WorldWideScience

Sample records for noninvasive radiological imaging

  1. Imaging and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  2. Radiological Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

    The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

  3. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  4. Compression for radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.

  5. Image processing in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging processing and analysis methods have significantly improved during recent years and are now being increasingly used in clinical applications. Preprocessing algorithms are used to influence image contrast and noise. Three-dimensional visualization techniques including volume rendering and virtual endoscopy are increasingly available to evaluate sectional imaging data sets. Registration techniques have been developed to merge different examination modalities. Structures of interest can be extracted from the image data sets by various segmentation methods. Segmented structures are used for automated quantification analysis as well as for three-dimensional therapy planning, simulation and intervention guidance, including medical modelling, virtual reality environments, surgical robots and navigation systems. These newly developed methods require specialized skills for the production and postprocessing of radiological imaging data as well as new definitions of the roles of the traditional specialities. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of medical imaging processing methods, practical implications for the ragiologist's daily work and future aspects. (orig.) [de

  6. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.D. Jr.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph on digital imaging provides a basic overview of this field at the present time. This paper covers clinical application, including subtraction angiography; chest radiology; genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and breast radiology; and teleradiology. The chest section also includes an explanation of multiple beam equalization radiography. The remaining chapters discuss some of the technical aspects of digital radiology. It includes the basic technology of digital radiography, image compression, and reconstruction information on the economics of digital radiography

  7. Digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzen, P.H.; Brennecke, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present book contains 27 papers presented at an international symposium on digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology held in Kiel in 1982. The main themes were as follows. Introductory reviews, digital systems for X-ray video imaging, quantitative X-ray image analysis, and clinical applications. (MG)

  8. Radiologic image compression -- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs

  9. Digital Radiology Image Learning Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, R.L.; Greenes, R.; Allman, R.; Swett, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Radiology Image Learning Library (DRILL) is designed as an interactive teaching tool targeted to the radiologic community. The DRILL pilot comprises a comprehensive mammographic information base consisting of factual data in a relational database, an extensive knowledge base in semantic nets and high-resolution images. A flexible query module permits the user to browse and retrieve examination data, case discussions, and related images. Other applications, including expert systems, instructional programs, and skill building exercises, can be accessed through well-defined software constructs

  10. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  12. Radiology image orientation processing for workstation display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Fu; Hu, Kermit; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1998-06-01

    Radiology images are acquired electronically using phosphor plates that are read in Computed Radiology (CR) readers. An automated radiology image orientation processor (RIOP) for determining the orientation for chest images and for abdomen images has been devised. In addition, the chest images are differentiated as front (AP or PA) or side (Lateral). Using the processing scheme outlined, hospitals will improve the efficiency of quality assurance (QA) technicians who orient images and prepare the images for presentation to the radiologists.

  13. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  14. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  15. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  16. Image Quality in Vascular Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.

    2005-01-01

    In vascular radiology, the radiologists use the radiological image to diagnose or treat a specific vascular structure. From literature, we know that related doses are high and that large dose variability exists between different hospitals. The application of the optimization principle is therefore necessary and is obliged by the new legislation. So far, very little fieldwork has been performed and no practical instructions are available to do the necessary work. It's indisputable that obtaining quantitative data is of great interest for optimization purposes. In order to gain insight into these doses and the possible measures for dose reduction, we performed a comparative study in 7 hospitals. Patient doses will be measured and calculated for specific procedures in vascular radiology and evaluated against their most influencing parameters. In view of optimization purposes, a protocol for dose audit will be set-up. From the results and conclusions in this study, experimentally based guidelines will be proposed, in order to improve clinical practice in vascular radiology

  17. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  19. A digital library of radiology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    A web-based virtual library of peer-reviewed radiological images was created for use in education and clinical decision support. Images were obtained from open-access content of five online radiology journals and one e-learning web site. Figure captions were indexed by Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) codes, imaging modality, and patient age and sex. This digital library provides a new, valuable online resource.

  20. Image Sharing in Radiology-A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam R; Stalcup, Seth; Sharma, Arjun; Sato, T Shawn; Gupta, Pushpender; Lee, Yueh Z; Malone, Christopher; McBee, Morgan; Hotaling, Elise L; Kansagra, Akash P

    2017-03-01

    By virtue of its information technology-oriented infrastructure, the specialty of radiology is uniquely positioned to be at the forefront of efforts to promote data sharing across the healthcare enterprise, including particularly image sharing. The potential benefits of image sharing for clinical, research, and educational applications in radiology are immense. In this work, our group-the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Image Sharing-reviews the benefits of implementing image sharing capability, introduces current image sharing platforms and details their unique requirements, and presents emerging platforms that may see greater adoption in the future. By understanding this complex ecosystem of image sharing solutions, radiologists can become important advocates for the successful implementation of these powerful image sharing resources. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The future of radiological imaging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keon Joong; Park, Kyung Jin

    1981-01-01

    The future promises accelerated developments for radiology. W. Roentgen produced the first medical radiographic image on December 22, 1895. For the past 80 years, four major discoveries affected imaging. First, the discovery of the image intensifier. Second, the discovery of radioisotopes. Third, the discovery of ultrasonic imaging. Fourth, the discovery of computed tomography. The emphasis on radiology over the next 20 years will be develop: (1) more sophisticated way to collect qualitative and quantitative information about morphology; (2) technologies that focus on physiology; (3) technologies that assess metabolic processes before microscopic. 20 years from now, a radiology department might be totally photo electronic. We must redirect some of funding, possibly be defining a new radiologic sciences. Funds from such an institute could then be channeled into research for the new technologies. This would accelerate the solutions to the problems of clinical medicine, and better care for patients

  2. Radiologic image communication with fiberoptic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Loloyan, M.; Tecotzky, R.

    1990-01-01

    Copper wires and coaxial cables are conventional media for transmitting radiologic images. The high impedance of these cables limits the speed of transmission, the bandwidth of the image, and the distance between nodes. This paper investigates characteristics of radiologic image communication with fiber optics as the medium. The model S L = F (B, D, M, C, W, TR) describes the signal loss S L of the image as a function (F) of the image bandwidth (B), the distance between two nodes (D), the mode of the fiber used (M), the connector type (C), the wavelength (W), and the characteristics of the optical transmitter and receiver pair (TR)

  3. Digital image information systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, C.F.C.; Luetke, B.; Seufert, G.

    1987-01-01

    About 25% of all patient examinations are performed digitally in a today's radiological department. A computerized system is described that supports generation, transport, interpretation and archiving of digital radiological images (Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS). The technical features concerning image communication via local area networks, image storage on magnetic and optical media and digital workstations for image display and manipulation are described. A structured system architecture is introduced. It allows flexible adaption to individual organizations and minimizes the requirements of the communication network. (orig.) [de

  4. An image database structure for pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of the Clinical Radiology Imaging System (CRIS) in Pediatric Radiology at UCLA relies on the orderly flow of text and image data among the three basic subsystems including acquisition, storage, and display. CRIS provides the radiologist, clinician, and technician with data at clinical image workstations by maintaining comprehensive database. CRIS is made up of sub-systems, each composed of one more programs or tasks which operate in parallel on a VAX-11/750 microcomputer in Pediatric Radiology. Tasks are coordinated through dynamic data structures that include system event flags and disk-resident queues. This report outlines: (1) the CRIS data model, (2) the flow of information among CRIS components, (3) the underlying database structures which support the acquisition, display, and storage of text and image information, and (4) current database statistics

  5. Arthritis: Conventional and Advanced Radiological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adviye Ergun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritides are acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, but there are more than 100 different forms. Right and early diagnosis is extremely important for the prevention of eventual structural and functional disability of the affected joint. Imaging findings, especially those of advanced level imaging, play a major role in diagnosis and monitor the progression of arthritis or its response to therapy. The objective of the review is to discuss the findings of conventional and advanced radiological imaging of most common arthritides and to present a simplified approach for their radiological evaluation.

  6. Intelligent image retrieval based on radiology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmair, Axel; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Daumke, Philipp; Simon, Kai [Averbis GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To create an advanced image retrieval and data-mining system based on in-house radiology reports. Radiology reports are semantically analysed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques and stored in a state-of-the-art search engine. Images referenced by sequence and image number in the reports are retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and stored for later viewing. A web-based front end is used as an interface to query for images and show the results with the retrieved images and report text. Using a comprehensive radiological lexicon for the underlying terminology, the search algorithm also finds results for synonyms, abbreviations and related topics. The test set was 108 manually annotated reports analysed by different system configurations. Best results were achieved using full syntactic and semantic analysis with a precision of 0.929 and recall of 0.952. Operating successfully since October 2010, 258,824 reports have been indexed and a total of 405,146 preview images are stored in the database. Data-mining and NLP techniques provide quick access to a vast repository of images and radiology reports with both high precision and recall values. Consequently, the system has become a valuable tool in daily clinical routine, education and research. (orig.)

  7. Intelligent image retrieval based on radiology reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmair, Axel; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar; Daumke, Philipp; Simon, Kai

    2012-01-01

    To create an advanced image retrieval and data-mining system based on in-house radiology reports. Radiology reports are semantically analysed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques and stored in a state-of-the-art search engine. Images referenced by sequence and image number in the reports are retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and stored for later viewing. A web-based front end is used as an interface to query for images and show the results with the retrieved images and report text. Using a comprehensive radiological lexicon for the underlying terminology, the search algorithm also finds results for synonyms, abbreviations and related topics. The test set was 108 manually annotated reports analysed by different system configurations. Best results were achieved using full syntactic and semantic analysis with a precision of 0.929 and recall of 0.952. Operating successfully since October 2010, 258,824 reports have been indexed and a total of 405,146 preview images are stored in the database. Data-mining and NLP techniques provide quick access to a vast repository of images and radiology reports with both high precision and recall values. Consequently, the system has become a valuable tool in daily clinical routine, education and research. (orig.)

  8. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  9. [Image fusion in medical radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C

    1996-07-20

    Image fusion supports the correlation between images of two or more studies of the same organ. First, the effect of differing geometries during image acquisitions, such as a head tilt, is compensated for. As a consequence, congruent images can easily be obtained. Instead of merely putting them side by side in a static manner and burdening the radiologist with the whole correlation task, image fusion supports him with interactive visualization techniques. This is especially worthwhile for small lesions as they can be more precisely located. Image fusion is feasible today. Easy and robust techniques are readily available, and furthermore DICOM, a rapidly evolving data exchange standard, diminishes the once severe compatibility problems for image data originating from systems of different manufacturers. However, the current solutions for image fusion are not yet established enough for a high throughput of fusion studies. Thus, for the time being image fusion is most appropriately confined to clinical research studies.

  10. Screening and preventive diagnosis with radiological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.F. [University Hospitals - Grosshadern and Innenstadt (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Fink, C.; Schoenberg, S.O. (eds.) [Univ. Hospital Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2008-07-01

    Continuous technical developments have improved the potential of organ-based radiological diagnostics and have now also led to the use of dedicated whole-body examinations in the field of screening and preventive diagnosis. This book aims to provide clinicians with a broad understanding of screening and preventive diagnosis using radiological imaging. The first part of the book is dedicated to the fundamentals of screening and preventive diagnosis, and comprises chapters on epidemiology and pathology, technical and organizational aspects of radiological screening, legal and ethical issues, and cost-benefit analysis. The second part of the book discusses in depth the most important practical examples of radiological screening and surveillance, both for unselected populations and for individual risk groups. (orig.)

  11. Screening and preventive diagnosis with radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.F.; Fink, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous technical developments have improved the potential of organ-based radiological diagnostics and have now also led to the use of dedicated whole-body examinations in the field of screening and preventive diagnosis. This book aims to provide clinicians with a broad understanding of screening and preventive diagnosis using radiological imaging. The first part of the book is dedicated to the fundamentals of screening and preventive diagnosis, and comprises chapters on epidemiology and pathology, technical and organizational aspects of radiological screening, legal and ethical issues, and cost-benefit analysis. The second part of the book discusses in depth the most important practical examples of radiological screening and surveillance, both for unselected populations and for individual risk groups. (orig.)

  12. Management of oral and maxillofacial radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2002-01-01

    To implement the database system of oral and maxillofacial radiological images using a commercial medical image management software with personally developed classification code. The image database was built using a slightly modified commercial medical image management software, Dr. Image v.2.1 (Bit Computer Co., Korea). The function of wild card '*' was added to the search function of this program. Diagnosis classification codes were written as the number at the first three digits, and radiographic technique classification codes as the alphabet right after the diagnosis code. 449 radiological films of 218 cases from January, 2000 to December, 2000, which had been specially stored for the demonstration and education at Dept. of OMF Radiology of Dankook University Dental Hospital, were scanned with each patient information. Cases could be efficiently accessed and analyzed by using the classification code. Search and statistics results were easily obtained according to sex, age, disease diagnosis and radiographic technique. Efficient image management was possible with this image database system. Application of this system to other departments or personal image management can be made possible by utilizing the appropriate classification code system.

  13. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  14. Radiology and Enterprise Medical Imaging Extensions (REMIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Barbaros S; Prevedello, Luciano M; Qian, Songyue; Demirer, Mutlu; Little, Kevin; Ryu, John; O'Donnell, Thomas; White, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    Radiology and Enterprise Medical Imaging Extensions (REMIX) is a platform originally designed to both support the medical imaging-driven clinical and clinical research operational needs of Department of Radiology of The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. REMIX accommodates the storage and handling of "big imaging data," as needed for large multi-disciplinary cancer-focused programs. The evolving REMIX platform contains an array of integrated tools/software packages for the following: (1) server and storage management; (2) image reconstruction; (3) digital pathology; (4) de-identification; (5) business intelligence; (6) texture analysis; and (7) artificial intelligence. These capabilities, along with documentation and guidance, explaining how to interact with a commercial system (e.g., PACS, EHR, commercial database) that currently exists in clinical environments, are to be made freely available.

  15. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  16. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Radiological imaging of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Lincender-Cvijetić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities of diagnosing abdominal imaging in patients with rectal cancer, detecting lesions and assessing the stage of the lesions, in order to select the appropriate therapy. Before the introduction of imaging technologies, the diagnosis of colorectal pathology was based on conventional methods of inspecting intestines with a barium enema, with either a single or double contrast barium enema. Following the development of endoscopic methods and the wide use of colonoscopy, colonoscopy became the method of choice for diagnosing colorectal diseases. The improvement of Computerized Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, gave us new possibilities for diagnosing colorectal cancer. For rectal cancer, trans-rectal US (TRUS or endo-anal US (EAUS have a significant role. For staging rectal cancer, the Multi Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT is not the method of choice, but Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is preferred when it comes to monitoring the rectum. Therole of the MRI in the T staging of rectal cancer is crucial in preoperative assessment of: thickness – the width of the tumor, the extramural invasion, the circumference of resection margin (CRM, andthe assessment of the inclusion of mesorectal fascia. For successful execution of surgical techniques, good diagnostic imaging of the cancer is necessary in order to have a low level of recurrence. According to medical studies, the sensitivity of FDG-PET in diagnosing metastatic nodals is low, but for now it is not recommended in routine diagnosis of metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

  18. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  19. Advanced image display systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced image display systems for the fully digital diagnostic imaging departments of the future will be far more than simple replacements of the traditional film-viewing equipment. The new capabilities of very high resolution and highly dynamic displays offer a userfriendly and problem-oriented way of image interpretation. Advanced harware-, software- and human-machine interaction-concepts have been outlined. A scenario for a future way of handling and displaying images, reflecting a new image viewing paradigm in radiology is sketched which has been realized in an experimental image workstation model in the laboratory which, despite its technical complexity, offers a consistent strategy for fast and convenient interaction with image objects. The perspective of knowledge based techniques for workstation control software with object-oriented programming environments and user- and task-adaptive behavior leads to more advanced display properties and a new quality of userfriendliness. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  20. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  1. Image processing in radiology. Current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Few fields have witnessed such impressive advances as image processing in radiology. The progress achieved has revolutionized diagnosis and greatly facilitated treatment selection and accurate planning of procedures. This book, written by leading experts from many countries, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of how to use 2D and 3D processing tools in clinical radiology. The first section covers a wide range of technical aspects in an informative way. This is followed by the main section, in which the principal clinical applications are described and discussed in depth. To complete the picture, a third section focuses on various special topics. The book will be invaluable to radiologists of any subspecialty who work with CT and MRI and would like to exploit the advantages of image processing techniques. It also addresses the needs of radiographers who cooperate with clinical radiologists and should improve their ability to generate the appropriate 2D and 3D processing. (orig.)

  2. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  3. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  4. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  5. Quality assessment in radiological imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herstel, W.

