expansion) waves undergo attenuation as they propagate. Consequently, significant errors related to the degree of elastic non-linearity arise in R(PI) and R(CI), and also R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p), with greater errors associated with larger reflections. Conversely, R(Delta)(P) is unaffected by the degree of non-linearity and is thus more accurate than R(PI) and R(CI).

  19. A new variable coefficient algebraic method and non-traveling wave solutions of nonlinear equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bin; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a new auxiliary equation method is presented of constructing more new non-travelling wave solutions of nonlinear differential equations in mathematical physics,which is direct and more powerful than projective Riccati equation method.In order to illustrate the validity and the advantages of the method,(2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov equation is employed and many new double periodic non-travelling wave solutions are obtained.This algorithm can also be applied to other nonlinear differential equations.

  20. Bound-state solitons for the coupled variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the inhomogeneous optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Yin; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Bound-state vector soliton solutions for the coupled variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe the simultaneous propagation of nonlinear waves in the inhomogeneous optical fiber, are investigated. Introducing auxiliary functions, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Through symbolic computation, we construct the one- and two-soliton solutions. We see that the variable coefficients in the equations affect the soliton structures. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the cubic, periodic, and parabolic solitons. Bound-state solitons and interactions are analyzed graphically.

  1. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M GH SARYAZDI

    2017-03-01

    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper, the stable and unstable regions of Mathieu equation are determined for three cases of linear and nonlinear equations using the homotopy perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is examined in the unstable zone. The results show that the transition curves of linear Mathieu equation depend on the frequency of the excitation term. However, for nonlinear equations, the curves depend also on initial conditions. In addition, increasing the amplitude of response leads to an increase in the unstable zone.

  2. Effects of lubricant's friction coefficient on warm compaction powder metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan-yuan; NGAI Tungwai Leo; WANG Shng-lin; ZHU Min; CHEN Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    The correct use of lubricant is the key of warm compaction powder metallurgy.Different lubricants produce different lubrication effects and their optimal application temperature will be different.Three different lubricants were used to study the effects of friction coefficient on warm compaction process.Friction coefficients of these lubricants were measured at temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to 200 ℃.Iron-base samples were prepared using different processing temperatures and their green compact densities were studied.

  3. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachek, E.N.; Scherbakov, A.G.; Landman, U. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager{close_quote}s relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed.

  5. Nonlinear parabolic equations with blowing-up coefficients with respect to the unknown and with soft measure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Zaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence of solutions for the nonlinear parabolic problem with Dirichlet homogeneous boundary conditions, $$ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t} - \\sum_{i=1}^N\\frac{\\partial}{\\partial x_i} \\Big( d_i(u\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial x_i} \\Big =\\mu,\\quad u(t=0=u_0, $$ in a bounded domain. The coefficients $d_i(s$ are continuous on an interval $]-\\infty,m[$, there exists an index p such that $d_p(u$ blows up at a finite value m of the unknown u, and $\\mu$ is a diffuse measure.

  6. Measurement of the Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Coefficient of ZnO Crystals by Using ICCD-Z-Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Guang-Ming; ZHANG Gui-Zhong; XIANG Wang-Hua; J.B.Ketterson

    2004-01-01

    We present an image-intensified charge-coupled-device (ICCD) version of Z-scan by employing an ICCD detector and fixing the sample at the beam waist, and a measurement of the third-order nonlinear optical coefficient of single crystal zinc oxide (ZnO). The X(3) value of -9.1 × 10-15 cm2/W measured is in agreement with the published result. Our Z-scan configuration of placing sample at beam waist and collecting the whole wavefront by an ICCD detector is simple and can be deployed in cryogenic research where the sample cannot be Z-scanned.

  7. Rogue waves in nonlinear Schrödinger models with variable coefficients: Application to Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.S. [Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Charalampidis, E.G., E-mail: charalamp@math.umass.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)

    2014-01-24

    We explore the form of rogue wave solutions in a select set of case examples of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients. We focus on systems with constant dispersion, and present three different models that describe atomic Bose–Einstein condensates in different experimentally relevant settings. For these models, we identify exact rogue wave solutions. Our analytical findings are corroborated by direct numerical integration of the original equations, performed by two different schemes. Very good agreement between numerical results and analytical predictions for the emergence of the rogue waves is identified. Additionally, the nontrivial fate of small numerically induced perturbations to the exact rogue wave solutions is also discussed.

  8. Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goulart, E [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salim, J M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bergliaffa, S E Perez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, CEP 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-06-07

    It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology.

  9. Effective ac response in weakly nonlinear composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Enbo [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Zidong [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu Guoqing [Information College of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2004-01-07

    The perturbation method is developed to deal with the problem of determining the effective nonlinear conductivity of Kerr-like nonlinear media under an external ac electric field. As an example, we have considered the cylindrical inclusion embedded in a host under the sinusoidal external field E{sub 1} sin (<{omega}t) + E{sub 3} sin (3<{omega}t) with frequencies{omega} and 3{omega}. The potentials of composites at higher harmonics are derived in both local inclusion particle and host regions. The effective responses of bulk nonlinear composites at basic frequency and harmonics are given for cylindrical composites in the dilute limit. Moreover, the relationships between the nonlinear effective responses at the basic frequency and the third harmonics are derived.

  10. Engineering chromatic dispersion and effective nonlinearity in a dual-slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Han, Genquan

    2014-09-20

    In this paper, we propose a new dual slot based on rib-like structure, which exhibits a flat and near-zero dispersion over a 198 nm wide wavelength range. Chromatic dispersion of dual-slot silicon (Si) waveguide is mainly determined by waveguide dispersion due to the manipulating mode effective area rather than by the material dispersion. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient and effective mode area of the waveguide are also explored in detail. A nonlinear coefficient of 1460/m/W at 1550 nm is achieved, which is 10 times larger than that of the Si rib waveguide. By changing different waveguide variables, both the dispersion and nonlinear coefficient can be tailored, thus enabling the potential for a highly nonlinear waveguide with uniform dispersion over a wide wavelength range, which could benefit the performance of broadband optical signal systems.

  11. Memory Effects and Transport Coefficients for Non-Newtonian Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, T

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the roles of viscosity in relativistic fluid dynamics from the point of view of memory effects. Depending on the type of quantity to which the memory effect is applied, different terms appear in higher order corrections. We show that when the memory effect applies on the extensive quantities, the hydrodynamic equations of motion become non-singular. We further discuss the question of memory effect in the derivation of transport coefficients from a microscopic theory. We generalize the application of the Green-Kubo-Nakano (GKN) to calculate transport coefficients in the framework of projection operator formalism, and derive the general formula when the fluid is non-Newtonian.

  12. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  13. Group Classification and Exact Solutions of a Class of Variable Coefficient Nonlinear Wave Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; MEI Jian-Qin; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Complete group classification of a class of variable coefficient (1 + 1)-dimensional wave equations is performed.The possible additional equivalence transformations between equations from the class under consideration and the conditional equivalence groups are also investigated. These allow simplification of the results of the classification and further applications of them. The derived Lie symmetries are used to construct exact solutions of special forms of these equations via the classical Lie method. Nonclassical symmetries of the wave equations are discussed.

  14. Soliton Properties of Light Pulses on the Surface of Ionic Crystals Generated by Strong Nonlinear Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jia-Sheng; MA Ben-Kun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically discuss the soliton properties of light pulse transportation on the surface of an ionic crystal having strong nonlinear interactions between ions of unit cells. We analyze in detail the dark solitons when the nonlinear coefficient g is positive and negative, respectively. It is found that whether the nonlinear coefficient g is positive or negative, the dark solitons can be formed over the whole dispersion relation area of surface polaritons considering nonlinear effects. Attention should be paid to the fact that around ωTO, the light pulse can form advanced dark solitons, and there is a switching area from advanced dark soliton to retarded dark soliton near ωTO. We also discuss the effects of higher nonlinear dispersion on the solitons.

  15. Static and dynamic effective stress coefficient of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2012-01-01

    Deformation of a hydrocarbon reservoir can ideally be used to estimate the effective stress acting on it. The effective stress in the subsurface is the difference between the stress due to the weight of the sediment and a fraction (effective stress coefficient) of the pore pressure. The effective...... elastic deformation caused by pore pressure buildup, for example, during waterflooding. By contrast, during the increase in differential stress, as in the case of pore pressure depletion due to production, n increases with stress while α decreases.......Deformation of a hydrocarbon reservoir can ideally be used to estimate the effective stress acting on it. The effective stress in the subsurface is the difference between the stress due to the weight of the sediment and a fraction (effective stress coefficient) of the pore pressure. The effective...... stress coefficient is thus relevant for studying reservoir deformation and for evaluating 4D seismic for the correct pore pressure prediction. The static effective stress coefficient n is estimated from mechanical tests and is highly relevant for effective stress prediction because it is directly related...

  16. THE DIRICHLET PROBLEM AND NEUMANN PROBLEM FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC SYSTEMS OF SECOND ORDER EQUATIONS WITH MEASURABLE COEFFICIENTS IN A HIGHER DIMENSIONAL DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Guochun; HUANG Sha; QIAO Yuying

    2001-01-01

    In 1988, Yu. A. Alkhutov and I. T. Mamedov discussed the solvability of the Dirichlet problem for linear uniformly parabolic equations with measurable coefficients where the coefficients satisfy the condition In this paper, we try to generalize the results of Alkhutov and Mamedov to nonlinear uni-formly parabolic systems of second order equations with measurable coefficients; moreover,we also discuss the solvability of the Neumann problem for the above systems.

  17. Image-based gradient non-linearity characterization to determine higher-order spherical harmonic coefficients for improved spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavers, Paul T; Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Tryggestad, Erik J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; McGee, Kiaran P; Litwiller, Daniel V; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-05-01

    Spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important concern for a variety of applications, including radiation therapy planning, surgical planning, and longitudinal studies of morphologic changes to study neurodegenerative diseases. Spatial accuracy is strongly influenced by gradient linearity. This work presents a method for characterizing the gradient non-linearity fields on a per-system basis, and using this information to provide improved and higher-order (9th vs. 5th) spherical harmonic coefficients for better spatial accuracy in MRI. A large fiducial phantom containing 5229 water-filled spheres in a grid pattern is scanned with the MR system, and the positions all the fiducials are measured and compared to the corresponding ground truth fiducial positions as reported from a computed tomography (CT) scan of the object. Systematic errors from off-resonance (i.e., B0) effects are minimized with the use of increased receiver bandwidth (±125kHz) and two acquisitions with reversed readout gradient polarity. The spherical harmonic coefficients are estimated using an iterative process, and can be subsequently used to correct for gradient non-linearity. Test-retest stability was assessed with five repeated measurements on a single scanner, and cross-scanner variation on four different, identically-configured 3T wide-bore systems. A decrease in the root-mean-square error (RMSE) over a 50cm diameter spherical volume from 1.80mm to 0.77mm is reported here in the case of replacing the vendor's standard 5th order spherical harmonic coefficients with custom fitted 9th order coefficients, and from 1.5mm to 1mm by extending custom fitted 5th order correction to the 9th order. Minimum RMSE varied between scanners, but was stable with repeated measurements in the same scanner. The results suggest that the proposed methods may be used on a per-system basis to more accurately calibrate MR gradient non-linearity coefficients when compared to vendor

  18. Recent Issues on Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi; Inoue; Osamu; Aso; Shu; Namiki

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss the types of optical signal degradation due to fiber nonlinearity and review recently invented fibers for suppressing the effects. It also introduces efficiency of highly nonlinear fibers and their applications to nonlinear signal processing.

  19. On the Uniqueness and Stability of Entropy Solutions of nonlinear degenerate parabolic Equations with rough Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Kenneth Hvistendahl; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    2000-05-01

    This paper studies nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations where the flux function does not depend Lipshitz continuously on the spatial position x. By properly adapting the 'doubling of variable' device due to Kruzkov and Carrillo, the authors prove a uniqueness result within the class of entropy solutions for the initial value problem. They also prove a result concerning the continuous dependence on the initial data and the flux function for degenerate parabolic equations with flux function of the form k(x)f(u), where k(x) is a vector-valued function and f(u) is a scalar function of the unknown scalar function u(x,t) which is sought.

  20. Determination of effective thermal expansion coefficients of unidirectional fibrous nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Schiavone, Peter; Gao, Cun-Fa

    2016-10-01

    We present an efficient numerical scheme (based on complex variable techniques) to calculate the effective thermal expansion coefficients of a composite containing unidirectional periodic fibers. Moreover, the mechanical behavior of the fibers incorporates interface effects allowing the ensuing analytical model of the composite to accommodate deformations at the nanoscale. The resulting `nanocomposite' is subjected to a uniform temperature variation which leads to periodic deformations within the plane perpendicular to the fibers and uniform deformations along the direction of the fibers. These deformation fields are determined by analyzing a representative unit cell of the composite subsequently leading to the corresponding effective thermal expansion coefficients. Numerical results are illustrated via several physical examples. We find that the influence of interface effects on the effective thermal expansion coefficients (in particular that corresponding to the transverse direction in the plane perpendicular to the fibers) decays rapidly as the fibers become harder. In addition, by comparing the results obtained here with those from effective medium theories, we show that the latter may induce significant errors in the determination of the effective transverse thermal expansion coefficient when the fibers are much softer than the matrix and the fiber volume fraction is relatively high.

  1. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasonic effects using the dynamic wavelet fingerprint technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongtao; Jiao, Jingpin; Meng, Xiangji; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    An improved dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) technique was developed to characterize nonlinear ultrasonic effects. The white area in the fingerprint was used as the nonlinear feature to quantify the degree of damage. The performance of different wavelet functions, the effect of scale factor and white subslice ratio on the nonlinear feature extraction were investigated, and the optimal wavelet function, scale factor and white subslice ratio for maximum damage sensitivity were determined. The proposed DWFP method was applied to the analysis of experimental signals obtained from nonlinear ultrasonic harmonic and wave-mixing experiments. It was demonstrated that the proposed DWFP method can be used to effectively extract nonlinear features from the experimental signals. Moreover, the proposed nonlinear fingerprint coefficient was sensitive to micro cracks and correlated well with the degree of damage.

  2. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre......This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...... to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  4. Effect of Rare Earths on Diffusion Coefficient and Transfer Coefficient of Carbon during Carburizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of carbon in surface layer of steel-20 rare earth carburized at 880 ℃ and 900 ℃ for 8 h was calculated by substituting the measured layer depths into the diffusion equation. The mathematical model of the transfer coefficient of carbon was deduced based on the kinetics of weight gain during gas carburizing. The calculated results show that the main reason why the gas carburizing process is accelerated is due to the obvious increase in the diffusion coefficient and transfer coefficient of carbon resulted from the addition of RE.

  5. Enhancement of Seebeck Coefficients by Resonant Tunneling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqiq, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The Seebeck coefficients in an MgO-based double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) with a semiconductor (e.g., Ge) spacer are studied using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the linear response regime. The DBMTJ results show a magnitude enhancement compared with a single-barrier MTJ (SBMTJ) at the specific thicknesses of the semiconductor spacer due to the resonant tunneling effect through the DBMTJ structure. With an increase of the average temperature of the junctions, the Seebeck coefficients also increase and they are at a maximum in the anti-parallel configuration of the magnetizations. Therefore, it is possible to achieve large Seebeck coefficients using a DBMTJ compared with a conventional SBMTJ structure.

  6. CRITICAL EXPONENTS AND CRITICAL DIMENSIONS FOR NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS WITH SINGULAR COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Jixiu WANG

    2014-01-01

    Let B1 ⊂ RN be a unit ball centered at the origin. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the critical dimension phenomenon for radial solutions of the following quasilinear elliptic problem involving critical Sobolev exponent and singular coefficients:-div(|∇u|p-2∇u)=|x|s|u|p*(s)-2u+λ|x|t|u|p-2u, x∈B1, u|∂B1 =0, where t, s>-p, 2≤pp(p-1)t+p(p2-p+1) andλ∈(0,λ1,t), whereλ1,t is the first eigenvalue of-∆p with the Dirichlet boundary condition. Meanwhile, the nonexistence of sign-changing radial solutions is proved if the space dimension N ≤ (ps+p) min{1, p+tp+s}+p2p-(p-1) min{1, p+tp+s} andλ>0 is small.

  7. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  8. Nonlinear Dispersion Effect on Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijie; Dong-Young LEE

    2000-01-01

    A new nonlinear dispersion relation is given in this paper, which can overcome the limitation of the intermediate minimum value in the dispersion relation proposed by Kirby and Dalrymple (1986), and which has a better approximation to Hedges' empirical relation than the modilied relations by Hedges (1987). Kirby and Dahymple (1987) for shallow waters. The new dispersion relation is simple in form. thus it can be used easily in practice. Meanwhile. a general explicil approximalion to the new dispersion rela tion and olher nonlinear dispersion relations is given. By use of the explicit approximation to the new dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking inlo account weakly nonlinear effect, a mathematical model is obtained, and it is applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model developed vith the new dispersion relation predicts wave translornation over complicated topography quite well.

  9. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  10. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  11. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by the strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by the nonlinear suscepti...

  12. Resultant Seebeck coefficient formulated by combining the Thomson effect with the intrinsic Seebeck coefficient of a thermoelectric element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Osamu [Research and Development, Materials Science Co. Ltd., 5-5-44, Minamikasugaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0046 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    The resultant Seebeck coefficient {alpha}{sub R}(T{sub z}) of a thermoelectric (TE) element was derived analytically from the temperature dependence of the intrinsic Seebeck coefficient {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}) by taking into account the Thomson effect, where T{sub z} is a temperature at z along a TE element. The analysis was performed by expanding {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}) in a power series in (T{sub z}-T), where T is a mean temperature. As a result, when {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}) has a convex curve exhibiting a local maximum at T{sub z}=T, {alpha}{sub R}(T{sub z}) is increased at the interfaces of a TE element, while when it has a concave curve giving a local minimum at T{sub z}=T, {alpha}{sub R}(T{sub z}) deteriorates there. If the p-type (Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 0.6}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} with a local maximum of {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}) at T=390 K is employed for a TE element, {alpha}{sub R}(T{sub z})/{alpha}{sub I}(T) at both interfaces is increased up to 1.53 under the condition of T = 390 K and {delta}T=200 K. A similar enhancement in {alpha}{sub R}(T{sub z})/{alpha}{sub I}(T) appeared even in the n-type (Zr-Hf)NiSn half-Heusler. When {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}) varies nonlinearly with changes in T{sub z}, therefore, the TE figure of merit Z{sub R}(T{sub z})T{sub z} is found to be affected dramatically at the interfaces. The average resultants Z{sub AR}(T) estimated for the p-type Bi-Te and n-type half-Heusler compound reach great values of 1.46 and 1.26 times as large as their intrinsic Z(T), respectively. The experimental method to confirm such a phenomenon is also proposed here. The performance of a TE element is thus expected to be enhanced significantly not only by improving the intrinsic Z(T{sub z})T{sub z} but also by optimizing the T{sub z}-dependence of {alpha}{sub I}(T{sub z}). (author)

  13. New nonlinear polarization effects for frequency selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodova, Tamara Y.; Karagodov, Alexander I.

    1998-05-01

    The method of computer simulations on nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects developed for real multi-level atoms in the two laser fields of arbitrary intensity and external magnetic field is applied for the polarization effects of different types calculations and investigations of the dependence of the characteristics of these effects on magnetic field strength, intensities, polarization and detunings of laser fields for alkaline atoms. The essence of the method consists in simulations and analysis of the plots of dependence of quasi energies on parameters, which are obtained with the help of sorting subprogram, and selection of suitable algorithms for calculations of characteristics of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects. One photon and two photon resonant effects are investigated for wide range of magnetic field strength from Zeeman to Paschen Back effects. Some new features in the spectra of rotation of plane of polarization and circular dichroism of different types are predicted. The results show the agreement with known experiments. Such calculations of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects in the intense laser fields resonant to adjacent transitions and magnetic field show the opportunity of investigation the modifications of electronic structure due to intense radiation fields and strong external magnetic field in atomic gases and also may be used for the treatment of new methods of phase-polarization selection of modes of tunable lasers.

  14. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  15. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from −1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  16. Investigation of CNTFET Performance with Gate Control Coefficient Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a deep study of gate control coefficient (αG effect on CNTFET performance has done in this research. A new, analytical CNTFET simulation along with multiple parameter approach has executed with 3D output in MATLAB and that used it to examine device performance. It is found that, drain current and transconductance increases with high gate control coefficient. On the other hand, total capacitance decreases with high αG value resulting improved charging energy. Likewise, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL decreases with αG that provides less deviation from ideal device performance. Finally, subthreshold swing comes very close to the theoretical limit at high αG which is desired for low threshold voltage and low-power operation for FETs scaled down to small sizes.

  17. Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.

    2015-05-01

    Multimode fibres are of interest for next-generation telecommunications systems and the construction of high-energy fibre lasers. However, relatively little work has explored nonlinear pulse propagation in multimode fibres. Here, we consider highly nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in the anomalous-dispersion regime of a graded-index multimode fibre. Low modal dispersion and strong nonlinear coupling between the fibre's many spatial modes result in interesting behaviour. We observe spatiotemporal effects reminiscent of nonlinear optics in bulk media—self-focusing and multiple filamentation—at a fraction of the usual power. By adjusting the spatial initial conditions, we generate on-demand, megawatt, ultrashort pulses tunable between 1,550 and 2,200 nm dispersive waves over one octave; intense combs of visible light; and a multi-octave-spanning supercontinuum. Our results indicate that multimode fibres present unique opportunities for observing new spatiotemporal dynamics and phenomena. They also enable the realization of a new type of tunable, broadband fibre source that could be useful for many applications.

  18. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  19. Nonlinear heat transport in mesoscopic conductors: Rectification, Peltier effect, and Wiedemann-Franz law

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosa; Sánchez, David

    2013-07-01

    We investigate nonlinear heat properties in mesoscopic conductors using a scattering theory of transport. Our approach is based on a leading-order expansion in both the electrical and thermal driving forces. Beyond linear response, the transport coefficients are functions of the nonequilibrium screening potential that builds up in the system due to interactions. Within a mean-field approximation, we self-consistently calculate the heat rectification properties of a quantum dot attached to two terminals. We discuss nonlinear contributions to the Peltier effect and find departures from the Wiedemann-Franz law in the nonlinear regime of transport.

  20. Dynamical effects of overparametrization in nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Billings, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concemed with dynamical reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The effects of the driving function and of the complexity of a given representation on the bifurcation patter are investigated. It is shown that the use of different driving functions to excite the system may yield models with different bifurcation patterns. The complexity of the reconstructions considered is quantified by the embedding dimension and the number of estimated parameters. In this respect it appears that models which reproduce the original bifurcation behaviour are of limited complexity and that excessively complex models tend to induce ghost bifurcations and spurious dynamical regimes. Moreover, some results suggest that the effects of overparametrization on the global dynamical behaviour of a nonlinear model may be more deleterious than the presence of moderate noise levels. In order to precisely quantify the complexity of the reconstructions, global polynomials are used although the results are believed to apply to a much wider class of representations including neural networks.

  1. COMPRESSIBILITY EFFECTS ON DISTRIBUTIONS OF PRESSURE AND LIFT COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZZEDINE NAHOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduce energy consumption of airplanes, or enhance the aerodynamic performance of compressors and turbines by reducing drag, or increasing lift is a major challenge for many institutions specializing in aerodynamics [1, 2]. One way to achievethis, isconsidered the study of compressible potential flow compared to incompressible potential flow [3], Outside the boundary layer, to study the effects of compressibility and the control parameters. And the pressure coefficient and lift distributions around the NACA 0012 profile, NACA 0015 and NACA 0018 were studied and presented in terms of the Mach number, angle of attack and the relative thickness of the profiles.

  2. The Nonlinear Talbot Effect of Rogue Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers are rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE). Talbot effect (TE) is an image recurrence phenomenon in the diffraction of light waves. We report the nonlinear TE of rogue waves in a cubic medium. It is different from the linear TE, in that the wave propagates in a NL medium and is an eigenmode of NLSE. Periodic rogue waves impinging on a NL medium exhibit recurrent behavior, but only at the TE length and at the half-TE length with a \\pi-phase shift; the fractional TE is absent. The NL TE is the result of the NL interference of the lobes of rogue wave breathers. This interaction is related to the transverse period and intensity of breathers, in that the bigger the period and the higher the intensity, the shorter the TE length.

  3. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Separation and grading of agricultural products from the production to supply, has notable importance. The separation can be done based on physical, electrical, magnetic, optical properties and etc. It is necessary for any development of new systems to study enough on the properties and behavior of agricultural products. Some characteristics for separation are size (length, width and thickness, hardness, shape, density, surface roughness, color, speed limit, aerodynamic properties, electrical conductivity, elasticity and coefficient of static friction point. So far, the friction properties of agricultural products used in the separating process, but the effect of electrostatic charging on static and dynamic coefficients of friction for separation had little attention. The aim of this study was to find out the interactions between electrostatic and friction properties to find a way to separate products that separation is not possible with conventional methods or not sufficiently accurate. In this paper, the separation of close and smiley pistachios by electrostatic charging was investigated. Materials and Methods: Kallehghoochi pistachio cultivar has the top rank in production in Iran. Therefore, it was used as a sample. The experimental design that used in this study, had moisture content at three levels (24.2, 14.5 and 8.1 percent, electric field intensity at three levels (zero, 4000 and 7000 V, speed of movement on the surface at three levels (1300, 2500 and 3300 mm per minute, friction surface (galvanized sheet iron, aluminum and flat rubber and pistachio type at two levels (filled splits and closed that was measured and analyzed in completely randomized factorial design. A friction measuring device (built in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad used to measure the friction force. It has a removable table that can move in two directions with adjustable speed. The test sample put into the vessel with internal dimensions of 300 × 150

  4. Current-induced nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in strontium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavislyak, I. V.; Popov, M. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the observation of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects at room temperature due to a dc current in the ferrimagnetic M -type strontium hexaferrite platelets. Utilizing microwave measurement techniques and data on the shift in magnetic mode frequencies, it was found that a dc current along the hexagonal c axis resulted in a significant decrease in the saturation magnetization and an increase in the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy field. These changes in the magnetic order parameters were directly proportional to the square of applied electric field and were found to be much higher than variations due to Joule heating. A phenomenological theory that takes into account the current-induced magnetobielectric (MBE) effects is proposed. Expressions for coupling coefficients for MBE effects have been obtained and have been calculated from the variations in magnetic order parameters. The electric field E (or current) tuning of the magnetic modes in Sr M reported here is orders of magnitude stronger than strain mediated E tuning of magnetic resonance in hexaferrite-ferroelectric composites. The nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite, therefore, open up an avenue for the realization of E -tunable broadband microwave and millimeter wave ferrite signal processing devices such as resonators and filters.

  5. Analytical traveling-wave solutions to a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation with some new time and space varying nonlinearity coefficients and external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro López, R.; Sun, Guo-Hua; Camacho-Nieto, O.; Yáñez-Márquez, C.; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-09-01

    We present analytical matter-wave solutions to a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GGP) equation with several new time and space varying nonlinearity coefficients and external fields. This is realized by taking a suitable similarity transformation to the GGP equation which makes the original partial differential equation into a stationary and ordinary differential equation. We report a few families of analytical solutions of the GGP equation with several new time and space varying nonlinearity interactions, in which some physically relevant soliton solutions are found. The profile features of the evolution wave functions depend on the different choices of the composite functions ξ.

  6. Research on Nonlinear Absorption Effect in KDP and 70%-DKDP Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanliang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical absorption effect in KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals, which were grown by the conventional temperature cooling method, was systematically studied using picosecond pulse laser excitation. Using open aperture Z-scan measurements, the dependence of nonlinear absorption effect on sample orientations (I, II, and z as well as laser intensity was systematically measured at λ = 1064 and 532 nm. According to the experimental results, the nonlinear absorption effect at λ = 532 nm was confirmed, while at λ = 1064 nm no nonlinear absorption was observed for KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals. In addition, the optical absorption along I- and II-type affected by laser intensity was larger than that along the z-direction. The important nonlinear absorption coefficients β and χ I ( 3 (esu measured along different orientations were exhibited in detail at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The results indicate that nonlinear absorption coefficients increase first and then decrease with the increment of laser intensity for KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals.

  7. Dark solitons for a variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the inhomogeneous optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Lei; Yuan, Yu-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which has certain applications in the inhomogeneous optical fiber communication. Through the Hirota method, bilinear forms, dark one- and two-soliton solutions for such an equation are obtained. We graphically study the solitons with d1(z), d2(z) and d3(z), which represent the variable coefficients of the group-velocity dispersion, third-order dispersion and fourth-order dispersion, respectively. With the different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, periodic and V-shaped dark solitons. Head-on and overtaking collisions are depicted via the dark two soliton solutions. Velocities of the dark solitons are linearly related to d1(z), d2(z) and d3(z), respectively, while the amplitudes of the dark solitons are not related to such variable coefficients.

  8. The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    denoted the generalized Brazier effect. The original work of Brazier dealt with very large deformations that changed the cross section significantly and hereby also the bending moment of inertia and the bending moment capacity. In this paper the aim is to describe the Brazier effect for smaller...... that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...... deformation not taking into account the change in moment of inertia. However, the generalized Brazier effect gives additional stresses directed perpendicular to the beam axis. In composite structures these extra stresses may influence the fatigue life significantly. The paper demonstrates a linearized method...

  9. Enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guang-Zhen; Jiang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Xian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a large enhancement of Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects in a domain inversion ferroelectric crystal. We designed a structure that can implement the cascaded Pockels effects and second-harmonic generation simultaneously. The energy coupling between the fundamental lights of different polarizations led to a large nonlinear phase shift, and thus an effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The effective nonlinearity can be either positive or negative, causing the second-harmonic spectra to move towards the coupling center, which in turn, offered us a way to measure the effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The corresponding enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity is more than three orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic value. These results open a door to manipulate the nonlinear phase by applying external electric field instead of light intensity in noncentrosymmetric crystals.