    1985-01-01

    The equipment used in diagnostic radiology is becoming more and more complicated. In the imaging process four components are distinguished, each of which can introduce loss in essential information: the X-ray source, the human body, the imaging system and the observer. In nearly all imaging methods the X-ray quantum fluctuations are a limitation to observation. But there are also technical factors. As an illustration it is shown how in a television scanning process the resolution is restricted by the system parameters. A short review is given of test devices and the results are given of an image comparison based on regular bar patterns. Although this method has the disadvantage of measuring mainly the limiting resolution, the results of the test correlate reasonably well with the subjective appreciations of radiographs of bony structures made by a group of trained radiologists. Fluoroscopic systems should preferably be tested using moving structures under dynamic conditions. (author)

  6. Chest tuberculosis: Radiological review and imaging recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Goyal, Ankur; Guleria, Randeep; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chest tuberculosis (CTB) is a widespread problem, especially in our country where it is one of the leading causes of mortality. The article reviews the imaging findings in CTB on various modalities. We also attempt to categorize the findings into those definitive for active TB, indeterminate for disease activity, and those indicating healed TB. Though various radiological modalities are widely used in evaluation of such patients, no imaging guidelines exist for the use of these modalities in diagnosis and follow-up. Consequently, imaging is not optimally utilized and patients are often unnecessarily subjected to repeated CT examinations, which is undesirable. Based on the available literature and our experience, we propose certain recommendations delineating the role of imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. The authors recognize that this is an evolving field and there may be future revisions depending on emergence of new evidence

  7. New detectors technology for radiology imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzin, M.; Peyret, O.

    1998-01-01

    We summarize the main parameters which describes the radiological image at first and the advantages of pixel detectors. All detectors converts X-rays in charges either with an intermediate step with light or directly in a semi-conductor media. That is true for tomography which is the first domain where digital processing have been taken in account and for radiology where flat panel are now proposed to radiologists. Nevertheless, luminescent stimulated screens are a good way to prepare users with digital radiography. As such technique is not valuable for dynamic acquisition, we describe systems which used standard luminescent screens with CCD cameras or with IIR. Some description and comparison of flat panel independent pixel detectors are given. (authors)

  8. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  9. Machine Learning in Radiology: Applications Beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Paras; Prater, Adam B; Hutson, R Kent; Andriole, Kathy P; Dreyer, Keith J; Morey, Jose; Prevedello, Luciano M; Clark, Toshi J; Geis, J Raymond; Itri, Jason N; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Much attention has been given to machine learning and its perceived impact in radiology, particularly in light of recent success with image classification in international competitions. However, machine learning is likely to impact radiology outside of image interpretation long before a fully functional "machine radiologist" is implemented in practice. Here, we describe an overview of machine learning, its application to radiology and other domains, and many cases of use that do not involve image interpretation. We hope that better understanding of these potential applications will help radiology practices prepare for the future and realize performance improvement and efficiency gains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Yu; Chen, Jie; Xia, Chun-Chao; Cao, Li-Kun; Duan, Ting; Song, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes. While based on conclusive enhancement patterns comprising arterial phase hyperenhancement and portal venous and/or delayed phase wash-out, contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the diagnostic tools for HCC without requirements for histopathologic confirmation. Functional MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography, show promise in providing further important information regarding tumor biological behaviors. In addition, evaluation of tumor imaging characteristics, including nodule size, margin, number, vascular invasion, and growth patterns, allows preoperative prediction of tumor microvascular invasion and patient prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the comprehensive noninvasive imaging evaluation of HCC. We also provide the basic key concepts of HCC development and an overview of the current practice guidelines. PMID:29904242

  11. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  12. Recent advances in radiology and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.E.; Sherwood, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first chapter, on the radiology of arthritis, is an overview. The second and seventh chapters are on the chest the former, on adult respiratory distress syndrome, is a brief summary, and the latter, on digital radiography of the chest with the prototype slit-scanning technique. The third chapter reviews computed tomography of the lumbar spine. The following two chapters are on MR imaging, one on the central nervous system (covering demyelinating diseases, cardiovascular disease, infections, and tumors), with excellent illustrations; and one on MR imaging of the body. The illustrations are good. The following chapter is on extracardiac digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with an interesting table comparing and contrasting conventional angiography with both intraveneous and intraarterial DSA. The eighth chapter on pediatric imaging fits a world of experience. Chapter 9 is an update on contrast media, while the next chapter is on barium infusion examination of the small intestine. The final three chapters are concerned with the present state of angioplasty, interventional radiology in the urinary tract

  13. Electrophysiological Source Imaging: A Noninvasive Window to Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Sohrabpour, Abbas; Brown, Emery; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-06-04

    Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales. Integration of electrophysiological source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging could further enhance spatiotemporal resolution and specificity to an extent that is not attainable with either technique alone. We review methodological developments in electrophysiological source imaging over the past three decades and envision its future advancement into a powerful functional neuroimaging technology for basic and clinical neuroscience applications.

  14. Radiological imaging of osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, M.C.; Jaschke, W.; Klauser, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative age-related joint disease leading to typical degradation of articular cartilage with severe pain and limitation of joint motion. Although knee radiographs are widely considered as the gold standard for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis in clinical and scientific settings they increasingly have significant limitations in situations when resolution and assessment of cartilage is required. Analysis of osteoarthritis of the knee with conventional x-ray is associated with many technical limitations and is increasingly being replaced by high-quality assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or sonography both in the clinical routine and scientific studies. Novel imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound enable in vivo visualization of the quality of the cartilaginous structure and bone as well as all articular and periarticular tissue. Therefore, the limitations of radiographs in assessment of knee osteoarthritis could be overcome by these techniques. This review article aims to provide insights into the most important radiological features of knee osteoarthritis and systematic visualization with different imaging approaches. The demographic development in western industrialized countries predicts an increase of ageing-related osteoarthritis of the knee for the next decades. A systematic radiological evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis includes the assessment of the periarticular soft tissue, cartilaginous thickness, cartilage volume, possible cartilage defects, the macromodular network of hyaline cartilage, bone marrow edema, menisci and articular ligaments. Modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and sonography allow the limitations of conventional radiography to be overcome and to visualize the knee structures in great detail to quantitatively assess the severity of knee osteoarthritis. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiological imaging in pediatric rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewska, Genowefa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Włodkowska-Korytkowska, Monika; Smorawińska, Patrycja; Saied, Fadhil; Kunisz, Wojciech; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Radiological imaging plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis and monitoring of rheumatic diseases. The basic method of imaging is a classic X-ray picture, which for many years has been used as a single method for the recognition and evaluation of the effects of disease management. In today’s modern day treatment of rheumatic diseases, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance are more commonly performed for early detection of inflammatory changes in the region of soft tissue, subchondral bone and bone marrow. In spite of their usefulness and fundamental role in the diagnosis, X-ray still remains an essential tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in children and is complementary to today’s methods of imaging diagnostics. In clinical practice, X-ray imaging is still an important examination performed not only to recognize the disorders, but also to provide a differential diagnosis. It helps estimate disease progression and is used to monitor the effects of treatment and the development of possible complications. Differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases is performed on the basis of localization and type of radiographic changes. The surrounding periarticular soft tissues, bone structures, joint space, with special attention to articular bone surfaces and epiphyses, are analyzed. The aim of this work is to describe characteristic inflammatory changes present on X-ray imaging typical for the most commonly diagnosed rheumatic diseases in children, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, juvenile dermatomyositis, juvenile spondyloarthropathy and systemic vascular disease

  16. Image splitting and remapping method for radiological image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Shen, Ellen L.; Mun, Seong K.

    1990-07-01

    A new decomposition method using image splitting and gray-level remapping has been proposed for image compression, particularly for images with high contrast resolution. The effects of this method are especially evident in our radiological image compression study. In our experiments, we tested the impact of this decomposition method on image compression by employing it with two coding techniques on a set of clinically used CT images and several laser film digitized chest radiographs. One of the compression techniques used was full-frame bit-allocation in the discrete cosine transform domain, which has been proven to be an effective technique for radiological image compression. The other compression technique used was vector quantization with pruned tree-structured encoding, which through recent research has also been found to produce a low mean-square-error and a high compression ratio. The parameters we used in this study were mean-square-error and the bit rate required for the compressed file. In addition to these parameters, the difference between the original and reconstructed images will be presented so that the specific artifacts generated by both techniques can be discerned by visual perception.

  17. Combination of radiological and nuclear medical imaging in animals: an overview about the today's possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behe, M.; Keil, B.; Kiessling, A.; Heverhagen, J.T.; Alfke, H.; Boehm, I.; Gotthardt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging of small animals has made considerable progress in the last years. Various research fields are interested in imaging small animals due to the lower numbers of animals per experiment. This has advantages with respect to financial, ethical and research aspects. Non-invasive imaging allows examination of one animal several times during the same experiment. This makes it possible to follow a pathological process in the same animal over time. However, the radiological methods used such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as the nuclear medicine methods such as single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography suffer from disadvantages. Molecular aspects are limited in the radiological methods while anatomical localization is difficult in nuclear medicine. The fusion of these methods leads to additional information. This review shows today's possibilities with their advantages as well as disadvantages. (orig.)

  18. 2016 New Horizons Lecture: Beyond Imaging-Radiology of Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricak, Hedvig

    2018-03-01

    This article is based on the New Horizons lecture delivered at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting. It addresses looming changes for radiology, many of which stem from the disruptive effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is an emerging era of unprecedented rapid innovation marked by the integration of diverse disciplines and technologies, including data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence-technologies that narrow the gap between man and machine. Technologic advances and the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and bioengineering are creating extraordinary opportunities in diagnostic radiology, image-guided therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, and radiology informatics, including radiologic image analysis. This article uses the example of oncology to make the case that, if members in the field of radiology continue to be innovative and continuously reinvent themselves, radiology can play an ever-increasing role in both precision medicine and value-driven health care. © RSNA, 2018.

  19. Influence of quantum noise on radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A. de.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental limits to the spatial resolution and to the contrast attainable in radiological images are owing to the quantum nature ox X-radiation. Small low-contrast details in anatomic structures may be revealed only by increasing the fluence of photons absorbed by those structures, an acceptable procedure in industrial applications but which incurs a proportional risk to the patient in clinical applications of X-rays. An analytical procedure to find the optimal compromise between the diagnostic conditions of high patient absorbance is developed, for which few photons remains to carry information to the detectors, and low patient absorbance, for which the quantum fluctuations in the large number of photons reaching the detectors obscure the information. (author)

  20. Computer technique for correction of nonhomogeneous distribution in radiologic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, Rogerio V.; Frere, Annie F.; Schiable, Homero; Marques, Paulo M.A.; Marques, Marcio A.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing technique to provide a 'Heel' effect compensation on medical images is presented. It is reported that the technique can improve the structures detection due to background homogeneity and can be used for any radiologic system

  1. 3-D image reconstruction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangeat, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this course, we present highlights on fully 3-D image reconstruction algorithms used in 3-D X-ray Computed Tomography (3-D-CT) and 3-D Rotational Radiography (3-D-RR). We first consider the case of spiral CT with a one-row detector. Starting from the 2-D fan-beam inversion formula for a circular trajectory, we introduce spiral CT 3-D image reconstruction algorithm using axial interpolation for each transverse slice. In order to improve the X-ray detection efficiency and to speed the acquisition process, the future is to use multi-row detectors associated with small angle cone-beam geometry. The generalization of the 2-D fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm to cone beam defined direct inversion formula referred as Feldkamp's algorithm for a circular trajectory and Wang's algorithm for a spiral trajectory. However, large area detectors does exist such as Radiological Image Intensifiers or in a near future solid state detectors. To get a larger zoom effect, it defines a cone-beam geometry associated with a large aperture angle. For this case, we introduce indirect image reconstruction algorithm by plane re-binning in the Radon domain. We will present some results from a prototype MORPHOMETER device using the RADON reconstruction software. Lastly, we consider the special case of 3-D Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography with a restricted number of views. We introduce constraint optimization algorithm using quadratic, entropic or half-quadratic constraints. Generalized ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) iterative reconstruction algorithm can be derived from the Bregman algorithm. We present reconstructed vascular trees from a prototype MORPHOMETER device. (author)

  2. Joint Probability Models of Radiology Images and Clinical Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Corey Wells

    2009-01-01

    Radiology data, in the form of images and reports, is growing at a high rate due to the introduction of new imaging modalities, new uses of existing modalities, and the growing importance of objective image information in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. This increase has resulted in an enormous set of image data that is richly annotated…

  3. Test objects for evaluating the performance of radiological imaging systems. Leeds radiological test objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Clarke, O.F.; Haywood, J.M.; Parker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A range of test objects has been developed to assess the imaging performance of conventional and digital radiological imaging systems. These test objects have arisen as a result of involvement in both the laboratory evaluation of radiological imaging systems and the routine maintenance of such equipment in a large diagnostic radiology department. The philosophy behind the design and application of the test objects is briefly described. Particular attention is paid to the advantages of using the threshold-contrast detail-detectability technique to assess overall imaging performance. The great importance of ensuring optimum imaging performance prior to clinical acceptance is stressed. A strategy for implementing the test objects in a clinical department is present. The diagnostic information content of the clinical images which result measures the success of the quality control procedure adopted. (author)

  4. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U

    2008-01-01

    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real-time monit......While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  5. Factors to consider in the transition to digital radiological imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacDonald, David

    2009-02-01

    The dentist considering adopting digital radiological technology should consider more than the type of detector with which to capture the image. He\\/she should also consider the mode of display, image enhancement, radiation dose reduction, how the image can be stored long term, and infection control.

  6. Assays for noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Barrio, J.R.; Herschman, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Repeated, noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression is emerging as a valuable tool for monitoring the expression of genes in animals and humans. Monitoring of organ/cell transplantation in living animals and humans, and the assessment of environmental, behavioral, and pharmacologic modulation of gene expression in transgenic animals should soon be possible. The earliest clinical application is likely to be monitoring human gene therapy in tumors transduced with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene. Several candidate assays for imaging reporter gene expression have been studied, utilizing cytosine deaminase (CD), HSV1-tk, and dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) as reporter genes. For the HSV1-tk reporter gene, both uracil nucleoside derivatives (e.g., 5-iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil [FIAU] labeled with 124 I, 131 I ) and acycloguanosine derivatives {e.g., 8-[ 18 F]fluoro-9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine (8-[ 18 F]-fluoroganciclovir) ([ 18 F]FGCV), 9-[(3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG)} have been investigated as reporter probes. For the D2R reporter gene, a derivative of spiperone {3-(2'-[ 18 F]-Fluoroethyl)spiperone ([ 18 F]FESP)} has been used with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this review, the principles and specific assays for imaging reporter gene expression are presented and discussed. Specific examples utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of a reporter gene as well as tumors expressing reporter genes are discussed

  7. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging goes postmortem: noninvasive detection and assessment of myocardial infarction by postmortem MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackowski, Christian; Warntjes, Marcel J.B.; Persson, Anders; Berge, Johan; Baer, Walter

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the performance of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (pmMRI) in identification and characterization of lethal myocardial infarction in a non-invasive manner on human corpses. Before forensic autopsy, 20 human forensic corpses were examined on a 1.5-T system for the presence of myocardial infarction. Short axis, transversal and longitudinal long axis images (T1-weighted; T2-weighted; PD-weighted) were acquired in situ. In subsequent autopsy, the section technique was adapted to short axis images. Histological investigations were conducted to confirm autopsy and/or radiological diagnoses. Nineteen myocardial lesions were detected and age staged with pmMRI, of which 13 were histologically confirmed (chronic, subacute and acute). Six lesions interpreted as peracute by pmMRI showed no macroscopic or histological finding. Five of the six peracute lesions correlated well to coronary pathology, and one case displayed a severe hypertrophic alteration. pmMRI reliably demonstrates chronic, subacute and acute myocardial infarction in situ. In peracute cases pmMRI may display ischemic lesions undetectable at autopsy and routine histology. pmMRI has the potential to substantiate autopsy and to counteract the loss of reliable information on causes of death due to the recent disappearance of the clinical autopsy. (orig.)

  9. Computing volume potentials for noninvasive imaging of cardiac excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, A W Maurits; Bhagirath, Pranav; van Driel, Vincent J H M; Ramanna, Hemanth; de Hooge, Jacques; de Groot, Natasja M S; Götte, Marco J W

    2015-03-01

    In noninvasive imaging of cardiac excitation, the use of body surface potentials (BSP) rather than body volume potentials (BVP) has been favored due to enhanced computational efficiency and reduced modeling effort. Nowadays, increased computational power and the availability of open source software enable the calculation of BVP for clinical purposes. In order to illustrate the possible advantages of this approach, the explanatory power of BVP is investigated using a rectangular tank filled with an electrolytic conductor and a patient specific three dimensional model. MRI images of the tank and of a patient were obtained in three orthogonal directions using a turbo spin echo MRI sequence. MRI images were segmented in three dimensional using custom written software. Gmsh software was used for mesh generation. BVP were computed using a transfer matrix and FEniCS software. The solution for 240,000 nodes, corresponding to a resolution of 5 mm throughout the thorax volume, was computed in 3 minutes. The tank experiment revealed that an increased electrode surface renders the position of the 4 V equipotential plane insensitive to mesh cell size and reduces simulated deviations. In the patient-specific model, the impact of assigning a different conductivity to lung tissue on the distribution of volume potentials could be visualized. Generation of high quality volume meshes and computation of BVP with a resolution of 5 mm is feasible using generally available software and hardware. Estimation of BVP may lead to an improved understanding of the genesis of BSP and sources of local inaccuracies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Medical imaging physics teaching to radiologic technologists in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballani, Nasser S.; Sukkar, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    Physics of X-radiation and medical imaging is an important subject (among others) in the education and preparation of skilful and problem-solving radiologic technologists. This short communication gives a brief explanation of the physics courses at the Department of Radiologic Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Kuwait University, Kuwait. The methods of teaching and assessing the physics courses offered to radiographers as part of their education are also explained

  11. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  12. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  13. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  14. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  15. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  16. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  17. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.

  18. Panoramic radiology. Seminars on maxillofacial imaging and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Allan G. (ed.) [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Surgical and Hospital Dentistry

    2007-07-01

    Complete up-to-date collection of information on panoramic radiography usage. Up-to-date terminology validated by representatives of individual special disciplines within dentistry. Each chapter with educational objectives and review questions. Panoramic radiology systems are currently being used in more practices than at other any time in the past. The practitioner now has decisions to make regarding detector technology selection for image acquisition and must remain informed about appropriate usage. This book is applicable to all panoramic dental images and equipment. It approaches panoramic radiology usage in the context of general and specialty applications. (orig.)

  19. Radiological protection requirements applicable to non-invasive inspection of charges with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, S.C.; Palmieri, J.A.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The US twin towers attack in 2001 raised concerns about terrorism, illicit trafficking of materials and the possible use of a 'dirty bomb' (DDR), affecting the control of entry and exit of products. Thus, the use of ionizing radiation scanning systems of containers at ports and borders was started to investigate possible entries of illegal material. Brazil, adhering to this concern and due to the holding of major events such as RIO + 20, World Cup, Olympics, etc., increased safety in the movement of goods using non-invasive inspection. Linear electron accelerators, which produce high energy X-rays in the range of 1.5 to 9 MeV, are used to inspect the containers. Since in Brazil there is no specific technical regulation for the operation of non-invasive inspection equipment with X-rays and linear accelerators, ten main technical requirements are presented. It is essential that a technical regulation is drawn up by placing the system of non-invasive inspection of cargo with ionizing radiation in the international radiation protection standard

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging based noninvasive measurements of brain hemodynamics in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, Jill B; Alderliesten, Thomas; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal disturbances of brain hemodynamics can have a detrimental effect on the brain's parenchyma with consequently adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Noninvasive, reliable tools to evaluate the neonate's brain hemodynamics are scarce. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have provided new...

  1. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling

  2. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  3. Non-invasive imaging of plant roots in different soils using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pflugfelder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root systems are highly plastic and adapt according to their soil environment. Studying the particular influence of soils on root development necessitates the adaptation and evaluation of imaging methods for multiple substrates. Non-invasive 3D root images in soil can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Not all substrates, however, are suitable for MRI. Using barley as a model plant we investigated the achievable image quality and the suitability for root phenotyping of six commercially available natural soil substrates of commonly occurring soil textures. The results are compared with two artificially composed substrates previously documented for MRI root imaging. Results In five out of the eight tested substrates, barley lateral roots with diameters below 300 µm could still be resolved. In two other soils, only the thicker barley seminal roots were detectable. For these two substrates the minimal detectable root diameter was between 400 and 500 µm. Only one soil did not allow imaging of the roots with MRI. In the artificially composed substrates, soil moisture above 70% of the maximal water holding capacity (WHCmax impeded root imaging. For the natural soil substrates, soil moisture had no effect on MRI root image quality in the investigated range of 50–80% WHCmax. Conclusions Almost all tested natural soil substrates allowed for root imaging using MRI. Half of these substrates resulted in root images comparable to our current lab standard substrate, allowing root detection down to a diameter of 300 µm. These soils were used as supplied by the vendor and, in particular, removal of ferromagnetic particles was not necessary. With the characterization of different soils, investigations such as trait stability across substrates are now possible using noninvasive MRI.

  4. Imaging in hematology. Part 1: Ultrasonography and conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Applications of conventional ultrasonography techniques (B-mode or real time) in oncohematology are presented. The newer adaptations (in particular colour Doppler) provide incremental advantages that support their inclusion in the imaging techniques available to modern hematology. Conventional radiologic studies include chest and bone X-ray, gastrointestinal contrast examination and bipedal lymphangiography

  5. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2007-01-01

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  6. Decision theory applied to image quality control in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Patrícia S; Caous, Cristofer A; Arantes, Paula R; Amaro, Edson; de Souza, Fernando M Campello

    2008-11-13

    The present work aims at the application of the decision theory to radiological image quality control (QC) in diagnostic routine. The main problem addressed in the framework of decision theory is to accept or reject a film lot of a radiology service. The probability of each decision of a determined set of variables was obtained from the selected films. Based on a radiology service routine a decision probability function was determined for each considered group of combination characteristics. These characteristics were related to the film quality control. These parameters were also framed in a set of 8 possibilities, resulting in 256 possible decision rules. In order to determine a general utility application function to access the decision risk, we have used a simple unique parameter called r. The payoffs chosen were: diagnostic's result (correct/incorrect), cost (high/low), and patient satisfaction (yes/no) resulting in eight possible combinations. Depending on the value of r, more or less risk will occur related to the decision-making. The utility function was evaluated in order to determine the probability of a decision. The decision was made with patients or administrators' opinions from a radiology service center. The model is a formal quantitative approach to make a decision related to the medical imaging quality, providing an instrument to discriminate what is really necessary to accept or reject a film or a film lot. The method presented herein can help to access the risk level of an incorrect radiological diagnosis decision.

  7. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging in sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Gielen, Jan L.M.A. [Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Sports Medicine; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Medicine; Zwerver, Johannes (ed.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Center for Sports Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.

  9. Nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging in sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M.; Gielen, Jan L.M.A.; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Zwerver, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.

  10. iPad: Semantic annotation and markup of radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Rodriguez, Cesar; Shah, Priyanka; Beaulieu, Chris

    2008-11-06

    Radiological images contain a wealth of information,such as anatomy and pathology, which is often not explicit and computationally accessible. Information schemes are being developed to describe the semantic content of images, but such schemes can be unwieldy to operationalize because there are few tools to enable users to capture structured information easily as part of the routine research workflow. We have created iPad, an open source tool enabling researchers and clinicians to create semantic annotations on radiological images. iPad hides the complexity of the underlying image annotation information model from users, permitting them to describe images and image regions using a graphical interface that maps their descriptions to structured ontologies semi-automatically. Image annotations are saved in a variety of formats,enabling interoperability among medical records systems, image archives in hospitals, and the Semantic Web. Tools such as iPad can help reduce the burden of collecting structured information from images, and it could ultimately enable researchers and physicians to exploit images on a very large scale and glean the biological and physiological significance of image content.

  11. Radiological interpretation 2020: Toward quantitative image assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images by radiologists is primarily and fundamentally a subjective activity, but there are a number of clinical applications such as tumor imaging where quantitative imaging (QI) metrics (such as tumor growth rate) would be valuable to the patient’s care. It is predicted that the subjective interpretive environment of the past will, over the next decade, evolve toward the increased use of quantitative metrics for evaluating patient health from images. The increasing sophistication and resolution of modern tomographic scanners promote the development of meaningful quantitative end points, determined from images which are in turn produced using well-controlled imaging protocols. For the QI environment to expand, medical physicists, physicians, other researchers and equipment vendors need to work collaboratively to develop the quantitative protocols for imaging, scanner calibrations, and robust analytical software that will lead to the routine inclusion of quantitative parameters in the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of human health. Most importantly, quantitative metrics need to be developed which have genuine impact on patient diagnosis and welfare, and only then will QI techniques become integrated into the clinical environment.

  12. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-02-26

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can be used to accurately diagnose endometriosis are available in clinical practice. This is the first review of diagnostic test accuracy of imaging tests for endometriosis that uses Cochrane methods to provide an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. • To provide estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) versus surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.• To describe performance of imaging tests for mapping of deep endometriotic lesions in the pelvis at specific anatomical sites.Imaging tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests that would assist decision making regarding diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We searched the following databases to 20 April 2015: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDION, DARE, and PubMed. Searches were not restricted to a particular study design or language nor to specific publication dates. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstracts, text words across the record and medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomised controlled trials of any size that included prospectively recruited women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: endometrioma, pelvic endometriosis, DIE or endometriotic lesions at specific intrapelvic anatomical locations. We included studies that compared the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more imaging modalities versus findings of surgical

  13. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can

  14. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  15. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  16. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  17. Fractal-Based Image Analysis In Radiological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S. B.; Vernazza, G.; Viviani, R.

    1987-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of a study aimed to assess the actual effectiveness of fractal theory and to define its limitations in the area of medical image analysis for texture description, in particular, in radiological applications. A general analysis to select appropriate parameters (mask size, tolerance on fractal dimension estimation, etc.) has been performed on synthetically generated images of known fractal dimensions. Moreover, we analyzed some radiological images of human organs in which pathological areas can be observed. Input images were subdivided into blocks of 6x6 pixels; then, for each block, the fractal dimension was computed in order to create fractal images whose intensity was related to the D value, i.e., texture behaviour. Results revealed that the fractal images could point out the differences between normal and pathological tissues. By applying histogram-splitting segmentation to the fractal images, pathological areas were isolated. Two different techniques (i.e., the method developed by Pentland and the "blanket" method) were employed to obtain fractal dimension values, and the results were compared; in both cases, the appropriateness of the fractal description of the original images was verified.

  18. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  19. Imaging utilization commentary: a radiology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Martin H.

    2008-01-01

    To adhere to the ALARA concept, imaging should be limited to studies that actually contribute to the management of the patient. For example, by applying the Ottawa Ankle Rule and the Ottawa Knee Rule, fewer radiographs are required to evaluate ankle and knee trauma in children. Chest radiographs usually do not contribute to the management of children presenting with typical acute bronchiolitis or asthma, and they can be detrimental because consolidation resulting from retained secretions is interpreted as pneumonia and the child is started on antibiotics unnecessarily. Moreover, a radiograph of the abdomen has poor validity and reproducibility for the diagnosis of constipation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and the Pediatric Emergency Research in Canada (PERC) are currently developing decision rules for the use of CT in the assessment of minor head injuries in children, which should reduce its utilization in this condition. PECARN is also developing a decision rule for the use of CT in the assessment of abdominal trauma in children. CT is frequently used for the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, but appendicitis can be diagnosed clinically. If imaging is required, appendicitis can often be diagnosed with US, and CT need only be used in the minority of cases where the diagnosis is still in doubt. Utilization guidelines for pediatric imaging studies obtained in children in the emergency setting can improve yield and help in the more efficient management of often scarce health care resources. (orig.)

  20. Imaging utilization commentary: a radiology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Hospital, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg (Canada); Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    To adhere to the ALARA concept, imaging should be limited to studies that actually contribute to the management of the patient. For example, by applying the Ottawa Ankle Rule and the Ottawa Knee Rule, fewer radiographs are required to evaluate ankle and knee trauma in children. Chest radiographs usually do not contribute to the management of children presenting with typical acute bronchiolitis or asthma, and they can be detrimental because consolidation resulting from retained secretions is interpreted as pneumonia and the child is started on antibiotics unnecessarily. Moreover, a radiograph of the abdomen has poor validity and reproducibility for the diagnosis of constipation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and the Pediatric Emergency Research in Canada (PERC) are currently developing decision rules for the use of CT in the assessment of minor head injuries in children, which should reduce its utilization in this condition. PECARN is also developing a decision rule for the use of CT in the assessment of abdominal trauma in children. CT is frequently used for the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, but appendicitis can be diagnosed clinically. If imaging is required, appendicitis can often be diagnosed with US, and CT need only be used in the minority of cases where the diagnosis is still in doubt. Utilization guidelines for pediatric imaging studies obtained in children in the emergency setting can improve yield and help in the more efficient management of often scarce health care resources. (orig.)

  1. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  2. Operational characteristics of pediatric radiology: Image display stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The display of diagnostic images is accomplished in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Clinical Radiology Imaging System (CRIS) using 3 different types of digital viewing stations. These include a low resolution station with six 512 x 512 monitors, a high resolution station with three 1024 x 1024 monitors, and a very high resolution workstation with two 2048 x 2048 monitors. The display stations provide very basic image processing manipulations including zoom and scroll, contrast enhancement, and contrast reversal. The display stations are driven by a computer system which is dedicated for clinical use. During times when the clinical computer is unavailable (maintenance or system malfunction), the 512 x 512 workstation can be switched to operate from a research PACS system in the UCLA Image Processing Laboratory via a broadband communication network. Our initial clinical implementation involves digital viewing for pediatric radiology conferences. Presentation of inpatient cases use the six monitor 512 x 512 multiple viewing station. Later stages of the clinical implementation involve the use of higher resolution displays for the purpose of primary diagnosis from video displays

  3. Osteoporosis: a new approach of digital processing of radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Adilson Dias; Braz, Valeria Silva

    1998-01-01

    The authors applied a method based on digital processing of radiological images (fast Fourier transform) to analyze the radius distal epiphysis and calcaneus spongy bone architecture. The study revealed distinct patterns of trabecular distribution. Prior studies about osteoporosis have focused on bone density quantification and its role on fracture prediction. However, resistance to fractures (mechanical strength) is also determined by structural arrangement of bone. THe digital processing (spectral analysis) was applied to radiological images of the radius and calcaneus from 15 normal and osteopenic individuals. Normal bone trabeculae showed an individualized behavior (stress lines). On the other hand, porotic bone trabeculae revealed a diffuse pattern (honey comb). The scattered frequency components showed that the porotic bone trabeculae were remodeled. This process would be responsible for the maintenance of its physical properties. (author)

  4. Voice-activated intelligent radiologic image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice

  5. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  6. Non-invasive imaging for studying anti-angiogenic therapy effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehling, J.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Kiessling, F.

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging plays an emerging role in preclinical and clinical cancer research and has high potential to improve clinical translation of new drugs. This article summarises and discusses tools and methods to image tumour angiogenesis and monitor anti-angiogenic therapy effects. In this

  7. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  8. Technical and radiological image quality comparison of different liquid crystal displays for radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams FE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francina EM Dams,2 KY Esther Leung,1 Pieter HM van der Valk,2 Marc CJM Kock,2 Jeroen Bosman,1 Sjoerd P Niehof1 1Medical Physics and Technology, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Background: To inform cost-effective decisions in purchasing new medical liquid crystal displays, we compared the image quality in displays made by three manufacturers. Methods: We recruited 19 radiologists and residents to compare the image quality of four liquid crystal displays, including 3-megapixel Barco®, Eizo®, and NEC® displays and a 6-megapixel Barco display. The evaluators were blinded to the manufacturers' names. Technical assessments were based on acceptance criteria and test patterns proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Radiological assessments were performed on images from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18. They included X-ray images of the thorax, knee, and breast, a computed tomographic image of the thorax, and a magnetic resonance image of the brain. Image quality was scored on an analog scale (range 0–10. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The Barco 3-megapixel display passed all acceptance criteria. The Eizo and NEC displays passed the acceptance criteria, except for the darkest pixel value in the grayscale display function. The Barco 6-megapixel display failed criteria for the maximum luminance response and the veiling glare. Mean radiological assessment scores were 7.8±1.1 (Barco 3-megapixel, 7.8±1.2 (Eizo, 8.1±1.0 (NEC, and 8.1±1.0 (Barco 6-megapixel. No significant differences were found between displays. Conclusion: According to the tested criteria, all the displays had comparable image quality; however, there was a three-fold difference in price between the most and least expensive displays. Keywords: data display, humans, radiographic image enhancement, user-computer interface

  9. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  10. Radiological imagings of small hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Futagawa, Sakae; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Maeda, Tohru [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-08-01

    Forty three cases of small hepatocellular carcinoma (measuring less than 3 cm in diameter on imaging modalities) were detected during a period of four years and two months. There were two cases in which hepatoma measured 1 cm in diameter, twenty four cases between 1 and 2 cm, and seventeen cases between 2 and 3 cm. The relative role of each modality and AFP value in the detection of these tumors was evaluated. The detection rate of small hepatocellular carcinoma by liver scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and angiography was 8%, 74%, 70% and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity of serum AFP value was 67% (either measuring more than 200ng/ml or showing a tendency of steady rising even if below the level of 200ng/ml). Most hepatomas less than 2 cm in size were hypoechoic on US, and those above 2 cm in size were hyperechoic with peripheral sonolucency (halo). Almost all cases were described as low density area on both plain and enhancement CT. Angiography was the best method for detecting small hepatomas. It may be recommended to perform angiography on every patient with liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis of this disease. Periodic examinations by AFP, US and CT should be done if the angiography was negative. Evaluation by US in every three months and by CT in every twelve months may be appropriate.

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of non-invasive imaging in known or suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuijf, J.D.; Poldermans, D.; Shaw, L.J.; Jukema, J.W.; Wall, E.E. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Roos, A. de; Wijns, W.; Bax, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The role of non-invasive imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) has increased exponentially over the past decade. The traditionally available imaging modalities, including nuclear imaging, stress echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have relied on detection of CAD by visualisation of its functional consequences (i.e. ischaemia). However, extensive research is being invested in the development of non-invasive anatomical imaging using computed tomography or MRI to allow detection of (significant) atherosclerosis, eventually at a preclinical stage. In addition to establishing the presence of or excluding CAD, identification of patients at high risk for cardiac events is of paramount importance to determine post-test management, and the majority of non-invasive imaging tests can also be used for this purpose. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available non-invasive imaging modalities and their merits for the diagnostic and prognostic work-up in patients with suspected or known CAD. (orig.)

  12. Image processing and computer graphics in radiology. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennies, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The reports give a full review of all aspects of digital imaging in radiology which are of significance to image processing and the subsequent picture archiving and communication techniques. The review strongly clings to practice and illustrates the various contributions from specialized areas of the computer sciences, such as computer vision, computer graphics, database systems and information and communication systems, man-machine interactions and software engineering. Methods and models available are explained and assessed for their respective performance and value, and basic principles are briefly explained. (DG) [de

  13. Image processing and computer graphics in radiology. Pt. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennies, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The reports give a full review of all aspects of digital imaging in radiology which are of significance to image processing and the subsequent picture archiving and communication techniques. The review strongly clings to practice and illustrates the various contributions from specialized areas of the computer sciences, such as computer vision, computer graphics, database systems and information and communication systems, man-machine interactions and software engineering. Methods and models available are explained and assessed for their respective performance and value, and basic principles are briefly explained. (DG) [de

  14. Quality control of the interpretation monitors of digital radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favero, Mariana S.; Goulart, Adriano Oliveira S.

    2016-01-01

    The performance monitors has great importance in image quality of digital radiographic systems. In environments without films, it became necessary to implement acceptance testing and quality control monitors used for interpretation of medical images. The monitors dedicated to radiodiagnostic should provide information that represent slight differences in x-ray attenuation or minor differences in some anatomical region of interest. This should also result in small differences in luminance of an image represented. Factors affecting the quality of medical imaging are contrast, noise, resolution, artifacts and distortions. Therefore, a monitor must have specific characteristics, making it possible for the observer to carry out an assessment that leads to better diagnosis. Based on the need to evaluate diagnostic monitors in various radiological applications, this paper presents a summary for implementation and standardization of tests that are recommended by the publication AAPM Report 03. (author)

  15. Digital radiology and digitally formatted image management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Templeton, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The number of diagnostic examinations performed with digitally formatted imaging equipment is increasing. Digital general-purpose and fluoroscopic radiology systems are being clinically evaluated. Digitizing conventional x-ray films, such as mammograms, frequently improves the diagnostic quality of the images. The digitizing process with laser has also afforded the opportunity to document required spatial resolution for digital imaging and network systems. The use of digitally formatted image instrumentation imposes new requirements on the acquisition, display and manipulation, transmission, hard copy image recording, and archiving of diagnostic data. Networking of digitally formatted image data offers many advantages for managing digital information. This paper identifies and describes digital radiographic systems. Parameters required for designing and implementing a digital image management system are outlined. Spatial and contrast resolution requirements are identified. The key parameters include the amount of image data generated each working day, the retrieval rate of the generated data, the display hardware and software needed for interactive diagnosis display stations, the requirements for analog hard copy generation, and on-line and long-term archiving requirements. These image management systems are often called PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems)

  16. Challenges in sending large radiology images over military communications channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Kevin R.; Levine, Betty A.; Norton, Gary S.; Mundur, Padmavathi V.