  10. Nonscaling calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient in periodic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinay, Pavol

    2017-01-01

    An algorithm calculating the effective diffusion coefficient D(x) in 2D and 3D channels with periodically varying cross section along the longitudinal coordinate x is presented. Unlike other methods, it is not based on scaling of the transverse coordinates, or the smallness of the width of the channel. The result is expressed as an integral of specific contributions to D(x) coming from the positions neighboring to x. The method avoids the hierarchy of derivatives of the channel shaping function h(x), so it is also suitable for the channels with cusps or jumps of their width. The method describes correctly D(x) in wide channels, giving the expected behavior in the limit of infinite width (no confinement).

  11. Analysis on the effect of nonlinear polarization evolution in nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Xiaoming Liu; Pu Zhang; Xubiao Jiang; Hongming Zhang; Minyu Yao

    2005-01-01

    By considering the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two orthogonal poparization components,the nonlinear birefringence and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) in highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF),as well as the unequal evolutions of the state of polarization (SOP) between the clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) waves in a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) are analyzed. It is pointed out that the traditional cosine expression is no longer valid for the power transmission of NALM due to uncompleted interference under the high power condition. The analytical expression considering NPE effect is derived, and the experimental result is presented.

  12. Ecology: Nonlinearity and the Moran effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasius, Bernd; Stone, Lewi

    2000-08-01

    The study of synchronization phenomena in ecology is important because it helps to explain interactions between population dynamics and extrinsic environmental variation. Grenfell et al. have examined synchronized fluctuations in the sizes of two populations of feral sheep which, although situated on close but isolated islands, were nevertheless strongly correlated (observed value of the population correlation, rp, 0.685). Using a nonlinear threshold model, they argue that this level of population correlation could only be explained if environmental stochasticity was correlated between the islands, with the environmental correlation, re, higher than 0.9 ``on average'' (Fig. 1a). This unusually high environmental correlation is far greater than would be predicted by the Moran effect, which states that the population correlation will equal the environmental correlation in a linear system. Grenfell et al. imply that a simple nonlinearity in population growth can mask or even destroy the Moran effect. Here we show that these surprising results are an artefact of the techniques used to measure noise correlations and synchronization.

  13. Nonlinear optical properties and optical power limiting effect of Giemsa dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, Imad Al-Deen Hussein A.; Abdulkareem, Saif Al-Deen

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Giemsa dye in chloroform solution for different concentrations and dye mixed with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as a dye-doped polymer film were investigated using continuous wave (CW) low power solid-state laser (SSL) operating at wavelength of 532 nm as an excitation source. Using the single beam z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index (n2), the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) of Giemsa dye were measured. The measurements reveal that both n2 and β are dependent on the dye concentration. The obtained results indicate that the Giemsa dye exhibits positive nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) and negative refraction nonlinearity, manifestation of self-defocusing effect. Optical power limiting characteristics of the Giemsa dye at different concentrations in solution and polymer film were studied. The observed large third-order optical nonlinearity of Giemsa dye confirms that Giemsa dye is a promising nonlinear material for the optical power limiting and photonic devices applications.

  14. EFFECTIVE DIFFUSION AND EFFECTIVE DRAG COEFFICIENT OF A BROWNIAN PARTICLE IN A PERIODIC POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyun Wang

    2011-01-01

    We study the stochastic motion of a Brownian particle driven by a constant force over a static periodic potential.We show that both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient are mathematically well-defined and we derive analytic expressions for these two quantities.We then investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient,respectively,for small driving force and for large driving force.In the case of small driving force,the effective diffusion is reduced from its Brownian value by a factor that increases exponentially with the amplitude of the potential.The effective drag coefficient is increased by approximately the same factor.As a result,the Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drag coefficient is approximately valid when the driving force is small.For moderately large driving force,both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient are increased from their Brownian values,and the Einstein relation breaks down. In the limit of very large driving force,both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient converge to their Brownian values and the Einstein relation is once again valid.

  15. Modal Identification Using OMA Techniques: Nonlinearity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an assessment of the state of the art of operational modal analysis (OMA methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses of nonlinear structures. By means of the Volterra series, the nonlinear structure excited by random excitation is modeled as best linear approximation plus a term representing nonlinear distortions. As the nonlinear distortions are of stochastic nature and thus indistinguishable from the measurement noise, a protocol based on the use of the random phase multisine is proposed to reveal the accuracy and robustness of the linear OMA technique in the presence of the system nonlinearity. Several frequency- and time-domain based OMA techniques are examined for the modal identification of simulated and real nonlinear mechanical systems. Theoretical analyses are also provided to understand how the system nonlinearity degrades the performance of the OMA algorithms.

  16. Extended Elliptic Mild Slope Equation Incorporating the Nonlinear Shoaling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian-lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation during wave propagation is significantly important for the calculations of hydraulic and coastal engineering, as well as the sediment transport. The exact wave height deformation calculation on the coasts is essential to near-shore hydrodynamics research and the structure design of coastal engineering. According to the wave shoaling results gained from the elliptical cosine wave theory, the nonlinear wave dispersion relation is adopted to develop the expression of the corresponding nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient. Based on the extended elliptic mild slope equation, an efficient wave numerical model is presented in this paper for predicting wave deformation across the complex topography and the surf zone, incorporating the nonlinear wave dispersion relation, the nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient and other energy dissipation factors. Especially, the phenomenon of wave recovery and second breaking could be shown by the present model. The classical Berkhoff single elliptic topography wave tests, the sinusoidal varying topography experiment, and complex composite slopes wave flume experiments are applied to verify the accuracy of the calculation of wave heights. Compared with experimental data, good agreements are found upon single elliptical topography and one-dimensional beach profiles, including uniform slope and step-type profiles. The results indicate that the newly-developed nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient improves the calculated accuracy of wave transformation in the surf zone efficiently, and the wave breaking is the key factor affecting the wave characteristics and need to be considered in the nearshore wave simulations.

  17. Nonlinear Radiation Effects on Hydromagnetic Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anjali devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nonlinear radiation on hydromagnetic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a shrinking surface is investigated in the present work. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant equations which are highly nonlinear are solved numerically using Nachtsheim Swigert shooting iteration scheme together with Fourth Order Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions for velocity, skin friction coefficient and temperature are obtained for various values of physical parameters involved in the study namely Suction parameter, Magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Radiation parameter and Temperature ratio parameter. Numerical values for dimensionless rate of heat transfer are also obtained for various physical parameters and are shown through tables. The analytical solution of the energy equation when the radiation term is taken in linear form is obtained using Confluent hypergeometric function.

  18. Conservation laws and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Subpicosecond or femtosecond optical pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous fiber can be described by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients, which is investigated in the paper. Via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system and symbolic computation, the Lax pair and infinitely-many conservation laws are deduced. Based on the Lax pair and a modified Darboux transformation technique, the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions are constructed. Effects of the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion on the properties of the first- and second-order rouge waves are graphically presented and analyzed: The groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion both affect the ranges and shapes of the first- and second-order rogue waves: The third-order dispersion can produce a skew angle of the first-order rogue wave and the skew angle rotates counterclockwise with the increase of the groupvelocity dispersion, when the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are chosen as the constants; When the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are taken as the functions of the propagation distance, the linear, X-shaped and parabolic trajectories of the rogue waves are obtained.

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transitions in a quantum disk with flat cylindrical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Monica, E-mail: monica.gambhir@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, P.K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110015 (India); Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum disk in the form of a flat cylinder are investigated theoretically in the presence of a static magnetic and a laser field within the framework of the compact-density matrix approach. It is found that the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave intensity but also on the strength of the static magnetic field. The intersubband relaxation time, also, has an important influence on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a quantum disk. -- Highlights: • The study is carried out in a quantum disk having quantum dot geometry. • The linear and non-linear optical properties are studied using density matrix approach. • The study is carried out in the presence of a laser field and a magnetic field. • Influence of incident photon energy and static magnetic field is analyzed. • The optical properties are found to be greatly influenced by the relaxation time.

  20. The Effects of Five-Order Nonlinear on the Dynamics of Dark Solitons in Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Tao He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the influence of five-order nonlinear on the dynamic of dark soliton. Starting from the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the quadratic phase chirp term, by using a similarity transformation technique, we give the exact solution of dark soliton and calculate the precise expressions of dark soliton's width, amplitude, wave central position, and wave velocity which can describe the dynamic behavior of soliton's evolution. From two different kinds of quadratic phase chirps, we mainly analyze the effect on dark soliton’s dynamics which different fiver-order nonlinear term generates. The results show the following two points with quintic nonlinearities coefficient increasing: (1 if the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term relate to the propagation distance, the solitary wave displays a periodic change and the soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and wave velocity reduce. (2 If the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term do not depend on propagation distance, the wave function only emerges in a fixed area. The soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and the wave velocity reduce.

  1. Generation, compression, and propagation of pulse trains in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with distributed coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luyun; Li, Lu; Li, Zhonghao; Zhou, Guosheng; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2005-09-01

    The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger model with distributed dispersion, nonlinearity, and gain or loss is considered and the explicit, analytical solutions describing the dynamics of bright solitons on a continuous-wave background are obtained in quadratures. Then, the generation, compression, and propagation of pulse trains are discussed in detail. The numerical results show that solitons can be compressed by choosing the appropriate control fiber system, and pulse trains generated by modulation instability can propagate undistorsted along fibers with distributed parameters by controlling appropriately the energy of each pulse in the pulse train.

  2. A Numerical Scheme for Ordinary Differential Equations Having Time Varying and Nonlinear Coefficients Based on the State Transition Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    A variable order method of integrating initial value ordinary differential equations that is based on the state transition matrix has been developed. The method has been evaluated for linear time variant and nonlinear systems of equations. While it is more complex than most other methods, it produces exact solutions at arbitrary time step size when the time variation of the system can be modeled exactly by a polynomial. Solutions to several nonlinear problems exhibiting chaotic behavior have been computed. Accuracy of the method has been demonstrated by comparison with an exact solution and with solutions obtained by established methods.

  3. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  4. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  5. Redox Couples with Unequal Diffusion Coefficients: Effect on Redox Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil Augustine, Dileep; Mathwig, Klaus; Kang, Shuo; Lemay, Serge G.

    2013-01-01

    Redox cycling between two electrodes separated by a narrow gap allows dramatic amplification of the faradaic current. Unlike conventional electrochemistry at a single electrode, however, the mass-transport-limited current is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of both the reduced and oxidized fo

  6. A Novel Effective Approach for Solving Fractional Nonlinear PDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminikhah, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Nasrin; Rezazadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    The present work introduces an effective modification of homotopy perturbation method for the solution of nonlinear time-fractional biological population model and a system of three nonlinear time-fractional partial differential equations. In this approach, the solution is considered a series expansion that converges to the nonlinear problem. The new approximate analytical procedure depends only on two iteratives. The analytical approximations to the solution are reliable and confirm the ability of the new homotopy perturbation method as an easy device for computing the solution of nonlinear equations.

  7. Effect of alpha and Gaussian refractive index profiles on the design of highly nonlinear optical fibre for efficient nonlinear optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvendran, S.; Sivanantharaja, A.; Arivazhagan, S.; Kannan, M.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an index profiled, highly nonlinear ultraflattened dispersion fibre (HN-UFF) with appreciable values of fibre parameters such as dispersion, dispersion slope, effective area, nonlinearity, bending loss and splice loss. The designed fibre has normal zero flattened dispersion over S, C, L, U bands and extends up to 1.9857 μm. The maximum dispersion variation observed for this fibre is as low as 1.61 ps km-1 nm-1 over the 500-nm optical fibre transmission spectrum. This fibre also has two zero dispersion wavelengths at 1.487 and 1.9857 μm and the respective dispersion slopes are 0.02476 and 0.0068 ps nm-2 km-1. The fibre has a very low ITU-T cutoff wavelength of 1.2613 μm and a virtuous nonlinear coefficient of 9.43 W-1 km-1. The wide spectrum of zero flattened dispersion and a good nonlinear coefficient make the designed fibre very promising for different nonlinear optical signal processing applications.

  8. Effects of Particle Shape and Microstructure on Effective Nonlinear Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-Ping; LI Zhen-Ya

    2001-01-01

    We consider a binary granular composite medium, in which two materials have high-order nonlinearities.The effect of particle shape on effective nonlinear response (ENR) is investigated by assuming all the particles to be shaped as uniaxial ellipsoid. We discuss two types of arrangements of particles: 1) parallel axes (Case I); 2) random axes (Case II). During the process of numerical calculation, one component material is assumed to be linear, and two kinds of conductors are assumed to be at high conducting contrast. We find that: 1) the shape effect on ENR is possibly strong; 2) the enhanced ENR can even be obtained by choosing particles of appropriate ellipsoidal shapes; 3) the ENR enhancement predicted by Case I is much stronger than that by Case II.``

  9. Electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves: The critical wave intensity for nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasiliev, A. A. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS—University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Agapitov, O. V. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we consider high-energy electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves via the Landau resonance. We use recent spacecraft observations in the radiation belts to construct the whistler wave model. The main purpose of the paper is to provide an estimate of the critical wave amplitude for which the nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction becomes more important than particle scattering. To this aim, we derive an analytical expression describing the particle scattering by large amplitude whistler waves and compare the corresponding effect with the nonlinear particle acceleration due to trapping. The latter is much more rare but the corresponding change of energy is substantially larger than energy jumps due to scattering. We show that for reasonable wave amplitudes ∼10–100 mV/m of strong whistlers, the nonlinear effects are more important than the linear and nonlinear scattering for electrons with energies ∼10–50 keV. We test the dependencies of the critical wave amplitude on system parameters (background plasma density, wave frequency, etc.). We discuss the role of obtained results for the theoretical description of the nonlinear wave amplification in radiation belts.

  10. Nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric effect modulated by voltage for the symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates under magnetic and thermal loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Hu, Wen-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Based on the tri-layer symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates, a equivalent circuit for the nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect is established. Because the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of magnetostrictive material were introduced, a converse magnetoelectric coefficient model was derived from the equivalent circuit, which can describe the influence of bias electric field, bias magnetic field and ambient temperature on the resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect. Especially, the model can well predict the modulation effect of bias electric field/voltage on the magnetism of magnetoelectric composite or the converse magnetoelectric coefficient, which is absolutely vital in applications. Both of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the resonance frequency predicted by the model have good agreements with the existing experimental results in qualitatively and quantitatively, and the validity of the model is confirmed. On this basis, according to the model, the nonlinear trends of the resonance converse magnetoelectric effect under different bias voltages, bias magnetic fields and ambient temperatures are predicted. From the results, it can be found that the bias voltage can effectively modulate the curve of the resonance converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus bias magnetic field, and then change the corresponding optimal bias magnetic field of the maximum converse magnetoelectric coefficient; with the increasing volume ratio of piezoelectric layers, the modulation effect of bias voltage becomes more obvious; under different bias magnetic fields, the modulation effect of bias voltage on the converse magnetoelectric effect has nonvolatility in a wide temperature region.

  11. Intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Song-Jin; Kim, Gum-Hyok

    2015-01-01

    We offer a model to describe the intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Relation of the complex nonlinear coefficient of SPPs to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the metal is provided. As reported in a recent study, gold is highly lossy and simultaneously highly nonlinear due to interband absorption and interband thermo-modulation at a wavelength shorter than 700 nm. The effect of the high loss of the metal on the SPP nonlinear propagation is taken into account in our model. With the model we show difference in sign of real and imaginary parts between the nonlinear propagation coefficient and the nonlinear susceptibility of component material for the first time to our knowledge. Our model could have practical importance in studying plasmonic devices utilizing the nonlinear phase modulation and the nonlinear absorption of SPPs. For example, it allows one to extract the complex nonlinear susceptibility of gold through a measurement of SPP nonlinear propagation at the visib...

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.J. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei2001@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, M. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs.

  13. Effect of reduction time on third order optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Vinitha, G.; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the influence of reduction time on structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films synthesized by spin coating method. We observed that the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tuned with reduction time in GO is due to the increased structural ordering because of the restoration of sp2 carbon atoms with the time of reduction. The nonlinear absorption studies by open aperture Z-scan technique exhibited a saturable absorption. The nonlinear refraction studies showed the self de focusing nature of rGO by closed aperture Z scan technique. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity varies with the time for reduction of GO which is attributed to the depletion of valence band and the conduction band filling effect. Our results emphasize duration for reduction of GO dependent optical nonlinearity of rGO thin films to a great extent and explore its applications Q switched mode locking laser systems for generating ultra short laser pulses and in optical sensors. The rGO coated films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction method (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements.

  14. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by nonlinear susceptibilities, which have complex expressions including many matrix elements and energy denominators. On the other hand, a nonequilibrium steady state under an electric field periodic in time has a concise description in terms of the Floquet bands of electrons dressed by photons. We show theoretically, using the Floquet formalism, that various nonlinear optical effects, such as the shift current in noncentrosymmetric materials, photovoltaic Hall response, and photo-induced change of order parameters under the continuous irradiation of monochromatic light, can be described in a unified fashion by topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. We found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses. This topological view offers a route to designing nonlinear optical materials.

  15. Sieve estimation of constant and time-varying coefficients in nonlinear ordinary differential equation models by considering both numerical error and measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Hongqi; Wu, Hulin; 10.1214/09-AOS784

    2010-01-01

    This article considers estimation of constant and time-varying coefficients in nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models where analytic closed-form solutions are not available. The numerical solution-based nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is investigated in this study. A numerical algorithm such as the Runge--Kutta method is used to approximate the ODE solution. The asymptotic properties are established for the proposed estimators considering both numerical error and measurement error. The B-spline is used to approximate the time-varying coefficients, and the corresponding asymptotic theories in this case are investigated under the framework of the sieve approach. Our results show that if the maximum step size of the $p$-order numerical algorithm goes to zero at a rate faster than $n^{-1/(p\\wedge4)}$, the numerical error is negligible compared to the measurement error. This result provides a theoretical guidance in selection of the step size for numerical evaluations of ODEs. Moreover, we h...

  16. Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.

  17. Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.

  18. Conservation Laws in Higher-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Shin, H J; Kim, Jongbae

    1999-01-01

    Conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are studied in the presence of higher-order nonlinear optical effects including the third-order dispersion and the self-steepening. In a context of group theory, we derive a general expression for infinitely many conserved currents and charges of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The first few currents and charges are also presented explicitly. Due to the higher-order effects, conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are violated in general. The differences between the types of the conserved currents for the Hirota and the Sasa-Satsuma equations imply that the higher-order terms determine the inherent types of conserved quantities for each integrable cases of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  19. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  20. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2......+1)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is derived and integrated on an Amdahl VP1100 vector processor. Above threshold the resulting probability density agrees with the rate-equation predictions. The case of high-speed modulation is also considered. The nonlinear gain is found to stabilize the laser....

  1. Amplitude Coupling Analysis of EEG Using Nonlinear Regressive Coefficients during Mental Fatigue%基于非线性回归系数的中枢疲劳脑电的幅度耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平; 郑崇勋; 张崇

    2009-01-01

    Computing the Nonlinear regressive (NLR) coefficients of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms at different brain cortical areas for the mental fatigue caused by long term cognitive task, the variations of NLR coefficients of EEG rhythms under different mental fatigue level are sought out.The experimental results show that the NLR coefficients of EEG rhythms can effectively characterize the changes of amplitude coupling at different brain cortical areas under different mental fatigue level.The NLR coefficient provides a powerful tool for the EEG functional coupling analysis of mental fatigue.%本文通过对连续长时间脑力劳动前后状态下的脑电节律进行幅度耦合分析,提取了非线性回归系数,研究它们在不同中枢疲劳状态下的变化规律.实验结果表明,非线性回归系数能有效地反映出导联间幅度耦合同步程度随中枢疲劳程度的变化情况.为中枢疲劳脑电幅度耦合分析提供了有力工具.

  2. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    and development parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. Since the crop is mostly bare soil during initial growth, the Kc ini is mainly determined by the wetting frequency through irrigation and precipitation, the fraction of soil wetted by irrigation, and the ETo rate....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...... that improvments in genetics and crossbreeding techniques, crop management, climatic conditions changes (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and irrigation technique have a significant impact on the crop development and crop coefficient value....

  3. A principle of similarity for nonlinear vibration absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, G.; Kerschen, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper develops a principle of similarity for the design of a nonlinear absorber, the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), attached to a nonlinear primary system. Specifically, for effective vibration mitigation, we show that the NLTVA should feature a nonlinearity possessing the same mathematical form as that of the primary system. A compact analytical formula for the nonlinear coefficient of the absorber is then derived. The formula, valid for any polynomial nonlinearity in the primary system, is found to depend only on the mass ratio and on the nonlinear coefficient of the primary system. When the primary system comprises several polynomial nonlinearities, we demonstrate that the NLTVA obeys a principle of additivity, i.e., each nonlinear coefficient can be calculated independently of the other nonlinear coefficients using the proposed formula.

  4. EFFECT OF HYDROPLANE PROFILE ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF AN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AUVs are the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning with global environmental problems. AUVs maneuverability should be carefully checked so as to improve energy efficiency of the vehicle and avoid unexpected motion. Oblique towing test (OTT is simulated virtually in a computational fluid dynamic (CFD environment to obtain hydrodynamic damping coefficients of a full-scale autonomous underwater vehicle. Simulations are performed for bare hull and hull equipped with four different hydroplanes. The hydrodynamic forces and moment are obtained to calculate hydrodynamic coefficients. Nonlinear damping coefficients are also obtained by using suitable curve fitting. Experiments of resistance and OTT are carried out in specific condition, for validation purpose. Following the extracting numerical results a mathematical model is developed to calculate hydrodynamic force for different sail type in order to predict autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV maneuverability. The results shows good agreement between theory and experiment.

  5. Effects of Nonlinear Absorption in BK7 and Color Glasses at 355 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J J; McCarville, T; Bruere, J; McElroy, J; Peterson, J

    2003-11-12

    We have demonstrated a simple experimental technique that can be used to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficients in glasses. We determine BK7, UG1, and UG11 glasses to have linear absorption coefficients of 0.0217 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, 1.7 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, and 0.82 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, respectively, two-photon absorption cross-sections of 0.025 {+-} 20% cm/GW, 0.035 {+-} 20% cm/GW, and 0.047 {+-} 20% cm/GW, respectively, excited-state absorption cross-sections of 8.0 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.8 x 10{sup -16} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 5 x 10{sup -17} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively, and solarization coefficients of 8.5 x 10{sup -20} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.5 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 1.3 x 10{sup -19} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively. For our application, nonlinear effects in 10-cm of BK7 are small ({le} 2%) for 355-nm fluences < 0.2 J/cm{sup 2} for flat-top pulses. However, nonlinear effects are noticeable for 355-nm fluences at 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. In particular, we determine a 20% increase in the instantaneous absorption from linear, a solarization rate of 4% per 100 shots, and a 10% temporal droop introduced in the pulse, for 355-nm flat-top pulses at a fluence of 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. For 0.5-cm of UG1 absorbing glass the non-linear absorption has a similar effect as that from 10-cm of BK7 on the pulse shape; however, the effects in UG11 are much smaller.

  6. Experimental study of aerodynamic interference effects on aerostatic coefficients of twin deck bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwen LIU; Zhengqing CHEN; Gao LIU; Xinpeng SHAO

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on aero-static coefficients of twin deck bridges with large span were investigated in detail by means of wind tunnel test.The distances between the twin decks and wind attack angles were changed during the wind tunnel test to study the effects on aerodynamic interferences of aerostatic coefficients of twin decks. The research results have shown that the drag coefficients of the leeward deck are much smaller than that of a single leeward deck. The drag coefficients of a windward deck decrease slightly com-pared with that of a single deck. The lift and torque coefficients of windward and leeward decks are also affected slightly by the aerodynamic interference of twin decks. And the aerodynamic interference effects on lift and torque coefficients of twin decks can be neglected.

  7. Intra-Channel Nonlinear Effect on Optical PPM Pulse Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Linghao; Jarmo; Takala

    2003-01-01

    PPM encoded Gaussian pulse sequence shows more immunity than non-PPM schemes on optical fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and demonstrated by a numerical study of IXPM and IFWM effects deploying on 100Gb/s single channelsystem.

  8. Effects of Nonlinearities on Induced Voltages across Lumped Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Mazloom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on induced currents and voltages along overhead conductors due to lightning flashes. In most of these studies lumped loads and components are connected only as line terminations [1]-[4]. In studies where series and shunt connected components are connected along the lines the effects of nonlinear components and effects are disregarded [5]-[8]. This is not always correct as nonlinear effects will introduce high frequencies in the system and affect the current and voltage wave distribution. In this paper the effects of series and shunt components and nonlinear phenomenon on a system representative of the Swedish electrified railway system will be investigated. It is seen how introduction of different linear and nonlinear components affect the propagating voltage wave forms.

  9. Spatiotemporal Rogue Waves for the Variable-Coefficient (3+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear SchrSdinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦悦; 戴朝卿

    2012-01-01

    With the help of the similarity transformation connected the variable-eoeicient (3+1)-dimensionai nonlin- ear Sehroedinger equation with the standard nonlinear Schr6dinger equation, we firstly obtain first-order and second-order rogue wave solutions. Then, we investigate the controllable behaviors of these rogue waves in the hyperbolic dispersion decreasing profile. Our results indicate that the integral relation between the accumulated time T and the reai time t is the basis to realize the control and manipulation of propagation behaviors of rogue waves, such as sustainment and restraint. We can modulate the value To to achieve the sustained and restrained spatiotemporai rogue waves. Moreover, the controllability for position of sustainment and restraint for spatiotemporai rogue waves can aiso be realized by setting different values of Xo.

  10. Effective supercontinuum generation by using highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber incorporated with Si nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongmook; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Youngwoong; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Hyejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Boo, Seongjae; Kim, Dug Young; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    The dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) incorporated with Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) having highly nonlinear optical property was fabricated to investigate the effective supercontinuum generation characteristics by using the MCVD process and the drawing process. Optical nonlinearity was enhanced by incorporating Si nanocrystals in the core of the fiber and the refractive index profile of a dispersion-shifted fiber was employed to match its zero-dispersion wavelength to that of the commercially available pumping source for generating effective supercontinuum. The non-resonant nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the Si-NCs doped DSF measured by the cw-SPM method was measured to be 7.03 x 10(-20) [m2/W] and the coefficient of non-resonant nonlinearity, gamma, was 7.14 [W(-1) km(-1)]. To examine supercontinuum generation of the Si-NCs doped DSF, the femtosecond fiber laser with the pulse width of 150 fs (at 1560 nm) was launched into the fiber core. The output spectrum of the Si-NCs doped DSF was found to broaden from 1300 nm to wavelength well beyond 1700 nm, which can be attributed to the enhanced optical nonlinearity by Si-NCs embedded in the fiber core. The short wavelength of the supercontinuum spectrum in the Si-NCs doped DSF showed shift from 1352 nm to 1220 nm for the fiber length of 2.5 m and 200 m, respectively.

  11. Effective nonlinear AC response to composite with spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Gang; Liang Fang-Chu; Wei En-Bo

    2005-01-01

    An effective nonlinear alternative-current (AC) response to granular nonlinear-composite with spherical inclusions embedded in a host medium under the action of an external AC field is investigated by using a perturbation approach.The local potentials of composite at higher harmonics are derived both in a region of local inclusion particles and in a local host region under the action of a sinusoidal field E1 sinωt + E3sin3ωt. An effective nonlinear-response to composite and the relationship between the effective nonlinear-responses at the fundamental frequency and the third harmonics are also studied for the spherical inclusions in a dilute limit.

  12. Using Directional Diffusion Coefficients for Nonlinear Diffusion Acceleration of the First Order SN Equations in Near-Void Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans; Lou, Jijie; Wang, Yaqi; Ortensi, Javier; Gleicher, Frederick; Baker, Benjamin; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The common definition of the diffusion coeffcient as the inverse of three times the transport cross section is not compat- ible with voids. Morel introduced a non-local tensor diffusion coeffcient that remains finite in voids[1]. It can be obtained by solving an auxiliary transport problem without scattering or fission. Larsen and Trahan successfully applied this diffusion coeffcient for enhancing the accuracy of diffusion solutions of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) problems that feature large, optically thin channels in the z-direction [2]. It is demonstrated that a significant reduction of error can be achieved in particular in the optically thin region. Along the same line of thought, non-local diffusion tensors are applied modeling the TREAT reactor confirming the findings of Larsen and Trahan [3]. Previous work of the authors have introduced a flexible Nonlinear-Diffusion Acceleration (NDA) method for the first order S N equations discretized with the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM), [4], [5], [6]. This NDA method uses a scalar diffusion coeffcient in the low-order system that is obtained as the flux weighted average of the inverse transport cross section. Hence, it su?ers from very large and potentially unbounded diffusion coeffcients in the low order problem. However, it was noted that the choice of the diffusion coeffcient does not influence consistency of the method at convergence and hence the di?usion coeffcient is essentially a free parameter. The choice of the di?usion coeffcient does, however, affect the convergence behavior of the nonlinear di?usion iterations. Within this work we use Morel’s non-local di?usion coef- ficient in the aforementioned NDA formulation in lieu of the flux weighted inverse of three times the transport cross section. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that significant en- hancement of the spectral properties of NDA can be achieved in near void regions. For testing the spectral properties of the NDA

  13. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  14. 基于广义相关系数的后非线性盲信号分离算法%Blind source separation algorithm for post-nonlinear mixture based on generalized correlation coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤彪; 黄高明; 刘德志; 陶涛

    2012-01-01

    According to the problem that the independence criterion based on the minimization of mutual information is not normalized, a blind source separation(BSS) algorithm for post-nonlinear mixture(PNL) based on general correlation coefficient is introduced in this paper. Firstly, the PNL is taken as an indraft point to summarize this algorithm, which is the more practicable approximation to realism rather than linear model, meanwhile the independence criterion based on the generalized correlation coefficient is discussed. Then score function based on a Gram-Charlier expansion of densities is proposed. Finally, combined with the steepest descent method, the computations of regular matrix and parametric nonlinear mapping are given. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in BSS for the PNL and for the quantitative analysis of nonlinear correlation between variables.%基于互信息最小化的独立性测度对各分离信号间的非线性相关度度量没有归一化的问题,提出一种基于广义相关系数的肓信号分离(BSS)算法.首先选取后非线性混叠模型(PNL)分析基于广义相关系数的独立性测度;然后采用Gram-Charlier扩展形式估计输出参数并获取评价几率函数,结合最陡下降法求得分离矩阵和参数化可逆非线性映射的算法迭代公式.仿真结果表明,采用所提出的算法能够定量分析各分离信号间的非线性相关程度,有效分离后非线性混叠信号.

  15. Computation of the effective nonlinear mechanical response of lattice materials considering geometrical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNady, Khaled; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is presently developed in the framework of geometrical nonlinearities to derive the large strains effective elastic response of network materials viewed as repetitive beam networks. This works extends the small strains homogenization method developed with special emphasis on textile structures in Goda et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 61(12):2537-2565, 2013). A systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of these structures in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the chosen equivalent continuum. Internal scale effects of the initially discrete structure are captured by the consideration of a micropolar effective continuum model. Applications to the large strain response of 3D hexagonal lattices and dry textiles exemplify the powerfulness of the proposed method. The effective mechanical responses obtained for different loadings are validated by FE simulations performed over a representative unit cell.

  16. On the micropolar flow in a circular pipe: the effects of the viscosity coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the stationary flow of incompressible micropolar fluid through a thin cylindrical pipe governed by the pressure drop between pipe's ends. Its goal is to investigate the influence of the viscosity coefficients on the effective flow. Depending on the magnitude of viscosity coefficients with respect to the pipe's thickness, it derives different asymptotic models and discusses their properties.

  17. Fractal scaling of effective diffusion coefficient of solute in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fractal approach is used to derive a power law relation betweeneffective diffusion coefficient of solute in porous media and the geometry parameter characterizing the media. The results are consistent with the empirical equations analogous to Archie'slaw and are expected to be applied to prediction of effective diffusion coefficient.

  18. Determination of effective heat transport coefficients for wall-cooled packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borkink, J.G.H.; Borkink, J.G.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence is studied of several assumptions, often made in literature, on the values for the effective radial heat conductivity, wall heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient, as obtained from experiments in wall-cooled packed beds without a chemical reaction. Especially t

  19. Effective stresses and shear failure pressure from in situ Biot's coefficient, Hejre Field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regel, Jeppe Bendix; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2017-01-01

    , is significantly different from 1. The log-derived Biot's coefficient is above 0.8 in the Shetland Chalk Group and in the Tyne Group, and 0.6-0.8 in the Heno Sandstone Formation. We show that the effective vertical and horizontal stresses obtained using the log-derived Biot's coefficient result in a drilling...

  20. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiloglu, M.A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çipilolu, M. A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M.

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters.

  2. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and optically detected electrophonon resonance in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires with different confined phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Doan Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Hoi, Bui Dinh

    2017-03-01

    A quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with confined phonons is used to investigate the nonlinear absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave by electrons in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires. The analytic expression for absorption coefficient is calculated for three models of confined optical phonons: the dielectric continuum (DC), hydrodynamic continuum (HC), and Huang-Zhu (HZ) models. The absorption coefficient depends on the square of the electromagnetic wave amplitude. The electrophonon resonance and optically detected electrophonon resonance (ODEPR) are observed through the absorption spectrum. The full width at half maximum (the line-width) of the ODEPR peaks is obtained by a computational method. The line-width is found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing the quantum wire radius. In particular, numerical results show that the DC and HZ models lead to a similar behaviour of electron - confined phonon interaction whereas the HC model results in a quite different one, especially at small quantum wire radius. For large quantum wire radii, above mentioned phonon models have equivalent contributions to the ODEPR line-width.

  3. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary energy on energy partitioning coefficients of female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J

    2015-10-01

    With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( Birds fed the HE diet were more efficient, with a lower RME than birds on the LE diet (-0.63 vs. 0.63 kcal/kg), translating to ME of 135.2 and 136.5 kcal

  4. Effective diffusion coefficient of biological liquids in porous calcium phosphate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, N. N.; Knyazeva, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    The study offers a method to estimate effective diffusion coefficients for transfer of biological liquids in porous materials. The method is based on the analysis of areas occupied by pores and solid materials on slice images. The possibility is shown for ascertaining a correlation between the effective coefficient and technological conditions because different structure and porosity are observed experimentally. The correlations of effective diffusion coefficients with the production voltage for different coating-base compositions, on which the coating was grown, have been built.

  5. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  6. Gluon bremsstrahlung by heavy quarks - its effects on transport coefficients and equilibrium distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumder, Surasree; Alam, Jan-e

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gluon radiation by charm quarks on the transport coefficients {\\it e.g.} drag, longitudinal and transverse diffusion and shear viscosity have been studied within the ambit of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) and kinetic theory. We found that while the soft gluon radiation has substantial effects on the transport coefficients of the charm quarks in the quark gluon plasma its effects on the equilibrium distribution function is insignificant.

  7. Competition-similarity relationships and the nonlinearity of competitive effects in consumer-resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A; Rueffler, Claus; Dinnage, Russell

    2008-10-01

    Much previous ecological and evolutionary theory about exploitative competition for a continuous spectrum of resources has used the Lotka-Volterra model with competition coefficients given by a Gaussian function of niche separation. Using explicit consumer-resource models, we show that the Lotka-Volterra model and the assumption of a Gaussian competition-similarity relationship both fail to reflect the impact of strong resource depletion, which typically reduces the influence of the most heavily used resources on the competitive interaction. Taking proper account of resource depletion reveals that strong exploitative competition between efficient consumers is usually a highly nonlinear interaction, implying that a single measure is no longer sufficient to characterize the process. The nonlinearity usually entails weak coupling of competing species when their abundances are high and equal. Rare invaders are likely to have effects on abundant residents much larger than those of the resident on the invader. Asymmetrical utilization curves often produce asymmetrical competition coefficients. Competition coefficients are typically non-Gaussian and are often nonmonotonic functions of niche separation. Utilization curve shape and resource growth functions can have major effects on competition-similarity relationships. A variety of previous theoretical findings need to be reassessed in light of these results.

  8. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  9. Dissipation Effects on MHD Nonlinear Flow and Heat Transfer Past a Porous Surface with Prescribed Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscous and Joule dissipation effects are considered on MHD nonlinear flow and heat transfer past a stretching porous surface embedded in a porous medium under a transverse magnetic field. Analytical solutions of highly nonlinear momentum equation and confluent hypergeometric similarity solution of heat transfer equations in the case when the plate stretches with velocity varying linearly with distance are obtained. The effect of various parameters like suction parameter, Prandtl number, Magnetic parameter, and Eckert number entering into the velocity field, temperature distribution and skin friction co-efficient at the wall are discussed with the aid of graphs.

  10. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Craig Steven

    Third order nonlinear optical effects in conjugated materials were studied using two different spectroscopic methods, third harmonic generation and two photon absorption. The third harmonic generation spectra of cis-polyacetylene, trans-polyacetylene, oriented trans-polyacetylene, three isomers of polyaniline, cis and trans-polyacetylene in polyvinyl butyral, polyheptdadiester, polyheptadiketone, and MEH-PPV/polyethylene blends were measured. The nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with structural order, and is enhanced by the presence of a degenerate ground state. The magnitude of the susceptibility reaches as high as 10^{-7} esu, which is sufficient for the creation of all-optical nonlinear devices. The two photon absorption spectrum of oriented transpolyacetylene was measured using nonlinear photothermal deflection. The spectrum reveals directly the Ag state at 1.1 eV in trans-polyacetylene, and reveals another Ag state at higher energy. The magnitude of the two photon absorption is large enough to rule out using trans-polyacetylene in serial all-optical nonlinear devices; all-optical devices made from conjugated polymers must be parallel, not serial. A new figure of merit for nonlinear devices was proposed.

  11. Gravitational-wave tail effects to quartic non-linear order

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Tanguy; Faye, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational-wave tails are due to the backscattering of linear waves onto the space-time curvature generated by the total mass of the matter source. The dominant tails correspond to quadratic non-linear interactions and arise at the one-and-a-half post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order in the gravitational waveform. Also known are the "tails-of-tails", which are cubically non-linear effects appearing at the 3PN order in the waveform. Here we derive still higher non-linear tail effects, namely those associated with quartic non-linear interactions or "tails-of-tails-of-tails", which are shown to arise at the 4.5PN order. As an application we obtain at that order the complete coefficient in the total gravitational-wave energy flux of compact binary systems moving on circular orbits. Our result perfectly agrees with black-hole perturbation calculations in the limit of extreme mass ratio of the two compact objects.

  12. Effect of molecular diameters on state-to-state transport properties: The shear viscosity coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2015-09-01

    Shear viscosity coefficient is calculated for both equilibrium and strongly non-equilibrium state-to-state vibrational distributions taking into account increasing diameters of vibrationally excited molecules. Under conditions of local thermal equilibrium, the effect of vibrational excitation on the shear viscosity coefficient is found to be negligible for temperatures below 5000 K. For T > 10 000 K, the contribution of excited states becomes important. Under non-equilibrium conditions characteristic for shock heated and supersonic expanding flows vibrational level populations deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution. Nevertheless, estimated coupled effect of molecular size and non-Boltzmann distributions on the shear viscosity coefficient is negligible.

  13. Research of secondary effects in nonlinear radio-location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zinchenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The basic setting of nonlinear radio-locator (NR in the field of technical guarding is the searching, identification and localization of radio-electronic mortgage devices − semiconductor nonlinear scatterers (NS. Statement of the problem. The NR efficiency increasing is possible by minimization of such factors influence as: presence of obstacle structures "metal-oxide-metal" (МОМ-structures in the investigated medium and presence of parasitic directional pattern lobe of emitting antenna. The analysis of nonlinear scatterers secondary unmasking features is considered. All possible regularities of the course of the phenomena and processes in the investigated medium, that are the consequence of nonlinear areas of NS semiconductor structures characteristics change (distortion under sounding radiation, are considered. Principal part. Researches showed that theoretically discovered effective radius change effect of nonlinear products dispersion of nonlinear scatterer response signal at the varying of nonlinear radio-locator sounding signal (SS power-level  allows to investigate the phenomenon of semiconductor structures characteristics of NS distortion at the action of relatively powerful ultrahigh frequency field. The effective radius change of nonlinear products dispersion of NS response signal at varying of exposing signal power-level is experimentally confirmed, which proves the possibility and expediency of the secondary unmasked features practice use for the search, identification and localization of NS in the technical guarding field: −     the area of looping appearance effect on functional dependence of response signal multiple harmonic level  from the sounding signal power-level [3]; −     effect of processes inertiality of semiconductor structures volt-ampere characteristics distortion [4]; −     phenomena of cross-correlation dependence of response signal chaotic state degree from the sounding signal

  14. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  15. Controlling ultrafast currents by the non-linear photogalvanic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femto-second optical laser pulses. Ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast DC currents that can be viewed as a non-linear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity I_c ~ 3.8*10^13 W/cm2. We trace this switching to the transition from non-linear polarization currents to the tunneling excitation regime. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. We find the ultrafast current control by the non-linear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to laser-pulse shape and carrier-envelope phase.

  16. Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.

  17. Zeno effect and switching of solitons in nonlinear couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaev, F Kh; Konotop, V V; Ögren, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    The Zeno effect is investigated for soliton type pulses in a nonlinear directional coupler with dissipation. The effect consists in increase of the coupler transparency with increase of the dissipative losses in one of the arms. It is shown that localized dissipation can lead to switching...

  18. RANS SIMULATION OF HYDROFOIL EFFECTS ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF A PLANING CATAMARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Najafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of high-speed crafts’ hydrodynamic coefficients will help to analyze the dynamics of these kinds of vessels and the factors affecting their dynamic stabilities. Also, it can be useful and effective in controlling the vessel instabilities. The main purpose of this study is to determine the coefficients of longitudinal motions of a planing catamaran with and without a hydrofoil using RANS method to evaluate the foil effects on them. Determination of hydrodynamic coefficients by experimental approach is costly, and requires meticulous laboratory equipment; therefore, utilizing numerical methods and developing a virtual laboratory seems highly efficient. In the present study, the numerical results for hydrodynamic coefficients of a high-speed craft are verified against Troesch’s (1992 experimental results. In the following, after determination of hydrodynamic coefficients of a planing catamaran with and without foil, the foil effects on its hydrodynamic coefficients are evaluated. The results indicate that most of the coefficients are frequency independent especially at high frequencies.

  19. Effective dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides exponentially distributed in the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kimiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Ishigure, Nobuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City (Japan); Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Schlattl, Helmut [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In order to provide fundamental data required for dose evaluation due to environmental exposures, effective dose conversion coefficients, that is, the effective dose rate per unit activity per unit area, were calculated for a number of potentially important radionuclides, assuming an exponential distribution in ground, over a wide range of relaxation depths. The conversion coefficients were calculated for adults and a new-born baby on the basis of dosimetric methods that the authors and related researchers have previously developed, using Monte Carlo simulations and anthropomorphic computational phantoms. The differences in effective dose conversion coefficients due to body size between the adult and baby phantoms were found to lie within 50 %, for most cases; however, for some low energies, differences could amount to a factor of 3. The effective dose per unit source intensity per area was found to decrease by a factor of 2-5, for increasing relaxation depths from 0 to 5 g/cm{sup 2}, above a source energy of 50 keV. It is also shown that implementation of the calculated coefficients into the computation of the tissue weighting factors and the adult reference computational phantoms of ICRP Publication 103 does not significantly influence the effective dose conversion coefficients of the environment. Consequently, the coefficients shown in this paper could be applied for the evaluation of effective doses, as defined according to both recommendations of ICRP Publications 103 and 60. (orig.)

  20. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  1. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Freericks, J. K.; Zlatic, V.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent) electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unabl...

  2. Investigation of normal force and moment coefficients for an AUV at nonlinear angle of attack and sideslip range

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Barros, E.A. de; Dantas, J.L.D.; Pascoal, A.M.; Desa, E.S.

    . In the “PNA model” (Principles of Naval Architecture [27]), the interference between the fin and the bare hull is considered through the ef- fectiveaspect ratio, which is different from the geometric aspect ratio... of Naval Architecture. Jersey City, NJ: SNAME, 1988, vol. III, pp. 291–308. [29] H. J. Allen and E. W. Perkins, “A study on the effects of viscosity on flow over slender inclined bodies of revolution,” NACA Rep. 1048, 1951. [30] M. M. Munk, “The aerodynamic...

  3. Nonlinear Zeeman effect in photoassociation spectra of $^{40}$Ca near the $^3$P$_1$+$^1$S$_0$ asymptote

    CERN Document Server

    Tiemann, Eberhard; Pachomow, Evgenij; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the Zeeman effect of narrow photoassociation lines of $^{40}$Ca near the $^3$P$_1$ + $^1$S$_0$ asymptote. Using a coupled-channel model we find a nonlinear Zeeman effect that even at low fields of a few mT amounts to several kHz. With this model we analyze previous measurements and give corrected long range dispersion coefficients of the $^3\\Pi_{u}$ and $^3\\Sigma^+ _{u}$ states.

  4. Effect of scalar nonlinearity on zonal flow generation by Rossby waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Erokhin, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Tsypin, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of scalar nonlinearity on the generation of zonal flow by Rossby waves in shallow rotating fluid are considered. Zonal flows are generated via the action of Reynolds stress due to vector nonlinearity together with the effects of scalar nonlinearity. It is shown that the scalar nonlinearity r

  5. Tool for Studying the Effects of Range Restriction in Correlation Coefficient Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    AFHRL-TP-90-6 AIR FORCE TOOL FOR STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF RANGE RESTRICTION IN CORRELATION COEFFICIENT ESTIMATION H U Douglas E. JacksonM Eastern New...the Lftects of kange Restriction in Correlation Coefficient Estimation PE - 62703F PR - 7719 4. AUTHOR(S) TA - 18 Douglas E. Jackson WU - 46 Malcolm J...that one must try to estimate the correlation coefficient between two random variables X and Y in some population P using data taken f-om a

  6. Effects of Electron-Phonon Interaction on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Cylindrical Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU You-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The electron-phonon interaction influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption in cylindrical quantum wires (CQW) with an infinite confining potential are investigated. The optical absorption coefficients are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method, and the numerical results are presented for GaAs CQW. The results show that the electron-phonon interaction makes a distinct influence on optical absorption in CQW. The electron-phonon interaction on the wave functions of electron dominates the values of absorption coefficients and the correction of the electron-phonon effect on the energies of the electron makes the absorption peaks blue shift and become wider. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction influence on optical absorption with an infinite confining potential is different from that with a finite confining potential.

  7. A model selection method for nonlinear system identification based FMRI effective connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam; McGinnity, Thomas M; Benali, Habib

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a model selection algorithm for a nonlinear system identification method is proposed to study functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) effective connectivity. Unlike most other methods, this method does not need a pre-defined structure/model for effective connectivity analysis. Instead, it relies on selecting significant nonlinear or linear covariates for the differential equations to describe the mapping relationship between brain output (fMRI response) and input (experiment design). These covariates, as well as their coefficients, are estimated based on a least angle regression (LARS) method. In the implementation of the LARS method, Akaike's information criterion corrected (AICc) algorithm and the leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation method were employed and compared for model selection. Simulation comparison between the dynamic causal model (DCM), nonlinear identification method, and model selection method for modelling the single-input-single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems were conducted. Results show that the LARS model selection method is faster than DCM and achieves a compact and economic nonlinear model simultaneously. To verify the efficacy of the proposed approach, an analysis of the dorsal and ventral visual pathway networks was carried out based on three real datasets. The results show that LARS can be used for model selection in an fMRI effective connectivity study with phase-encoded, standard block, and random block designs. It is also shown that the LOO cross-validation method for nonlinear model selection has less residual sum squares than the AICc algorithm for the study.

  8. Nonlinear dispersion effects in elastic plates: numerical modelling and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Radecki, Rafal; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear features of elastic wave propagation have attracted significant attention recently. The particular interest herein relates to complex wave-structure interactions, which provide potential new opportunities for feature discovery and identification in a variety of applications. Due to significant complexity associated with wave propagation in nonlinear media, numerical modeling and simulations are employed to facilitate design and development of new measurement, monitoring and characterization systems. However, since very high spatio- temporal accuracy of numerical models is required, it is critical to evaluate their spectral properties and tune discretization parameters for compromise between accuracy and calculation time. Moreover, nonlinearities in structures give rise to various effects that are not present in linear systems, e.g. wave-wave interactions, higher harmonics generation, synchronism and | recently reported | shifts to dispersion characteristics. This paper discusses local computational model based on a new HYBRID approach for wave propagation in nonlinear media. The proposed approach combines advantages of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE). The methods are investigated in the context of their accuracy for predicting nonlinear wavefields, in particular shifts to dispersion characteristics for finite amplitude waves and secondary wavefields. The results are validated against Finite Element (FE) calculations for guided waves in copper plate. Critical modes i.e., modes determining accuracy of a model at given excitation frequency - are identified and guidelines for numerical model parameters are proposed.

  9. Nonlinear Effects in the Amplitude of Cosmological Density Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Fry, J N; Jaffe, Andrew H

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations, $\\sigma_8$, has been studied and estimated by analysing many cosmological observations. The values of the estimates vary considerably between the various probes. However, different estimators probe the value of $\\sigma_8$ in different cosmological scales and do not take into account the nonlinear evolution of the parameter at late times. We show that estimates of the amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations derived from cosmic flows are systematically higher than those inferred at early epochs because of nonlinear evolution at later times. Here we derive corrections to the value of $\\sigma_8$ and compare amplitudes after accounting for this effect.

  10. Estimate of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Reproductive Traits of Dairy Herds in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gholizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the inbreeding coefficient and its effect on reproductive performance of dairy cows (age at first calving, calving interval and open days in Isfahan province. Records of 31,977 (primiparous cows, 36,982 and 51,423 (multiparous cows for age at first calving, calving interval and open days were used, respectively. The inbreeding coefficients of animals were calculated using pedigree information of 78,425 females and 8,056 males, which were born from 1963 to 2009. The overall mean and maximum inbreeding coefficients in Holstein cows were 2.33% and 31.30%, respectively. The results showed that 57,234 animals were inbred with 3.57% inbreeding coefficient. Regression coefficients on inbreeding coefficient for age at first calving, calving interval and open days were 0.589±0.21, 1.08±0.15 and 0.27±12, respectively. Estimated inbreeding indicated significantly negative effect on the reproductive traits in different parturition periods. The results revealed that the average inbreeding trend was increased in the dairy herds. The increased inbreeding was due to close mating systems between the candidates, and it showed negative effects on the reproductive traits in Isfahan dairy herds.

  11. Study On Nonlinear effect In 2D Plastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, D.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike the perfect elastic, homogeneous and isotropic model, the properties of real earth media are heterogeneous, plastic and anisotropic to a certain extend. To accurately simulate the strong ground motion in a basin, nonlinear or plastic effect should be considered in simulation. In this study, we use DRP/opt MacCormack non-staggered finite difference method to simulate 2D seismic wave propagation in anisotropic and plastic media. Compared with the traditional staggered grid FDM, this scheme is more accurate and more efficient. We focus on the nonlinear character of the sedimentary basin model. The preliminary ground motion results indicate that the energy of seismic wave has obvious nonlinear dissipation and irreversible deformations which is danger to buildings in the sedimentary basin.

  12. Effective Dielectric Response of Nonlinear Composites of Coated Metal Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Qing; WU Ya-Min

    2007-01-01

    The effective dielectric response of the composites in which nondilute coated metal particles are randomly embedded in a linear host is investigated. Two types of coated particles are considered, one is that the core is nonlinear, the other is that the shell is nonlinear. We derive general expressions for the effective linear dielectric function and the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and take one step forward to perform numerical calculations on the coated metal/dielectric composites. Numerical results show that the effective linear and nonlinear dielectric responses can be greatly enhanced near the surface plasmon resonant frequency. Moreover, the resonant peaks are found within a range from 0.46ωp to 0.57ωp for spherical particles and from 0.59ωp to 0.7ωp for cylindrical inclusions. In the frequency region, the resonant peak can achieve the maximum, according to an optimal structural parameter and volume fraction. The resonant frequency exhibits a redshift with the increasing structural parameter k or volume fraction f or dimensionality factor D.

  13. Conditional linear-optical measurement schemes generate effective photon nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Lapaire, G G; Dowling, J P; Sipe, J E; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general approach for the analysis of optical state evolution under conditional measurement schemes, and identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for such schemes to simulate unitary evolution on the freely propagating modes. If such unitary evolution holds, an effective photon nonlinearity can be identified. Our analysis extends to conditional measurement schemes more general than those based solely on linear optics.

  14. Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.

  15. Measuring the Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Matthes; Regis Barnichon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify the non-linear effects of structural shocks by using Gaussian basis functions to parametrize impulse response functions. We apply our approach to monetary policy and find that the effect of a monetary intervention depends strongly on (i) the sign of the intervention, (ii) the size of the intervention, and (iii) the state of the business cycle at the time of the intervention. A contractionary policy has a strong adverse effect on output, much stronger t...

  16. The effect of magnetization and electric polarization on the anomalous transport coefficients of a chiral fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadooghi, N.; Tabatabaee, S. M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of finite magnetization and electric polarization on dissipative and non-dissipative (anomalous) transport coefficients of a chiral fluid are studied. First, using the second law of thermodynamics as well as Onsager’s time-reversal symmetry principle, the complete set of dissipative transport coefficients of this medium is derived. It is shown that the properties of the resulting shear and bulk viscosities are mainly affected by the anisotropy induced by external electric and magnetic fields. Then, using the fact that the anomaly induced currents do not contribute to entropy production, the corresponding algebro-differential equations to non-dissipative anomalous transport coefficients are derived in a certain derivative expansion. The solutions of these equations show that, within this approximation, anomalous transport coefficients are, in particular, given in terms of the electric susceptibility of the medium.

  17. Coefficient of restitution dependence of intruder rise time in two-dimensional Brazil-nut effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesuma, T.; Aji, D. P. Purwa; Viridi, S.; Suprijadi

    2016-04-01

    Brazil-Nut Effect (BNE) is a granular material phenomenon, where larger grains (usually known as intruder) rise to the top when the granular system vibrated. We observe a single intruder rise time of BNE phenomenon in a two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of hard spheres collision scheme. Some experiments have shown that some granular properties, such as size and density ratio, play an important role to determine the rise time. However, other property, such as coefficients of restitution, is considered not to have a measurable impact. We explore the intruder inelasticity dependence of the rise time by varying its coefficient of restitution. We found that the intruder rise time tends to be flat for relatively high coefficient of restitution and increases exponentially below a certain deflecting point for low coefficient of restitution. This holds for specific mass ratio.

  18. Effect of perfectly matched layer reflection coefficient on modal analysis of leaky waveguide modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Hung-chun

    2011-01-17

    The reflection coefficient is one important parameter of the perfectly matched layer (PML). Here we investigate its effect on the modal analysis of leaky waveguide modes by examining three different leaky waveguide structures, i.e., the holey fiber, the air-core terahertz pipe waveguide, and the gain-guided and index-antiguided slab waveguide. Numerical results reveal that the typical values 10(-8) ~10(-12) are inadequate for obtaining the imaginary part of the complex propagation constant, and the suggested reflection coefficient would be much smaller, for example, 10(-50) or 10(-100). With such a small coefficient, both the computational window size and the PML thickness can be significantly reduced without loss of stability. Moreover, in some cases, the modal field profiles can only be accurately obtained with such a small coefficient.

  19. Experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the Lamb waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Mingxi; D.C. Price; D.A.Scott

    2004-01-01

    The experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been reported. Firstly, the brief descriptions have been made for the nonlinear acoustic measurement system developed by Ritec. The detailed considerations for the acoustic experiment system established for observing of the nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been carried out. Especially, the analysis focuses on the time-domain responses of second harmonics of the primary Lame waves by employing a straightforward model. Based on the existence conditions of strong nonlinearity of the primary Lamb waves, the wedge transducers are designed to generate and detect the primary and secondary waves on the surface of an aluminum sheet. For the different distances between the transmitting and receiving wedge transducers,the amplitudes of the primary waves and the second harmonics on the sheet surface have been measured within a specified frequency range. In the immediate vicinity of the driving frequency,where the primary and the double frequency Lamb waves have the same phase velocities, the quantitative relations of second-harmonic amplitudes with the propagation distance have been analyzed. It is experimentally verified that the second harmonics of the primary Lamb waves do have a cumulative growth effect along with the propagation distance.

  20. Nonlinear dielectric effects in liquids: a guided tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Ranko

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements probe how the polarization of a material responds to the application of an external electric field, providing information on structure and dynamics of the sample. In the limit of small fields and thus linear response, such experiments reveal the properties of the material in the same thermodynamic state it would have in the absence of the external field. At sufficiently high fields, reversible changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system occur even at constant temperature, and these will in turn alter the polarization responses. The resulting nonlinear dielectric effects feature field induced suppressions (saturation) and enhancements (chemical effect) of the amplitudes, as well as time constant shifts towards faster (energy absorption) and slower (entropy reduction) dynamics. This review focuses on the effects of high electric fields that are reversible and observed at constant temperature for single component glass-forming liquids. The experimental challenges involved in nonlinear dielectric experiments, the approaches to separating and identifying the different sources of nonlinear behavior, and the current understanding of how high electric fields affect dielectric materials will be discussed. Covering studies from Debye’s initial approach to the present state-of-the-art, it will be emphasized what insight can be gained from the nonlinear responses that are not available from dielectric relaxation results obtained in the linear regime.

  1. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  2. Effective grid-dependent dispersion coefficient for conservative and reactive transport simulations in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinez, J. M.; Valocchi, A. J.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the finite size of numerical grids, it is very difficult to correctly account for processes that occur at different spatial scales to accurately simulate the migration of conservative and reactive compounds dissolved in groundwater. In one hand, transport processes in heterogeneous porous media are controlled by local-scale dispersion associated to transport processes at the pore-scale. On the other hand, variations of velocity at the continuum- or Darcy-scale produce spreading of the contaminant plume, which is referred to as macro-dispersion. Furthermore, under some conditions both effects interact, so that spreading may enhance the action of local-scale dispersion resulting in higher mixing, dilution and reaction rates. Traditionally, transport processes at different spatial scales have been included in numerical simulations by using a single dispersion coefficient. This approach implicitly assumes that the separate effects of local-dispersion and macro-dispersion can be added and represented by a unique effective dispersion coefficient. Moreover, the selection of the effective dispersion coefficient for numerical simulations usually do not consider the filtering effect of the grid size over the small-scale flow features. We have developed a multi-scale Lagragian numerical method that allows using two different dispersion coefficients to represent local- and macro-scale dispersion. This technique considers fluid particles that carry solute mass and whose locations evolve according to a deterministic component given by the grid-scale velocity and a stochastic component that corresponds to a block-effective macro-dispersion coefficient. Mass transfer between particles due to local-scale dispersion is approximated by a meshless method. We use our model to test under which transport conditions the combined effect of local- and macro-dispersion are additive and can be represented by a single effective dispersion coefficient. We also demonstrate that for

  3. Research on the horizontal curve's radius under coupling effects of uneven adhesion coefficient and crosswind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of uneven adhesion coefficient and crosswind on alignment design indexes, a six-axle semi-trailer is selected as the typical vehicle model to investigate the effects of uneven adhesion coefficient caused by superelevation under the condition of rainfall on the truck's lateral stability, quantifying the crosswind using TruckSim. Based on the basic theory of vehicle dynamics, vehicle safety driving model is established. Also, the minimum radius is calculated with the consideration of uneven adhesion coefficient and crosswind. The results show that the effects of uneven adhesion coefficient and crosswind on the truck's lateral stability increase with the increasing of the truck's speed. Truck's lateral slide instability begins to appear when crosswind grade grows up to 9 or above. According to sensitive analysis, speed, rainfall, crosswind, and the interaction of the speed and rainfall have significant influences on the truck's lateral stability. The results quantify the effects of uneven adhesion coefficient and crosswind on truck's lateral stability. The advised index for horizontal curve design control is proposed, which provides a good reference for road safety design and safety protective measures. It can also provide theoretical basis and guidelines for highway safe operation in the windy and rainy areas.