    1997-05-01

    In cooperation with the US Army, Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) deployed a teleradiology network to sites in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Hungary, and Germany in early 1996. This deployment was part of Operation Primetime III, a military project to provide state-of-the-art medical care to the 20,000 US troops stationed in Bosnia-Herzegovina.In a three-month time frame from January to April 1996, the Imaging Sciences and Information Systems (ISIS) Center at GUMC worked with the Army to design, develop, and deploy a teleradiology network for the digital storage and transmission of radiology images. This paper will discuss some of the problems associated with sending large files over communications networks with significant delays such as those introduced by satellite transmissions.Radiology images of up to 10 megabytes are acquired, stored, and transmitted over the wide area network (WAN). The WAN included leased lines from Germany to Hungary and a satellite link form Germany to Bosnia-Herzegovina. The communications links provided at least a T-1 bandwidth. The satellite link introduces a round-trip delay of approximately 500 milliseconds. This type of high bandwidth, high delay network is called a long fat network. The images are transferred across this network using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP). By modifying the TCP/IP software to increase the window size, the throughput of the satellite link can be greatly improved.

  17. Non-invasive cardiac imaging. Spectrum, methodology, indication and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, Michael; Flachskampf, Frank; Sechtem, Udo; Achenbach, Stephan; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Breithardt, Guenter

    2008-01-01

    The book contains 13 contributions concerning the following chapters: (1)methodology: echo cardiography; NMR imaging; nuclear medicine; computer tomography, (2) clinical protocols: contraction; cardiac valve function; perfusion and perfusion reserve; vitality; corona imaging; transmitters, receptors, enzymes; (3) clinic: coronary heart diseases; non-ischemic heart diseases. The appendix contains two contributions on future developments and certification/standardization

  18. Strategic planning for radiology: opening an outpatient diagnostic imaging center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepson, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project.

  19. Digital imaging in conventional diagnostic radiology: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.; Schipper, P.

    1984-01-01

    Digital techniques, i.e. techniques using microcomputers of minicomputers, are getting increasingly common in so-called conventional radiography. These nonreconstructive techniques are referred to here as 'digital, direct-imaging radiography' in order to contrast them with the reconstructive techniques of computerized tomography. Digitalisation of imaging and image processing operation and control will change the jobs of the radiologist and radiological assistants in such manner that only X-ray units with film-foil systems or with X-ray image intensification should be classified as conventional systems. Digital and conventional systems differ in that digital techniques imply the possibility of establishing data pools which may eventually be developed into a digital image interconnection and archiving system. The authors first describe the general system in which the digital imaging systems must be integrated on a medium-term and long-term basis and then proceed to discuss digital imaging and image processing in some more detail. (orig./WU) [de

  20. Non-invasive vascular imaging in perforator flap surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Atzeni, Matteo; Ribuffo, Diego; Rozen, Warren Matthew; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Bura, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative imaging using a range of imaging modalities has become increasingly popular for preoperative planning in plastic surgery, in particular in perforator flap surgery. Modalities in this role include ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The evidence for the use of these techniques has been reported in only a handful of studies. In this paper we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature to establish the role for each of these modalities. The role of state-of-the-art vascular imaging as an application in perforator flap surgery is thus offered

  1. Professional Acceptance Of Electronic Images In Radiologic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Joseph N.; Curtis, David J.; Kerlin, Barbara D.; Olmsted, William W.

    1983-05-01

    During the past four years, a large number of radiographic images have been interpreted in both film and video modes in an effort to determine the utility of digital/analogue systems in general practice. With the cooperation of the Department of Defense, the MITRE Corporation, and several university-based radiology departments, the Public Health Service has participated in laboratory experiments and a teleradiology field trial to meet this objective. During the field trial, 30 radiologists participated in the interpretation of more than 4,000 diagnostic x-ray examinations that were performed at distant clinics, digitized, and transmitted to a medical center for interpretation on video monitors. As part of the evaluation, all of the participating radiologists and the attending physicians at the clinics were queried regarding the teleradiology system, particularly with respect to the diagnostic quality of the electronic images. The original films for each of the 4,000 examinations were read independently, and the findings and impressions from each mode were compared to identify discrepancies. In addition, a sample of 530 cases was reviewed and interpreted by a consensus panel to measure the accuracy of findings and impressions of both film and video readings. The sample has been retained in an automated archive for future study at the National Center of Devices and Radiological Health facilities in Rockville, Maryland. The studies include a comparison of diagnostic findings and impressions from 1024 x 1024 matrices with those obtained from the 512 x 512 format used in the field trial. The archive also provides a database for determining the effect of data compression techniques on diagnostic interpretations and establishing the utility of image processing algorithms. The paper will include an analysis of the final results of the field trial and preliminary findings from the ongoing studies using the archive of cases at the National Center for Devices and Radiological

  2. Study of photoconductor-based radiological image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Because of the evolution of medical imaging techniques to digital Systems, it is necessary to replace radiological film which has many drawbacks, by a detector quite as efficient and quickly giving a digitizable signal. The purpose of this thesis is to find new X-ray digital imaging processes using photoconductor materials such as amorphous selenium. After reviewing the principle of direct radiology and functions to be served by the X-ray sensor (i.e. detection, memory, assignment, visualization), we explain specification. We especially show the constraints due to the object to be radiographed (condition of minimal exposure), and to the reading signal (electronic noise detection associated with a reading frequency). As a result of this study, a first photoconductor sensor could be designed. Its principle is based on photo-carrier trapping at dielectric-photoconductor structure interface. The reading System needs the scanning of a laser beam upon the sensor surface. The dielectric-photoconductor structure enabled us to estimate the possibilities offered by the sensor and to build a complete x-ray imaging System. The originality of thermo-dielectric sensor, that was next studied, is to allow a thermal assignment reading. The chosen System consists in varying the ferroelectric polymer capacity whose dielectric permittivity is weak at room temperature. The thermo-dielectric material was studied by thermal or Joule effect stimulation. During our experiments, trapping was found in a sensor made of amorphous selenium between two electrodes. This new effect was performed and enabled us to expose a first interpretation. Eventually, the comparison of these new sensor concepts with radiological film shows the advantage of the proposed solution. (author) [fr

  3. Radiological symmetry of brain and head images: comparison and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Most existing image-based approaches neglect the difference in radiological symmetry between the human brain and head. Thus, it is important to analyze and quantify the spatial relationship between the brain symmetry plane (BSP) and the head symmetry plane (HSP) on radiological images. The HSP and BSP were calculated through maximizing local symmetry within the head or cerebrum followed by outlier removal. The HSPs and BSPs for 145 diversified MRI datasets (80 normal, 23 pathological, and 42 synthesized) were extracted and compared. The average angular and distance deviations between the HSP and BSP were 0.49 and 1.65 mm, respectively. These deviations are dependent upon ethnicity and gender, being: (1) (0.56 , 1.85 mm) and (0.42 , 0.91 mm) for Caucasians and Asians, respectively; and (2) (0.33 , 1.17 mm) and (0.51 , 1.58 mm) for males and females, respectively. The HSP is generally different from the BSP on MR images. Statistically, they can be used interchangeably if accuracy of (0.49 , 1.65 mm) is acceptable. The BSP is preferred for a high accuracy Talairach transformation and localization of the anterior and posterior commissures. Either BSP or HSP can be used for medium accuracy Talairach transform. The HSP is preferred for detecting intracranial pathology. (orig.)

  4. Radiological symmetry of brain and head images: comparison and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, W.L. [Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.

    2006-08-15

    Most existing image-based approaches neglect the difference in radiological symmetry between the human brain and head. Thus, it is important to analyze and quantify the spatial relationship between the brain symmetry plane (BSP) and the head symmetry plane (HSP) on radiological images. The HSP and BSP were calculated through maximizing local symmetry within the head or cerebrum followed by outlier removal. The HSPs and BSPs for 145 diversified MRI datasets (80 normal, 23 pathological, and 42 synthesized) were extracted and compared. The average angular and distance deviations between the HSP and BSP were 0.49 and 1.65 mm, respectively. These deviations are dependent upon ethnicity and gender, being: (1) (0.56 , 1.85 mm) and (0.42 , 0.91 mm) for Caucasians and Asians, respectively; and (2) (0.33 , 1.17 mm) and (0.51 , 1.58 mm) for males and females, respectively. The HSP is generally different from the BSP on MR images. Statistically, they can be used interchangeably if accuracy of (0.49 , 1.65 mm) is acceptable. The BSP is preferred for a high accuracy Talairach transformation and localization of the anterior and posterior commissures. Either BSP or HSP can be used for medium accuracy Talairach transform. The HSP is preferred for detecting intracranial pathology. (orig.)

  5. Validity of bioluminescence measurements for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumor load in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Clara P. W.; Overmeer, Renée M.; Niers, Tatjana M. H.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Richel, Dick J.; Buckle, Tessa; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    A relatively new strategy to longitudinally monitor tumor load in intact animals and the effects of therapy is noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The validity of BLI for quantitative assessment of tumor load in small animals is critically evaluated in the present review. Cancer cells are

  6. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  7. Image acquisition for the pediatric radiology PACS module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.; Morioka, C.; Mankovich, N.J.; Stewart, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype PACS module implemented at UCLA's pediatric radiology section has multi-modality access to image data from any of the three types of sources: digital modalities (i.e. CT, MR, and DSA), the Fuji Computed Radiography unit (FCR), and laser film digitizers. An interface unit was built to facilitate real-time data transfer from the FCR to the VAX11/750 which serves as the PACS host computer. The design of the interface unit, methods for linking to digital modalities, and characteristics of two film digitizers are described

  8. Reinventing Radiology: Big Data and the Future of Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael A; Saboury, Babak; Burkett, Brian; Gao, Jackson; Siegel, Eliot L

    2018-01-01

    Today, data surrounding most of our lives are collected and stored. Data scientists are beginning to explore applications that could harness this information and make sense of it. In this review, the topic of Big Data is explored, and applications in modern health care are considered. Big Data is a concept that has evolved from the modern trend of "scientism." One of the primary goals of data scientists is to develop ways to discover new knowledge from the vast quantities of increasingly available information. Current and future opportunities and challenges with respect to radiology are provided with emphasis on cardiothoracic imaging.

  9. Noninvasive Quantification of Retinal Microglia Using Widefield Autofluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Schneider, Nadia; Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Helena; Jovanovic, Joel; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To validate widefield autofluorescence (AF) in vivo imaging of the retina in mice expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) in microglia, and to monitor retinal microglia reconstitution in vivo after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Transgenic Cx3cr1gfp/gfp and wildtype Balb/c mice were used in this study. A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used for AF imaging with a 55° and a widefield 102° lens. Intrasession reproducibility was assessed for each lens. To investigate reconstitution in vivo, bone marrow from Cx3cr1gfp/gfp mice was used to rescue lethally irradiated wildtype mice. Data were compared to confocal microscopy of retinal flat mounts. Both the 55° and the 102° lens produced high resolution images of retinal microglia with similar microglia density. However, compared to the 55° lens, the widefield 102° lens captured approximately 3.6 times more microglia cells (1515 ± 123 cells versus 445 ± 76 cells [mean ± SD], for 102° and 55°, respectively, P < 0.001). No statistical difference in the number of gfp positive cells within corresponding areas was observed within the same imaging session. Imaging of microglia reconstitution showed a similar time course compared to flat mount preparations with an excellent correlation between microglia cell numbers in AF and gfp-stained flat mounts (R = 0.92, P < 0.0001). Widefield AF imaging of mice with gfp expressing microglia can be used to quantify retinal microglia. In vivo microglia counts corresponded very well with ex vivo counts on retinal flat mounts. As such, AF imaging can largely replace ex vivo quantification.

  10. Acceptable levels of digital image compression in chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of picture archival and communications systems (PACS) and teleradiology has prompted an examination of techniques that optimize the storage capacity and speed of digital storage and distribution networks. The general acceptance of the move to replace conventional screen-film capture with computed radiography (CR) is an indication that clinicians within the radiology community are willing to accept images that have been 'compressed'. The question to be answered, therefore, is what level of compression is acceptable. The purpose of the present study is to provide an assessment of the ability of a group of imaging professionals to determine whether an image has been compressed. To undertake this study a single mobile chest image, selected for the presence of some subtle pathology in the form of a number of septal lines in both costphrenic angles, was compressed to levels of 10:1, 20:1 and 30:1. These images were randomly ordered and shown to the observers for interpretation. Analysis of the responses indicates that in general it was not possible to distinguish the original image from its compressed counterparts. Furthermore, a preference appeared to be shown for images that have undergone low levels of compression. This preference can most likely be attributed to the 'de-noising' effect of the compression algorithm at low levels. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty. Ltd

  11. The quality assurance in diagnostic radiology and their effect in the quality image and radiological protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The quality assurance in diagnostic radiology in Mexico before 1997 was virtually nonexistent except in few academic institutions and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the issue of quality control parameters of general and fluoroscopy x-ray systems in the Mexican Republic and their effects in the quality image and radiological protection of the patient. A general result of the survey is that there is not significant difference in the observed frequencies among public and private radiology departments for α = 0.05, then the results are valid for both departments. 37% of x-ray systems belong to public radiology departments. In the radiology departments that didn't agree with the Mexican regulations in: light field to mach the x-ray field, light field intensity, kV, time and output. In those cases, we found a repeat rate of radiography studies >30% with non necessary dose to patient, low quality image and high operating costs of the radiology service. We found in x-ray fluoroscopy systems that 62% had a low quality image due to electronic noise in the television chain. In general the x-ray systems that didn't agree with Mexican regulations are 35% and they can affect in a way or other the quality image and the dose to patient

  12. Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Wu, Di; Davis, Hunter C.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.

  13. Contemporary imaging: Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, H.I.; Higgins, C.; Ring, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to discussing the most recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and the vast array of interventional procedures, this book explores the appropriate clinical applications of each of these important modalities

  14. Dose classification scheme for digital imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: image quality in diagnostic radiology is determined in crucial extent by the signal-noise-ratio, which is proportional to the applied x-ray dose. Onward technological developments in the diagnostic radiology are therefore frequently connected with a dose increase, which subjectively is hardly or even not perceptible. The aim of this work was to define reproducible standards for image quality as a function of dose and expected therapeutical consequence in case of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and the upper and lower jaw (dental CT), whereby practical-clinical purposes are considered. Materials and methods: the image quality of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and dental CT was determined by standard deviation of the CT-numbers (pixel noise) in a region of interest of the phantom of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM phantom) and additionally in the patients CT images. The diagnostic quality of the examination was classified on the basis of patients CT images in three dose levels (low dose, standard dose and high dose). Results: the pixel noise of CT of the paranasal sinuses with soft tissue reconstruction amounts to 19.3 Hounsfield units (HU) for low dose, 8.8 HU for standard dose, and below 8 HU for high dose. The pixel noise of the dental CT with bone (high resolution) reconstruction amounts to 344 HU for low dose, 221 HU for standard dose, and below 200 HU for high dose. Suitable indications for low dose CT are the scanning of body regions with high contrast differences, like the bony delimitations of air-filled spaces of the facial bones, and radiological follow-up examinations with dedicated questions such as axis determination in dental implantology, as well as the images of objects with small diameter such as in case of children. The standard dose CT can be recommended for all cases, in which precise staging of the illness plays an indispensable role for the diagnosis and therapy planning. With high dose

  15. Extending the MEDAS Feature Dictionary to Support Access to Radiological Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Bryan L.; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Charletta, Dale A.; Kepic, Anna; Trace, David A.; Naeymirad, Shon; Carmony, Lowell; Spigos, Dimitrios; Evens, Martha

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of adding a library of radiological images to MEDAS (the Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System). This library is interfaced with the MEDAS Feature Dictionary [1, 2], a dictionary containing terminology for MEDAS knowledge bases. The connections between the radiological images and the terms in the dictionary are used in two ways: 1) To retrieve the images with free text queries. 2) To help in the evaluation of radiological findings during the diagnostic cyc...

  16. Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

  17. Distributed data collection for a database of radiological image interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Ostchega, Yechiam; Goh, Gin-Hua; Thoma, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics and the National Institute for Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, has built a system for collecting radiological interpretations for a large set of x-ray images acquired as part of the data gathered in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is capable of delivering across the Internet 5- and 10-megabyte x-ray images to Sun workstations equipped with X Window based 2048 X 2560 image displays, for the purpose of having these images interpreted for the degree of presence of particular osteoarthritic conditions in the cervical and lumbar spines. The collected interpretations can then be stored in a database at the National Library of Medicine, under control of the Illustra DBMS. This system is a client/server database application which integrates (1) distributed server processing of client requests, (2) a customized image transmission method for faster Internet data delivery, (3) distributed client workstations with high resolution displays, image processing functions and an on-line digital atlas, and (4) relational database management of the collected data.

  18. An embedded system for image segmentation and multimodal registration in noninvasive skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Silvana; Soto, Javier E; Inostroza, Fabian; Godoy, Sebastian E; Figueroa, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    We present a heterogeneous architecture for image registration and multimodal segmentation on an embedded system for noninvasive skin cancer screening. The architecture combines Otsu thresholding and the random walker algorithm to perform image segmentation, and features a hardware implementation of the Harris corner detection algorithm to perform region-of-interest detection and image registration. Running on a Xilinx XC7Z020 reconfigurable system-on-a-chip, our prototype computes the initial segmentation of a 400×400-pixel region of interest in the visible spectrum in 12.1 seconds, and registers infrared images against this region at 540 frames per second, while consuming 1.9W.

  19. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  20. Noninvasive perfusion imaging of human brain tumors with EPISTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Warach, S. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen, P. [Department of Neurology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Thangaraj, V. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wielopolski, P. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Edelman, R.R. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A total of 17 patients with histologically proven diagnoses of low-grade astrocytoma (n = 4), high-grade astrocytoma (n = 8), lymphoma (n = 3), and meningioma (n = 2) were examined by using EPISTAR MR imaging. Meningiomas had the highest EPISTAR tumor/white matter contrast and low-grade astrocytomas and lymphomas the lowest. High-grade astrocytomas demonstrated elevated EPISTAR signal with marked regional heterogeneity. There was agreement between tumor vascularity by SPECT and EPISTAR in the five cases where both were done. Our results show that tumor vascularity can be assessed qualitatively by using EPISTAR without the need for contrast medium injection. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  1. Radiological imaging of the neonatal chest. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica (ed.) [Children' s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Radiology; National Maternity Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-07-01

    This second, revised edition of Radiological Imaging of the Neonatal Chest provides a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the subject. It is written primarily from the point of view of the paediatric radiologist but will be of particular interest to all antenatal ultrasonographers, neonatologists, paediatric cardiologists, paediatricians and paediatric surgeons. It includes an update on clinical management and appraises the advantages of the various techniques available to image the newborn chest. There is particular emphasis on the impact of recent therapeutic advances on imaging findings. Extensive consideration is given to both antenatal and postnatal imaging of congenital chest malformations, as well as to controversies regarding the postnatal management of asymptomatic infants with these anomalies. There are dedicated chapters on upper airway problems, infection and congenital heart disease, with special emphasis on the current role of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and interventional therapy. There is also a chapter devoted to computed radiography and digital radiography. This book contains important information for all those involved in caring for the neonate. (orig.)