  4. Effect of electron beam on structural, linear and nonlinear properties of nanostructured Fluorine doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Albin; Pramodini, S.; Kityk, I. V.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; Douayar, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, F.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Manjunatha, K. B.; Poornesh, P.

    2017-10-01

    Electron beam induced effects on Fluorine doped ZnO thin films (FZO) grown by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique were studied. The samples were exposed to 8 MeV electron beam at different dose rate ranging from 1 kGy to 4 kGy. All films exhibit a polycrystalline nature which shows an increase in crystallanity with irradiation dosages. The electron beam irradiation effectively controls the films surface morphology and its linear optical characteristics. Z-Scan technique was employed to evaluate the sign and magnitude of nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient using a continuous wave laser at 632.8 nm as light source. Enhancement in the third order nonlinear optical properties was were noted due to electron beam irradiation. Tailoring the physical and NLO properties by electron beam, the FZO thin films becomes a promising candidate for various optoelectronic applications such as phase change memory devices, optical pulse compression, optical switching and laser pulse narrowing.

  5. Random effects coefficient of determination for mixed and meta-analysis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Eugene; Sargent, James; Onega, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of a mixed model is the presence of random effects. We have developed a coefficient, called the random effects coefficient of determination, [Formula: see text], that estimates the proportion of the conditional variance of the dependent variable explained by random effects. This coefficient takes values from 0 to 1 and indicates how strong the random effects are. The difference from the earlier suggested fixed effects coefficient of determination is emphasized. If [Formula: see text] is close to 0, there is weak support for random effects in the model because the reduction of the variance of the dependent variable due to random effects is small; consequently, random effects may be ignored and the model simplifies to standard linear regression. The value of [Formula: see text] apart from 0 indicates the evidence of the variance reduction in support of the mixed model. If random effects coefficient of determination is close to 1 the variance of random effects is very large and random effects turn into free fixed effects-the model can be estimated using the dummy variable approach. We derive explicit formulas for [Formula: see text] in three special cases: the random intercept model, the growth curve model, and meta-analysis model. Theoretical results are illustrated with three mixed model examples: (1) travel time to the nearest cancer center for women with breast cancer in the U.S., (2) cumulative time watching alcohol related scenes in movies among young U.S. teens, as a risk factor for early drinking onset, and (3) the classic example of the meta-analysis model for combination of 13 studies on tuberculosis vaccine.

  6. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  7. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  8. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Jbara; Zulkafli, Othaman; M, A. Saeed

    2016-05-01

    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, Ibnu Sina Institute and Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM RUG Vote No. 06-H14).

  9. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  10. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.

    2016-11-01

    If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)

  11. The effect of structural coefficient on stiffness and deformation of hydrostatic guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhifeng; Qiao, Zheng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Bo; Wu, Yangong

    2016-10-01

    Hydrostatic guideway has been widely used for ultra-precision machine tools due to its high stiffness and motion accuracy. In order to optimize the stiffness and motion accuracy of hydrostatic guideway, the effect of different diameters orifice restrictors on the stiffness and deformation of hydrostatic guideway is investigated in detail in this paper. The theoretically optimal structural coefficient is verified through the experiments. Hydrostatic guideway can obtain the maximum stiffness when the value of optimal structural coefficient is 0.707. And changing the diameter of orifice restrictors is an effective method to adjusting the structural coefficient. Due to the error caused by manufacture and assembly of hydrostatic guideway, the optimal structural coefficient is hard to be obtained accurately. Based on this condition, a larger structural coefficient is adopted to reduce the oil pressure in the pocket of hydrostatic guideway effectively, so that the deformation of guideway can be reduced. And finally, the stiffness loss caused by the deformation decreased. In addition, the experimental results show that the maximum deformation of hydrostatic guideway can be reduced from 2.06μm to 1.82μm and the stiffness arise from 1453N/μm to 1855N/μm when orifice restrictors with 0.15mm diameter are used rather than 0.2mm diameter.

  12. Silica holey fibres: fabrication and nonlinear effects

    OpenAIRE

    Belardi, W.; Monro, T.M.; Lee, J.H.; Yusoff, Z.; Price, J.H.V.; Malinowski, A.; Piper, A; Richardson, D J

    2002-01-01

    Holey fibres (HFs) [1] have emerged as a novel class of optical fibres which can provide completely new optical properties, such as endlessly single mode operation and novel dispersion properties as anomalous dispersion below 1.3µm, broadband flat dispersion and highly normal dispersion at 1.55µm. Moreover by changing the HF parameters (i.e. hole and core size), it is possible to fabricate HFs with an effective area so high as 800µm2 or so low as approximately 1µm2 [2]. A holey fibre perform ...

  13. Effective Pyroelectric Coefficient and Polarization Offset of Compositionally Step-like Graded Ferroelectric Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hai-Xia; WU Yin-Zhong; LI Zhen-Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effective pyroelectric coefficient and polarization offset of the compositionally step-like graded multilayer ferroelectric structures have been studied by use of the first-principles approach. It is exhibited that the dielectric gradient has a nontrivial influence on the effective pyroelectric coefficient, but has a little influence on the polarization offset; and the polarization gradient plays an important role in the abnormal hysteresis loop phenomenon of the co.mpositionally step-like graded ferroelectric structures. Moreover, the origin of the polarization offset is explored,which can be attributed to the polarization gradient in the compositionally step-like graded structure.

  14. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  15. Effects of noise on the phase dynamics of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffertshofer, A.

    1998-07-01

    Various properties of human rhythmic movements have been successfully modeled using nonlinear oscillators. However, despite some extensions towards stochastical differential equations, these models do not comprise different statistical features that can be explained by nondynamical statistics. For instance, one observes certain lag one serial correlation functions for consecutive periods during periodic motion. This work aims at an extension of dynamical descriptions in terms of stochastically forced nonlinear oscillators such as ξ¨+ω20ξ=n(ξ,ξ˙)+q(ξ,ξ˙)Ψ(t), where the nonlinear function n(ξ,ξ˙) generates a limit cycle and Ψ(t) denotes colored noise that is multiplied via q(ξ,ξ˙). Nonlinear self-excited systems have been frequently investigated, particularly emphasizing stability properties and amplitude evolution. Thus, one can focus on the effects of noise on the frequency or phase dynamics that can be analyzed by use of time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. It can be shown that noise multiplied via polynoms of arbitrary finite order cannot generate the desired period correlation but predominantly results in phase diffusion. The system is extended in terms of forced oscillators in order to find a minimal model producing the required error correction.

  16. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  17. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  18. Long-Range Effects on the Pyroelectric Coefficient of Ferroelectric Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wen; YAO Dong-Lai; WU Yin-Zhong; LI Zhen-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Long-range effects on the pyroelectric coefficient of a ferroelectric superlattice consisting of two differentferroelectric materials are investigated based on the transverse Ising model. The effects of the interfacial coupling andthe thickness of one period on the pyroelectric coefficient of the ferroelectric superlattice are studied by taking intoaccount the long-range interaction. It is found that with the increase of the strength of the long-range interaction, thepyroelectric coefficient decreases when the temperature is lower than the phase transition temperature; the number ofthe pyroelectric peaks decreases gradually and the phase transition temperature increases. It is also found that with thedecrease of the interfacial coupling and the thickness of one period, the phase transition temperature and the number ofthe pyroelectric peaks decrease.

  19. Long—Range Effects on the Pyroelectric Coefficient of Ferroelectric Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGWen; WUYin-Zhong; 等

    2002-01-01

    Long-range effects on the pyroelectric coefficient of a ferroelectric superlattice consisting of two different ferroelectric materials are investigated based on the transverse Ising model.The effects of the interfacial coupling and the thickness of one period on the pyroelectric coefficient of the ferroelectric superlattics are studied by taking into account the long-range interaction.It is found that with the increase of the strength of the long-range interaction,the pyroelectric coefficient decreases when the temperature is lower than the phase transition temperature;the mumber of the pyroelectric peaks decreases gradually and the phase transition temperature increases,It is also found that with the decrease of the interfacial coupling and the thickness of one period.the phase transition temperature and the number of the pyroelectric peaks decrease.

  20. Investigation of La3+ Doping Effect on Piezoelectric Coefficients of BLT Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodecka-Dus B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of La3+ admixture in barium lanthanum titanate (BLT ceramics system with colossal permittivity on performance of prospective piezoelectric cold plasma application were studied. Usage of cold atmospheric pressure plasma appears promising in terms of industrial and healthcare applications. Performed investigation provide consistent evaluation of doping lanthanum amount on piezoelectric coefficients values with simultaneous capability of charge accumulation for effective plasma generation. Modification of ferroelectric materials with heterovalent ions, however with the lower radii than the original atoms, significantly affects their domain mobility and consequently electromechanical properties. To determine the piezoelectric coefficients, the resonance-antiresonance method was implemented, and values of piezoelectric and dielectric parameters were recorded. Finally the results indicated that addition of 0.4 mol.% of La3+ ions to the ceramic structure maximally increased the values of piezoelectric coefficient to d33 = 20 pC/N and to huge dielectric constant to ε33T = 29277.

  1. Cosmology in nonlinear multidimensional gravity and the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolokhov, S. V.; Bronnikov, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the possible cosmological models in Kaluza-Klein-type multidimensional gravity with a curvature-nonlinear Lagrangian and a spherical extra space, taking into account the Casimir energy. First, we find a minimum of the effective potential of extra dimensions, leading to a physically reasonable value of the effective cosmological constant in our 4D space-time. In this model, the huge Casimir energy density is compensated by a fine-tuned contribution of the curvature-nonlinear terms in the original action. Second, we present a viable model with slowly evolving extra dimensions and power-law inflation in our space-time. In both models, the results formulated in Einstein and Jordan frames are compared.

  2. New approximation for the effective energy of nonlinear conducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Torquato, Salvatore

    1998-07-01

    Approximations for the effective energy and, thus, effective conductivity of nonlinear, isotropic conducting dispersions are developed. This is accomplished by using the Ponte Castaneda variational principles [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 340, 1321 (1992)] and the Torquato approximation [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3790 (1985)] of the effective conductivity of corresponding linear composites. The results are obtained for dispersions with superconducting or insulating inclusions, and, more generally, for phases with a power-law energy. It is shown that the new approximations lie within the best available rigorous upper and lower bounds on the effective energy.

  3. Effects of barium on the nonlinear electrical characteristics and dielectric properties of SnO2-based varistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.

  4. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  5. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS ON EXPONENTIAL NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗序平; 赵俊; 王海斌; 韦博成

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a unified diagnostic method for exponential nonlinear models with random effects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991.The authors show that the case deletion model is equivalent to mean shift outlier model.From this point of view,several diagnostic measures,such as Cook distance,score statistics are derived.The local influence measure of Cook is also presented.Numerical example illustrates that our method is available.

  6. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS IN NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiBocheng; ZhongXuping

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper,a unified diagnostic method for the nonlinear models with random ef-fects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991 is presented. It is shown that thecase deletion model is equivalent to the mean shift outlier model. From this point of view ,sever-al diagnostic measures, such as Cook distance, score statistics are derived. The local influencemeasure of Cook is also presented. A numerical example illustrates that the method is avail-able

  7. Effect on effective diffusion coefficients and investigation of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togrul, Inci Turk; Ispir, Ayse [Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This article represents the results of the variation in density and shrinkage of apricots during its osmotic dehydration. Shrinkage was investigated by means of dimensionless volume, diameter and length. Various osmotic agents such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltodextrin and sorbitol were used. It was found that the shrinkage of apricots could be well correlated with the moisture content of the sample during osmotic dehydration. The relationship between dimensionless parameters and moisture content was investigated by using eight non-linear models for each osmotic agent. It was find that the following proposed model can be confidently use for explaining the effect of shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apricots.V/V{sub 0},D/D{sub 0},L/L{sub 0},{rho}/{rho}{sub 0}=a+b. exp (cX)+d. exp (e.X{sup f})In addition, the osmotic dehydration kinetics of apricots with and without shrinkage was studied. The effective diffusivities calculated from the diffusional model with and without shrinkage varied from 10.342 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s to 5.139 x 10{sup -9} and from 1.755 x 10{sup -10} and 0.767 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. (author)

  8. The influence of reactor core parameters on effective breeding coefficient Keff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li-Po; Liu Yi-Bao; Wang Juan; Yang Bo; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    The values of effective breeding coefficient Keff in a reactor core of nuclear power plant are calculated for different values of parameters (core structure, fuel assembly component) by using the Monte Carlo method. The obtained values of Keff are compared and analysed, which can provide theoretical basis for reactor design.

  9. Controlling ultrafast currents by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Floss, Isabella; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femtosecond optical laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast direct currents that can be viewed as a nonlinear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity of about {I}{{c}}˜ 3× {10}13 W cm-2. We trace this switching to the transition from nonlinear polarisation currents to the tunnelling excitation regime. The latter is found to be sensitive to the relative orientation between laser polarisation and chemical bonds. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. While two temporally separated laser pulses lead to currents along one direction their temporal overlap can reverse the current. We find the ultrafast current control by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to the laser-pulse shape and the carrier-envelope phase.

  10. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions left by bead in function of velocity and a sample surface roughness.

  11. Effect of Ionic Liquids on Organic Reactions Based on Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马征; 董晓霞; 胡玉峰; 张柏松; 徐长英; 刘艳升

    2013-01-01

    It is important to know how ILs (ionic liquids) influence organic reaction. In this paper, activity coeffi-cients at infinite dilution of more than 80 organic compounds in ILs are collected and analyzed systematically. Through the study on typical organic reactions happened in ILs, such as Diels-Alder, esterification and Friedel-Crafts reaction, the ratio of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of products and reactants is employed to estimate different effects of different structural ILs on the rate and selectivity of reactions.

  12. Grain size and film thickness effect on the thermal expansion coefficient of FCC metallic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seulgi; Kim, Youngman

    2011-08-01

    Thin films are used in wide range of applications in industry, such as solar cells and LEDs. When thin films are deposited on substrates, various stresses are generated due to the mechanical difference between the film and substrate. These stresses can cause defects, such as cracking and buckling. Therefore, knowledge of the mechanical properties is important for improving their reliability and stability. In this study, the thermal expansion coefficient of FCC metallic thin films, such as Ag and Cu, which have different grain sizes and thicknesses, were calculated using the thermal cycling method. As a result, thermal expansion coefficient increased with increasing grain size. However, the film thickness had no remarkable effect.

  13. On effective transport coefficients in PEM fuel cell electrodes: Anisotropy of the porous transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, J. G.; Karan, K.; Sun, W.

    This paper reviews the approach taken in the literature to model the effective transport coefficients - mass diffusivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and hydraulic permeability - of carbon-fibre based porous electrode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is concluded that current PEMFC model do not account for the inherent anisotropic microstructure of the fibrous electrodes. Simulations using a 2-D PEMFC cathode model show that neglecting the anisotropic nature and associated transport coefficients of the porous electrodes significantly influences both the nature and the magnitude of the model predictions. This emphasizes the need to appropriately characterize the relevant anisotropic properties of the fibrous electrode.

  14. On the effect of shear coefficients in free vibration analysis of curved beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Lee, Jae Kon; Yoon, Hyun Joong [Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We did a comparative study of shear coefficients in free vibration analysis of curved beams having circular and rectangular cross sections. Until recently, the shear coefficient k in Timoshenko beam theory has been studied by many researchers to include transverse shear deformation effect. To obtain more reliable numerical results, a higher-order hybrid-mixed curved beam element is formulated and programmed in MATLAB. The present numerical experiments show that k = 6(1+v){sup 2}/(7+12v+4v{sup 2}) is the best expression both for circular and rectangular cross-sections in the flexural vibration of curved beams.

  15. Effects of microscopic transport coefficients on fission observables calculated by the Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Ivanyuk, F. A.; Ishizuka, C.; Chiba, S.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fission is treated by using the Langevin dynamical description with macroscopic and microscopic transport coefficients (mass and friction tensors), and it is elucidated how the microscopic (shell and pairing) effects in the transport coefficients, especially their dependence on temperature, affects various fission observables. We found that the microscopic transport coefficients, calculated by linear response theory, change drastically as a function of temperature: in general, the friction increases with growing temperature while the mass tensor decreases. This temperature dependence brings a noticeable change in the mass distribution and kinetic energies of fission fragments from nuclei around 236U at an excitation energy of 20 MeV. The prescission kinetic energy decreases from 25 MeV at low temperature to about 2.5 MeV at high temperature. In contrast, the Coulomb kinetic energy increases as the temperature increases. Interpolating the microscopic transport coefficients among the various temperatures enabled our Langevin equation to use the microscopic transport coefficients at a deformation-dependent local temperature of the dynamical evolution. This allowed us to compare directly the fission observables of both macroscopic and microscopic calculations, and we found almost identical results under the conditions considered in this work.

  16. Effect of thickness on nonlinear absorption properties of graphite oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Cheruvalathu, Ajina; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Thomas, Sheenu; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report the thickness dependent structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of graphite oxide (GO) thin films synthesized by spin coating method. We observed that the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tuned by the film thickness in GO. The nonlinear absorption studies by open aperture z scan technique exhibited a saturable absorption. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity varies with film thickness which is attributed to increased localized defect states in the energy band gap. Our results emphasize relatively large thickness dependent optical nonlinearity of GO thin films and its potential for optical pulse generation, exploring the way to GO based nonlinear applications in Q switched mode locking laser systems. All the coated GO films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction method (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements.

  17. Effect of Opening the Sash of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window on Wind Pressure Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Wigö, Hans; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of outward opening the sash of a window on local and overall wind pressures. Wind tunnel experiments were used for the purpose of evaluation. A centre-pivot roof window on a pitched roof in a modelled scaled building was used in the analysis of wind pressures. The ...... pressure distribution nearby the window. The use of wind pressure coefficients from the analysis of sealed plain surface may lead to erroneous estimation of airflow rate.......This paper describes the effect of outward opening the sash of a window on local and overall wind pressures. Wind tunnel experiments were used for the purpose of evaluation. A centre-pivot roof window on a pitched roof in a modelled scaled building was used in the analysis of wind pressures....... The wind pressures were defined in terms of wind pressure coefficients. Traditionally wind pressure coefficients are extracted from the analysis of sealed plain surface. These wind pressure coefficients are used to estimate the natural ventilation rate through windows/openings due to wind effect. Surface...

  18. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  19. Non-linear effects for cylindrical gravitational two-soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Using a cylindrical soliton solution to the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation, we study non-linear effects of gravitational waves such as Faraday rotation and time shift phenomenon. In the previous work, we analyzed the single-soliton solution constructed by the Pomeransky's improved inverse scattering method. In this work, we construct a new two-soliton solution with complex conjugate poles, by which we can avoid light-cone singularities unavoidable in a single soliton case. In particular, we compute amplitudes of such non-linear gravitational waves and time-dependence of the polarizations. Furthermore, we consider the time shift phenomenon for soliton waves, which means that a wave packet can propagate at slower velocity than light.

  20. Nonlinear thermokinetic phenomena due to the Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2014-07-22

    We propose a novel mechanism to produce nonlinear thermokinetic vortex flows around a circular cylinder with ideally high thermal conductivity in an electrolyte. That is, the nonlinear thermokinetic slip velocity, which is proportional to the square of the temperature gradient [∇(T)0(2)], is derived based on the electrolyte Seebeck effect, heat conduction equation, and Helmholtz–Smoluchowski formula. Different from conventional linear thermokinetic theory, our theory predicts that the inversion of the temperature gradient does not change the direction of the thermokinetic flows and thus a Janus particle using this phenomenon can move to the both hotter and colder regions in a temperature gradient field by changing the direction of its dielectric end. Our findings bridge the gap between the electro- and thermo-kinetic phenomena and provide an integrated physical viewpoint for the interface science.

  1. Anharmonic effects in simple physical models: introducing undergraduates to nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Given the pervasive character of nonlinearity throughout the physical universe, a case is made for introducing undergraduate students to its consequences and signatures earlier rather than later. The dynamics of two well-known systems—a spring and a pendulum—are reviewed when the standard textbook linearising assumptions are relaxed. Some qualitative effects of nonlinearity can be anticipated from symmetry (e.g., inspection of potential energy functions), and further physical insight gained by applying a simple successive-approximation method that might be taught in parallel with courses on classical mechanics, ordinary differential equations, and computational physics. We conclude with a survey of how these ideas have been deployed on programmes at a UK university.

  2. Doppler effect of nonlinear waves and superspirals in oscillatory media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, Lutz; Torcini, Alessandro; Bär, Markus

    2003-09-01

    Nonlinear waves emitted from a moving source are studied. A meandering spiral in a reaction-diffusion medium provides an example in which waves originate from a source exhibiting a back-and-forth movement in a radial direction. The periodic motion of the source induces a Doppler effect that causes a modulation in wavelength and amplitude of the waves ("superspiral"). Using direct simulations as well as numerical nonlinear analysis within the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we show that waves subject to a convective Eckhaus instability can exhibit monotonic growth or decay as well as saturation of these modulations depending on the perturbation frequency. Our findings elucidate recent experimental observations concerning superspirals and their decay to spatiotemporal chaos.

  3. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  4. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal

  5. Effect of internal coolant crossflow orientation on the discharge coefficient of shaped film-cooling holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsch, M.; Saumweber, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.; Sharp, E.

    2000-01-01

    Discharge coefficients of three film-cooling hole geometries are presented over a wide range of engine like conditions. The hole geometries comprise a cylindrical hole and two holes with a diffuser-shaped exit portion (a fanshaped and a laidback fanshaped hole). For all three hole geometries the hole axis was inclined 30 deg with respect to the direction of the external (hot gas) flow. The flow conditions considered were the hot gas crossflow Mach number (up to 0.6), the coolant crossflow Mach number (up to 0.6) and the pressure ratio across the hole (up to 2). The effect of internal crossflow approach direction, perpendicular or parallel to the main flow direction, is particularly addressed in the present study. Comparison is made of the results for a parallel and perpendicular orientation, showing that the coolant crossflow orientation has a strong impact on the discharge behavior of the different hole geometries. The discharge coefficients were found to strongly depend on both hole geometry and crossflow conditions. Furthermore, the effects of internal and external crossflow on the discharge coefficients were described by means of correlations used to derive a predicting scheme for discharge coefficients. A comparison between predictions and measurements reveals the capability of the method proposed.

  6. Temperature dependent effective friction coefficient estimation in friction stir welding with the bobbin tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction coefficient in many friction stir welding researches is generally used as an effective, constant value without concern on the adaptable and changeable nature of the friction during welding sequence. This is understandable because the main problem in analyzing friction in friction stir welding are complex nature of the friction processes, case-dependent and time dependent contact between the bodies, influence of the temperature, sliding velocity, etc. This paper is presenting a complex experimental-numerical-analytical model for estimating the effective friction coefficient on contact of the bobbin tool and welding plates during welding, considering the temperature at the contact as the most influencing parameter on friction. The estimation criterion is the correspondence of the experimental temperature and temperature from the numerical model. The estimation procedure is iterative and parametric - the heat transport parameters and friction coefficient are adapted during the estimation procedure in a realistic manner to achieve relative difference between experimental and model’s temperature lower than 3%. The results show that friction coefficient varies from 0.01 to 0.21 for steel-aluminium alloy contact and temperature range from 406°C to 22°C.

  7. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-09-15

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  8. Single-particle And Collective Effects Of Cubic Nonlinearity In The Beam Dynamics Of Proton Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tran Hy, J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes some new studies of the effects of cubic nonlinearities arising from image-charge forces and octupole magnets on the transverse beam dynamics of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, and also a study of the damping of coherent oscillations using a feed-back damper. In the latter case, various corrective algorithms were modeled using linear one-turn maps. Kicks of fixed amplitude but appropriate sign were shown to provide linear damping and no coherent tune shift, though the rate predicted analytically was somewhat higher than that observed in simulations. This algorithm gave much faster damping (for equal power) than conventional proportional kicks, which damp exponentially. Two single-particle effects of the image-change force were investigated: distortion of the momentum dispersion function and amplitude dependence of the betatron tunes (resulting in tune spread). The former is calculated using transfer maps and the method of undetermined coefficients, the latter by solving the cubic ...

  9. Negative and nonlinear magnetoresistance effect in silicon strip

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fangcong; Guo, Hui; Fan, Xiaolong; Li, Zhankui

    2016-01-01

    Both negative magnetoresistance and nonlinear magnetoresisitance were observed in silicon strip nuclear radiation detector in room temperature if we applied high magnetic field intensity in different direction. This result is different with former report. We believe this is the result of coaction of high electric field (Gunn effect) and high magnetic field, or because of the variation of number of carriers and the carriers mobility. The weak localization and Landau energy levels also affect the magnetoresistance. Different crystal orientations have different energy band structures. Complex band structures lead complex carriers mobility plus Landau energy levels. So the magnetoresisitance effect is anisotropy.

  10. Power-transfer effects in monomode optical nonlinear waveguiding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Z; Jerominek, H; Patela, S; Tremblay, R; Delisle, C

    1987-09-01

    We describe power-transfer effects, over a certain threshold, among constituents of planar waveguiding structures consisting of an optical linear layer deposited onto a nonlinear substrate (CdS(x)Se(1-x)-doped glass). Proper selection of the thickness of the linear waveguiding film and the refractive index of the linear cladding allows one to obtain optical transistor action and to construct all-optical AND, OR, NOT, and XOR logic gates. The effects appear for the TE(0) guided mode.

  11. Effect of surface modification, microstructure, and trapping on hydrogen diffusion coefficients in high strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebaraj Johnley Muthuraj, Josiah

    Cathodic protection is widely used for corrosion prevention. However, this process generates hydrogen at the protected metal surface, and diffusion of hydrogen through the metal may cause hydrogen embrittlement or hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking. Thus the choice of a metal for use as fasteners depends upon its hydrogen uptake, permeation, diffusivity and trapping. The diffusivity of hydrogen through four high strength alloys (AISI 4340, alloy 718, alloy 686, and alloy 59) was analyzed by an electrochemical method developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. The effect of plasma nitriding and microstructure on hydrogen permeation through AISI 4340 was studied on six different specimens: as-received (AR) AISI 4340, nitrided samples with and without compound layer, samples quenched and tempered (Q&T) at 320° and 520°C, and nitrided samples Q&T 520°C. Studies on various nitrided specimens demonstrate that both the gamma'-Fe 4N rich compound surface layer and the deeper N diffusion layer that forms during plasma nitriding reduce the effective hydrogen diffusion coefficient, although the gamma'-Fe4N rich compound layer has a larger effect. Multiple permeation transients yield evidence for the presence of only reversible trap sites in as-received, Q&T 320 and 520 AISI 4340 specimens, and the presence of both reversible and irreversible trap sites in nitrided specimens. Moreover, the changes in microstructure during the quenching and tempering process result in a significant decrease in the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen compared to as-received specimens. In addition, density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations yield hydrogen diffusion coefficients through gamma'- Fe4N one order of magnitude lower than through α-Fe, which supports the experimental measurements of hydrogen permeation. The effect of microstructure and trapping was also studied in cold rolled, solutionized, and precipitation hardened Inconel 718 foils. The effective hydrogen

  12. Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa

    2017-02-01

    An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.

  13. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

  14. Change in Biot's effective stress coefficient of chalk during pore collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    the grains could also change during elastic deformation of the grains in a rock mechanics test. Diagenetic change in grain contact cement of chalk can be compared with stress-induced change in the laboratory. The change in porosity is studied with reference to the change in effective stress on grain contacts......Biot's effective stress coefficient (α) is a measure of how well grains in the rocks are connected with each other. The amount of contact cements between the grains determines the stiffness of rocks. Change in grain contact occurs during natural diagenesis of sedimentary rock. Contact between...... and porosity reduces at a slower rate. We noticed that presence of non carbonates and hydrocarbon could increase σ'm. During rock mechanics test in the lab, with increased applied stress, σ'm increases, Biot's effective stress coefficient shows a decreasing trend, while a minor porosity reduction was observed...

  15. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors - methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal neutron reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, reliable control rod worths can be obtained within the framework of diffusion theory if the control material is characterized by a set of mesh-dependent effective diffusion parameters. For thin slab absorbers the effective diffusion parameters can be expressed as functions of a suitably-defined pair of blackness coefficients. Methods for calculating these blackness coefficients in the P/sub 1/, P/sub 3/, and P/sub 5/ approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method, based on reaction rate ratios, is discussed.

  16. Cooper pair breaking and isotope effect coefficient variation in high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Pandey, R.K.; Singh, P. [G.B. Pant Univ. Pantanagar, Nainital (India)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of pair breaking on the isotope effect coefficient a = {minus}d ln T{sub c}/d ln M in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and Pr-, Ca-, and Zn-doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} is studied using the generalized Abrikosov-Gorkov theory recently employed by Singh and Kishore for superconductivity. It is argued that the isotope effect coefficient a can be further enhanced, in agreement with experimental observation, by considering the dependence of the characteristic scattering time {tau}{sub s} for Cooper pairs on the concentration n of impurities (both magnetic and nonmagnetic) and the disorder ignored by them.

  17. Wave-packet dynamics in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices: local vs. nonlocal nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices with both local and nonlocal nonlinearities. Using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation generalized by including a nonlocal nonlinear term, we calculate four different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the return probability to the initial excitation site, the participation number, the root-mean-square displacement from the excitation site and the spatial probability distribution. We investigate the influence of the nonlocal nonlinearity on the delocalization to self-trapping transition induced by the local nonlinearity. In the non-self-trapping region, we find that the nonlocal nonlinearity compresses the soliton width and slows down the spreading of the wave packet. In the vicinity of the delocalization to self-trapping transition point and inside the self-trapping region, we find that a new kind of self-trapping phenomenon, which we call partial self-trapping, takes place when the nonlocal nonlinearity is sufficiently strong.

  18. Absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit couplings: Temperature and Zeeman effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2017-10-01

    Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.

  19. Effect of the heating surface enhancement on the heat transfer coefficient for a vertical minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate effect of the heating surface enhancement on FC-72 flow boiling heat transfer for a vertical minichannel 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. Two types of enhanced heating surfaces were used: one with minicavities distributed unevenly, and the other with capillary metal fibrous structure. It was to measure temperature field on the plain side of the heating surface by means of the infrared thermography and to observe the two-phase flow patterns on the enhanced foil side. The paper analyses mainly the impact of the microstructured heating surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as heat transfer coefficient dependences on the distance along the minichannel length. The data obtained using two types of enhanced heating surfaces in experiments was compared with the data when smooth foil as the heating surface was used. The highest local values of heat transfer coefficient were obtained using enhanced foil with minicavities - in comparison to other cases. Local values of heat transfer coefficient received for capillary fibrous structure were the lowest, even compared with data obtained for smooth foil. Probably this porous structure caused local flow disturbances.

  20. Effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on ultrafine aerosol particles clogging in nanofiber based filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaer, Wannes; Zatloukal, Martin; Kimmer, Dusan

    2013-04-01

    Realistic SEM image based 3D filter model considering transition/free molecular flow regime, Brownian diffusion, aerodynamic slip, particle-fiber and particle-particle interactions together with a novel Euclidian distance map based methodology for the pressure drop calculation has been utilized for a polyurethane nanofiber based filter prepared via electrospinning process in order to more deeply understand the effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on filter clogging and basic filter characteristics. Based on the performed theoretical analysis, it has been revealed that the increase in the fiber-particle friction coefficient causes, firstly, more weaker particle penetration in the filter, creation of dense top layers and generation of higher pressure drop (surface filtration) in comparison with lower particle-fiber friction coefficient filter for which deeper particle penetration takes place (depth filtration), secondly, higher filtration efficiency, thirdly, higher quality factor and finally, higher quality factor sensitivity to the increased collected particle mass. Moreover, it has been revealed that even if the particle-fiber friction coefficient is different, the cake morphology is very similar.

  1. Effect of graphene nanoplatelets on coefficient of thermal expansion of polyetherimide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huang, E-mail: huang.wu.84@gmail.com [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Drzal, Lawrence T. [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Thermal expansion is one of the major concerns for polymer composites. In this research, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added to polyetherimide (PEId) thermoplastic polymer in order to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the injection molded composite. First, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion (LTE) was measured in three directions in the anisotropic coupon: 0°, 90° and the out of plane Z direction. It is found that the GNP particles are very effective in terms of reducing the LTE in 0° direction due to high degree of alignment. After annealing above glass transition temperature, significant increase of 0° LTE and decrease of Z° LTE were observed. The bulk CTE was calculated by adding up the LTEs in all three directions and is found to be independent of annealing. Second, several models were applied to predict both CTE and LTE. It is found that Schapery's lower limit model fits the experimental CTE very well. Chow's model was applied for LTEs in three directions. The behavior of GNP-5/PEId composites is explained by the combination of Chow's model and morphology obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Highlights: • Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polymer composite is characterized. • Reduction of linear thermal expansion depends on filler orientation. • Filler orientation is characterized based on the location of the specimen. • Filler orientation is changed by annealing, causing subsequent change in CTE. • CTE and linear thermal expansion coefficient are modeled.

  2. Eliminating illumination effects by discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients' attenuation and accentuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shan; Shehata, Mohamed; Badawy, Wael; Rahman, Choudhury A.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based attnuation and accentuation method to remove lighting effects on face images for faciliating face recognition task under varying lighting conditions. In the proposed method, logorithm transform is first used to convert a face image into logarithm domain. Then discrete cosine transform is applied to obtain DCT coefficients. The low-frequency DCT coefficients are attenuated since illumination variations mainly concentrate on the low-frequency band. The high-frequency coefficients are accentuated since when under poor illuminations, the high-frequency features become more important in recognition. The reconstructed log image by inverse DCT of the modified coefficients is used for the final recognition. Experiments are conducted on the Yale B database, the combination of Yale B and Extended Yale B databases and the CMU-PIE database. The proposed method does not require modeling and model fitting steps. It can be directly applied to single face image, without any prior information of 3D shape or light sources.

  3. Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a rotating film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the United Technologies Research Center(UTRC) rotor with five film-cooling rows containing 83 holes, including three rows on the shower head with 49 holes, covering about 86% of the blade span. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature 1900 K and stagnation pressure 3 MPa. The blade speed is taken to be 5200 rpm. The adiabatic effectiveness is higher for a rotating blade as compared to that for a stationary blade. Also, the direction of coolant injection from the shower-head holes considerably affects the effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient values on both the pressure and suction surfaces. In all cases the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness are highly three-dimensional in the vicinity of holes but tend to become two-dimensional far downstream.

  4. USAGE OF INTERVAL CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP COEFFICIENTS IN THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Yershov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the method to obtain values of the coefficients of cause-effect relationships between strategic objectives in the form of intervals and use them in solving the problem of the optimal allocation of organization’s resources. We suggest taking advantage of the interval analytical hierarchy process for obtaining the ntervals. The quantitative model of strategic performance developed by M. Hell, S. Vidučić and Ž. Garača is employed for finding the optimal resource allocation. The uncertainty originated in the optimization problem as a result of interval character of the cause-effect relationship coefficients is eliminated through the application of maximax and maximin criteria. It is shown that the problem of finding the optimal maximin, maximax, and compromise resource allocation can be represented as a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem. Finally, numerical example and directions for further research are given.

  5. Effect of current density on distribution coefficient of solute at solid-liquid interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常国威; 王自东; 吴春京; 胡汉起

    2003-01-01

    When current passes through the solid-liquid interface, the growth rate of crystal, solid-liquid interfaceenergy and radius of curvature at dendritic tip will change. Based on this fact, the theoretical relation between thedistribution of solute at solid-liquid interface and current density was established, and the effect of current on thedistribution coefficient of solute through effecting the rate of crystal growth, the solid-liquid interface energy and theradius of curvature at the dendritic tip was discussed. The results show that as the current density increases, thedistribution coefficient of solute tends to rise in a whole, and when the former is larger than about 400 A/cm2 , thelatter varies significantly.

  6. Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Surface Roughness on Coefficient of Friction in Rolling Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ghalme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in silicon nitride- steel rolling contact. Two samples of silicon nitride with two different values of surface roughness were tested against steel counter face. The test was performed on four ball tester in presence of lubricant with two different values of viscosity. Taguchi technique a methodology in design of experiment implemented to plan the experimentation and same is utilized to evaluate the interacting effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity. Analysis of experimental results presents a strong interaction between surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in rolling contact.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  8. Experimental Studies of the Effect of Permeability on Seismoelectric Conversion Coefficients in Natural and Synthetic Sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    Theoretical calculation of seismoelectric conversion coefficients is difficult because it requires a large number of parameters that are hard to obtain. Much laboratory data are needed to validate the theoretical results. The most critical issue is determining independently the effect of porosity and permeability on seismoelectric coefficients. In general, when the rock porosity increases, the permeability increases too, and vice versa. In this study, we make measurements on both synthetic sandstone and two Berea (500 and 100) samples. We built a man-made "sandstone" sample with round cracks which are distributed in a horizontal plane. Thus the small cube (1.7 cm^3 ) only has one value of porosity and different permeabilities in the three directions. It is a sample with anisotropy in permeability. Laboratory experiments in a water tank show that the seismoelectric conversion coefficient is related to permeabilities in the three directions. The seismoelectric coefficient is highest in the direction of maximum permeability and lowest in the direction of minimum permeability. The measurements with the isotropic Berea samples show that seismoelectric coefficient increases with both porosity and permeability. Application of the result to borehole logging measurements requires analysis of the data from P, S, and Stoneley waves. P and Stoneley waves give large seismoelectric signals in the presence of fractures or high permeability zones. Shear waves, that do not induce fluid flow, provide very small seismoelectric signals. If the fracture strike in the formation is along the borehole axis, the P-wave induces stronger seismoelectric signal. Seismoelectric well logging might prove help for exploring the fractures or micro fractures in a borehole wall.

  9. Nonlinear Magnetoimpedance Effect in FeCoNi Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. V. Kurlyandskaya; H. Yakabchuk; E. Kisker; N. G. Bebenin; H. García-Miquel; M. Vázquez; V. O. Vas′kovskiy

    2001-01-01

    The very high (up to 820% of the magnetoimpedance ratio) and sensitive nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance effect has been studied in the FeCo1Ni magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu(3%)Be nonmagnetic wirefor frequencies from 1-10MHz. Special annealing was carried out in order to induce the magnetic anisotropy. The high harmonic generation was observed and the harmonics show larger variations with the external magnetic field than the fundamental frequency. The super high sensitivity of the harmonics is promising as regards the increase of the sensitivity of magnetoimpedance sensors.

  10. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-Exchange Strengthening of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Karlsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent cations enable efficient ion-exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical, or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda-lime-silicates (SLS such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+, and Cs+ by drawing relations to physicochemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion-exchange rate.

  11. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Wondraczek, Lothar; Ali, Sharafat; Jonson, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  12. Nonlinear effects in optical pumping of a cold and slow atomic beam

    KAUST Repository

    Porfido, N.

    2015-10-12

    By photoionizing hyperfine (HF) levels of the Cs state 62P3/2 in a slow and cold atom beam, we find how their population depends on the excitation laser power. The long time (around 180μs) spent by the slow atoms inside the resonant laser beam is large enough to enable exploration of a unique atom-light interaction regime heavily affected by time-dependent optical pumping. We demonstrate that, under such conditions, the onset of nonlinear effects in the population dynamics and optical pumping occurs at excitation laser intensities much smaller than the conventional respective saturation values. The evolution of population within the HF structure is calculated by numerical integration of the multilevel optical Bloch equations. The agreement between numerical results and experiment outcomes is excellent. All main features in the experimental findings are explained by the occurrence of “dark” and “bright” resonances leading to power-dependent branching coefficients.

  13. Relaxation of charge in monolayer graphene: Fast nonlinear diffusion versus Coulomb effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine monolayer graphene exhibits very poor screening because the density of states vanishes at the Dirac point. As a result, charge relaxation is controlled by the effects of zero-point motion (rather than by the Coulomb interaction) over a wide range of parameters. Combined with the fact that graphene possesses finite intrinsic conductivity, this leads to a regime of relaxation described by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that diverges at zero charge density. Some consequences of this fast diffusion are self-similar superdiffusive regimes of relaxation, the development of a charge depleted region at the interface between electron- and hole-rich regions, and finite extinction times for periodic charge profiles.

  14. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dubbert, Dale F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tise, Bertice L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  15. Coefficient of Variation Can Identify the Most Important Effects of Experimental Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos LORENZO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most agricultural experiments involve evaluation of multiple variables and at times it can be difficult to identify the biologically relevant effects of the experimental treatments after performing the traditional ANOVA, Tukey and t-tests.  The coefficient of variation formula could be an important tool to focus ‘Result and Discussion’ sections only on the most important changes produced by the experimental treatments. This short report is intended to exemplify the use of the coefficient of variation in three plant physiology experiments. The first one dealt with the effects of common bean plantlet exposure to high temperature under controlled conditions (levels: 28 and 40 °C.  The second experiment was related to common bean seed exposure to liquid nitrogen during five different periods of time (levels: 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The third experiment was bi-factorial: factor 1 was the ‘type of plant material’ (levels: pineapple plants genetically transformed and the untransformed control; and factor 2 was the ‘time of in vitro-plantlet hardening’ (levels: 0, 15 and 30 days.  Contents of phenolics, aldehydes, chlorophylls and proteins were determined. Percentage of seed germination, electrolyte leakage, peroxidase activity, plant height and weight were also measured. Experiments were monofactorial with two levels, monofactorial with five levels and bifactorial, respectively, with randomized design. The coefficient of variation showed that the most remarkable effects of high temperature were recorded in free phenolics and chlorophylls (a, b, total. Electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll b concentration were the most modified indicators as a result of seed exposure to liquid nitrogen.  In the third experiment, modification in the levels of malondialdehyde and other aldehydes were the most relevant changes resulting from factors interactions. A similar procedure has not been published, except for our previous publications, not focused

  16. Nonlinear cosmological consistency relations and effective matter stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kunz, Martin, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@unige.ch, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, Quai E. Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2012-05-01

    We propose a fully nonlinear framework to construct consistency relations for testing generic cosmological scenarios using the evolution of large scale structure. It is based on the covariant approach in combination with a frame that is purely given by the metric, the normal frame. As an example, we apply this framework to the ΛCDM model, by extending the usual first order conditions on the metric potentials to second order, where the two potentials start to differ from each other. We argue that working in the normal frame is not only a practical choice but also helps with the physical interpretation of nonlinear dynamics. In this frame, effective pressures and anisotropic stresses appear at second order in perturbation theory, even for ''pressureless'' dust. We quantify their effect and compare them, for illustration, to the pressure of a generic clustering dark energy fluid and the anisotropic stress in the DGP model. Besides, we also discuss the effect of a mismatch of the potentials on the determination of galaxy bias.

  17. First measurement of the nonlinear coefficient for Gd1-xLux Ca4O(BO3)3 and Gd1-xScxCa4O(BO3)3 crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Germershausen, Sven

    2007-01-01

    -cavity SHG of a CW Ti:Sapphire laser, and the effective nonlinear coefficients were found to be in the range of 0.5 to 0.6 pm/V for the three crystals used. The FWHM temperature acceptance bandwidth was measured to be more than 35 °C using a 6 mm long Gd0.871Lu0.129Ca4O(BO3)3 crystal. A maximum of 115 m......The effective nonlinear coefficient and temperature acceptance bandwidth of three Lu and Sc co-doped GdCa4O(B03)3 type nonlinear crystals were measured. NCPM for SHG in to the blue-UV spectral region can be obtained by controlling the co-dopant concentration. Measurements were based on intra......W at 407.3 nm in a single direction was measured using a 6.5 mm long Gd0.96Sc 0.04CaO(BO3)3 crystal....

  18. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  19. Stark effect-dependent of impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption of a (In,Ga)N-GaN spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Zorkani, Izeddine; Jorio, Anouar

    2015-03-01

    The nonlinear intra-conduction band optical properties of a wurtzite (In,Ga)N-GaN spherical quantum dot are investigated. The linear, third-order nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients (ACs) of the 1s-1p transition are computed via a combination of the quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. The external applied electric field effect is examined within the single-band effective mass and the one-parabolic-band approximations under a finite potential barrier. It is found that the electric field has a great impact on the optical properties of QDs: (i) a significant redshift of the resonant peak is obtained, (ii) the maximum of the amplitude of the optical total AC decreases nonlinearly, and (iii) the Stark shift increases nonlinearly, tending toward the saturation regime. Compared with findings, good agreement is shown.

  20. Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivalinge Gowda; S Krishnaveni; T Yashoda; T K Umesh; Ramakrishna Gowda

    2004-09-01

    Photon mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds, such as LiF, CaCO3, CaSO4, CaSO4·2H2O, SrSO4, CdSO4, BaSO4, C4H6BaO4 and 3CdSO4·8H2O were determined at 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to compute the effective atomic number and the electron density of TLD compounds. The interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy in elements of atomic number was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon energy range of 279.2 to 320.07 keV, 514.0 to 661.6 keV and 1115.5 to 1332.5 keV by a piece-wise interpolation method were then used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in agreement with other available published values.

  1. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    KAUST Repository

    Kleiber, William

    2012-11-29

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  2. Effect of Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Temperature Gradient for Hollow Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华平; 余晓蔚; 杨崇倡; 胡学超; 庄毅

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient h caused by blowing affects the heat transfer of fiber greatly. Especially,unsymmetrical blowing forms the unsymmetrical temperature gradient on the fiber cross.section. Based on the results of spinning simulation by computer, the changes of heat transfer coefficient on the cross-section along the spinning line and the effects on distributions of temperature gradients were discussedl It is showed that for the spinning simulation of hollow fiber under strong blowing condition, the heat transfer coetticient should bemodified as: h=0.437×10-4[ G/Vρ ( R2/ R2-n2 ) ] -o.333(V2+ 64( VYsin (θ))2)0.167

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the thermal expansion coefficient of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayon saidi, M. [Dept. Metallurgy-Karaj Azad Univ.-Karaj (Iran); Baghersaie, N. [Tehran Center, Control Dept., Eng. Research Inst., Ministry of Jihad Agriculture (Iran); Varahram, N. [RAZI Metallurgical Research Inst.-Tehran (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron provide a unique combination of strength and toughness coupled with excellent design flexibility for automotive application as compared to forged or cast steels. Some material properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and its influence in final machining tolerance is a matter of discussion in the automotive industry. In this study the effect of heart treatment cycle on the microstructure and thermal expansion of ADI was investigated. Samples were austempered at 275 C and 375 C for one hour and then dilatometric test carried out in the temperature range of 50 C to 350 C, then the result was compared with the thermal expansion coefficient of forged steel. Microstructure and mechanical investigations were used to the assurance of these results. The results indicate that replacing of forged steel with ADI due to lower cost production and reduction in weight is possible if the correct tolerance were selected. (orig.)

  4. Finite temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Soltani, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained and their relation to coupling functions are determined. Finally, the Casimir energy and force in the presence of a nonlinear medium at finite temperature is calculated.

  5. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  6. Thermopiezoelectric and Nonlinear Electromechanical Effects in Quantum Dots and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Bahrami-Samani, M.; Melnik, R. V. N.; Toropova, M.; Zu, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We report thermopiezoelectric (TPE) and nonlinear electromechanical (NEM) effects in quantum dots (QD) and nanowires (NW) analyzed with a model based on coupled thermal, electric and mechanical balance equations. Several representative examples of low dimensional semiconductor structures (LDSNs) are studied. We focus mainly on GaN/AlN QDs and CdTe/ZnTe NWs which we analyze for different geometries. GaN/AlN nano systems are observed to be more sensitive to thermopiezoelectric effects than those of CdTe/ZnTe. Furthermore, noticeable qualitative and quantitative variations in electromechanical fields are observed as a consequence of taking into account NEM effects, in particular in GaN/AlN QDs.

  7. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  8. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  9. Optical coefficients in a semiconductor quantum ring: Electric field and donor impurity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C. M.; Acosta, Ruben E.; Morales, A. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ojeda, J. H.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    The electron states in a two-dimensional quantum dot ring are calculated in the presence of a donor impurity atom under the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The effect of an externally applied electric field is also taken into account. The wavefunctions are obtained via the exact diagonalization of the problem Hamiltonian using a 2D expansion within the adiabatic approximation. The impurity-related optical response is analyzed via the optical absorption, relative refractive index change and the second harmonics generation. The dependencies of the electron states and these optical coefficients with the changes in the configuration of the quantum ring system are discussed in detail.

  10. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  11. Estimation of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Lamb Survival in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad almasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The mating of related individuals produces an inbred offspring and leads to an increased homozygosity in the progeny, genetic variance decrease within families and increase between families. The ration of homozygosity for individuals was calculated by inbreeding coefficient. Inbred individuals may carry two alleles at a locus that are replicated from one gene in the previous generations, called identical by descent. The inbreeding coefficient should be monitored in a breeding program, since it plays an important role at decreasing of homeostasis, performance, reproduction and viability. The trend of inbreeding is an indicator for determining of inbreeding level in the herd. Inbreeding affects both phenotypic means of traits and genetic variances within population, thus it is an important factor for delimitations of genetic progress in a population. Reports showed an inbreeding increase led to decrease of phenotypic value in some of the productive and reproductive traits. Materials and Methods In the current study, the pedigree data of 14030 and 6215 records of Baluchi and Iranblack lambs that collected from 1984 to 2011 at the Abbasabad Sheep Breeding Station in Mashhad, Iran, 3588 records of Makoei lambs that collected from 1994 to 2011 at the Makoei sheep breeding station and 6140, records of Zandi lambs that collected from 1991 to 2011 at the Khejir Sheep Breeding Station in Tehran, Iran were used to estimating the inbreeding coefficient and its effects on lamb survival in these breeds. Lamb survival trait was scored as 1 and 0 for lamb surviving and not surviving at weaning weight, respectively. Inbreeding coefficient was estimated by relationship matrix algorithm (A=TDT' methodology using the CFC software program. Effects of inbreeding coefficient on lamb survival were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML method under 12 different animal models using ASReml 3.0 computer programme. Coefficient of inbreeding for each

  12. Effective assessment of tyre-road friction coefficient using a hybrid estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sizhong; Shim, Taehyun; Wu, Zhicheng

    2014-08-01

    Vehicle stability and active safety control depend heavily on tyre forces available on each wheel of a vehicle. Since tyre forces are strongly affected by the tyre-road friction coefficient, it is crucial to optimise the use of the adhesion limits of the tyres. This study presents a hybrid method to identify the road friction limitation; it contributes significantly to active vehicle safety. A hybrid estimator is developed based on the three degrees-of-freedom vehicle model, which considers longitudinal, lateral and yaw motions. The proposed hybrid estimator includes two sub-estimators: one is the vehicle state information estimator using the unscented Kalman filter and another is the integrated road friction estimator. By connecting two sub-estimators simultaneously, the proposed algorithm can effectively estimate the road friction coefficient. The performance of the proposed estimation algorithm is validated in CarSim/Matlab co-simulation environment under three different road conditions (high-μ, low-μ and mixed-μ). Simulation results show that the proposed estimator can assess vehicle states and road friction coefficient with good accuracy.

  13. Effect of stacking sequence on the coefficients of mutual influence of composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupir (Hudișteanu, I.; Țăranu, N.; Axinte, A.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are nowadays widely used in engineering applications due to their outstanding features, such as high specific strength and specific stiffness as well as good corrosion resistance. A major advantage of fibrous polymeric composites is that their anisotropy can be controlled through suitable choice of the influencing parameters. The unidirectional fiber reinforced composites provide much higher longitudinal mechanical properties compared to the transverse ones. Therefore, composite laminates are formed by stacking two or more laminas, with different fiber orientations, as to respond to complex states of stresses. These laminates experience the effect of axial-shear coupling, which is caused by applying normal or shear stresses, implying shear or normal strains, respectively. The normal-shear coupling is expressed by the coefficients of mutual influence. They are engineering constants of primary interest for composite laminates, since the mismatch of the material properties between adjacent layers can produce interlaminar stresses and/or plies delamination. The paper presents the variation of the in-plane and flexural coefficients of mutual influence for three types of multi-layered composites, with different stacking sequences. The results are obtained using the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) and are illustrated graphically in terms of fiber orientations, for asymmetric, antisymmetric and symmetric laminates. Conclusions are formulated on the variation of these coefficients, caused by the stacking sequence.

  14. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian, E-mail: gaoyt163@163.com; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  15. Effective anomalous Hall coefficient in an ultrathin Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Sang, Hai, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lin, Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France)

    2014-02-14

    Anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pt multilayer is important to study the effect of interface with strong spin-orbit coupling. However, the shunting effect of the layers in such system and the circuit in the plane perpendicular to the injected current were overlooked in most works and thus, anomalous Hall coefficient in Co/Pt multilayer has not been determined accurately. Considering the shunting effect and the equivalent circuit, we show that the effective anomalous Hall coefficient of a 0.5 nm thick Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers R{sub S} is 0.29 ± 0.01 μΩ cm/T at the zero temperature limit and increases to about 0.73 μΩ cm/T at the temperature of 300 K. R{sub S} is one order larger than that in bulk Co film, indicating the large contribution of the Co/Pt interface. R{sub S} increases with the resistivity of Co as well as a resistivity independent contribution of −0.23 ± 0.01 μΩ cm/T. The equivalent anomalous Hall current in the Co layer has a maximum of 1.1% of the injected transverse current in the Co layer around the temperature of 80 K.

  16. Effects of shear keys on nonlinear seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper,the added tangential nonlinear springs are introduced to represent the effects of one-way and two-way shear keys. The added tangential stiffness coefficient is relative to the joint opening and the relative tangential movement and determined numerically by using a refined model of shear keys.The user subroutine of nonlinear spring elements has been implemented into ABAQUS program.The seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam are mainly examined.It is shown by the results that a significant increase of about 17%-30%in joint opening can be observed for the dam with one-way shear keys;the two-way shear keys are beneficial to restrain the sliding displacement along both the radial and vertical directions,whereas the one-way shear keys mainly restrain the displacement along the radial direction;for the dam with shear keys,the maximum arch stress is increased,the cantilever stress is reduced,and the location of the maximum cantilever stress is also moved from the dam heel to the midheight of the cantilever.

  17. Accelerating oscillatory fronts in a nonlinear sonic vacuum with strong nonlocal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelman, O V; Zolotarevskiy, V; Savin, A V; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-03-01

    We describe and explore accelerating oscillatory fronts in sonic vacua with nonlocal interactions. As an example, a chain of particles oscillating in the plane and coupled by linear springs, with fixed ends, is considered. When one end of this system is harmonically excited in the transverse direction, one observes accelerated propagation of the excitation front, accompanied by an almost monochromatic oscillatory tail. Position of the front obeys the scaling law l(t) ∼ t(4/3). The frequency of the oscillatory tail remains constant, and the wavelength scales as λ ∼ t(1/3). These scaling laws result from the nonlocal effects; we derive them analytically (including the scaling coefficients) from a continuum approximation. Moreover, a certain threshold excitation amplitude is required in order to initiate the front propagation. The initiation threshold is evaluated on the basis of a simplified discrete model, further reduced to a completely integrable nonlinear system. Given their simplicity, nonlinear sonic vacua of the type considered herein should be common in periodic lattices.

  18. Effect of illumination on linear and nonlinear optical parameters of Ga5Se95 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedan, I. T.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    Ga5Se95 films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique. X-ray showed that the powder samples as well as thin-film samples are crystalline in nature. The optical constants (refractive index n and rad absorption index k) of Ga5Se95 films were calculated using Murmann's exact method. The photoinduced red shift of the optical gap (photodarkening) appeared in Ga5Se95 films after illumination. The indirect energy gap was decreased from 1.75 eV for the as-deposited films to 1.65 eV for illuminated thin films 1 h. The concentration of color centers was calculated by using Gaussian fitting for peaks of the absorption coefficient ( α) and was found to increase from 5.6 × 1024 to 6.2 × 1024 cm-3 with illumination time. The effect of illumination on the nonlinear optical susceptibility ( χ (3)) and nonlinear refractive index ( n 2) is estimated using empirical relations.

  19. Regional partition coefficient of water in patients with cerebrovascular disease and its effect on rCBF assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Kenji; Hattori, Naoya; Katoh, Chietsugu; Shiga, Tohru; KURODA, Satoshi; Kubo, Naoki; Usui, Reiko; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimation with C15O2 PET usually assumes a single tissue compartment model and a fixed brain-blood partition coefficient of water. However, the partition coefficient may change in pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of partition coefficient of water in pathological regions and its effect on regional CBF assessment. Methods: Study protocol included 22 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease to compare p...

  20. Investigating the Effect of Soil Texture and Fertility on Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Maize Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanian Kerdabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Crop coefficient varies in different environmental conditions, such as deficit irrigation, salinity and intercropping. The effect of soil fertility and texture of crop coefficient and evapotranspiration of maize was investigated in this study. Low soil fertility and food shortages as a stressful environment for plants that makes it different evapotranspiration rates of evapotranspiration calculation is based on the FAO publication 56. Razzaghi et al. (2012 investigate the effect of soil type and soil-drying during the seed-filling phase on N-uptake, yield and water use, a Danish-bred cultivar (CV. Titicaca was grown in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Zhang et al (2014 were investigated the Effect of adding different amounts of nitrogen during three years (from 2010 to 2012 on water use efficiency and crop evapotranspiration two varieties of winter wheat. The results of their study showed. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dry land farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic. Materials and Methods: The study was a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three soil texture treatment, including silty clay loam, loam and sandy-loam soil and three fertility treatment, including without fertilizer, one and two percent fertilizer( It was conducted at the experimental farm in

  1. Effective diffusion coefficients of gas mixture in heavy oil under constant-pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huazhou Andy; Sun, Huijuan; Yang, Daoyong

    2016-09-01

    We develop a method to determine the effective diffusion coefficient for each individual component of a gas mixture in a non-volatile liquid (e.g., heavy oil) at high pressures with compositional analysis. Theoretically, a multi-component one-way diffusion model is coupled with the volume-translated Peng-Robinson equation of state to quantify the mass transfer between gas and liquid (e.g., heavy oil). Experimentally, the diffusion tests have been conducted with a PVT setup for one pure CO2-heavy oil system and one C3H8-CO2-heavy oil system under constant temperature and pressure, respectively. Both the gas-phase volume and liquid-phase swelling effect are simultaneously recorded during the measurement. As for the C3H8-CO2-heavy oil system, the gas chromatography method is employed to measure compositions of the gas phase at the beginning and end of the diffusion measurement, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficients are then determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the measured and calculated gas-phase composition at the end of diffusion measurement. The newly developed technique can quantify the contributions of each component of mixture to the bulk mass transfer from gas into liquid. The effective diffusion coefficient of C3H8 in the C3H8-CO2 mixture at 3945 ± 20 kPa and 293.85 K, i.e., 18.19 × 10^{ - 10} m^{ 2} / s, is found to be much higher than CO2 at 3950 ± 18 kPa and 293.85 K, i.e., 8.68 × 10^{ - 10} m^{ 2} / s. In comparison with pure CO2, the presence of C3H8 in the C3H8-CO2 mixture contributes to a faster diffusion of CO2 from the gas phase into heavy oil and consequently a larger swelling factor of heavy oil.