  2. Use of film digitizers to assist radiology image management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate the possibility of using digital technologies to solve image management problems in the Department of Radiology at the University of Florida. The three problem areas investigated were local interpretation of images produced in remote locations, distribution of images to areas outside of radiology, and film handling. In all cases the use of a laser film digitizer interfaced to an existing Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) was investigated as a solution to the problem. In each case the volume of studies involved were evaluated to estimate the impact of the solution on the network, archive, and workstations. Communications were stressed in the analysis of the needs for all image transmission. The operational aspects of the solution were examined to determine the needs for training, service, and maintenance. The remote sites requiring local interpretation included were a rural hospital needing coverage for after hours studies, the University of Florida student infirmary, and the emergency room. Distribution of images to the intensive care units was studied to improve image access and patient care. Handling of films originating from remote sites and those requiring urgent reporting were evaluated to improve management functions. The results of our analysis and the decisions that were made based on the analysis are described below. In the cases where systems were installed, a description of the system and its integration into the PACS system is included. For all three problem areas, although we could move images via a digitizer to the archive and a workstation, there was no way to inform the radiologist that a study needed attention. In the case of outside films, the patient did not always have a medical record number that matched one in our Radiology Information Systems (RIS). In order to incorporate all studies for a patient, we needed common locations for orders, reports, and images. RIS orders

  3. 2017 multimodality appropriate use criteria for noninvasive cardiac imaging: Export consensus of the Asian society of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Kyong Min Sarah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Yeon Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-11-15

    In 2010, the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASCI) provided recommendations for cardiac CT and MRI, and this document reflects an update of the 2010 ASCI appropriate use criteria (AUC). In 2016, the ASCI formed a new working group for revision of AUC for noninvasive cardiac imaging. A major change that we made in this document is the rating of various noninvasive tests (exercise electrocardiogram, echocardiography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography/angiography), compared side by side for their applications in various clinical scenarios. Ninety-five clinical scenarios were developed from eight selected pre-existing guidelines and classified into four sections as follows: 1) detection of coronary artery disease, symptomatic or asymptomatic; 2) cardiac evaluation in various clinical scenarios; 3) use of imaging modality according to prior testing; and 4) evaluation of cardiac structure and function. The clinical scenarios were scored by a separate rating committee on a scale of 1–9 to designate appropriate use, uncertain use, or inappropriate use according to a modified Delphi method. Overall, the AUC ratings for CT were higher than those of previous guidelines. These new AUC provide guidance for clinicians choosing among available testing modalities for various cardiac diseases and are also unique, given that most previous AUC for noninvasive imaging include only one imaging technique. As cardiac imaging is multimodal in nature, we believe that these AUC will be more useful for clinical decision making.

  4. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  5. MRI-Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    patients has revealed atypical gelatinous necrosis. We have coined this abnormality bevacizumab-related imaging abnormality (BRIA) and have observed that...neurologic disorders . Radiology 1986;161: 401–7. 25. Merboldt K-D, HanickeW, Frahm J. Self-diffusion NMR imaging using stimulated echoes. J Magn Reson...sensitivity and functional characterization 8 Left peripheral mid gland 3–5 o’clock Bulges the capsule, no gross extraprostatic extension Motion and

  6. Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qizhi; Carney, Paul R; Yuan Zhen; Jiang Huabei [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu Zhao [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Chen Huanxin; Roper, Steven N [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0265 (United States)], E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu

    2008-04-07

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging imaging modality that has the potential to image the dynamic function of the brain due to its unique ability of imaging biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. Here we report the first application of our finite-element-based PAT for imaging of epileptic seizures in an animal model. In vivo photoacoustic images were obtained in rats with focal seizures induced by microinjection of bicuculline, a GABA{sub A} antagonist, into the neocortex. The seizure focus was accurately localized by PAT as confirmed with gold-standard electroencephalogram (EEG). Compared to the existing neuroimaging modalities, PAT not only has the unprecedented advantage of high spatial and temporal resolution in a single imaging modality, but also is portable and low in cost, making it possible to bring brain imaging to the bedside.

  7. Inappropriateness of cardiovascular radiological imaging testing; a tertiary care referral center study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Carpeggiani

    Full Text Available AIMS: Radiological inappropriateness in medical imaging leads to loss of resources and accumulation of avoidable population cancer risk. Aim of the study was to audit the appropriateness rate of different cardiac radiological examinations. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With a retrospective, observational study we reviewed clinical records of 818 consecutive patients (67 ± 12 years, 75% males admitted from January 1-May 31, 2010 to the National Research Council - Tuscany Region Gabriele Monasterio Foundation cardiology division. A total of 940 procedures were audited: 250 chest x-rays (CXR; 240 coronary computed tomographies (CCT; 250 coronary angiographies (CA; 200 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI. For each test, indications were rated on the basis of guidelines class of recommendation and level of evidence: definitely appropriate (A, including class I, appropriate, and class IIa, probably appropriate, uncertain (U, class IIb, probably inappropriate, or inappropriate (I, class III, definitely inappropriate. Appropriateness was suboptimal for all tests: CXR (A = 48%, U = 10%, I = 42%; CCT (A = 58%, U = 24%, I = 18%; CA (A = 45%, U = 25%, I = 30%; PCI (A = 63%, U = 15%, I = 22%. Top reasons for inappropriateness were: routine on hospital admission (70% of inappropriate CXR; first line application in asymptomatic low-risk patients (42% of CCT or in patients with unchanged clinical status post-revascularization (20% of CA; PCI in patients either asymptomatic or with miscellaneous symptoms and without inducible ischemia on non-invasive testing (36% of inappropriate PCI. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Public healthcare system--with universal access paid for with public money--is haemorrhaging significant resources and accumulating avoidable long-term cancer risk with inappropriate cardiovascular imaging prevention.

  8. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  9. Peering beneath the surface: novel imaging techniques to noninvasively select gametes and embryos for ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasensky, Joshua; Swain, Jason E

    2013-10-01

    Embryo imaging has long been a critical tool for in vitro fertilization laboratories, aiding in morphological assessment of embryos, which remains the primary tool for embryo selection. With the recent emergence of clinically applicable real-time imaging systems to assess embryo morphokinetics, a renewed interest has emerged regarding noninvasive methods to assess gamete and embryo development as a means of inferring quality. Several studies exist that utilize novel imaging techniques to visualize or quantify intracellular components of gametes and embryos with the intent of correlating localization of organelles or molecular constitution with quality or outcome. However, the safety of these approaches varies due to the potential detrimental impact of light exposure or other variables. Along with complexity of equipment and cost, these drawbacks currently limit clinical application of these novel microscopes and imaging techniques. However, as evidenced by clinical incorporation of some real-time imaging devices as well as use of polarized microscopy, some of these imaging approaches may prove to be useful. This review summarizes the existing literature on novel imaging approaches utilized to examine gametes and embryos. Refinement of some of these imaging systems may permit clinical application and serve as a means to offer new, noninvasive selection tools to improve outcomes for various assisted reproductive technology procedures.

  10. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  11. Support for external validity of radiological anatomy tests using volumetric images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J.; van der Gijp, Anouk; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L.; Mol, Christian P.; Bleys, Ronald L A W; ten Cate, Olle T.; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Radiology practice has become increasingly based on volumetric images (VIs), but tests in medical education still mainly involve two-dimensional (2D) images. We created a novel, digital, VI test and hypothesized that scores on this test would better reflect radiological

  12. Support for external validity of radiological anatomy tests using volumetric images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesloot, Cecile J.; van der Gijp, Anouk; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Christian P; Bleys, Ronald L A W; ten Cate, Olle T; van Schaik, JPJ

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Radiology practice has become increasingly based on volumetric images (VIs), but tests in medical education still mainly involve two-dimensional (2D) images. We created a novel, digital, VI test and hypothesized that scores on this test would better reflect radiological

  13. Noninvasive imaging systems for gametes and embryo selection in IVF programs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Marjan; Faramarzi, Azita; Agharahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedure by improving pregnancy rates and reducing the risks of multiple pregnancies simultaneously are the primary goals of the current assisted reproductive technology program. With the move to single embryo transfers, the need for more cost-effective and noninvasive methods for embryo selection prior to transfer is paramount. These aims require advancement in a more acquire gametes/embryo testing and selection procedures using high-tech devices. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive imaging systems in the current literatures, focusing on the potential clinical application in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments. In this regards, three advanced imaging systems of motile sperm organelle morphology examination, polarization microscopy and time-lapse monitoring for the best selection of the gametes and preimplantation embryos are introduced in full. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptake......-mannoheptulose in inhibiting insulin release. The 1-deoxy-1-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose only marginally affected INS-1 cell viability. These findings are compatible with the view that selected (19)F-heptuloses may represent suitable tools for the non-invasive imaging of hepatocytes...

  15. Non-invasive imaging of zebrafish with spinal deformities using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Liane; Beaudette, Kathy; Patten, Kessen; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Émilie; Strupler, Mathias; Moldovan, Florina; Boudoux, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    A zebrafish model has recently been introduced to study various genetic mutations that could lead to spinal deformities such as scoliosis. However, current imaging techniques make it difficult to perform longitudinal studies of this condition in zebrafish, especially in the early stages of development. The goal of this project is to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable non-invasive method to image zebrafish exhibiting spinal deformities. Images of both live and fixed malformed zebrafish (5 to 21 days postfertilization) as well as wild-type fish (5 to 29 days postfertilization) were acquired non-invasively using a commercial SD-OCT system, with a laser source centered at 930nm (λ=100nm), permitting axial and lateral resolutions of 7 and 8μm respectively. Using two-dimensional images and three-dimensional reconstructions, it was possible to identify the malformed notochord as well as deformities in other major organs at different stages of formation. Visualization of the notochord was facilitated with the development of a segmentation algorithm. OCT images were compared to HE histological sections and images obtained by calcein staining. Because of the possibility of performing longitudinal studies on a same fish and reducing image processing time as compared with staining techniques and histology, the use of OCT could facilitate phenotypic characterization in studying genetic factors leading to spinal deformities in zebrafish and could eventually contribute to the identification of the genetic causes of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  16. Assessing Expertise in Radiology : Evaluating and Improving the Assessment of Knowledge and Image Interpretation Skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesloot, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Expert radiologists are excellent image interpreters. Unfortunately, image interpretation errors are frequent even among experienced radiologists and not much is known about which factors lead to expertise. Increasing assessment quality can improve radiological performance. Progress tests can

  17. Non-Invasive Imaging Method of Microwave Near Field Based on Solid State Quantum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Du, Guanxiang; Dong, Yue; Liu, Guoquan; Hu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-invasive imaging method of microwave near field using a diamond containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. We applied synchronous pulsed sequence combined with charge coupled device camera to measure the amplitude of the microwave magnetic field. A full reconstruction formulation of the local field vector, including the amplitude and phase, is developed by measuring both left and right circular polarizations along the four nitrogen-vacancy axes. Compared to the raste...

  18. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive three-dimensional live imaging methodology for the spindles at meiosis and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-gao; Huo, Tiancheng; Tian, Ning; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Fengying; Lu, Danyu; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Sun, Jia-lin; Xue, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The spindle plays a crucial role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis and mitosis. Studying spindles in living cells noninvasively is of great value in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Here, we present a novel spindle imaging methodology, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Without any dye labeling and fixation, we demonstrate the first successful application of FF-OCT to noninvasive three-dimensional (3-D) live imaging of the meiotic spindles within the mouse living oocytes at metaphase II as well as the mitotic spindles in the living zygotes at metaphase and telophase. By post-processing of the 3-D dataset obtained with FF-OCT, the important morphological and spatial parameters of the spindles, such as short and long axes, spatial localization, and the angle of meiotic spindle deviation from the first polar body in the oocyte were precisely measured with the spatial resolution of 0.7 μm. Our results reveal the potential of FF-OCT as an imaging tool capable of noninvasive 3-D live morphological analysis for spindles, which might be useful to ART related procedures and many other spindle related studies.

  20. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  1. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  2. Radiologic imaging of the renal parenchyma structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Merville, Pierre; Combe, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Radiologic imaging has the potential to identify several functional and/or structural biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney diseases that are useful diagnostics to guide patient management. A renal ultrasound examination can provide information regarding the gross anatomy and macrostructure of the renal parenchyma, and ultrasound imaging modalities based on Doppler or elastography techniques can provide haemodynamic and structural information, respectively. CT is also able to combine morphological and functional information, but the use of CT is limited due to the required exposure to X-ray irradiation and a risk of contrast-induced nephropathy following intravenous injection of a radio-contrast agent. MRI can be used to identify a wide range of anatomical and physiological parameters at the tissue and even cellular level, such as tissue perfusion, oxygenation, water diffusion, cellular phagocytic activity, tissue stiffness, and level of renal filtration. The ability of MRI to provide valuable information for most of these parameters within a renal context is still in development and requires more clinical experience, harmonization of technical procedures, and an evaluation of reliability and validity on a large scale.

  3. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; van Westen, Danielle; Brockstedt, Sara; Lasič, Samo; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8±0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6±0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9±0.8 s(-1). In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Radowsky

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs, evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal's locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament. The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD and infrared (IR imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as "returned to normal locomotion" or "did not return to normal locomotion" with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53 compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76. With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a

  5. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  6. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans. PMID:29671781

  7. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru; He, Yong

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874⁻1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  8. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingquan Chu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI. The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  9. A review of non-invasive imaging methods and applications in contaminant hydrogeology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Charles J; Zhang, Changyong; Brusseau, Mark L; Oostrom, Mart; Baumann, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Contaminant hydrogeological processes occurring in porous media are typically not amenable to direct observation. As a result, indirect measurements (e.g., contaminant breakthrough at a fixed location) are often used to infer processes occurring at different scales, locations, or times. To overcome this limitation, non-invasive imaging methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology research. Four of the most common methods, and the subjects of this review, are optical imaging using UV or visible light, dual-energy gamma radiation, X-ray microtomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided valuable insights into a variety of complex systems and processes, including porous media characterization, multiphase fluid distribution, fluid flow, solute transport and mixing, colloidal transport and deposition, and reactions. In this paper we review the theory underlying these methods, applications of these methods to contaminant hydrogeology research, and methods' advantages and disadvantages. As expected, there is no perfect method or tool for non-invasive imaging. However, optical methods generally present the least expensive and easiest options for imaging fluid distribution, solute and fluid flow, colloid transport, and reactions in artificial two-dimensional (2D) porous media. Gamma radiation methods present the best opportunity for characterization of fluid distributions in 2D at the Darcy scale. X-ray methods present the highest resolution and flexibility for three-dimensional (3D) natural porous media characterization, and 3D characterization of fluid distributions in natural porous media. And MRI presents the best option for 3D characterization of fluid distribution, fluid flow, colloid transport, and reaction in artificial porous media. Obvious deficiencies ripe for method development are the ability to image transient processes such as fluid flow and colloid transport in natural porous media in three

  10. RADIOLOGY EDUCATION: A PILOT STUDY TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS REGARDING IMAGING IN TRAUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saad; Saeed, Muhammad Anwar; Shah, Noreen; Nadeem, Naila

    2015-01-01

    Trauma remains one of the most frequent presentations in emergency departments. Imaging has established role in setting of acute trauma with ability to identify potentially fatal conditions. Adequate knowledge of health professionals regarding trauma imaging is vital for improved healthcare. In this work we try to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging in trauma as well as identify most effective way of imparting radiology education. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted at Aga Khan University Medical College & Khyber Girls Medical College, to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging protocols practiced in initial management of trauma patients. Only 40 & 20% respectively were able to identify radiographs included in trauma series. Very few had knowledge of correct indication for Focused abdominal sonography in trauma. Clinical radiology rotation was reported as best way of learning radiology. Change in curricula & restructuring of clinical radiology rotation structure is needed to improve knowledge regarding Trauma imaging.

  11. Evaluation of the contribution of radiological imaging to the final diagnosis in medical case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesinger, Isabel; Scharf, Gregor; Platz, Natascha; Dendl, Lena M.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Pawlik, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value and impact of radiological imaging in published medial case reports. We analysed 671 consecutively published case reports of a peer-reviewed medical journal for case reports. The general use of radiological imaging as well as the specific imaging modality used in each case (ultrasound, x-ray, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI) was documented, and most importantly the 'final problem solver', i.e. the diagnostic modality giving the final clue to the patient's diagnosis, was identified. In 511 of 671 (76.1 %) analysed case reports at least one radiological modality was used in the diagnostic cascade. In 28.6 % of all cases the final diagnosis was achieved by radiological imaging. All other cases were solved by the patient's history and physical examination (15.2 %), histology (12.4 %), and blood analysis (9.6 %). When radiology was the 'final problem solver', it was mainly CT (51.6 %) and MRI (30.6 %). In 52.2 % of the case reports the radiological image was included in the article. In case reports published in a prominent general medical journal radiological imaging is an important key player in the diagnostic process. In many cases, it is also the diagnostic tool which ultimately leads to determining the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the contribution of radiological imaging to the final diagnosis in medical case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesinger, Isabel; Scharf, Gregor; Platz, Natascha; Dendl, Lena M.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas G. [University Hospital Regensburg, Institute of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Pawlik, Michael T. [Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Institute of Anaesthesiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical value and impact of radiological imaging in published medial case reports. We analysed 671 consecutively published case reports of a peer-reviewed medical journal for case reports. The general use of radiological imaging as well as the specific imaging modality used in each case (ultrasound, x-ray, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI) was documented, and most importantly the 'final problem solver', i.e. the diagnostic modality giving the final clue to the patient's diagnosis, was identified. In 511 of 671 (76.1 %) analysed case reports at least one radiological modality was used in the diagnostic cascade. In 28.6 % of all cases the final diagnosis was achieved by radiological imaging. All other cases were solved by the patient's history and physical examination (15.2 %), histology (12.4 %), and blood analysis (9.6 %). When radiology was the 'final problem solver', it was mainly CT (51.6 %) and MRI (30.6 %). In 52.2 % of the case reports the radiological image was included in the article. In case reports published in a prominent general medical journal radiological imaging is an important key player in the diagnostic process. In many cases, it is also the diagnostic tool which ultimately leads to determining the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of implants on chest radiographs: a radiological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, K.; Thayur, N.; Husain, S.A.; Martin, R.P.; Wilde, P.