  2. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K G; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  3. Imaging the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravel, Alexander P. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine); Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Kurter, Cihan; Abrahams, John [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Jung, Philipp; Lukashenko, Alexander; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Remillard, Stephen [Physics Department, Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Anlage, Steven M. [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present measurements on the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect (aNLME). Using a laser scanning microscope we have directly imaged this effect in a self-resonant spiral patterned from a thin film of the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ}. The spiral is excited at one of its resonant frequencies while a focused laser spot is scanned across its surface. The local illumination by the laser gives rise to a detectable change in the resonant properties. At low temperatures, the aNLME causes a direction dependent contribution to the critical current density. This makes it possible to image the directions of nodes and anti-nodes of the superconducting order parameter and the contribution of Andreev bound states associated with them. These two contributions to the photoresponse can be distinguished by their temperature dependence, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  4. New Relativistic Effects in the Dynamics of Nonlinear Hydrodynamical Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, L

    2002-01-01

    In Newtonian and relativistic hydrodynamics the Riemann problem consists of calculating the evolution of a fluid which is initially characterized by two states having different values of uniform rest-mass density, pressure and velocity. When the fluid is allowed to relax, one of three possible wave-patterns is produced, corresponding to the propagation in opposite directions of two nonlinear hydrodynamical waves. New effects emerge in a special relativistic Riemann problem when velocities tangential to the initial discontinuity surface are present. We show that a smooth transition from one wave-pattern to another can be produced by varying the initial tangential velocities while otherwise maintaining the initial states unmodified. These special relativistic effects are produced by the coupling through the relativistic Lorentz factors and do not have a Newtonian counterpart.

  5. Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Individual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a generalized method of moments (GMM based estimation for dynamic panel data models with individual specific fixed effects and threshold effects simultaneously. We extend Hansen’s (Hansen, 1999 original setup to models including endogenous regressors, specifically, lagged dependent variables. To address the problem of endogeneity of these nonlinear dynamic panel data models, we prove that the orthogonality conditions proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991 are valid. The threshold and slope parameters are estimated by GMM, and asymptotic distribution of the slope parameters is derived. Finite sample performance of the estimation is investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. It shows that the threshold and slope parameter can be estimated accurately and also the finite sample distribution of slope parameters is well approximated by the asymptotic distribution.

  6. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI XinYuan; LIU SiMin; GUO Ru; LU Yi; GAO YuanMei; LIU ZhaoHong; HUANG ChunFu; ZHANG XiaoHua; ZHU Nan; XU JingJun

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group's experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlateddegree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one-or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time,the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  7. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group’s experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlated degree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one- or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time, the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  8. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  9. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  10. Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD(asterisk)P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Robert C.; Byer, Robert L.; Masuda, Hisashi; Fan, Yuan Xuan

    1990-01-01

    Both absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of six nonlinear materials measured by second-harmonic generation are discussed. A single-mode, injection-seeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spatially filtered output was used to generate the 1.064-micron fundamental radiation. The following results were obtained: d36(KDP) = 0.38 pm/V, d36(KD/asterisk/P) = 0.37 pm/V, (parallel)d22(BaB2O4)(parallel) = 2.2 pm/V, d31(LiIO3) = -4.1 pm/V, d31(5 percentMgO:MgO LiNbO3) = -4.7 pm/V, and d(eff)(KTP) = 3.2 pm/V. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be better than 10 percent.

  11. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS Painlevé Integrability of Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with both Space- and Time-Dependent Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung, Ho Han; H. J., Shin

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the Painlevé integrability of nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with both space- and time-dependent dispersion, nonlinearity, and external potentials. The Painlevé analysis is carried out without using the Kruskal's simplification, which results in more generalized form of inhomogeneous equations. The obtained equations are shown to be reducible to the standard NLS equation by using a point transformation. We also construct the corresponding Lax pair and carry out its Kundu-type reduction to the standard Lax pair. Special cases of equations from choosing limited form of coefficients coincide with the equations from the previous Painlevé analyses and/or become unknown new equations.

  12. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni, E-mail: garberoglio@fbk.eu [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science (LISC), FBK-CMM and University of Trento, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Jankowski, Piotr [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Toruń (Poland); Szalewicz, Krzysztof [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Harvey, Allan H. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3337 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  13. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  14. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  15. Measurement on Effective Shear Viscosity Coefficient of Iron under Shock Compression at 100 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-Lei; LIU Fu-Sheng; ZHANG Ming-Jian; MA Xiao-Juan; LI Ying-Lei; ZHANG Ji-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The oscillatory damping curve of a shock front propagating in iron shocked to 103 GPa is measured by use of two-stage light-gas gun and electric pin techniques. The corresponding effective shear viscosity coefficient is deduced to be about 2000 Pa.s from Miller and Ahrens' formula.The result is consistent with that of Mineev's data at 31GPa,while it is higher by five orders than the predictions based on the static measurements at about 5 GPa and 2000K and molecular dynamic simulation up to 135-375 GPa and 4300-6000 K,and the discussions are presented.

  16. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  17. Standardised regression coefficient as an effect size index in summarising findings in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Nieminen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: a major problem in evaluating and reviewing the published findings of studies on the association between a quantitative explanatory variable and a quantitative dependent variable is that the results are analysed and reported in many different ways. To achieve an effective review of different studies, a consistent presentation of the results is necessary. This paper aims to exemplify the main topics related to summarising and pooling research findings from multivariable models with a quantitative response variable.Methods: we outline the complexities involved in synthesising associations. We describe a method by which it is possible to transform the findings into a common effect size index which is based on standardised regression coefficients. To describe the approach we searched original research articles published before January 2012 for findings of the relationship between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and birth weight of new-borns. Studies with maternal PCB measurements and birth weight as a continuous variable were included.Results: the evaluation of 24 included articles reveled that there was variation in variable measurement methods, transformations, descriptive statistics and inference methods. Research syntheses were performed summarizing regression coefficients to estimate the effect of PCBs on birth weight. A birth weight decline related to increase in PCB level was found.Conclusions: the proposed method can be useful in quantitatively reviewing published studies when different exposure measurement methods are used or differential control of potential confounding factors is not an issue.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  19. The effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on the partition coefficient of benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, C J

    2007-01-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related deleterious effects. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on dermal absorption of oxybenzone by studying their effects on its partition coefficient. The partition coefficient was evaluated in a chloroform-water system at room temperature. It was found that glycerol and propylene glycol decreased the partition coefficient of oxybenzone, while an increase in partition coefficient was observed with polyethylene glycol 400. The findings suggest that polyethylene glycol 400 in contrast to glycerol and propylene glycol has the potential of increasing the vehicle-skin partition coefficient of oxybenzone when cosmetic products containing such an UV absorber are topically applied to the skin.

  20. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on GFT quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Pithis, Andreas G A; Tomov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting Group Field Theory (GFT) models in the context of the GFT quantum gravity condensate analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behaviour suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthe...

  1. The chaotic effects in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Shen, Zhenqi; Ruan, Jianhong

    2016-10-01

    The corrections of gluon fusion to the DGLAP and BFKL equations are discussed in a united partonic framework. The resulting nonlinear evolution equations are the well-known GLR-MQ-ZRS equation and a new evolution equation. Using the available saturation models as input, we find that the new evolution equation has the chaos solution with positive Lyapunov exponents in the perturbative range. We predict a new kind of shadowing caused by chaos, which blocks the QCD evolution in a critical small x range. The blocking effect in the evolution equation may explain the Abelian gluon assumption and even influence our expectations to the projected Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) and the upgrade (CppC) in a circular e+e- collider (SppC).

  2. Effective action and vacuum expectations in nonlinear $\\sigma$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Fayzullaev, B A

    2015-01-01

    The equations for effective action for nonlinear $\\sigma$ model are derived using DeWitt method in two forms - for generator of vertex parts $\\Gamma$ and for generator of weakly connected parts $W$. Loop-expansion solutions to these equations are found. It is shown that vacuum expectation values for various quantities including divergence of a N\\"{o}ther current, trace of the energy-momentum tensor and so on, can be calculated by this method. Also it is shown that vacuum expectation to the sigma-field is determined by an explicit combination of tree Green function and classical solution. It is shown that the limit when coupling constant tends to zero is singular one.

  3. Crystal growth in fluid flow: Nonlinear response effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Herlach, D. M.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate crystal-growth kinetics in the presence of strong shear flow in the liquid, using molecular-dynamics simulations of a binary-alloy model. Close to the equilibrium melting point, shear flow always suppresses the growth of the crystal-liquid interface. For lower temperatures, we find that the growth velocity of the crystal depends nonmonotonically on the shear rate. Slow enough flow enhances the crystal growth, due to an increased particle mobility in the liquid. Stronger flow causes a growth regime that is nearly temperature-independent, in striking contrast to what one expects from the thermodynamic and equilibrium kinetic properties of the system, which both depend strongly on temperature. We rationalize these effects of flow on crystal growth as resulting from the nonlinear response of the fluid to strong shearing forces.

  4. Dispersion and nonlinear effects in OFDM-RoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasson, Bader H.; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    The radio-over-fiber (RoF) network has been a proven technology to be the best candidate for the wireless-access technology, and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been established as the core technology in the physical layer of next generation wireless communication system, as a result OFDM-RoF has drawn attentions worldwide and raised many new research topics recently. At the present time, the trend of information industry is towards mobile, wireless, digital and broadband. The next generation network (NGN) has motivated researchers to study higher-speed wider-band multimedia communication to transmit (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) at a higher speed. The NGN would offer services that would necessitate broadband networks with bandwidth higher than 2Mbit/s per radio channel. Many new services emerged, such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), High Definition TV (HDTV), mobile multimedia and video stream media. Both speed and capacity have been the key objectives in transmission. In the meantime, the demand for transmission bandwidth increased at a very quick pace. The coming of 4G and 5G era will provide faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth. Taking advantages of both optical communication and wireless communication, OFDM Radio over Fiber (OFDM-RoF) system is characterized by its high speed, large capacity and high spectral efficiency. However, up to the present there are some problems to be solved, such as dispersion and nonlinearity effects. In this paper we will study the dispersion and nonlinearity effects and their elimination in OFDM-radio-over-fiber system.

  5. Ionic Liquid of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficient Nonlinear Modeling Measurement Process Analysis%离子液体的无限稀释活度系数测量过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲菊; 玄兆坤; 焦连升

    2013-01-01

    离子液体受到结构上不对称性、静电作用等多种作用影响,系数特征容易发生形变,传统的测量方法在干扰状态下,很难准确测量.提出一种新的无限稀释活度系数测量模型(MCS-SVM).通过实验测量与无限稀释活度系数相关的溶质参数,并将它们分成为训练集和测试集;然后将训练集输入到一种最小二乘支持向量机分类模型,并测量活度系数,完成最优的无限稀释活度系数测量,消除测量误差.仿真结果表明,相对于传统测量方法可以准确描述无限稀释活度系数与溶质参数的非线性关系,提高了无限稀释活度系数的测量精度.%In order to improve prediction accuracy of the infinite dilution activity coefficient in ion liquid,a prediction model for infinite dilution activity coefficient based on cuckoo search algorithm and least squares support vector machine(MCS-SVM) is proposed.Firstly,the solute parameters of coefficients at infinite dilution are measured and divides into training set and test set; and then the training are input to the least squares support vector machine to train,and the cuckoo search algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of least squares support vector machine.Finally the optimal prediction model of the infinite dilution activity coefficient is established,and the simulation experiments were carried out to test the performance of model.The simulation results show that,compared with the multiple linear regression model and BP neural network,MCS-LSSVM can accurately describe the nonlinear relationship between the infinite dilution activity coefficient and solute parameters,and has improved the prediction accuracy of infinite dilution activity coefficient,provides a new research approach for infinite dilution activity coefficient which has the nonlinear characteristics.

  6. Estimation of Photon Effects on Townsend Discharges for SecondaryElectronEmission Coefficient Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Akashi, Haruaki

    2015-09-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied to investigate the secondary electron emission in Argon Townsend discharges. The influxes of ions, photons and metastable species onto the cathode surface are estimated simply from the number of inelastic collisions. The effect of photons becomes significant especially under higher pd conditions since the photon influx increases. This suggests the possibility of the estimation of the secondary electron emission coefficient of photons by examining breakdown voltage characteristics (Paschen curves). The effect of metastable species is much smaller than those of ions and photons and is negligible. The Paschen curves evaluated with MCS agrees well with the results of one-dimensional fluid model simulation when the photon effect is neglected, showing the necessity of further improvement. Supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26820108.

  7. Effects of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on dispersive optical nonlinearity in NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Romita; Baraskar, Priyanka; Agrawal, Arpana; Gupta, Mukul; Sen, Pranay K.; Sen, Pratima

    2017-07-01

    We report annealing induced sign reversal of dispersive optical nonlinearity in ion beam sputtered NiO thin films deposited at 30% and 70% oxygen partial pressures. In the Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples, the transmission peak corresponding to d-d transitions is observed near 2 eV. A shift in this peak towards higher energy was observed when the same films were annealed at 523 K. The near resonant photoinduced transitions produced giant nonlinear optical susceptibilities of both third- and fifth- orders when the annealed film was irradiated by a continuous wave 632.8 nm He-Ne laser. The role of the thermo-optic effect has been examined critically. Experimental studies further reveal that the oxygen partial pressure influences the growth direction of the grains in the thin films. The well known Z-scan experimental procedure has been followed for measurements of optical nonlinearities in all the NiO films. The nonlinear refractive indices of both the as-deposited and annealed NiO thin films are defined in terms of the thermo-optic coefficients (d/nd T ) T =T0 and (d/2nd T2 ) T =T0 .

  8. The effect of core configuration on temperature coefficient of reactivity in IRR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettan, M.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Nagler, A. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1997-08-01

    Experiments designed to measure the effect of coolant moderator temperature on core reactivity in an HEU swimming pool type reactor were performed. The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity ({alpha}{sub {omega}}) was obtained and found to be different in two core loadings. The measured {alpha}{sub {omega}} of one core loading was {minus}13 pcm/{degrees}C at the temperature range of 23-30{degrees}C. This value of {alpha}{sub {omega}} is comparable to the data published by the IAEA. The {alpha}{sub {omega}} measured in the second core loading was found to be {minus}8 pcm/{degrees}C at the same temperature range. Another phenomenon considered in this study is core behavior during reactivity insertion transient. The results were compared to a core simulation using the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants. It was found that in the second core loading factors other than the moderator temperature influence the core reactivity more than expected. These effects proved to be extremely dependent on core configuration and may in certain core loadings render the reactor`s reactivity coefficient undesirable.

  9. Investigation of the Viscoelastic Effect on the Metzner and Otto Coefficient Through LDA Velocity Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Metzner and Otto correlation is the single practical method for incorporating non-Newtonian effects in the mixing process. In this article, the Metzner and Otto' s idea, the role of viscoelasticity on the Metzner and Otto coefficient, ks, effects of flow regime on ks and the determination of ks for Rushton turbine impeller have been studied using the direct method of the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity meusurement for the case of viscoelastic liquids. The normalized mean tangential velocity profiles are independent of Rushton turbine impeller speeds. Contrary to literature findings, it is shown that the variation of local shear rate against the impeller speed is better correlated by the power equation, i.e. γ = ks' * Nb', in the transition region, i.e. ~ 30 < Re <~ 2000.Also, a correlation between improved coefficient, ks', and the elasticity number of viscoelastic liquids is given which is very helpful in designing of the mixing of both viscoelastic and inelastic non-Newtonian fluids through relating rheological properties to kinematical and dynamical parameters of the mixing process.

  10. Effects of diffusion coefficients and struts apposition using numerical simulations for drug eluting coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Rosaire; Faik, Isam; Leask, Richard L; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Larose, Eric; Bertrand, Olivier F

    2007-10-01

    In the context of drug eluting stent, we present two-dimensional numerical models of mass transport of the drug in the wall and in the lumen to study the effect of the drug diffusion coefficients in the three principal media (blood, vascular wall, and polymer coating treated as a three-compartment problem) and the impact of different strut apposition configurations (fully embedded, half embedded, and not embedded). The different conditions were analyzed in terms of their consequence on the drug concentration distribution in the arterial wall. We apply the concept of the therapeutic window to the targeted vascular wall region and derive simple metrics to assess the efficiency of the various stent configurations. Although most of the drug is dispersed in the lumen, variations in the blood flow rate within the physiological range of coronary blood flow and the diffusivity of the drug molecule in the blood were shown to have a negligible effect on the amount of drug in the wall. Our results reveal that the amount of drug cumulated in the wall depends essentially on the relative values of the diffusion coefficients in the polymer coating and in the wall. Concerning the strut apposition, it is shown that the fully embedded strut configuration would provide a better concentration distribution.

  11. The Effect of Unbalanced Coefficient of Magnetron on the Structure and Properties of CNx Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiaobin; LI Xian; WANG Tao; JIANG Bailing

    2011-01-01

    The effect of unbalanced coefficient of magnetron (UCM) on the structure and tribological properties of CrNx hard coatings was studied. The CrNx coatings were deposited on both Si wafer and hardened tool steel substrates using a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating technique in a gas mixture of Ar+N2 under different unbalanced magnetron conditions. The coatings were characterized by means of XRD, XPS, SEM, microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer to study respectively their structure, chemical bonding state, microstructure, hardness and tribological properties. The experimental results show that the UCM has a profound effect on the structure, hardness and tribological properties of the CrNx coatings. With increasing the values of UCM, the dominant phases in the deposited coatings evolved from Cr+Cr2N to Cr2N+CrN, the microstructure became denser and the hardness increased; in addition, reduced coefficient of friction and improved wear resistance of CrNx coatings were also observed under a larger UCM.

  12. THEORETICAL MODEL OF EFFECTIVE STRESS COEFFICIENT FOR ROCK/SOIL-LIKE POROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Zhang; Hui Zhou; Dawei Hu; Yang Zhao; Xiating Feng

    2009-01-01

    Physical mechanisms and influencing factors on the effective stress coefficient for rock/soil-like porous materials are investigated, based on which equivalent connectivity index is proposed. The equivalent connectivity index, relying on the meso-scale structure of porous ma-terial and the property of liquid, denotes the connectivity of pores in Representative Element Area (REA). If the conductivity of the porous material is anisotropic, the equivalent connec-tivity index is a second order tensor. Based on the basic theories of continuous mechanics and tensor analysis, relationship between area porosity and volumetric porosity of porous materials is deduced. Then a generalized expression, describing the relation between effective stress coeffi-cient tensor and equivalent connectivity tensor of pores, is proposed, and the expression can be applied to isotropic media and also to anisotropic materials. Furthermore, evolution of porosity and equivalent connectivity index of the pore are studied in the strain space, and the method to determine the corresponding functions in expressions above is proposed using genetic algorithm and genetic programming. Two applications show that the results obtained by the method in this paper perfectly agree with the test data. This paper provides an important theoretical support to the coupled hydro-mechanical research.

  13. Temperature effects in a nonlinear model of monolayer Scheibe aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Christiansen, Peter Leth; If, F.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamical model of molecular monolayers arranged in Scheibe aggregates is derived from a proper Hamiltonian. Thermal fluctuations of the phonons are included. The resulting equation for the excitons is the two dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with noise. Two limits...

  14. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation

  15. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called ;cable-cross-tie systems; forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the ;Equivalent Linearization Method;. A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, ;mode by mode;. It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  16. Study of the effect of loop inductance on the RF transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K K

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of RF power is an important aspect in the design and development of RF accelerating structures. RF power coupling employing coupler loops has the advantage of tunability of β, the transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient. Analytical expressions available in literature for determination of size of the coupler loop using Faraday's law of induction show reasonably good agreement with experimentally measured values of β below critical coupling (β ≤ 1) but show large deviation with experimentally measured values and predictions by simulations for higher values of β. In actual accelerator application, many RF cavities need to be over-coupled with β > 1 for reasons of beam loading compensation, reduction of cavity filling time, etc. This paper discusses a modified analytical formulation by including the effect of loop inductance in the determination of loop size for any desired coupling coefficient. The analytical formulation shows good agreement with 3D simulations and with experimentally measured values. It has been successfully qualified by the design and development of power coupler loops for two 476 MHz pre-buncher RF cavities, which have successfully been conditioned at rated power levels using these coupler loops.

  17. Study of the effect of loop inductance on the RF transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of RF power is an important aspect in the design and development of RF accelerating structures. RF power coupling employing coupler loops has the advantage of tunability of β, the transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient. Analytical expressions available in literature for determination of size of the coupler loop using Faraday's law of induction show reasonably good agreement with experimentally measured values of β below critical coupling (β ≤ 1) but show large deviation with experimentally measured values and predictions by simulations for higher values of β. In actual accelerator application, many RF cavities need to be over-coupled with β > 1 for reasons of beam loading compensation, reduction of cavity filling time, etc. This paper discusses a modified analytical formulation by including the effect of loop inductance in the determination of loop size for any desired coupling coefficient. The analytical formulation shows good agreement with 3D simulations and with experimentally measured values. It has been successfully qualified by the design and development of power coupler loops for two 476 MHz pre-buncher RF cavities, which have successfully been conditioned at rated power levels using these coupler loops.

  18. Influence of Thomson effect on the resultant local Seebeck coefficient in thermoelectric composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    The resultant local Seebeck coefficient α R (= α S- α T) at the interface of a thermoelement has not yet been measured, although it is an important factor governing the thermoelectric efficiency, where α S is the local Seebeck coefficient and α T is the one caused by the Thomson effect. It is shown in this paper that α S, α T, and α R of the p- and n-type Cu/Bi Te/Cu composites are obtained analytically and experimentally on the assumption that the local temperature of the composite on which the temperature difference Δ T is imposed varies linearly with changes in position along the composite. They were indeed estimated as a function of position from the local experimental data of R,Δ I,Δ T, and V generated by applying an additional current of ± I to the composite, where R is the electrical resistance and Δ I is a current generated by the composite. As a result, it was found that the absolute values of α S at the hot interface of the p- and n-type composites are approximately 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than their lowest values in the middle region of the composite, respectively, while those of α T are less than 8% of α S all over the composite and are so small that the relation α R≈ α S can be held. We thus succeeded in measuring α R at the interfaces of the composite.

  19. Families of stable solitons and excitations in the PT-symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equations with position-dependent effective masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A

    2017-04-28

    Since the parity-time-([Formula: see text]-) symmetric quantum mechanics was put forward, fundamental properties of some linear and nonlinear models with [Formula: see text]-symmetric potentials have been investigated. However, previous studies of [Formula: see text]-symmetric waves were limited to constant diffraction coefficients in the ambient medium. Here we address effects of variable diffraction coefficient on the beam dynamics in nonlinear media with generalized [Formula: see text]-symmetric Scarf-II potentials. The broken linear [Formula: see text] symmetry phase may enjoy a restoration with the growing diffraction parameter. Continuous families of one- and two-dimensional solitons are found to be stable. Particularly, some stable solitons are analytically found. The existence range and propagation dynamics of the solitons are identified. Transformation of the solitons by means of adiabatically varying parameters, and collisions between solitons are studied too. We also explore the evolution of constant-intensity waves in a model combining the variable diffraction coefficient and complex potentials with globally balanced gain and loss, which are more general than [Formula: see text]-symmetric ones, but feature similar properties. Our results may suggest new experiments for [Formula: see text]-symmetric nonlinear waves in nonlinear nonuniform optical media.

  20. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  1. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  2. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  3. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  4. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...

  5. Axion-induced birefringence effects in laser driven nonlinear vacuum interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Chávez, Selym

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a probe electromagnetic field through a counterpropagating strong plane wave is investigated. The effects of the electromagnetic field-(pseudo)scalar axion field interaction and of the self-interaction of the electromagnetic field mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs in the effective Lagrangian approach are included. First, we show that if the strong field is circularly polarized, contrary to the leading-order nonlinear QED effects, the axion-photon interaction induces a chiral-like birefringence and a dichroism in the vacuum. The latter effect is explained by evoking the conservation of the total angular momentum along the common propagation direction of probe and the strong wave, which allows for real axion production only for probe and strong fields with the same helicity. Moreover, in the case of ultra-short strong pulses, it is shown that the absorption coefficients of probe photons depend on the form of the pulse and, in particular, on the carrier-envelope phase of the strong b...

  6. Interpatient variation in normal peripheral zone apparent diffusion coefficient: effect on the prediction of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Huisman, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the interpatient variability of prostate peripheral zone (PZ) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and its effect on the assessment of prostate cancer aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. Intra- and

  7. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samadiyan

    2016-07-01

    amount of a third off chemical fertilizer of urea, 46 % Nitrogen was given to the plant and two third by the end of clawing the plot. In the period of growing in order to control brushes 2, 4, D herbicide and Fenitrothion insecticidal was used for countering the louse pest and other insects. In the laboratory, leaf area was measured using scanner and 4.Image 0.2 software program. To determine changes of growth indices, regression relations were used. Total dry matter, leaf area index, net assimilation rate, crop growth rate, light interception extinction were measured. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effects of N fertilizilation were significant on the maximum leaf area index, total dry matter and light interception percent were related to Pishtaz cultivar and 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer treatment significantly resulted Maximum light interception percent, net assimilation rate, with other treatments. Effects of cultivar were significant on maximum light absorption. The Maximum absorption of light, crop growth rate, total dry matter was related to Pishtaz. The interaction between nitrogen and the harvest index was significant at the five percent level. The evidence showed that higher light interception in plants, is associated with the higher performance of plant. The increase of light interception promote the biological and economic performance. Conclusions The results showed that application of 150 kg nitrogen per hectare, with the highest level of leaf area index and higher light absorption caused higher extinction coefficient of light in the canopy. Nitrogen fertilizer consumption increased light absorption by leaves, therefore the light extinction coefficient consuming more nitrogen in the plant community. The Maximum absorption of light, crop growth rate, total dry matter was related to pishtaz. Scale of light extinction coefficient for fertilizer treatment control, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1, was 0.4675, 0.4794, 0.4858 and 0.495, respectively and for

  8. Room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in lead-free and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cótica, Luiz F., E-mail: lfcotica@dfi.uem.br [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Department of Physics, State University of Maringá, Maringá – PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Santos, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ivair A. [Department of Physics, State University of Maringá, Maringá – PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Freitas, Valdirlei F. [Department of Physics, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava – PR 85040-080 (Brazil); Coelho, Adelino A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas – SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, José A. [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos – SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-02-14

    It is still a challenging problem to obtain technologically useful materials displaying strong magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. In the search for new effects and materials to achieve this kind of coupling, a nonlinear magnetoelectric effect was proposed in the magnetically disordered relaxor ferroelectric materials. In this context, the aluminum iron oxide (AlFeO{sub 3}), a room temperature ferroelectric relaxor and magnetic spin glass compound, emerges as an attractive lead-free magnetoelectric material along with nonlinear magnetoelectric effects. In this work, static, dynamic, and temperature dependent ferroic and magnetoelectric properties in lead-free AlFeO{sub 3} and 2 at. % Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} multiferroic magnetoelectric compositions are studied. Pyroelectric and magnetic measurements show changes in ferroelectric and magnetic states close to each other (∼200 K). The magnetoelectric coefficient behavior as a function of H{sub bias} suggests a room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in both single-phase and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3}-based ceramic compositions.

  9. Nonlinear optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Barclay, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    A photonic crystal optomechanical system combining strong nonlinear optomechanical coupling, low effective mass and large optical mode spacing is introduced. This nanoscale "paddle nanocavity" device supports mechanical resonances with effective mass of 300--600 fg which couple nonlinearly to co-localized optical modes with a quadratic optomechanical coupling coefficient $g^{(2)} > 2\\pi\\times400$ MHz/nm$^2$, and a two phonon to single photon optomechanical coupling rate $\\Delta \\omega_0 > 2\\pi\\times 16$ Hz. This coupling relies on strong phonon-photon interactions in a structure whose optical mode spectrum is highly non--degenerate. Simulations indicate that nonlinear optomechanical readout of thermally driven motion in these devices should be observable for T $> 50 $ mK, and that measurement of phonon shot noise is achievable.

  10. The Non-Linear Effect of Chinese Financial Developments on Energy Supply Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, oversupply coal and coal-based power in China poses a great challenge to energy structure optimization and emissions reduction. The energy industry, however, is closely linked to the financial sector. In view of this, using a non-linear Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR model, this paper examines the threshold effects of financial developments on energy supply structures for 17 energy supply provinces in China observed over 2000–2014. The main results are: (1 The ratio of coal supply (LCSR specification is seen to be a four-regime PSTR model with added value in the financial industry/GDP (LFIR as the threshold variable. The LFIR and LCSR show a positive correlation, and the elastic coefficients change between 0.02 and ~0.085; the impact of financial institutions’ loan balance/GDP (LLAN on LCSR takes on an inverse U-shaped curve: first positive, then negative, and again positive with the financial crisis in 2008 as the turning point; (2 The ratio of thermal power generation (LTPG specification is seen to be a two-regime PSTR model with investment in the coal industry/GDP (LCIR as the threshold variable. Results show that LFIR has a negative effect on LTPG, and the coefficients in the low regime tend to be 0.344%, then gradually decrease to 0.051% in the high regime. The influence of LLAN on the LTPG is positive before and negative after the financial crisis. The influence of the foreign direct investment GDP proportion (LFDI, the degree of financial openness on the LCSR and LTPG both remain negative. Therefore, in the process of formulating energy conservation policies and adjusting energy-intensive industrial structures, the government should fully consider the effect of financial developments.

  11. The Effect of Nonzero Autocorrelation Coefficients on the Distributions of Durbin-Watson Test Estimator: Three Autoregressive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu LEE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the nonzero autocorrelation coefficients on the sampling distributions of the Durbin-Watson test estimator in three time-series models that have different variance-covariance matrix assumption, separately. We show that the expected values and variances of the Durbin-Watson test estimator are slightly different, but the skewed and kurtosis coefficients are considerably different among three models. The shapes of four coefficients are similar between the Durbin-Watson model and our benchmark model, but are not the same with the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period. Second, the large sample case shows that the three models have the same expected values, however, the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period explores different shapes of variance, skewed and kurtosis coefficients from the other two models. This implies that the large samples lead to the same expected values, 2(1 – ρ0, whatever the variance-covariance matrix of the errors is assumed. Finally, comparing with the two sample cases, the shape of each coefficient is almost the same, moreover, the autocorrelation coefficients are negatively related with expected values, are inverted-U related with variances, are cubic related with skewed coefficients, and are U related with kurtosis coefficients.

  12. EFFECT OF THE FLOW FIELD DEFORMATION IN THE WIND TUNNEL ON THE AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Maturkanič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow field quality has a principal signification at wind tunnel measurement. The creation of the flow field of air by fan leads to the rotation of entire flow field which is, moreover, deformed at the bends of the wind tunnel with close circulation. Despite the wind tunnels are equipped with the devices which eliminate these non-uniformities, in the most of cases, the air flow field has not ideal parameters in the test section. For the evaluation of the measured results of the model in the wind tunnel, the character of flow field deformation is necessary. The following text describes the possible general forms of the flow field nonuniformity and their effect on the aerodynamic coefficients calculation.

  13. Multiple irradiation sensing of the optical effective attenuation coefficient for spectral correction in handheld OA imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerrit Held

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral optoacoustic (OA imaging enables spatially-resolved measurement of blood oxygenation levels, based on the distinct optical absorption spectra of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. Wavelength-dependent optical attenuation in the bulk tissue, however, distorts the acquired OA spectrum and thus makes quantitative oxygenation measurements challenging. We demonstrate a correction for this spectral distortion without requiring a priori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, using the concept of multiple irradiation sensing: recording the OA signal amplitude of an absorbing structure (e.g. blood vessel, which serves as an intrinsic fluence detector, as function of irradiation position. This permits the reconstruction of the bulk effective optical attenuation coefficient μeff,λ. If performed at various irradiation wavelengths, a correction for the wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation is achieved, revealing accurate spectral information on the absorbing structures. Phantom studies were performed to show the potential of this technique for handheld clinical combined OA and ultrasound imaging.

  14. Effect of nonlinear void reactivity on bifurcation characteristics of a lumped-parameter model of a BWR: A study relevant to RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A simplified model with nonlinear void reactivity feedback is studied. • Method of multiple scales for nonlinear analysis and oscillation characteristics. • Second order void reactivity dominates in determining system dynamics. • Opposing signs of linear and quadratic void reactivity enhances global safety. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nonlinear void reactivity on the dynamics of a simplified lumped-parameter model for a boiling water reactor (BWR) is investigated. A mathematical model of five differential equations comprising of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics encompassing the nonlinearities associated with both the reactivity feedbacks and the heat transfer process has been used. To this end, we have considered parameters relevant to RBMK for which the void reactivity is known to be nonlinear. A nonlinear analysis of the model exploiting the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) predicts the occurrence of the two types of Hopf bifurcation, namely subcritical and supercritical, leading to the evolution of limit cycles for a range of parameters. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the analytical results obtained by MMTS. The study shows that the nonlinear reactivity has a significant influence on the system dynamics. A parametric study with varying nominal reactor power and operating conditions in coolant channel has also been performed which shows the effect of change in concerned parameter on the boundary between regions of sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations in the space constituted by the two coefficients of reactivities viz. the void and the Doppler coefficient of reactivities. In particular, we find that introduction of a negative quadratic term in the void reactivity feedback significantly increases the supercritical region and dominates in determining the system dynamics.

  15. Effect of partition coefficient on microsegregation during solidification of aluminium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MH Avazkonandeh-Gharavol; M Haddad-Sabzevar; H Fredriksson

    2014-01-01

    In the modeling of microsegregation, the partition coefficient is usually calculated using data from the equilibrium phase diagrams. The aim of this study was to experimentally and theoretically analyze the partition coefficient in binary aluminum-copper alloys. The sam-ples were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), which were melted and quenched from different temperatures during solidifica-tion. The mass fraction and composition of phases were measured by image processing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) unit. These data were used to calculate as the experimental partition coefficients with four different methods. The experimental and equilibrium partition coefficients were used to model the concentration profile in the primary phase. The modeling results show that the profiles calculated by the experimental partition coefficients are more consistent with the experi-mental profiles, compared to those calculated using the equilibrium partition coefficients.

  16. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of nano-cluster doped fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; ZHANG Ru

    2007-01-01

    There are prominent nonlinear characteristics that we hope for the semiconductor nano-clusters doped fiber. Refractive index of fiber core can be effectively changed by adulteration. This technology can provide a new method for developing photons components. Because the semiconductor nano-cluster has quantum characteristics,Based on first-order perturbation theory and classical theory of fiber,we deduced refractive index expressions of fiber core,which was semiconductor nano-cluster doped fiber. Finally,third-order nonlinear coefficient equation was gained. Using this equation,we calculated SMF-28 fiber nonlinear coefficient. The equation shows that new third-order coefficient was greater.

  18. Effect of correlation length between metallic nanoparticles in nonlinear properties of composition of oxide glass and metallic nanoparticles using SPFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naseri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a kind of composite materials made up of noble metal nanoparticles (such as gold, silver, copper and a dielectric material (such as silica with unique properties. In this paper, using Strong Permittivity Fluctuation Theory (SPFT method, the coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility coefficient are calculated for combining glass with metal nanoparticles, assuming that the nanoparticles are spherical. Coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility index are estimated for the sample of homogeneous composite materials. And the results of this study are compared with experimental results and other models. It is observed that the data obtained for the zero-order estimate do not match the experimental results. By appropriate correlation length for the second- and third-order, specially for the second-order estimate of SPFT method, conformity between results can be established. Therefore, it can be concluded that SPFT method is betler than other models for calculating and improving the properties of the non-linear model.

  19. An effective analytic approach for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junchi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liang, Songxin

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear fractional differential equations are widely used for modelling problems in applied mathematics. A new analytic approach with two parameters c1 and c2 is first proposed for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. These parameters are used to improve the accuracy of the resulting series approximations. It turns out that much more accurate series approximations are obtained by choosing proper values of c1 and c2. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the new method, two typical fractional partial differential equations, the nonlinear gas dynamics equation and the nonlinear KdV-Burgers equation, are solved.

  20. Effect of the counter cation on the third order nonlinearity in anionic Au dithiolene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, K.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Derkowska, B.; Ranganathan, A.; Batail, P.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present the third order nonlinear optical investigation of two gold complexes, which differ by the nature of the counter cations. The impact of the different design in the architecture through a set of hydrogen bonds in the case of Au-Mel of the systems on the nonlinearity has been studied by means of the Z-scan setup under 532 nm, 30 ps laser excitation, allowing for the determination of the nonlinear absorption and refraction of the samples. Significant modification of the nonlinear optical response between the two metal complexes has been found suggesting a clear effect of the counter cation.

  1. Limiting effects of geometrical and optical nonlinearities on the squeezing in optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djorwé, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon); Nana Engo, S.G., E-mail: nanaengo@gmail.com [Laboratory of Photonics, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Talla Mbé, J.H.; Woafo, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon)

    2013-08-01

    In recent experiments, the re-thermalization time of the mechanical resonator is stated as the limiting factor for quantum applications of optomechanical systems. To explain the origin of this limitation, an analytical nonlinear investigation supported by the recent successful experimental laser cooling parameters is carried out in this work. To this end, the effects of geometrical and the optical nonlinearities on the squeezing are studied and are in a good agreement with the experimental results. It appears that highly squeezed state are generated where these nonlinearities are minimized and that high nonlinearities are limiting factors to reach the quantum ground state.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of wind waves: multifractal phase/time effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Mellen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bispectral coherence method, phase/time analysis of analytic signals is another promising avenue for the investigation of phase effects in wind waves. Frequency spectra of phase fluctuations obtained from both sea and laboratory experiments follow an F-β power law over several decades, suggesting that a fractal description is appropriate. However, many similar natural phenomena have been shown to be multifractal. Universal multifractals are quantified by two additional parameters: the Lévy index 0 α 2 for the type of multifractal and the co-dimension 0 C1 1 for intermittence. The three parameters are a full statistical measure the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis of laboratory flume data is reported here and the results indicate that the phase fluctuations are 'hard multifractal' (α > 1. The actual estimate is close to the limiting value α = 2,  which is consistent with Kolmogorov's lognormal model for turbulent fluctuations. Implications for radar and sonar backscattering from the sea surface are briefly considered.

  3. Nonlinear turbulence models for predicting strong curvature effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-lei; MA Hui-yang; HUANG Yu-ning

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the characteristics of turbulent flows with strong streamline curvature, such as flows in turbomachines, curved channel flows, flows around airfoils and buildings, is of great importance in engineering applicatious and poses a very practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, we analyze qualitatively the curvature effects on the structure of turbulence and conduct numerical simulations of a turbulent U- duct flow with a number of turbulence models in order to assess their overall performance. The models evaluated in this work are some typical linear eddy viscosity turbulence models, nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (NLEVM) (quadratic and cubic), a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) and a Reynolds stress model (RSM) developed based on the second-moment closure. Our numerical results show that a cubic NLEVM that performs considerably well in other benchmark turbulent flows, such as the Craft, Launder and Suga model and the Huang and Ma model, is able to capture the major features of the highly curved turbulent U-duct flow, including the damping of turbulence near the convex wall, the enhancement of turbulence near the concave wall, and the subsequent turbulent flow separation. The predictions of the cubic models are quite close to that of the RSM, in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that these inodels may be employed to simulate the turbulent curved flows in engineering applications.

  4. Stochastic nonlinear mixed effects: a metformin case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzuka, Brett; Chittenden, Jason; Monteleone, Jonathan; Tran, Hien

    2016-02-01

    In nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling, the intra-individual variability is a collection of errors due to assay sensitivity, dosing, sampling, as well as model misspecification. Utilizing stochastic differential equations (SDE) within the NLME framework allows the decoupling of the measurement errors from the model misspecification. This leads the SDE approach to be a novel tool for model refinement. Using Metformin clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data, the process of model development through the use of SDEs in population PK modeling was done to study the dynamics of absorption rate. A base model was constructed and then refined by using the system noise terms of the SDEs to track model parameters and model misspecification. This provides the unique advantage of making no underlying assumptions about the structural model for the absorption process while quantifying insufficiencies in the current model. This article focuses on implementing the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter in an NLME framework for parameter estimation and model development, comparing the methodologies, and illustrating their challenges and utility. The Kalman filter algorithms were successfully implemented in NLME models using MATLAB with run time differences between the ODE and SDE methods comparable to the differences found by Kakhi for their stochastic deconvolution.

  5. Nonlinear effects in a conceptual multilayer cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wacker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As conceptual model for a cloud a system is considered which is open for condensate mass transport and subject to internal processes such as cloud microphysical transformation and vertical condensate transport. The effects of microphysical processes are represented in parameterized form and the system is divided into two layers to account for the vertical structure. The evolution is mathematically described in terms of four coupled nonlinear ODEs; the prognostic variables are the mass concentrations of cloud water as well as precipitation condensate in each of the layers. In the absence of vertical velocity the evolution in the lower layer is triggered by the evolution in the upper layer. In the presence of an upwind, the dynamics in both layers is mutually coupled. Depending on the chosen parameter values up to four steady states are found. When varying the parameter upwind velocity, three regimes are distinguished: For week upwind the long-term evolution is steered by the external sources; for stronger upwind the cloud condensate is blown out of the cloud in the final state and does not contribute to formation of precipitation; for intermediate upwind multiple steady state solution branches arise which characterize the transition between those two regimes.

  6. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  7. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  8. Effect of Weather on Agricultural Futures Markets on the Basis of DCCA Cross-Correlation Coefficient Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; He, Cuiting; Xu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the correlation between weather and agricultural futures markets on the basis of detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficients and q-dependent cross-correlation coefficients. In addition, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to measure extreme weather and thus analyze further the effect of this condition on agricultural futures markets. Cross-correlation exists between weather and agricultural futures markets on certain time scales. There are some correlations between temperature and soybean return associated with medium amplitudes. Under extreme weather conditions, weather exerts different influences on different agricultural products; for instance, soybean return is greatly influenced by temperature, and weather variables exhibit no effect on corn return. Based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) coefficient and DFA regression results are similar to that of DCCA coefficient.

  9. Effects of introducing nonlinear components for a random excited hybrid energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoya; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Guan, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    This work is mainly devoted to discussing the effects of introducing nonlinear components for a hybrid energy harvester under random excitation. For two different types of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters subjected to random excitation, the analytical solutions of the mean output power, voltage and current are derived from Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. Monte Carlo simulation exhibits qualitative agreement with FP theory, showing that load values and excitation’s spectral density have an effect on the total mean output power, piezoelectric (PE) power and electromagnetic power. Nonlinear components affect output characteristics only when the PE capacitance of the hybrid energy harvester is non-negligible. Besides, it is also demonstrated that for this type of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters under random excitation, introducing nonlinear components can improve output performances effectively.

  10. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  11. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitting...

  12. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length...

  13. Effective nonlinearities and multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation in modulated quasi-phase-matching gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, T. W.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation....

  14. Nonlinear heat transport in mesoscopic conductors: Rectification, Peltier effect, and Wiedemann-Franz law

    OpenAIRE

    López, Rosa; Sánchez, David

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nonlinear heat properties in mesoscopic conductors using a scattering theory of transport. Our approach is based on a leading-order expansion in both the electrical and thermal driving forces. Beyond linear response, the transport coefficients are functions of the nonequilibrium screening potential that builds up in the system due to interactions. Within a mean-field approximation, we self-consistently calculate the heat rectification properties of a quantum dot attached to two...

  15. Effects of conical nozzle configuration on impulse coupling coefficient in repetitively-pulsed laser propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-rui; HONG Yan-ji; WEN Ming

    2009-01-01

    A dimensionless factor was introduced to deduce the analytic expression of impulse coupling coefficient for conical nozzles in the case of spherical symmetry, and a high precision impact pendulum system was used to measure impulse coupling coefficients of 15 conical nozzles with different cone angles and lengths. The expression was corrected according to experi-mental values. The results indicate that: 1) impulse coupling coefficient increases firstly and then decreases with augment of dimensionless length when cone angle is fixed;2) impulse coupling coefficient decreases monotonously with augment of cone angle when dimensionless length is fixed;3) it is of great importance for improving impulse coupling coefficient to increase the rate of laser energy deposition.

  16. Effects of Tidal Currents on Nonlinear Internal Solitary Waves in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhisong; SHI Xingang; Antony K. Liu; LIU Hailong; LI Peiliang

    2013-01-01

    The propagation and fission process of intemal solitary waves (ISWs) with amplitudes of about 170m are simulated in the northeast of the South China Sea (NSCS) by using the generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation under continuous stratification.More attention is paid to the effects of the ebb and flood background currents on the fission process of ISWs.This kind of background current is provided by the composed results simulated in terms of monthly mean baroclinic circulation and barotropic tidal current.It is found that the obtained relation of the number of fission solitons to the water depth and stratification is roughly in accordance with the fission law derived by Djordjevic and Redekopp in 1978; however,there exists obvious difference between the effects of the ebb and flood background currents on the wave-lengths of fission solitons (defined as the distance between two neighboring peaks of ISWs).The difference in nonlinearity coefficient α between the ebb and flood background currents is a main cause for the different wave-lengths of fission solitons.

  17. Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects.......Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects....

  18. Effect of Sb addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Ge-Se-Sn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navjeet; Sharma, Surbhi; Sarin, Amit; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Optical characterization of amorphous thin films of Ge20Sn10Se70-xSbx (x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15) has been carried out. Thin films were deposited onto pre cleaned glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique. Transmission spectra of the films were recorded, for normal incidence, in range 400-2400 nm. Refractive index of the films was calculated using the envelope method by Swanepoel. Dispersion analysis has been carried out using single effective oscillator model. Other optical constants such as absorption coefficients, extinction coefficients have also been evaluated. Tauc plots were used to evaluate the optical band gap. The refractive index has been found to be increasing while the band gap decreases with increasing Sb concentration. The observed optical behavior of the films has been explained using chemical bond approach. Cohesive energy is found to be decreasing in the present work, which reflects that bond strength decreases with the increasing content of Sb. Non-linear optical parameters (i.e. n2 and χ(3)) have been derived from linear optical parameters (i.e. n, k, Eg). Observed changes in linear and non-linear parameters have been reported in this study.

  19. Extending the Universal One-Loop Effective Action: heavy-light coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-08-01

    The Universal One-Loop Effective Action (UOLEA) is a general expression for the effective action obtained by evaluating in a model-independent way the one-loop expansion of a functional path integral. It can be used to match UV theories to their low-energy EFTs more efficiently by avoiding redundant steps in the application of functional methods, simplifying the process of obtaining Wilson coefficients of operators up to dimension six. In addition to loops involving only heavy fields, matching may require the inclusion of loops containing both heavy and light particles. Here we use the recently-developed covariant diagram technique to extend the UOLEA to include heavy-light terms which retain the same universal structure as the previously-derived heavy-only terms. As an example of its application, we integrate out a heavy singlet scalar with a linear coupling to a light doublet Higgs. The extension presented here is a first step towards completing the UOLEA to incorporate all possible structures encountered in a covariant derivative expansion of the one-loop path integral.

  20. The effect of elastic modulus and friction coefficient on rubber tube sealing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhimiao; Xu, Siyuan; Ren, Fushen; Liu, Jubao

    2015-03-01

    The packer is the key element in separating geosphere layers of water injection, water plugging and fracturing operations in the oilfield. The sealing ability of the packer is depending on the contact pressure between rubber tube and the casing. The circumferential strain of casing wall was tested by the strain gauge to get the contact pressure distribution along axial direction of the tube. The friction force between the casing and the rubber tube was taken by the pressure sensor in compression process. Under the 20,60 and 100 degrees Celsius conditions, the friction forces and the contact pressure distribution were taken in work condition of single rubber tube, double rubber tubes and combination rubber tubes after oil immersion .The result shows that elastic modulus of rubber tube has little effect on the friction force and contact pressure. With elastic modulus decreasing, the friction forces has gradually decreasing trend; The friction coefficient has much impact on friction force: the friction forces under the condition of dry friction and wet friction are respectively equivalent to 48.27% and 5.38% axial compression forces. At wet friction condition, the contact pressure distribution is more uniform and the sealing effect is better.

  1. Modeling Diffusion Interaction in the bi-Phase Systems with Using Different Types of the Effective Kinetic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Gladka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of basic and combined models for calculation of effective kinetic coefficients required to describe diffusion processes in two-phase heterogeneous environments is conducted. For a transition zone that grows between two interacting diffusion phases was built a new model of effective medium. In this model the effective kinetic coefficient depends on the kinetic coefficients in each of the phases, volumetric particle phases and additional free parameter, which generally characterizes the type of structure of a bi-phase zone. It is shown that the combined model is constructed to describe the percolation behavior of effective medium. The phenomenological approach describes the formation and development of bi-phase zones in ternary systems which including streams through both phases and the analysis of the impact of the model on the resulting effective medium diffusion zone.

  2. Nonlinear effects in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with ordered Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  3. Reduced Noise Effect in Nonlinear Model Estimation Using Multiscale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Nounou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear process models are widely used in various applications. In the absence of fundamental models, it is usually relied on empirical models, which are estimated from measurements of the process variables. Unfortunately, measured data are usually corrupted with measurement noise that degrades the accuracy of the estimated models. Multiscale wavelet-based representation of data has been shown to be a powerful data analysis and feature extraction tool. In this paper, these characteristics of multiscale representation are utilized to improve the estimation accuracy of the linear-in-the-parameters nonlinear model by developing a multiscale nonlinear (MSNL modeling algorithm. The main idea in this MSNL modeling algorithm is to decompose the data at multiple scales, construct multiple nonlinear models at multiple scales, and then select among all scales the model which best describes the process. The main advantage of the developed algorithm is that it integrates modeling and feature extraction to improve the robustness of the estimated model to the presence of measurement noise in the data. This advantage of MSNL modeling is demonstrated using a nonlinear reactor model.

  4. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, S.; Sorokin, V. S.; Thomsen, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing-Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude-frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi-stability in the amplitude-phase characteristics are predicted, supporting previously reported experimental observations.

  5. Discriminating thermal effect in nonlinear-ellipse-rotation-modified Z-scan measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; Shi, Shuo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2011-06-01

    We report that a modified Z-scan method by nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) can be used to discriminate true nonlinear refraction from thermal effect in the transient regime and steady state. The combination of Z-scan and NER allows us to measure the third-order nonlinear susceptibility component without the influence of thermal-optical nonlinearity. The experimental results of pure CS(2) and CS(2) solutions of nigrosine verify that the transient thermal effect can be successfully eliminated from the NER-modified Z-scan measurements. This method is also extended to the case in which thermal-optical nonlinearities depend on a high repetition rate of femtosecond laser pulses for the N,N-dimethylmethanamide solutions of graphene oxide. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Nonlinear optical and magneto-optical effects in non-spherical magnetic granular composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Xu(须萍); Zhenya Li(李振亚)

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization-induced nonlinear optical and nonlinear magneto-optical properties in a magnetic metal-insulator composite are studied based on a tensor effective medium approximation with shape factor and Taylcr-expansion method. There is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and elcctric field E in the composite. The results of our studies on the effective dielectric tensor and the nonlinear susceptibility tensor in a magnetic nanocomposite are surveyed. It is shown that such a metal-insulator composite exhibits the enhancements of optical and magneto-optical nonlinearity. The frequencies at which the enhancements occur, and the amplitude of the enhancement factors depend on the concentration and shape of the magnetic grains.

  7. Effect of Sn doping on nonlinear optical properties of quaternary Se-Sn-(Bi,Te) chalcogenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to report the effect of Sn doping on the third order nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide Se84-xTe15Bi1.0Snx thin films. Melt quenching technique has been used for the preparation of bulk chalcogenide glasses. Thin films of the studied composition are deposited on cleaned glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. Optical band gap (Eg) is calculated by using Tauc extrapolation method and is found to increase from 1.27 eV to 1.64 eV with the incorporation of Sn content. Stryland approach is utilized for the calculation of two photon absorption coefficient (β2). The nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third order susceptibility (χ(3) are calculated using Tichy and Ticha approach. The result shows that nonlinear refractive index (n2) follows the same trend as that of linear refractive index (n). The values of n2 of studied composition as compared to pure silica are 1000-5000 times higher.

  8. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, N., E-mail: n.zamani@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, A., E-mail: keshavarz@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nadgaran, H., E-mail: nadgaran@susc.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  9. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, N.; Keshavarz, A.; Nadgaran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  10. Effect of atmospheric environment on the attenuation coefficient of light in water

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Juan; Tang, Yijun; Zhu, Kaixing; Ge, Yuan; Chen, Xuegang; He, Xingdao; Liu, Dahe

    2014-01-01

    The attenuation coefficient of 532 nm light in water under different atmospheric conditions was investigated. Measurements were made over a two-year period at the same location and show that the attenuation coefficient is significantly influenced by the atmospheric environment. It is lowest when the atmospheric pressure is high and temperature is low, and is highest when the atmospheric pressure is low and temperature is high. The maximum attenuation coefficient of pure water in these studies was about three times the minimum value. The mechanism of the phenomena is discussed. These results are also important in underwater acoustics.

  11. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  12. Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in γ-Fe temperature region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Duan, Guosheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region were investigated using carburizing technology. The carbon penetration profiles from the iron surface to interior were measured by field emission electron probe microanalyzer. The carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron carburized with different magnetic field intensities was calculated according to the Fick's second law. It was found that the magnetic field intensity could obviously affect the carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region, and the carbon diffusion coefficient decreased obviously with the enhancement of magnetic field intensity, when the magnetic field intensity was higher than 1 T, the carbon diffusion coefficient in field annealed specimen was less than half of that of the nonfield annealed specimen, further enhancing the magnetic field intensity, the carbon diffusion coefficient basically remains unchanged. The stiffening of lattice due to field-induced magnetic ordering was responsible for an increase in activation barrier for jumping carbon atoms. The greater the magnetic field intensity, the stronger the inhibiting effect of magnetic field on carbon diffusion.

  13. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or chan...

  14. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Allocca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in southern Apennines (Italy, the estimation of the mean annual effective infiltration coefficient (AEIC was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. We studied a large part of the southern Apennines that is covered by a meteorological network and containing 40 principal karst aquifers. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926–2012, the annual effective precipitation (AEP was estimated, and its distribution was modelled, by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennines chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AEIC by means of the hydrological budget equation. The resulting AEIC values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst-rock, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A simple correlation relationship between AEIC, lithology and the summit flat and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model has been used to estimate AEIC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The estimated AEIC values ranged between 48% and 78%, thus matching intervals estimated for other karst aquifers in European and Mediterranean countries. These results represent a deeper understanding of an aspect of groundwater hydrology in karst aquifers which is fundamental for the formulation of appropriate management models of groundwater resources, also taking into account mitigation strategies for climate change impacts. Finally, the proposed hydrological characterisations are also perceived as useful for the assessment of mean annual runoff over carbonate mountains, which is

  15. Effect of Tension on Friction Coefficient Between Lining and Wire Rope with Low Speed Sliding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu-xing; ZHU Zhen-cai; CHEN Guo-an; CAO Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain the exact friction coefficient between lining and wire rope, the tension of wire rope is studied as a factor which affects this coefficient. A mechanical model of a wire rope subjected to axial load was established to determine the torque of the wire rope. The contact motion between lining and wire rope was regarded as a screw rotation and the axial force of the lining resulting from the torque of the wire rope was analyzed. Theoretical formulas relating tension of the wire rope and the friction coefficient was obtained. Experiments between lining and wire rope with low sliding speed were carried out with friction tester made by us. Experimental results show that increment of the friction coefficient is proportional to that of the tension of the wire rope with a low sliding speed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical calculation; the errors are less than 6%, which proves the validity of the theoretical model.

  16. THE EFFECT OF THICKNESS OF PILLAR IN THE CHANNEL BEND TO CHANGES THE COEFFICIENT OF SUPERELEVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISHAK M. GALIB

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses phenomena occurred in a natural channel where a bridge is built in a river bend. The present study aims at determining the effect of pillars thickness on water surface slope in transverse direction on channel bend which is defined in superelevation coefficient (Cs. Physical modelling applies 180o channel bend, 0.75 m radius, and 0.5 m width. It was applied in both with pillar and without pillar flows in subcritical-turbulent flow. For the flows with pillar there were pillar interval of 30o and 60o. The results show that the highest value of Cs (7.826 is found in the flows with pillar of the 30o interval in 30o river bend. In the interval of 60 where the pillar thickness is 3cm, the Cs value is greater than when the pillar thickness is 2 cm, on the other hand in the interval of 30o the Cs value is smaller. It is recommended for the next research to apply hydraulic condition with average velocity divided by the critical velocity must be greater than one.

  17. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1984-09-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, good results can be obtained from a diffusion calculation by representing the absorber slab by means of a suitable pair of internal boundary conditions, ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., which are ratios of neutron flux to neutron current. Methods for calculating ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. in the P/sub 1/, P/sub 3/, and P/sub 5/ approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. By appropriately weighting the fine-group blackness coefficients, broad group values, <..cap alpha..> and <..beta..>, are obtained. The technique is applied to the calculation of control rod worths of Cd, Ag-In-Cd, and Hf control elements. Results are found to compare very favorably with detailed Monte Carlo calculations. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method is briefly discussed and applied to the calculation of control rod worths in the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. Calculated and measured worths are found to be in good agreement.

  18. Landau level-superfluid modified factor and effective X/$\\gamma$-ray coefficient of a magnetar

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z F; Wang, N; Chou, C K; Huo, W S

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the energy of electrons near the Fermi surface are higher than $Q$, the threshold energy of inverse $\\beta-$ decay, the electron capture process will dominate. The resulting high-energy neutrons will destroy anisotropic ${}^3P_2$ neutron superfluid Cooper pairs. By colliding with the neutrons produced in the process $n+ (n\\uparrow n\\downarrow)\\longrightarrow n+ n+ n$, the kinetic energy of the outgoing neutrons will be transformed into thermal energy. The transformed thermal energy would transported from the star interior to the star surface by conduction, then would be transformed into radiation energy as soft X-rays and gamma-rays. After a highly efficient modulation within the pulsar magnetosphere, the surface thermal emission (mainly soft X/$\\gamma$-ray emission) has been shaped into a spectrum with the observed characteristics of magnetars. By introducing two important parameters: Landau level-superfluid modified factor and effective X/$\\gamma$-ray coefficient, we numerically simulate the proc...

  19. Effect of region of interest on interobserver variance in apparent diffusion coefficient measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Yasemin; Unal, Birsen

    2004-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging are useful measurements for assessment of cellular alterations in pathologic conditions of the brain. In this study, two radiologists independently quantitated ADCs and region-of interest sizes in prespecified locations of human brain to test interobserver ADC variance and the effect of varying ROI sizes on ADC differences. Twenty-seven patients with normal MR findings underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (b value = 1000 s/mm(2)) on a 1.5-T system. Two radiologists independently placed two ROI areas of 22 +/- 5 mm(2) and 62 +/- 6 mm(2) (former area inside the latter area) at different sites of the brain (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, nucleus caudatus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and pons) from trace images. Differences in ADC measurement obtained from each region of the brain for each radiologist and the size of each ROI were compared statistically. Mean ADC of prespecified areas of brain ranged between 0.673 and 0.818 mm(2)/s x10(-3). Interobserver variance was significant in some of the specified areas (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus). Varying ROI sizes at the pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus yielded statistically different ADC values. ADC values are found to be unreliable for use in assessing brain disease in some specified areas of the brain owing to interobserver variance and different ROI sizes.