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular and percutaneous techniques have emerged as alternatives to surgical management in the treatment for a wide range of congenital and acquired cardiac, non-vascular and vascular conditions. Consequently, there has been an increasing use of implants such as closure devices, vascular stents (coronary, aortic, pulmonary and superior vena cava) and non-vascular stents like oesophageal and tracheo-bronchial stents. A large number of percutaneously sited implants are used for treating congenital cardiac anomalies such as atrial septal defects (ASD), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These implants take many shapes and forms. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the radiographic appearances of the various types of cardiovascular, bronchial and oesophageal implants that are visible on plain films. A brief outline of the aims and indications of various implant procedures, the general appearance of the commonest types of implants, and the radiological procedures are discussed. All radiologists are likely to come across implanted devices in plain film reporting. Imaging can be useful in identifying the device, assessing the position, integrity, and for the identification of complications related directly to the implant

  14. Imaging of implants on chest radiographs: a radiological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Thayur, N [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Husain, S A [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Martin, R P [Department of Cardiology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol (United Kingdom); Wilde, P [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Endovascular and percutaneous techniques have emerged as alternatives to surgical management in the treatment for a wide range of congenital and acquired cardiac, non-vascular and vascular conditions. Consequently, there has been an increasing use of implants such as closure devices, vascular stents (coronary, aortic, pulmonary and superior vena cava) and non-vascular stents like oesophageal and tracheo-bronchial stents. A large number of percutaneously sited implants are used for treating congenital cardiac anomalies such as atrial septal defects (ASD), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These implants take many shapes and forms. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the radiographic appearances of the various types of cardiovascular, bronchial and oesophageal implants that are visible on plain films. A brief outline of the aims and indications of various implant procedures, the general appearance of the commonest types of implants, and the radiological procedures are discussed. All radiologists are likely to come across implanted devices in plain film reporting. Imaging can be useful in identifying the device, assessing the position, integrity, and for the identification of complications related directly to the implant.

  15. Non-invasive monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine efficacy using biophotonic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz M Alam

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 10(5 bacterial colony forming units (CFU in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines.

  16. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik [I. Ikad Community Health Center, Health Directorate, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Gekce, Erkan [Samsun Maternity and Women' s Disease and Pediatrics Hospital, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Coskun, Melek [Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz May' s University, Samsun (Turkmenistan)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X{sup 2}-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  17. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divrik Gökçe, Senem; Coşkun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Objective Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. Materials and Methods A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A χ2-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Results Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Conclusion Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period. PMID:22438688

  18. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik; Gekce, Erkan; Coskun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X 2 -test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  19. Insights into Parkinson's disease models and neurotoxicity using non-invasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Isacson, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Loss of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system causes a severe impairment in motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease and in experimental neurotoxic models of the disease. We have used non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate in vivo the changes in the dopamine system in neurotoxic models of Parkinson's disease. In addition to classic neurotransmitter studies, in these models, it is also possible to characterize associated and perhaps pathogenic factors, such as the contribution of microglia activation and inflammatory responses to neuronal damage. Functional imaging techniques are instrumental to our understanding and modeling of disease mechanisms, which should in turn lead to development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders

  20. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  1. Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy for the Noninvasive Imaging of Langerhans Cells in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Biliana; Salabert, Nina; Tricot, Sabine; Boisgard, Raphaël; Rathaux, Mélanie; Le Grand, Roger; Chapon, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new approach to visualize skin Langerhans cells by in vivo fluorescence imaging in nonhuman primates. Macaques were intradermally injected with a monoclonal, fluorescently labeled antibody against HLA-DR molecule and were imaged for up to 5 days by fibered confocal microscopy (FCFM). The network of skin Langerhans cells was visualized by in vivo fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy. Quantification of Langerhans cells revealed no changes to cell density with time. Ex vivo experiments confirmed that injected fluorescent HLA-DR antibody specifically targeted Langerhans cells in the epidermis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of single-cell, in vivo imaging as a noninvasive technique to track Langerhans cells in nontransgenic animals.

  2. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  3. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices.

  4. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  5. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin; Schibli, Roger

    2017-01-01

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  6. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  7. Non-invasive imaging of retinal blood flow in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Hansen, Mathias M; Klefter, Oliver Niels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the circulation in the retinal vessels in patients with blood dyscrasia due to myeloproliferative neoplasms using non-invasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Prospective consecutive case series of seven treatment-naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 2), polycythemia vera...... present at baseline in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and were replaced by normal patterns at follow-up. Retinopathy, in the form of cotton-wool spots and retinal haemorrhages, was found at presentation in the two patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and in one patient with polycythemia vera...

  8. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Proper use of common image file formats in handling radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Perandini, S; Comai, A; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2009-04-01

    This paper highlights the differences among the most common file formats used for storing digital radiological images. It promotes the proper use of these formats to guarantee easy manipulation in handling the most typical practical applications in daily radiological practice. The authors provide a simple yet exhaustive introduction to the concept of "file format" and describe the algorithms and main features of the most common formats (BMP, JPEG, GIF, DICOM, TIF, PNG) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG).The different formats are compared in terms of dimension, quality, portability and with reference to the following specific needs: electronic communications, publication on the World Wide Web, presentation of electronic posters, video presentations for teaching and manuscript publishing. We also illustrate how to handle the various formats with the programmes supplied with standard software installations.The large number of digital applications of image file formats calls for a simplification in daily radiological practice. We recommend the use of JPEG and PNG for electronic communications; PNG and GIF for publication on the worldwide web; JPEG and PNG for electronic poster presentations; DICOM, PNG and JPEG for teaching presentations; TIF and PNG for printing on paper.

  10. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.) [de

  11. The public cancer radiology imaging collections of The Cancer Imaging Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Fred; Smith, Kirk; Sharma, Ashish; Kirby, Justin; Tarbox, Lawrence; Clark, Ken; Bennett, William; Nolan, Tracy; Freymann, John

    2017-09-19

    The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is the U.S. National Cancer Institute's repository for cancer imaging and related information. TCIA contains 30.9 million radiology images representing data collected from approximately 37,568 subjects. This data is organized into collections by tumor-type with many collections also including analytic results or clinical data. TCIA staff carefully de-identify and curate all incoming collections prior to making the information available via web browser or programmatic interfaces. Each published collection within TCIA is assigned a Digital Object Identifier that references the collection. Additionally, researchers who use TCIA data may publish the subset of information used in their analysis by requesting a TCIA generated Digital Object Identifier. This data descriptor is a review of a selected subset of existing publicly available TCIA collections. It outlines the curation and publication methods employed by TCIA and makes available 15 collections of cancer imaging data.

  12. A General Approach to the Non-Invasive Imaging of Transgenes Using Cis-Linked Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri G. Tjuvajev

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive imaging of gene expression opens new prospects for the study of transgenic animals and the implementation of genetically based therapies in patients. We have sought to establish a general paradigm to enable whole body non-invasive imaging of any transgene. We show that the expression and imaging of HSV1-tk (a marker gene can be used to monitor the expression of the LacZ gene (a second gene under the transcriptional control of a single promoter within a bicistronic unit that includes a type II internal ribosomal entry site. In cells bearing a single copy of the vector, the expression of the two genes is proportional and constant, both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that non-invasive imaging of HSV1-tk gene accurately reflects the topology and activity of the other cis-linked transgene.

  13. Chronic pelvic pain: how does noninvasive imaging compare with diagnostic laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Daniels, Jane P; Khan, Khalid S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has an annual prevalence of 38/1000 in the UK, with coexisting pathologies often present. Diagnostic laparoscopy has long been the gold standard diagnostic test, but with up to 40% showing no abnormality, we explore the value of noninvasive imaging, such as pelvic ultrasound and MRI. A literature review from inception until January 2015 of the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica database, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe were performed to identify published studies assessing the usefulness of ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy in the diagnosis of CPP. Three studies (194 women) addressed their comparative performance in patients with endometriosis, showing the sensitivity of ultrasound ranged between 58 and 88.5%; MRI was 56-91.5% and in the one study using histology as its reference standard, the sensitivity of laparoscopy was 85.7%. Noninvasive imaging has the additional benefit of being well tolerated, safer, and cheaper than surgery. CPP, by nature of its multifactorial causation, can be difficult to manage and often requires a multidisciplinary team. Ultrasound and MRI may provide information about the presence or lack of abnormality, which would allow general practitioners or office gynaecologists to initiate treatment and think about surgery as a second-line investigative tool.

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration by multiparametric MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zelong; Yan, Chenggong; Yan, Shina; Liu, Qin; Hou, Meirong; Xu, Yikai; Guo, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Numerous biodegradable hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been widely used in the field of tissue engineering. However, to non-invasively monitor hydrogel degradation and efficiently evaluate cartilage restoration in situ is still challenging. Methods: A ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-labeled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)/silk fibroin (SF)-blended hydrogel system was developed to monitor hydrogel degradation during cartilage regeneration. The physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of the hydrogel were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration of different implants were assessed using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and further confirmed by histological analysis in a rabbit cartilage defect model for 3 months. Results: USPIO-labeled hydrogels showed sufficient MR contrast enhancement and retained stability without loss of the relaxation rate. Neither the mechanical properties of the hydrogels nor the proliferation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were affected by USPIO labeling in vitro. CNC/SF hydrogels with BMSCs degraded more quickly than the acellular hydrogels as reflected by the MR relaxation rate trends in vivo. The morphology of neocartilage was noninvasively visualized by the three-dimensional water-selective cartilage MRI scan sequence, and the cartilage repair was further demonstrated by macroscopic and histological observations. Conclusion: This USPIO-labeled CNC/SF hydrogel system provides a new perspective on image-guided tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration. PMID:29464005

  15. Fully three-dimensional image reconstruction in radiology and nuclear medicine. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting on ''fully three-dimensional image reconstruction in radiology and nuclear medicine'' covers contributions on the following topics: CT imaging, PET imaging, fidelity; iterative and few-view CT, CT-analytical; PET/SPECT Compton analytical; doses - spectral methods; phase contrast; compressed sensing- sparse reconstruction; special issues; motion - cardiac.

  16. Theranostic Iron Oxide/Gold Ion Nanoprobes for MR Imaging and Noninvasive RF Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Sajid; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2017-08-30

    This work focuses on the development of a nanoparticulate system that can be used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and E-field noninvasive radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia. For this purpose, an amine-functional gold ion complex (GIC), [Au(III)(diethylenetriamine)Cl]Cl 2 , which generates heat upon RF exposure, was conjugated to carboxyl-functional poly(acrylic acid)-capped iron-oxide nanoparticles (IO-PAA NPs) to form IO-GIC NPs of size ∼100 nm. The multimodal superparamagnetic IO-GIC NPs produced T2-contrast on MR imaging and unlike IO-PAA NPs generated heat on RF exposure. The RF heating response of IO-GIC NPs was found to be dependent on the RF power, exposure period, and particle concentration. IO-GIC NPs at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL showed a high heating response (δT) of ∼40 °C when exposed to 100 W RF power for 1 min. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements on NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and 4T1 cancer cells showed that IO-GIC NPs are cytocompatible at high NP concentrations for up to 72 h. Upon in vitro RF exposure (100 W, 1 min), a high thermal response leads to cell death of 4T1 cancer cells incubated with IO-GIC NPs (1 mg/mL). Hematoxylin and eosin imaging of rat liver tissues injected with 100 μL of 2.5 mg/mL IO-GIC NPs and exposed to low RF power of 20 W for 10 min showed significant loss of tissue morphology at the site of injection, as against RF-exposed or nanoparticle-injected controls. In vivo MR imaging and noninvasive RF exposure of 4T1-tumor-bearing mice after IO-GIC NP administration showed T2 contrast enhancement and a localized generation of high temperatures in tumors, leading to tumor tissue damage. Furthermore, the administration of IO-GIC NPs followed by RF exposure showed no adverse acute toxicity effects in vivo. Thus, IO-GIC NPs show good promise as a theranostic agent for magnetic resonance imaging and noninvasive RF hyperthermia for cancer.

  17. Radiology resident MR and CT image analysis skill assessment using an interactive volumetric simulation tool - the RadioLOG project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe; Cendre, Romain; Hossu, Gabriela; Felblinger, Jacques; Blum, Alain; Braun, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Assess the use of a volumetric simulation tool for the evaluation of radiology resident MR and CT interpretation skills. Forty-three participants were evaluated with a software allowing the visualisation of multiple volumetric image series. There were 7 medical students, 28 residents and 8 senior radiologists among the participants. Residents were divided into two sub-groups (novice and advanced). The test was composed of 15 exercises on general radiology and lasted 45 min. Participants answered a questionnaire on their experience with the test using a 5-point Likert scale. This study was approved by the dean of the medical school and did not require ethics committee approval. The reliability of the test was good with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.9. Test scores were significantly different in all sub-groups studies (p < 0.0225). The relation between test scores and the year of residency was logarithmic (R"2 = 0.974). Participants agreed that the test reflected their radiological practice (3.9 ± 0.9 on a 5-point scale) and was better than the conventional evaluation methods (4.6 ± 0.5 on a 5-point scale). This software provides a high quality evaluation tool for the assessment of the interpretation skills in radiology residents. (orig.)

  18. Radiology resident MR and CT image analysis skill assessment using an interactive volumetric simulation tool - the RadioLOG project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); Cendre, Romain [INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela; Felblinger, Jacques [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Braun, Marc [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service de Neuroradiologie, Nancy (France)

    2017-02-15

    Assess the use of a volumetric simulation tool for the evaluation of radiology resident MR and CT interpretation skills. Forty-three participants were evaluated with a software allowing the visualisation of multiple volumetric image series. There were 7 medical students, 28 residents and 8 senior radiologists among the participants. Residents were divided into two sub-groups (novice and advanced). The test was composed of 15 exercises on general radiology and lasted 45 min. Participants answered a questionnaire on their experience with the test using a 5-point Likert scale. This study was approved by the dean of the medical school and did not require ethics committee approval. The reliability of the test was good with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.9. Test scores were significantly different in all sub-groups studies (p < 0.0225). The relation between test scores and the year of residency was logarithmic (R{sup 2} = 0.974). Participants agreed that the test reflected their radiological practice (3.9 ± 0.9 on a 5-point scale) and was better than the conventional evaluation methods (4.6 ± 0.5 on a 5-point scale). This software provides a high quality evaluation tool for the assessment of the interpretation skills in radiology residents. (orig.)

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages in Image Processing with Free Software in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Katrin Muradas; Méndez, Juan Antonio Juanes; de Miguel, Andrés Framiñan

    2018-01-15

    Currently, there are sophisticated applications that make it possible to visualize medical images and even to manipulate them. These software applications are of great interest, both from a teaching and a radiological perspective. In addition, some of these applications are known as Free Open Source Software because they are free and the source code is freely available, and therefore it can be easily obtained even on personal computers. Two examples of free open source software are Osirix Lite® and 3D Slicer®. However, this last group of free applications have limitations in its use. For the radiological field, manipulating and post-processing images is increasingly important. Consequently, sophisticated computing tools that combine software and hardware to process medical images are needed. In radiology, graphic workstations allow their users to process, review, analyse, communicate and exchange multidimensional digital images acquired with different image-capturing radiological devices. These radiological devices are basically CT (Computerised Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), etc. Nevertheless, the programs included in these workstations have a high cost which always depends on the software provider and is always subject to its norms and requirements. With this study, we aim to present the advantages and disadvantages of these radiological image visualization systems in the advanced management of radiological studies. We will compare the features of the VITREA2® and AW VolumeShare 5® radiology workstation with free open source software applications like OsiriX® and 3D Slicer®, with examples from specific studies.

  20. Non-invasive imaging technics for diagnosis in children with surgical abdominal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Koonosuke; Sato, Yutaka; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Misao

    1984-01-01

    The usefullness of non-invasive imaging technics namely CT and ultrasonography was evaluated in pediatric surgical abdominal diseases, under the categoly of A) inflammatory masses (10), B) biliary abnormalities (6), C) neoplasms (12), and D) blunt abdominal traumas (8), which were experienced at St. Marianna University Hospital from April 1978 to January 1982. According to the results of the clinical study, the plan of useful diagnostic approaches in each group by means of several imaging technics was outlined. In group A and B, ultrasonography is usually suffice for diagnosis and therapy planning, whereas in group C and D, in addition to the ultrasound, CT is sometimes required for evaluating the involvement of vascular structures and sorrounding vital structures in cases of neoplasm, and coexisting injuries in the traumas. (author)

  1. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition. (letters)

  2. Double contrast barium enema combined with non-invasive imaging in peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Bellomi, M.; Frigerio, L.F.; Ostinelli, C.; Marchiano, A.; Petrillo, R.; Severini, A.; Milan Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from serosal linings of the major serous cavities. Five patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and ultrasonography (US) (2 patients), computed tomography (CT) (3 patients) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3 patients). The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The radiologic pattern at DCBE is unspecific and consists of compression and dislocation of bowel loops by extrinsic masses. Mesenteric retraction and segmental stenosis may be present. In one patient DCBE was normal. US, CT and MRI findings are also unspecific but when combined with information obtained from DCBE the site and abdominal extension of the disease are well defined. (orig.)

  3. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  4. Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of the effect of statins on endothelial inflammatory phenotype in early atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khanicheh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory changes on the endothelium are responsible for leukocyte recruitment to plaques in atherosclerosis. Noninvasive assessment of treatment-effects on endothelial inflammation may be of use for managing medical therapy and developing novel therapies. We hypothesized that molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU could assess treatment effects on endothelial phenotype in early atherosclerosis. METHODS: Mice with atherosclerosis produced by gene deletion of the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1-editing protein were studied. At 12 weeks of age, mice received 8 weeks of regular chow or atorvastatin-enriched chow (10 mg/kg/day. At 20 weeks, CEU molecular imaging for aortic endothelial VCAM-1 expression was performed with VCAM-1-targeted (MB(VCAM and control microbubbles (MB(Ctr. Aortic wall thickness was assessed with high frequency ultrasound. Histology, immunohistology and Western blot were used to assess plaque burden and VCAM-1 expression. RESULTS: Plaque burden was reduced on histology, and VCAM-1 was reduced on Western blot by atorvastatin, which corresponded to less endothelial expression of VCAM-1 on immunohistology. High frequency ultrasound did not detect differences in aortic wall thickness between groups. In contrast, CEU molecular imaging demonstrated selective signal enhancement for MB(VCAM in non-treated animals (MB(VCAM 2±0.3 vs MB(Ctr 0.7±0.2, p<0.01, but not in statin-treated animals (MB(VCAM 0.8±0.2 vs MB(Ctr 1.0±0.2, p = ns; p<0.01 for the effect of statin on MB(VCAM signal. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive CEU molecular imaging detects the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on endothelial inflammation in early atherosclerosis. This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients.

  5. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  6. Use of dynamic images in radiology education: Movies of CT and MRI in the anatomy classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Won; Oh, Chang-Seok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Jang, Dong Su

    2018-04-19

    Radiology education is a key component in many preclinical anatomy courses. However, the reported effectiveness of radiology education within such anatomy classrooms has varied. This study was conducted to determine if a novel educational method using dynamic images of movies of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was effective in radiology education during a preclinical anatomy course, aided by clay modeling, specific hand gestures (digit anatomy), and reports from dissection findings uploaded to the anatomy course website (digital reports). Feedback surveys using a five-point Likert scale were administered to better clarify students' opinions regarding their understanding of CT and MRI of anatomical structures, as well as to determine if such preclinical radiology education was helpful in their clinical studies. After completion of the anatomy course taught with dynamic images of CT and MRI, most students demonstrated an adequate understanding of basic CT and MR images. Additionally, students in later clinical years generally believed that their study of radiologic images during the preclinical anatomy course was helpful for their clinical studies and clerkship rotations. Moreover, student scores on imaging anatomy examinations demonstrated meaningful improvements in performance after using dynamic images from movies of CT and MRI. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. The positive impact of radiologic imaging on high-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Karia, Pritesh S; Morgan, Frederick C; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2017-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the utility of radiologic imaging for prognostic staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Review utilization of radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCCs to evaluate whether imaging impacted management and outcomes. Tumors classified as Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) tumor (T) stage T2B or T3 over a 13-year period were reviewed to identify whether imaging was performed and whether results affected treatment. Disease-related outcomes (DRO: local recurrence, nodal metastasis, death from disease) were compared between patients by type of imaging used. 108 high-stage CSCCs in 98 patients were included. Imaging (mostly computed tomography, 79%) was utilized in 45 (46%) patients and management was altered in 16 (33%) patients who underwent imaging. Patients that received no imaging were at higher risk of developing nodal metastases (nonimaging, 30%; imaging, 13%; P = .041) and any DRO (nonimaging, 42%; imaging, 20%; P = .028) compared to the imaging group. Imaging was associated with a lower risk for DRO (subhazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9; P = .046) adjusted for BWH T stage, sex, and location. Single institution retrospective design and changes in technology overtime. Radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCC may influence management and appears to positively impact outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to establish which patients benefit from imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: imaging, non-invasive markers of fibrosis and liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopet, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of ‘cirrhosis’ is evolving and it is now clear that compensated and decompensated cirrhosis are completely different in terms of prognosis. Furthermore, the term ‘advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD)’ better reflects the continuum of histological changes occurring in the liver, which continue to progress even after cirrhosis has developed, and might regress after removing the etiological factor causing the liver disease. In compensated ACLD, portal hypertension marks the progression to a stage with higher risk of clinical complication and requires an appropriate evaluation and treatment. Invasive tests to diagnose cirrhosis (liver biopsy) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and endoscopy) remain of crucial importance in several difficult clinical scenarios, but their need can be reduced by using different non-invasive tests in standard cases. Among non-invasive tests, the accepted use, major limitations and major benefits of serum markers of fibrosis, elastography and imaging methods are summarized in the present review. PMID:28533906

  9. Noninvasive assessment of coronary collaterals in man by PET perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demer, L.L.; Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    At present, coronary collateralization cannot be identified or assessed noninvasively in patients. In animal studies, coronary collaterals are associated with coronary steal, defined as a regional fall in perfusion during coronary arteriolar vasodilation. To determine the effect of coronary arteriolar vasodilation on collateral bed perfusion in man, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed before and after pharmacologic coronary vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Regional myocardial activity of 82 Rb or 13 N ammonia was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and with intravenous dipyridamole/handgrip stress in 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in 25 control patients with similar CAD severity by quantitative arteriography. Regional myocardial activity decreased after dipyridamole, indicating coronary steal, in 25 of 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in only 4 of 25 control patients without angiographic collaterals. These findings suggest that developed collaterals are associated with myocardial steal in patients with CAD, allowing potential use of PET for non-invasive identification of coronary collateralization

  10. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  11. Novel Noninvasive Brain Disease Detection System Using a Facial Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain disease including any conditions or disabilities that affect the brain is fast becoming a leading cause of death. The traditional diagnostic methods of brain disease are time-consuming, inconvenient and non-patient friendly. As more and more individuals undergo examinations to determine if they suffer from any form of brain disease, developing noninvasive, efficient, and patient friendly detection systems will be beneficial. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel noninvasive brain disease detection system based on the analysis of facial colors. The system consists of four components. A facial image is first captured through a specialized sensor, where four facial key blocks are next located automatically from the various facial regions. Color features are extracted from each block to form a feature vector for classification via the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier. To thoroughly test the system and its performance, seven facial key block combinations were experimented. The best result was achieved using the second facial key block, where it showed that the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier is the most suitable. The overall performance of the proposed system achieves an accuracy −95%, a sensitivity −94.33%, a specificity −95.67%, and an average processing time (for one sample of <1 min at brain disease detection.

  12. Development of an X-ray Computed Tomography System for Non-Invasive Imaging of Industrial Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, J.; Sipaun, S. M.; Mustapha, I.; Zain, R. M.; Rahman, M. F. A.; Mustapha, M.; Shaari, M. R.; Hassan, H.; Said, M. K. M.; Mohamad, G. H. P.; Ibrahim, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique for viewing an object's inner structures in two-dimensional cross-section images without the need to physically section it. The invention of CT techniques revolutionised the field of medical diagnostic imaging because it provided more detailed and useful information than any previous non-invasive imaging techniques. The method is increasingly being used in industry, aerospace, geosciences and archaeology. This paper describes the development of an X-ray computed tomography system for imaging of industrial materials. The theoretical aspects of CT scanner, the system configurations and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. The penetrating rays from a 160 kV industrial X-ray machine were used to investigate structures that manifest in a manufactured component or product. Some results were presented in this paper

  13. The sharing of radiological images by professional mixed martial arts fighters on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, George; Joyce, Cormac W; McCarthy, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Mixed martial arts is a sport that has recently enjoyed a significant increase in popularity. This rise in popularity has catapulted many of these "cage fighters" into stardom and many regularly use social media to reach out to their fans. An interesting result of this interaction on social media is that athletes are sharing images of their radiological examinations when they sustain an injury. To review instances where mixed martial arts fighters shared images of their radiological examinations on social media and in what context they were shared. An Internet search was performed using the Google search engine. Search terms included "MMA," "mixed martial arts," "injury," "scan," "X-ray," "fracture," and "break." Articles which discussed injuries to MMA fighters were examined and those in which the fighter themselves shared a radiological image of their injury on social media were identified. During our search, we identified 20 MMA fighters that had shared radiological images of their injuries on social media. There were 15 different types of injury, with a fracture of the mid-shaft of the ulna being the most common. The most popular social media platform was Twitter. The most common imaging modality X-ray (71%). The majority of injuries were sustained during competition (81%) and 35% of these fights resulted in a win for the fighter. Professional mixed martial artists are sharing radiological images of their injuries on social media. This may be in an attempt to connect with fans and raise their profile among other fighters.

  14. Myocardial imaging in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with suspected ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Three noninvasive radioactive tracer techniques for evaluating patients with ischemic heart disease are described: (1) myocardial perfusion imaging, (2) acute infarct imaging, and (3) the gated blood pool scan. Myocardial perfusion imaging with tracers that distribute in the myocardium in relation to regional blood flow allows detection of patients with transmural and nontransmural infarction by the finding of decreased tracer concentration in the affected region of the myocardium. If these tracers are injected at the time of maximal stress to patients with significant coronary arterial stenosis but without infarction, areas of transient ischemia can be identified as zones of decreased tracer concentration not found when an examination is performed at rest. Acute infarct imaging with tracers that localize in acutely damaged tissue permits separation of patients with acute myocardial necrosis from those without infarction and those with more chronic damage. The gated blood pool scan permits assessment of left ventricular function and regional wall motion. The measurement of ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and regional wall motion adds significantly to the determination of hemodynamic variables in assessing patients with acute infarction. The technique also permits detection of right ventricular dysfunction. Performance of a combination of these radioactive tracer techniques is often advantageous, particularly in patients with suspected infarction. The techniques can establish whether infarction is present, whether it is acute, where the damage is located and how extensive it is; they can also provide a measure of the effect of this damage on left ventricular function

  15. Integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Doll, Sara; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new way of teaching by integrating both anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing tools. One preclinical and one clinical module were developed for integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology. Potential benefits were assessed by anonymous evaluation among the 176 participating students. The students highly appreciated the new approach, especially the high degree of interactivity with the post-processing software and the possibility to correlate the real dissection with the virtual dissection. Students agreed that three-dimensional imaging and post-processing improved their understanding of difficult anatomical topics and topographical relations. We consider the new approach to provide great additional benefits for participating students regarding preparation for everyday clinical practice. In particular, it imparts familiarity with imaging and image post-processing techniques and may improve anatomical understanding, radiological diagnostic skills and three-dimensional appreciation. (orig.)

  16. Non-invasive assessment of vessel morphology and function in tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Jugold, Manfred; Woenne, Eva C.; Brix, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    The switch to an angiogenic phenotype is an important precondition for tumor growth, invasion and spread. Since newly formed vessels are characterized by structural, functional and molecular abnormalities, they offer promising targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies indicate that MRI is valuable to assess vessel morphology and function. It can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to improve delineation of proliferating areas within heterogeneous tumors. In addition, tracer kinetic analysis of contrast-enhanced image series allows the estimation of well-defined physiological parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and vessel permeability. Frequently, changes of these parameters during cytostatic, anti-angiogenic and radiation therapy precede tumor volume reduction. Moreover, target-specific MRI techniques can be used to elucidate the expression of angiogenic markers at the molecular level. This review summarizes strategies for non-invasive characterization of tumor vascularization by functional and molecular MRI, hereby introducing representative preclinical and clinical applications. (orig.)

  17. Noninvasive imaging of transplanted living functional cells transfected with a reporter estrogen receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Shinji [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinjit@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Furukawa, Takako [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The transplantation of functional cells such as dopaminergic cells into damaged tissue is now clinically ongoing, but at present the population of surviving cells at the transplantation site mostly cannot be noninvasively examined. To visualize surviving transplanted functional cells using a noninvasive method, we chose the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain (ERL) as a reporter molecule and 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) for its ligand. We used a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line for recipient cells as a model. To obtain ES cells that constitutively or inducibly express ERL, we transfected two types of expression vectors into EB5 parental ES cell line using the lipofection method and obtained about 30 clones for each of the two types of transfectants. Then, to examine the expression level of ERL, we performed Western blotting analysis. Ligand uptake experiments were carried out using [{sup 3}H]-estradiol with or without excessive unlabeled estradiol for control cells and ERL transfectants. Each selected clone was also used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies involving FES in nude mice transplanted with control cells and ERL transfectants. In some of the clones transfected with the inducible-type ERL gene, protein was expressed much higher than in the controls. However, constitutive-type ERL gene-transfected ES cells showed no protein production in spite of their gene expression activity being considerably high. All clones also expressed equal levels of the Oct-3/4 gene, a marker of pluripotency, in comparison with the parental cells. Also, the specific uptake of [{sup 3}H]-estradiol was over 30 times higher in inducer-treated ERL-expressing ES cells compared to untreated control cells. Finally, by performing dynamic PET imaging, we successfully visualized ERL-expressing teratomas using FES.

  18. Noninvasive imaging of transplanted living functional cells transfected with a reporter estrogen receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Shinji; Furukawa, Takako; Mori, Tetsuya; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    The transplantation of functional cells such as dopaminergic cells into damaged tissue is now clinically ongoing, but at present the population of surviving cells at the transplantation site mostly cannot be noninvasively examined. To visualize surviving transplanted functional cells using a noninvasive method, we chose the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain (ERL) as a reporter molecule and 16α-[ 18 F]-fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) for its ligand. We used a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line for recipient cells as a model. To obtain ES cells that constitutively or inducibly express ERL, we transfected two types of expression vectors into EB5 parental ES cell line using the lipofection method and obtained about 30 clones for each of the two types of transfectants. Then, to examine the expression level of ERL, we performed Western blotting analysis. Ligand uptake experiments were carried out using [ 3 H]-estradiol with or without excessive unlabeled estradiol for control cells and ERL transfectants. Each selected clone was also used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies involving FES in nude mice transplanted with control cells and ERL transfectants. In some of the clones transfected with the inducible-type ERL gene, protein was expressed much higher than in the controls. However, constitutive-type ERL gene-transfected ES cells showed no protein production in spite of their gene expression activity being considerably high. All clones also expressed equal levels of the Oct-3/4 gene, a marker of pluripotency, in comparison with the parental cells. Also, the specific uptake of [ 3 H]-estradiol was over 30 times higher in inducer-treated ERL-expressing ES cells compared to untreated control cells. Finally, by performing dynamic PET imaging, we successfully visualized ERL-expressing teratomas using FES

  19. Non-invasive quality evaluation of confluent cells by image-based orientation heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kei; Sasaki, Hiroto; Takahashi, Atsuki; Kang, Siu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, cell and tissue therapy in regenerative medicine have advanced rapidly towards commercialization. However, conventional invasive cell quality assessment is incompatible with direct evaluation of the cells produced for such therapies, especially in the case of regenerative medicine products. Our group has demonstrated the potential of quantitative assessment of cell quality, using information obtained from cell images, for non-invasive real-time evaluation of regenerative medicine products. However, image of cells in the confluent state are often difficult to evaluate, because accurate recognition of cells is technically difficult and the morphological features of confluent cells are non-characteristic. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new image-processing algorithm, heterogeneity of orientation (H-Orient) processing, to describe the heterogeneous density of cells in the confluent state. In this algorithm, we introduced a Hessian calculation that converts pixel intensity data to orientation data and a statistical profiling calculation that evaluates the heterogeneity of orientations within an image, generating novel parameters that yield a quantitative profile of an image. Using such parameters, we tested the algorithm's performance in discriminating different qualities of cellular images with three types of clinically important cell quality check (QC) models: remaining lifespan check (QC1), manipulation error check (QC2), and differentiation potential check (QC3). Our results show that our orientation analysis algorithm could predict with high accuracy the outcomes of all types of cellular quality checks (>84% average accuracy with cross-validation). Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of Leeds Test Objects in the assessment of the performance of radiological imaging systems: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Over the preceding decade the Leeds Radiological Imaging Group have developed a range of test objects with which to assess the performance of radiological imaging systems. The types of imaging equipment which can be assessed include X-ray image intensifier television systems, small-format 100mm/105mm fluorography systems and radiographic screen-film combinations. We have recently extended our interest to the evaluation of digital radiological imaging equipment including digital subtraction fluorography and digital (greyscale) radiographic imaging systems. These test objects were initially developed for the purpose of evaluating imaging performance under laboratory conditions but they have also proved useful under field (clinical) conditions. (author)

  1. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  2. Selective isolation and noninvasive analysis of circulating cancer stem cells through Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Hossain, Md Khaled; Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hun Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-15

    Circulating cancer stem cells (CCSCs), a rare circulating tumor cell (CTC) type, recently arose as a useful resource for monitoring and characterizing both cancers and their metastatic derivatives. However, due to the scarcity of CCSCs among hematologic cells in the blood and the complexity of the phenotype confirmation process, CCSC research can be extremely challenging. Hence, we report a nanoparticle-mediated Raman imaging method for CCSC characterization which profiles CCSCs based on their surface marker expression phenotypes. We have developed an integrated combinatorial Raman-Active Nanoprobe (RAN) system combined with a microfluidic chip to successfully process complete blood samples. CCSCs and CTCs were detected (90% efficiency) and classified in accordance with their respective surface marker expression via completely distinct Raman signals of RANs. Selectively isolated CCSCs (93% accuracy) were employed for both in vitro and in vivo tumor phenotyping to identify the tumorigenicity of the CCSCs. We utilized our new method to predict metastasis by screening blood samples from xenograft models, showing that upon CCSC detection, all subjects exhibited liver metastasis. Having highly efficient detection and noninvasive isolation capabilities, we have demonstrated that our RAN-based Raman imaging method will be valuable for predicting cancer metastasis and relapse via CCSC detection. Moreover, the exclusion of peak overlapping in CCSC analysis with our Raman imaging method will allow to expand the RAN families for various cancer types, therefore, increasing therapeutic efficacy by providing detailed molecular features of tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive imaging of coronary arteries: current and future role of multidetector row computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, M.; Stoinova, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: This review will present the current and future role of cardiac computer tomography (CCT), and particular multidetector CCT, for imaging of atherosclerotic pathologic changes of the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis and its cardio-vascular complications represent one of the major issues of public health in industrial countries. Different imaging modalities, including invasive coronarography, have been aimed to the diagnosis of the disease, when it provokes symptomatic decrease of the blood flow. In spite of development of surgical and percutaneous methods for coronary revascularization, coronary artery disease remains the major cause of death in North America and Europe. This demonstrates the need of novel, complementary diagnostic strategies, aimed to identify asymptomatic stages as the basis of pharmacological interventions. Noninvasive coronary angiography with multidetector CT allows both assessment of luminal stenosis and subclinical disease of arterial wall. Large trails are missing now to understand and present what will be the role of this technology in the comprehensive assessment of patients, suspected of having CAD. Based on experience and current potentials we will describe how tomographic coronary imaging may eventually supplement traditional angiographic techniques in understanding the patterns of atherosclerotic CAD development

  4. Losing Images in Digital Radiology: More than You Think

    OpenAIRE

    Oglevee, Catherine; Pianykh, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    It is a common belief that the shift to digital imaging some 20 years ago helped medical image exchange and got rid of any potential image loss that was happening with printed image films. Unfortunately, this is not the case: despite the most recent advances in digital imaging, most hospitals still keep losing their imaging data, with these losses going completely unnoticed. As a result, not only does image loss affect the faith in digital imaging but it also affects patient diagnosis and dai...

  5. Non-invasive pre-clinical MR imaging of prostate tumor hypoxia for radiation therapy prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek White

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OE-MRI changes in signal intensity related to oxygen challenge for predicting tumor response to radiation therapy.Methods: Dynamic MR signal changes were acquired using Varian 4.7T small animal MR scanner prior to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT of small (n = 6 and large subcutaneous (n = 5 prostate tumors in adult male rats. An interleaved blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD and tissue-oxygen level dependent (TOLD data acquisition or (IBT was performed using a baseline of medical air as positive control and using medical oxygen as a breathing challenge. BOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo with multi-echo sequence. TOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Voxel changes in signal intensity were determined by a correlation coefficient mapping technique. Irradiation technique planned consisted of 1F × 15 Gy AP/PA or 2F × 7.5 Gy AP/PA to the gross tumor volume (GTV. Tumor growth measurements were recorded over time to assess the response to IGRT.Results: BOLD and TOLD signals variously illustrated positive or negative impulse responses in the tumor ROI due to inhaling medical oxygen. Correlation coefficient mapping demonstrated heterogeneity in tumors after inhaling medical oxygen. BOLD and TOLD signals exhibited increased changes in signal intensities after the first fraction of dose. Multi-fractionation had minimum effect until the second fraction of dose was applied. Tumor growth delays were observed when inhaling medical oxygen during IGRT.Conclusion: OE-MRI is a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide insight to the oxygen status of tumors. Observed increase percent changes in BOLD and TOLD signal intensities after the first fraction of dose suggest tumors experienced reoxygenation. OE-MRI could be used for predicting tumor response to IGRT when using medical oxygen for increasing GTV radiosensitivity, suggesting

  6. Patient management after noninvasive cardiac imaging results from SPARC (Study of myocardial perfusion and coronary anatomy imaging roles in coronary artery disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hachamovitch, R.; Nutter, B.; Hlatky, M.A.; Shaw, L.J.; Ridner, M.L.; Dorbala, S.; Beanlands, R.S.; Chow, B.J.; Branscomb, E.; Chareonthaitawee, P.; Weigold, W.G.; Voros, S.; Abbara, S.; Yasuda, T.; Jacobs, J.E.; Lesser, J.; Berman, D.S.; Thomson, L.E.; Raman, S.; Heller, G.V.; Schussheim, A.; Brunken, R.; Williams, K.A.; Farkas, S.; Delbeke, D.; Schoepf, U.J.; Reichek, N.; Rabinowitz, S.; Sigman, S.R.; Patterson, R.; Corn, C.R.; White, R.; Kazerooni, E.; Corbett, J.; Bokhari, S.; Machac, J.; Guarneri, E.; Borges-Neto, S.; Millstine, J.W.; Caldwell, J.; Arrighi, J.; Hoffmann, U.; Budoff, M.; Lima, J.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, B.; Gaber, M.; Williams, J.A.; Foster, C.; Hainer, J.; Carli, M.F. Di

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined short-term cardiac catheterization rates and medication changes after cardiac imaging. BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used in coronary artery disease, but its effects on subsequent patient management are unclear. METHODS: We assessed the 90-day

  7. Value of magnetic resonance imaging for the noninvasive detection of stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafts and recipient coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, Susan E.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kunz, Patrik; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Lamb, Hildo J.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; de Roos, Albert

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential noninvasive diagnostic tool to detect coronary artery bypass graft stenosis, but its value in clinical practice remains to be established. We investigated the value of MRI in detecting stenotic grafts, including recipient vessels. METHODS

  8. Non-invasive assessment of kidney allograft fibrosis with shear wave elastography: A radiological-pathological correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Maggie Km; Law, Helen Kw; Tse, Kin Sun; Chan, Kwok Wah; Chan, Gary Cw; Yap, Desmond Yh; Mok, Maggie My; Kwan, Lorraine Py; Tang, Sydney Cw; Choy, Bo Ying; Chan, Tak Mao

    2018-02-14

    To evaluate the use of shear wave elastography in assessment of kidney allograft tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Shear wave elastography assessment was carried out by two independent operators in kidney transplant recipients who underwent allograft biopsy for clinical indications (i.e. rising creatinine >15% or proteinuria >1 g/day). Allograft biopsies were interpreted by the same pathologist according to the 2013 Banff Classification. A total of 40 elastography scans were carried out (median creatinine 172.5 μmol/L [interquartile range 133.8-281.8 μmol/L]). Median tissue stiffness at the cortex (22.6 kPa [interquartile range 18.8-25.7 kPa] vs 22.3 kPa [interquartile range 19.0-26.5 kPa], P = 0.70) and medulla (15.0 kPa [interquartile range 13.7-18.0 kPa] vs 15.6 kPa [interquartile range 14.4-18.2 kPa]) showed no significant differences between the two observers. Interobserver agreement was satisfactory (intraclass correlation coefficient of the cortex 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient of the medulla 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.94). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for detection of tubulointerstitial fibrosis were estimated to be 0.75 (95% CI 0.61-0.89), 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53-0.78) for cortical, medullary tissue stiffness and serum creatinine, respectively. Shear wave elastography can be used as a non-invasive tool to evaluate kidney allograft fibrosis with reasonable interobserver agreement and superior test performance to serum creatinine in detecting early tubulointerstitial fibrosis. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Losing images in digital radiology: more than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevee, Catherine; Pianykh, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    It is a common belief that the shift to digital imaging some 20 years ago helped medical image exchange and got rid of any potential image loss that was happening with printed image films. Unfortunately, this is not the case: despite the most recent advances in digital imaging, most hospitals still keep losing their imaging data, with these losses going completely unnoticed. As a result, not only does image loss affect the faith in digital imaging but it also affects patient diagnosis and daily quality of clinical work. This paper identifies the origins of invisible image losses, provides methods and procedures to detect image loss, and demonstrates modes of action that can be taken to stop the problem from happening.

  10. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  11. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cesar A; Cabral, Glauber; Knight, Robert A; Ding, Guangliang; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2018-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) provides important information regarding renal physiology and nephropathies. Arterial spin labeling-magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) is a noninvasive method of measuring blood flow without exogenous contrast media. However, low signal-to-noise ratio and respiratory motion artifacts are challenges for RBF measurements in small animals. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of RBF measurements by ASL-MRI using respiratory-gating and navigator correction methods to reduce motion artifacts. ASL-MRI images were obtained from the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on a 7-Tesla Varian MRI system with a spin-echo imaging sequence. After 4 days, the study was repeated to evaluate its reproducibility. RBF was also measured in animals under unilateral nephrectomy and in renal artery stenosis (RST) to evaluate the sensitivity in high and low RBF models, respectively. RBF was also evaluated in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). In SD rats, the cortical RBFs (cRBF) were 305 ± 59 and 271.8 ± 39 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 in the right and left kidneys, respectively. Retest analysis revealed no differences ( P = 0.2). The test-retest reliability coefficient was 92 ± 5%. The cRBFs before and after the nephrectomy were 296.8 ± 30 and 428.2 ± 45 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ( P = 0.02), respectively. The kidneys with RST exhibited a cRBF decrease compared with sham animals (86 ± 17.6 vs. 198 ± 33.7 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ; P < 0.01). The cRBFs in SD, Dahl-SS, and SHR rats were not different ( P = 0.35). We conclude that ASL-MRI performed with navigator correction and respiratory gating is a feasible and reliable noninvasive method for measuring RBF in rats.

  13. Interventional radiology delivers high-value health care and is an Imaging 3.0 vanguard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; McGinty, Geraldine; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Goodwin, Scott C; Khilnani, Neil M; Matsumoto, Alan H; Min, Robert J; Soares, Gregory M; Cook, Philip S

    2015-05-01

    Given the changing climate of health care and the imperative to add value, radiologists must join forces with the rest of medicine to deliver better patient care in a more cost-effective, evidence-based manner. For several decades, interventional radiology has added value to the health care system through innovation and the provision of alternative and effective minimally invasive treatments, which have decreased morbidity, mortality, and overall cost. The clinical practice of interventional radiology embodies many of the features of Imaging 3.0, the program recently launched by the ACR. We provide a review of some of the major contributions made by interventional radiology and offer general principles from that experience, which are applicable to all radiologists. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  15. Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on the role of noninvasive imaging modalities in clinical decision making of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, I.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains ten papers on the use of noninvasive imaging in clinical diagnosis and decision making. Topics include a cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in medical technology, diagnostic uses of MRI in chronic coronary artery disease, clinical applications of cine computed tomography, the use of PET as a clinical tool, and the use of echocardiography in coronary artery disease. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  16. Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, Fabien; Jouvion, Grégory; Khun, Huot; Glomski, Ian Justin; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Rougeaux, Clémence; Tang, Wei-Jen; Mock, Michèle; Huerre, Michel; Goossens, Pierre Louis

    2011-06-01

    Powerful noninvasive imaging technologies enable real-time tracking of pathogen-host interactions in vivo, giving access to previously elusive events. We visualized the interactions between wild-type Bacillus anthracis and its host during a spore infection through bioluminescence imaging coupled with histology. We show that edema toxin plays a central role in virulence in guinea pigs and during inhalational infection in mice. Edema toxin (ET), but not lethal toxin (LT), markedly modified the patterns of bacterial dissemination leading, to apparent direct dissemination to the spleen and provoking apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Each toxin alone provoked particular histological lesions in the spleen. When ET and LT are produced together during infection, a specific temporal pattern of lesion developed, with early lesions typical of LT, followed at a later stage by lesions typical of ET. Our study provides new insights into the complex spatial and temporal effects of B. anthracis toxins in the infected host, suggesting a greater role than previously suspected for ET in anthrax and suggesting that therapeutic targeting of ET contributes to protection. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  18. Risk stratification by using non-invasive radionuclide imaging in patients with unstable angina spec tories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Unstable angina represents a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical entities between chronic stable angina and acute myocardial infraction. Acute ischemic syndromes (including unstable angina) result from abrupt reduction in coronary flow, frequently after atherosclerotic plaque disruption and with or without associated thrombosis or vasospasm. Nuclear cardiology studies and in particular, myocardial perfusion imaging are powerful noninvasive tools for detecting and assessing the severity of acute ischemic syndromes, including unstable angina pec tories. The information derived from a nuclear cardiology study can answer unresolved clinical question and aid in subsequent patient management, specifically jeopardized myocardium detected during spontaneously occurring acute chest pain or controlled stress testing are important determinant of: 1) The need for admission to an intensive care monitoring unit 2) The need for and urgency of coronary angiography 3) The appropriate use of percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization procedures. Extensive information suggests the stress nuclear perfusion imaging is the best validated technique for predischarge risk stratification with unstable angina patients who have been medically stabilized. Early information suggests avoidance of unecessary coronary angiography or revascularization is the cost effective strategy

  19. Steato-Score: Non-Invasive Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat by Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Nicole; Avigo, Cinzia; Salvati, Antonio; Martini, Nicola; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Prinster, Anna; Chiappino, Dante; Mancini, Marcello; D'Elia, Domenico; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Faita, Francesco

    2018-05-04

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming a global epidemic. The aim of this study was to develop a system for assessing liver fat content based on ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were obtained in 61 patients and the controlled attenuation parameter in 54. Ultrasound images were acquired for all 115 participants and used to calculate the hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization. The Steato-score was obtained by combining these five parameters. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization; Steato-score was dependent on hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate and diaphragm visualization. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was equal to 0.98, with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Controlled attenuation parameter values were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and Steato-score; the area under the curve was 0.79. This system could be a valid alternative as a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive assessment of intrahepatic fat. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The history of MR imaging as seen through the pages of radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Robert R

    2014-11-01

    The first reports in Radiology pertaining to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were published in 1980, 7 years after Paul Lauterbur pioneered the first MR images and 9 years after the first human computed tomographic images were obtained. Historical advances in the research and clinical applications of MR imaging very much parallel the remarkable advances in MR imaging technology. These advances can be roughly classified into hardware (eg, magnets, gradients, radiofrequency [RF] coils, RF transmitter and receiver, MR imaging-compatible biopsy devices) and imaging techniques (eg, pulse sequences, parallel imaging, and so forth). Image quality has been dramatically improved with the introduction of high-field-strength superconducting magnets, digital RF systems, and phased-array coils. Hybrid systems, such as MR/positron emission tomography (PET), combine the superb anatomic and functional imaging capabilities of MR imaging with the unsurpassed capability of PET to demonstrate tissue metabolism. Supported by the improvements in hardware, advances in pulse sequence design and image reconstruction techniques have spurred dramatic improvements in imaging speed and the capability for studying tissue function. In this historical review, the history of MR imaging technology and developing research and clinical applications, as seen through the pages of Radiology, will be considered.

  1. Integrated imaging – the complementary roles of radiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imaging techniques are moving towards integrated diagnostic clinical imaging. J Warwick,1 .... the stomach lesion and a lymph node. ese are shown on CT with calci cation ... fractures are diagnosed using conventional radiographs, but bone.

  2. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide "Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment." In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  3. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide 'Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment.' In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  4. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinato, W. [Instituto Federal de Ensino Basico, Tecnico e Tecnologico da Bahia, Av. Amazonas, 1350-45030-220, Zabele, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Souza, D.N., E-mail: divanizi@ufs.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide 'Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment.' In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  5. Syntheses of Radioiodinated Pyrimidine-2,4,6-Triones as Potential Agents for Non-Invasive Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Breyholz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated expression or activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs is observed in many kinds of live-threatening diseases. Therefore, MMP imaging for example with radiolabelled MMP inhibitors (MMPIs potentially represents a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics using non-invasive single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or positron emission tomography (PET imaging. This work includes the organic chemical syntheses and in vitro evaluation of five iodinated barbiturate based MMPIs and the selection of derivative 9 for radiosyntheses of isotopologues [123I]9 potentially useful for MMP SPECT imaging and [124I]9 for MMP PET imaging.

  6. Functional and molecular imaging with MRI: potential applications in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Gallagher, Ferdia A.

    2011-01-01

    MRI is a very versatile tool for noninvasive imaging and it is particularly attractive as an imaging technique in paediatric patients given the absence of ionizing radiation. Recent advances in the field of MRI have enabled tissue function to be probed noninvasively, and increasingly MRI is being used to assess cellular and molecular processes. For example, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has been used to assess tissue vascularity, diffusion-weighted imaging can quantify molecular movements of water in tissue compartments and MR spectroscopy provides a quantitative assessment of metabolite levels. A number of targeted contrast agents have been developed that bind specifically to receptors on the vascular endothelium or cell surface and there are several MR methods for labelling cells and tracking cellular movements. Hyperpolarization techniques have the capability of massively increasing the sensitivity of MRI and these have been used to image tissue pH, successful response to drug treatment as well as imaging the microstructure of the lungs. Although there are many challenges to be overcome before these techniques can be translated into routine paediatric imaging, they could potentially be used to aid diagnosis, predict disease outcome, target biopsies and determine treatment response noninvasively. (orig.)

  7. Non-invasive In Vivo Fluorescence Optical Imaging of Inflammatory MMP Activity Using an Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Johannes; Maier, Florian C; Kneilling, Manfred; Wiehr, Stefan; Fuchs, Kerstin

    2017-05-08

    This paper describes a non-invasive method for imaging matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-activity by an activatable fluorescent probe, via in vivo fluorescence optical imaging (OI), in two different mouse models of inflammation: a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHR) model. Light with a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR) window (650 - 950 nm) allows a deeper tissue penetration and minimal signal absorption compared to wavelengths below 650 nm. The major advantages using fluorescence OI is that it is cheap, fast and easy to implement in different animal models. Activatable fluorescent probes are optically silent in their inactivated states, but become highly fluorescent when activated by a protease. Activated MMPs lead to tissue destruction and play an important role for disease progression in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) such as RA and CHR. Furthermore, MMPs are the key proteases for cartilage and bone degradation and are induced by macrophages, fibroblasts and chondrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we use a probe that is activated by the key MMPs like MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13 and describe an imaging protocol for near infrared fluorescence OI of MMP activity in RA and control mice 6 days after disease induction as well as in mice with acute (1x challenge) and chronic (5x challenge) CHR on the right ear compared to healthy ears.

  8. Influencing Factors of Radiological Technologist Image of Allied Health College Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jong Kwon; Shin, Seong Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Perception level and social position of radiological technologist influence satisfaction level of their job. This study aims to use foundational data to improve perception level and social position of radiological technologists. We conducted interviews and a fill-out survey with 233 students who have been majoring in health-related fields at five universities and colleges located in Busan and who finished internship programs. The study analyzed 233 answer sheets excluding 17 inadequate answer sheets using T-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis with SAS9.1. The mean score of perception level was 3.33±0.56. The personal image of radiological technologist showed the best score(3.43±0.56) whereas the social image showed the worst(3.12±0.79). According to the classification of the subject, the answer, 'radiological technologist is specialized job', showed the best score(3.99±0.79). The answer 'radiological technologist suffered from less stress and workload than others when they work usually' showed the worst score(2.88±0.98). According to the classification of each health-related major, the mean score of students who are a major in the department of the radiological technologist was the best(3.46±0.46) and the students who are major in department