  20. Mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of biological compounds for gamma ray interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Dhammajyot Kundlik; Pawar, Pravina P.; Selvam, T. Palani

    2017-09-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) for some enzymes, proteins, amino acids and fatty acids were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies, by performing transmission experiments using 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co and 22Na sources collimated to produce 0.52 cm diameter beams. A NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energy resolution 8.2% at 663 keV was used for detection. The experimental values of (μ/ρ) were then used to determine the atomic cross section (σa), electronic cross section (σe), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Neff). It was observed that (μ/ρ), σa and σe decrease initially and then tends to be almost constant at higher energies. Values of Zeff and Neff were observed roughly constant with energy. The deviations in experimental results of radiological parameters were believed to be affected by physical and chemical environments. Experimental results of radiological parameters were observed in good agreement with WinXCom values.

  1. Experimental Investigation on the Ice Accretion Effects of Airplane Compressor Cascade of Stator Blades on the Aerodynamic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramezanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of ice accretion on the pressure distribution and the aerodynamic coefficients in a cascade of stator blades were experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted on stage 67A type stator Controlled-Diffusion blades, which represent the mid-span of the first stage of the stator for a high-bypass turbofan engine. The measurements were carried out over a range of cascade angle of attack from 20° to 45° at Reynolds number of 500000. Experimental blade surface pressure coefficient distribution, lift and drag force coefficients, and momentum coefficients for clean blades were compared with those of the iced blades and the effects of ice accretion on these parameters were discussed. It is observed that the ice accretion on the blades causes the formation of flow bubble on the pressure side, downstream of the leading edge. By increasing the angle of attack from 20° to 35° , the bubble length decreases and the pressure coefficient increases inside the bubble region, constantly. In addition, for the iced blades the diffusion points at the suction side come closer to the trailing edge. In addition, it is found that by increasing the angle of attack up to 35° , the ice accretion has no significant effect on the lift coefficient but the drag coefficient increases comparing with the clean blades. More over at 40° and 45° , by increasing the flow interference effects between the blades, the iced blades experience higher lift and lower drag in comparison with the clean ones.

  2. Effective tunneling coefficient of a coupled double-well system modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukada,Noriaki; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, T.

    2008-01-01

    We numerically study coherent tunneling oscillations of the particles between two levels in a double-well potential in the presence of anharmonic periodic potentials. Extremely short driving pulses modify the tunneling coefficient to ef f= cos A, where is the bare tunneling coefficient without the driving field and A is the pulse area of the driving wave form. The modulation amplitude of the ef f gradually decreases as the driving wave form becomes broad and is given by ef f...

  3. A dynamic coefficient polynomial predistorter based on direct learning architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bo; Ge Jianhua; Ai Bo

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic coefficient polynomial predistorter based on direct learning architecture is proposed. Compared to the existing polynomial predistorter, on the one hand, the proposed predistorter based on the direct learning architecture is more robust to initial conditions of the tap coefficients than that based on indirect learning architecture; on the other hand, by using two polynomial coefficient combinations, different polynomial coefficient combination can be selected when the input signal amplitude changes, which effectively decreases the estimate error. This paper introduces the direct learning architecture and gives the dynamic coefficient polynomial expression. A simplified nonlinear recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for polynomial coefficient estimation is also derived in detail. Computer simulations show that the proposed predistorter can attain 31dB, 28dB and 40dB spectrum suppression gain when our method is applied to the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), solid state power amplifier (SSPA) and polynomial power amplifier (PA) model, respectively.

  4. Effects of graphene quantum dots on linear and nonlinear optical behavior of malignant ovarian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Salman; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Serahatjoo, Leila

    2016-07-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear optical properties of standard human ovarian cancer cells (cell line: A2780cp) in vitro. Cells were treated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two special concentrations. Nontoxicity of GQDs was examined in standard biological viability tests. Cancerous cells were fixed on a glass slide; then, interaction of light with biofilms was studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. Absorption spectra of untreated biofilms and biofilms with two different concentrations of GQDs was studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Optical behavior of biofilms in a linear regime of intensity (with low-intensity laser exposure) was reported using a simple optical setup. After that, we compared the attenuation of light in biofilm of cancerous cells with and without GQDs. Nonlinear behavior of these biofilms was investigated by a Z-scan setup using a continued wave He-Ne laser. Results showed that GQDs decreased the extinction coefficient and changed the sign and exact value of the nonlinear refractive index of malignant ovarian cells noticeably. The nonlinear refractive index of studied cells with no GQDs treatment was in the order of 10-8 (cm2/w) with a positive sign. This quantity changed to the same order of magnitude with a negative sign after GQDs treatment. Thus, GQDs can be used for cancer diagnosis under laser irradiation.

  5. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, Vitaly; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  6. Nonlinear effective-medium theory of disordered spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-02-01

    Disordered soft materials, such as fibrous networks in biological contexts, exhibit a nonlinear elastic response. We study such nonlinear behavior with a minimal model for networks on lattice geometries with simple Hookian elements with disordered spring constant. By developing a mean-field approach to calculate the differential elastic bulk modulus for the macroscopic network response of such networks under large isotropic deformations, we provide insight into the origins of the strain stiffening and softening behavior of these systems. We find that the nonlinear mechanics depends only weakly on the lattice geometry and is governed by the average network connectivity. In particular, the nonlinear response is controlled by the isostatic connectivity, which depends strongly on the applied strain. Our predictions for the strain dependence of the isostatic point as well as the strain-dependent differential bulk modulus agree well with numerical results in both two and three dimensions. In addition, by using a mapping between the disordered network and a regular network with random forces, we calculate the nonaffine fluctuations of the deformation field and compare them to the numerical results. Finally, we discuss the limitations and implications of the developed theory.

  7. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  8. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  9. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  10. Effect of Inlet Geometry on the Turbine Blade Tip Region Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    weight loss can rapidly occur, thus increasing leakage flow loss. A typical clearance gap flow is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the arrows represent the... gap flow . The effect of shroud motion was confined to a thin layer adja- cent to the shroud in both cases. The cavity region flow patterns, 2 mean...1988) showed that gap flow was essentially loss-free up to the separation bubble and then under- went sudden expansion causing significant diffusion

  11. A COMPARATIVE LOOK INTO HOW TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES: THROUGH USING PERCENTAGES OR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı ERTEN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the appropriateness of two statistical procedures for measuring the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies: percentages and correlation coefficients. To do this a group of 20 learners of English were asked to study 12 words in a written list, with their pronunciations, dictionary definitions, and example sentences. Data was collected through introspection where students were asked to verbalize their mental processes as they studied the target words. A pre-test and post-test were given to measure the task achievement. The qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and content-analysed for tokens of strategy use as well as by noting whether each use of strategies led to successful recall of the words on which they were used. To calculate the strategy effectiveness, both simple percentage calculation and correlation coefficients were employed for comparison. The findings indicated that percentage calculation can give a more realistic picture of strategy effectiveness than correlation coefficients.

  12. Refinement of the Upper and Lower Bounds of Effective Heat Conductivity Coefficients of Rib-Reinforced Composite Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose two refined structural models of the thermal behavior of a rib-reinforced composite medium at general anisotropy of the materials of compound components. For the criterion of equivalence of the rib-reinforced composite to the fictitious homogeneous anisotropic material, equality of the specific heat dissipation in them was used, which permits determining the upper and lower bounds of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of the composite material. The design values of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of a honeycomb structure with cavities filled and not filled with foam plastic have been determined. It has been shown that the refinement of certain thermal characteristics of 12%, and the refined "fork" of values of these quantities, does not exceed 2.5%. Indirect comparison has been made between the calculated and experimental values of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of such compounds, which has shown that the results obtained in the work are qualitatively reliable.

  13. Effective Third-Order Nonlinearities in Metallic Refractory Titanium Nitride Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsey, Nathaniel; Courtwright, Devon; DeVault, Clayton; Bonner, Carl E; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.

  14. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gun LiNa; TANG ZhiLie; XING Da

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than twophoton confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  15. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than two-photon confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  16. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  17. Weakly nonlinear dispersion and stop-band effects for periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Continua and structures composed of periodically repeated elements (cells) are used in many fields of science and technology. Examples of continua are composite materials, consisting of alternating volumes of substances with different properties, mechanical filters and wave guides. Examples of en...... suggested. The work is carried out with financial support from the Danish Council for Independent Research and COFUND: DFF – 1337-00026...... of these methods for studying nonlinear problems isimpossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable only for linear systems. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applications may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response...

  18. Using nonlinearity and spatiotemporal property modulation to control effective structural properties: dynamic rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Blekhman, Iliya I.

    2007-01-01

    , and to call these dynamic materials or spatiotemporal composites. Also, according to theoretical predictions, structural nonlinearity enhances the possibilities of achieving specific effective properties. For example, with an elastic rod having cubical elastic nonlinearities, it seems possible to control......, and exemplified. Then simple approximate analytical expressions are derived for the effective wave speed and natural frequencies for one-dimensional wave propagation in a nonlinear elastic rod, where the spatiotemporal modulation is imposed as a high-frequency standing wave, supposed to be given. Finally the more...

  19. Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.

  20. Systematic treatment of non-linear effects in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss the non-linear effects in the baryon acoustic oscillations and present a systematic and controllable way to account for them within time-sliced perturbation theory.

  1. Diffraction corrections for second harmonic beam fields and effects on the nonlinearity parameter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The nonlinearity parameter is frequently measured as a sensitive indicator in damaged material characterization or tissue harmonic imaging. Several previous studies have employed the plane wave solution, and ignored the effects of beam diffraction when measuring the non-linearity parameter β. This paper presents a multi-Gaussian beam approach to explicitly derive diffraction corrections for fundamental and second harmonics under quasilinear and paraxial approximation. Their effects on the nonlinearity parameter estimation demonstrate complicated dependence of β on the transmitter-receiver geometries, frequency, and propagation distance. The diffraction effects on the non-linearity parameter estimation are important even in the nearfield region. Experiments are performed to show that improved β values can be obtained by considering the diffraction effects.

  2. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    ... a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix...

  3. EFFECT OF DAMAGE ON NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VISCOELASTIC RECTANGULAR PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-fang; FU Yi-ming

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic rectangular plates including the damage effects under the action of a transverse periodic load were studied. Using the von Karman equations, Boltzmann superposition principle and continuum damage mechanics, the nonlinear dynamic equations in terms of the mid-plane displacements for the viscoelastic thin plates with damage effect were derived. By adopting the finite difference method and Newmark method, these equations were solved. The results were compared with the available data. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the external loading parameters and geometric dimensions of the plate on the nonlinear dynamic responses of the plate were discussed. Research results show that the nonlinear dynamic response of the structure will change remarkably when the damage effect is considered.

  4. Examining the Error of Mis-Specifying Nonlinear Confounding Effect with Application on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some confounders are nonlinearly associated with dependent variables, but they are often adjusted using a linear term. The purpose of this study was to examine the error of mis-specifying the nonlinear confounding effect. Methods: We carried out a simulation study to investigate the effect of adjusting for a nonlinear confounder in the…

  5. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabshahi, H., E-mail: arabshahi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad [Physics Department, Al-Zahra University, Vanak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OptiOptical Non-Linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Effective Length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schroedinger equation solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructure.

  6. Effect of reducing agents in tuning the third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting behavior of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandi, G.; Saravanan, M.; Vinitha, G.; Jessie Raj, M. B.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.

    2017-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared by reduction method using various reductants like hydrazine, sodium borohydride and ascorbic acid. XRD and Raman analysis confirmed the effective removal of functional groups in GO. SEM revealed that rGO consists of thin crumpled and disordered sheets closely associated with each other. Blue shift in UV-absorption maxima was due to weak interlayer coupling between the layers of rGO. Third order NLO properties of dispersed rGO were measured by Z-scan technique (532 nm, 50 mW). Both GO and rGO possess self defocusing, saturable absorption and optical limiting behavior. The nonlinear component of refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical susceptibility were found to be 10-8 cm2/W, 10-3 cm/W and 10-6 esu respectively. Tunability of NLO coefficients with altering functional groups upon rGO was achieved. rGO prepared using hydrazine with high NLO coefficient and excellent durability, signify the scope of utilizing them as optical limiters.

  7. Asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with the effects of nonlinear phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Reddy, Dileep V.

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM.......We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM....

  8. Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Dynamics of Atom Laser: Mean-Field Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Hui

    2002-01-01

    Quantum dynamics and statistics of an atom laser with nonlinear binary interactions are investigated inthe framework of mean-field approximation. The linearized effective Hamiltonian of the system is accurately solvable.It is shown that, although the input radio frequency field is in an ordinary Glauber coherent state, the output matterwave will periodically exhibit quadrature squeezing effects purely originated from the nonlinear atom-atom collisions.

  9. Beam hardening: analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, J; Mudde, R F

    2007-07-01

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.

  10. EFFECT OF EMPIRICAL COEFFICIENTS ON SIMULATION IN TWO-SCALE SECOND-ORDER MOMENT PARTICLE-PHASE TURBULENCE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-bo; ZENG Zhuo-xiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-scale second-order moment two-phase turbulence model accounting for inter-particle collision is developed, based on the concept of particle large-scale fluctuation due to turbulence and particle small-scale fluctuation due to collision. The proposed model is used to simulate gas-particle downer reactor flows. The computationsl results of both particle volume fraction and mean velocity are in agreement with the experimental results. After analyzing effects of empirical coefficient on prediction results, we can come to a conclusion that, inside the limit range of empirical coefficient, the predictions do not reveal a large sensitivity to the empirical coefficient in the downer reactor, but a relatively great change of the constants has important effect on the prediction.

  11. Effect of spreading coefficient on three-phase relative permeability of nonaqueous phase liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.; Chen, Mingjie

    2003-10-01

    Three-phase flow conditions are encountered regularly, for example, during migration of released NAPL through the vadose zone, certain stages of soil vapor extraction, bioslurping, or generation of gases by microbes. To model three-phase flow, a common approach is to construct three-phase relative permeabilities based on a combination of two-phase relative permeabilities. Although this circumvents a lack of experimental data, it can lead to serious underprediction or overprediction of residual NAPL saturation. This can mislead decision makers that need to predict whether a particular spill will reach the water table or predict the speed of a NAPL front or conduct an assessment of the performance of remediation actions. Experimental data to estimate three-phase relative permeabilities is sparse. A study by [2000a] generated significant experimental information. Their analysis focused on the high NAPL saturation region, given their emphasis on oil reservoir engineering. For environmental applications the low saturation region is of more interest. Using this data set, we derived a set of empirical relations that relate NAPL three-phase relative permeability krn to NAPL saturation Sn and spreading coefficient Cs for Sn less than about 0.1, such that krn = ? where A1 = 0.012 exp (-1.3Cs) and A2 = 2.1 - 0.60Cs + 0.036Cs2. At higher Sn, krn ≈ Sn4, independent of Cs. We present a pore-scale conceptual model that provides a phenomenological basis for the use of Cs as a predictor of krn at low Sn. We then present a number of simulated case studies that highlight the effect of these three-phase relative permeabilities on risk assessment or remediation design.

  12. Estimation of the fourth-order dispersion coefficient β4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Jianquan Yao

    2012-01-01

    The fourth-order dispersion coefficient of fibers are estimated by the iterations around the third-order dispersion and the high-order nonlinear items in the nonlinear Schordinger equation solved by Green's function approach.Our theoretical evaluation demonstrates that the fourth-order dispersion coefficient slightly varies with distance.The fibers also record β4 values of about 0.002,0.003,and 0.00032 ps4/km for SMF,NZDSF and DCF,respectively.In the zero-dispersion regime,the high-order nonlinear effect (higher than self-steepening) has a strong impact on the transmitted short pulse.This red-shifts accelerates the symmetrical split of the pulse,although this effect is degraded rapidly with the increase of β2.Thus,the contributions to β4 of SMF,NZDSF,and DCF can be neglected.

  13. Effects of bridge cable surface roughness and cross-sectional distortion on aerodynamic force coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations...... of their inherent surface roughness and shape, which might present a significant disturbance for the surrounding wind flow. The present study focuses on the experimental determination, based on static wind tunnel tests, of the aerodynamic coefficients of full-scale bridge cable section models both perpendicular...... and inclined to the flow, for varying wind angles-of-attack. The wind tunnel test results demonstrate that the aerodynamic coefficients of bridge cables can be significantly affected by the wind angle-of-attack....

  14. Effect of Low Diffusion Coefficient on Eutectic Instability of Al-25 wt%Sm Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nan

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion coefficient decides the solute diffusion length and is a critical parameter in the selection of microstructure scales and in governing microstructure transitions. Al-25 wt% Sm alloy is selected to reveal the impact of low diffusion coefficient on the eutectic instability, and the results are compared with those of Al-Cu alloys.Laser remelting experiments are performed and the transition growth velocity from eutectic to α-Al dendrite is examined. Compared with Al-Cu alloys, the eutectic instability takes place at a velocity more than one order of magnitude smaller. The theoretical calculation by the Trivedi-Magnin- Kurz (TMK) model also predicts that the eutectic will become instable at smaller growth velocity for Al-Sm alloy than Al-Cu alloy, which is ascribed to the low diffusion coefficient.

  15. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  16. Measurement of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index of Cs vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Michelle O; Oriá, Marcos; Chevrollier, Martine; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Castro, Romeu; Moretti, Danieverton

    2014-01-01

    Atomic vapors are systems well suited for nonlinear optics studies but very few direct measurements of their nonlinear refractive index have been reported. Here we use the z-scan technique to measure the Kerr coefficient, $n_2$, for a Cs vapor. Our results are analyzed through a four-level model, and we show that coherence between excited levels as well as cross-population effects contribute to the Kerr-nonlinearity.

  17. Nonlinear effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-cloud instability

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from the batch to its bunch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  18. Collisional Effects on Nonlinear Ion Drag Force for Small Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H

    2013-01-01

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

  19. Chromatic and Dispersive Effects in Nonlinear Integrable Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen D; Valishev, Alexander; Nagaitsev, Sergei N; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Proton accumulator rings and other circular hadron accelerators are susceptible to intensity-driven parametric instabilities because the zero-current charged particle dynamics are characterized by a single tune. Landau damping can suppress these instabilities, which requires energy spread in the beam or introducing nonlinear magnets such as octupoles. However, this approach reduces dynamic aperture. Nonlinear integrable optics can suppress parametric instabilities independent of energy spread in the distribution, while preserving the dynamic aperture. This novel approach promises to reduce particle losses and enable order-of-magnitude increases in beam intensity. In this paper we present results, obtained using the Lie operator formalism, on how chromaticity and dispersion affect particle orbits in integrable optics. We conclude that chromaticity in general breaks the integrability, unless the vertical and horizontal chromaticities are equal. Because of this, the chromaticity correcting magnets can be weaker ...

  20. Nonlinear Effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-Cloud Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from bunch to bunch along the batch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  1. Effect Of Long-Period Earthquake Ground Motions On Nonlinear Vibration Of Shells With Variable Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikarimov, R.; Bykovtsev, A.; Khodzhaev, D.; Research Team Of Geotechnical; Structural Engineers

    2010-12-01

    system of nonlinear integro-differential equations (NIDE) with variable coefficients concerning a deflection w=w(x,y) and displacements u=u(x,y), v=v(x,y) was used for construction mathematical model of the problem. The Kichhoff-Love hypothesis was used as basis for description physical and geometrical relations and construction of a discrete model of nonlinear problems dynamic theory of viscoelasticity. The most effective variational Bubnov-Galerkin method was used for obtaining Volterra type system of NIDE. The integration of the obtained equations system was carried out with the help of the numerical method based on quadrature formula. The computer codes on algorithmic language Delphi were created for investigation amplitude-time, deflected mode and torque-time characteristic of vibrations of the viscoelastic shells. For real composite materials at wide ranges of change of physical-mechanical and geometrical parameters the behavior of shells were investigated. Calculations were carried out at different laws of change of thickness. Results will be presented as graphs and tables.

  2. Nonlinear effects of energetic particle driven instabilities in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruedgam, Michael

    2010-03-25

    In a tokamak plasma, a population of superthermal particles generated by heating methods can lead to a destabilization of various MHD modes. Due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions, a consequential fast particle redistribution reduces the plasma heating and can cause severe damages to the wall of the fusion device. In order to describe the wave-particle interaction, the drift-kinetic perturbative HAGIS code is applied which evolves the particle trajectories and the waves nonlinearly. For a simulation speed-up, the 6-d particle phase-space is reduced by the guiding centre approach to a 5-d description. The eigenfunction of the wave is assumed to be invariant, but its amplitude and phase is altered in time. A sophisticated {delta}/f-method is employed to model the change in the fast particle distribution so that numerical noise and the excessive number of simulated Monte-Carlo points are reduced significantly. The original code can only calculate the particle redistribution inside the plasma region. Therefore, a code extension has been developed during this thesis which enlarges the simulation region up to the vessel wall. By means of numerical simulations, this thesis addresses the problem of nonlinear waveparticle interactions in the presence of multiple MHD modes with significantly different eigenfrequencies and the corresponding fast particle transport inside the plasma. In this context, a new coupling mechanism between resonant particles and waves has been identified that leads to enhanced mode amplitudes and fast particle losses. The extension of the code provides for the first time the possibility of a quantitative and qualitative comparison between simulation results and recent measurements in the experiment. The findings of the comparison serve as a validation of both the theoretical model and the interpretation of the experimental results. Thus, a powerful interface tool has been developed for a deeper insight of nonlinear wave-particle interaction

  3. Nonlinear optical effects in pure and N-doped semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Donlagic, N S

    2000-01-01

    the optical response of a one-dimensional n-doped two-band semiconductor whose conduction band has been linearized with respect to the two Fermi points. Due to the linearization it is possible to calculate the linear and nonlinear response functions of the interacting electron system exactly. These response functions are then used in order to determine the linear absorption spectrum and the time-integrated signal of a degenerated four-wave-mixing experiment. It is shown that the well-known features of the linear response can directly be related to features of the nonlinear experiments. For example, the exponent which describes the algebraic decay of the time-integrated four-wave-mixing signal is functionally dependent on the exponent of the algebraic singularity in the linear absorption spectrum reflecting the common origin of the different phenomena. Over the last decades, the nonlinear optical properties of condensed matter systems have been an attractive and fruitful field of research. While the linear res...

  4. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: comparison of off-target soil background and on-target soil-mine nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.; Pauls, Kathleen E.; Genis, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f I, f II (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the "target." Profiles at the primaries f I, f II, and nonlinearly generated combination frequencies f I-(f II-f I) and f II+(f II-f I) , 2f I-(f II-f I), f I+f II and 2f II+(f II-f I) (among others) have been measured for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil and in a gravel road bed. [M.S. Korman and J.M. Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. It is observed that the "on target" to "off target" contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case.

  5. Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.

  6. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  7. Limb-Darkening Coefficients for Eclipsing White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Gianninas, A; Kilic, Mukremin; Bergeron, P

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of linear and non-linear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up-to-date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find ~10^5 eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented h...

  8. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  9. Nonlinear Thermophoresis beyond Local Equilibrium Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Duhr, Stefan; Braun, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Thermophoresis (thermodiffusion, Soret effect) moves molecules along thermal gradients. We measure its phenomenological linear drift relation by single particle tracking in convection-free settings. For moderate thermal gradients, drift velocity depends linearly on the gradient. However, for strong thermal gradients, we find a nonlinear dependence of the drift on the applied gradient for large Soret coefficient and particle radius. Interestingly, the onset of the nonlinearity coincides with a...

  10. A multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects approach to model growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Sørensen, H

    2009-01-01

    Growth functions have been used to predict market weight of pigs and maximize return over feed costs. This study was undertaken to compare 4 growth functions and methods of analyzing data, particularly one that considers nonlinear repeated measures. Data were collected from an experiment with 40...... pigs maintained from birth to maturity and their BW measured weekly or every 2 wk up to 1,007 d. Gompertz, logistic, Bridges, and Lopez functions were fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For each function, a multilevel nonlinear mixed effects model was employed because....... Furthermore, studies should consider adding continuous autoregressive process when analyzing nonlinear mixed models with repeated measures....

  11. Nonlinear Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation of a Flexible Beam Considering Shear Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yang; SHEN Ling-jie; HONG Jia-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear modeling of a flexible beam with large deformation was investigated. Absolute nodal cooridnate formulation is employed to describe the motion, and Lagrange equations of motion of a flexible beam are derived based on the geometric nonlinear theory. Different from the previous nonlinear formulation with EulerBernoulli assumption, the shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. Computational example of a flexible pendulum with a tip mass is given to show the effects of the shear strain and transverse normal strain. The constant total energy verifies the correctness of the present formulation.

  12. Experimental and numerical study on effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 x 10(4) to 5.43 x 10(4) (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the conditions that the liquid temperature is lower than the air temperature. Although there are differences of mass transfer coefficients between these two methods, the mass transfer coefficients determined by these two methods are significantly related.

  13. A new approach to evaluating the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis on vitreous diffusion coefficients using dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Sebag, J.

    2006-02-01

    PURPOSE: Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a new approach to improve vitreo-retinal surgery. Ultimately, the development of drugs to liquefy and detach vitreous from retina should prevent disease by mitigating the contribution of vitreous to retinopathy and eliminate the need for surgery. However, the mechanism of action of pharmacologic vitreolysis remains unclear. The technique of Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate the effects of microplasmin by following the diffusion coefficients of spherical polystyrene nano-particles injected with microplasmin into the vitreous. METHODS: Diffusion coefficients in dissected (n=9) porcine eyes were measured in vitro. DLS was performed on all specimens at 37°C as often as every 10 minutes for up to 6 hours following injections of human recombinant microplasmin at doses ranging from 0.125 mg to 0.8 mg, with 20 nm diameter tracer nanospheres. RESULTS: DLS findings in untreated porcine vitreous were similar to the previously described findings in bovine and human vitreous, demonstrating a fast (early) component, resulting from the flexible hyaluronan molecules, and a slow (late) component, resulting form the stiff collagen molecules. Microplasmin increased porcine vitreous diffusion coefficients. A new approach was developed to use DLS measurements of vitreous diffusion coefficients to evaluate the effects of microplasmin in intact eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic vitreolysis with human recombinant microplasmin increases vitreous diffusion coefficients in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that this new approach using DLS to measure vitreous diffusion coefficients can be used to study the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis using microplasmin and other agents in intact eyes and ultimately in vivo.

  14. Beam hardening: Analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of x-ray tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, J.; Mudde, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fl

  15. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  16. Unexpected Nonlinear Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John

    2016-01-01

    When a normal metal transitions into the superconducting state the DC resistance drops from a finite value to zero over some finite transition width in temperature, current, and magnetic field. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) operate within this transition region and uses resistive changes to measure deposited thermal energy. This resistive transition is not perfectly smooth and a wide range of TES designs and materials show sub-structure in the resistive transition (as seen in smooth nonmonotonic behavior, jump discontinuities, and hysteresis in the devices current-voltage relation and derivatives of the resistance with respect to temperature, bias current, and magnetic field). TES technology has advanced to the point where for many applications this structure is the limiting factor in performance and optimization consists of finding operating points away from these structures. For example, operating at or near this structure can lead to nonlinearity in the detectors response and gain scale, limit the spectral range of the detector by limiting the usable resistive range, and degrade energy resolution. The origin of much of this substructure is unknown. This presentation investigates a number of possible sources in turn. First we model the TES as a superconducting weak-link and solve for the characteristic differential equations current and voltage time dependence. We find:(1) measured DC biased current-voltage relationship is the time-average of a much higher frequency limit cycle solution.(2) We calculate the fundamental frequency and estimate the power radiated from the TES treating the bias leads as an antennae.(3) The solution for a set of circuit parameters becomes multivalued leading to current transitions between levels.(4)The circuit parameters can change the measure resistance and mask the true critical current. As a consequence the TES resistance surface is not just a function of temperature, current, and magnetic field but is also a

  17. The effect of grain size and film thickness on the thermal expansion coefficient of copper thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seulgi; Kim, Youngman

    2011-02-01

    Cu thin films underwent thermal cycling to determine their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The thermal stress of the Cu thin films with various microstructures (different grain size and film thickness) was measured using a curvature measurement system. The thermal expansion coefficients of the films were obtained from the slope of the stress-temperature curve with the knowledge of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The change in thermal stress with temperature of the Cu thin films tended to decrease with increasing grain size, resulting in an increase in the CTE. The thickness of Cu thin film had little effect on the thermal stress or the CTE.

  18. Modal theory of slow light enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Sun, Junqiang; Li, Linsen

    2012-08-27

    In this paper, we derive the couple-mode equations for third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides by employing the modal theory. These nonlinear interactions include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and degenerate four-wave mixing. The equations similar to that in nonlinear fiber optics could be expanded and applied for third-order nonlinear processes in other periodic waveguides. Based on the equations, we systematically analyze the group-velocity dispersion, optical propagation loss, effective interaction area, slow light enhanced factor and phase mismatch for a slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Considering the two-photon and free-carrier absorptions, the wavelength conversion efficiencies in two low-dispersion regions are numerically simulated by utilizing finite difference method. Finally, we investigate the influence of slow light enhanced multiple four-wave-mixing process on the conversion efficiency.

  19. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from...... different perspectives. The analysis combines theoretical approach, simulations and measurements. The focus is on distortion artifacts in the causal part of the impulse response and their effects on room acoustical parameters. The results show that the sweep-sine method is vulnerable to a certain extent...... to nonlinearities from a theoretical standpoint, but the consequences of this vulnerability are reduced in the responses measured in practice. However, due to irretrievable contamination of the impulse responses, the nonlinearities (especially strong ones) should be avoided....

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study on Effects of Airflow and Aqueous Ammonium Temperature on Ammonia Mass Transfer Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass...... to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 × 104 to 5.43 × 104 (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies...... greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation...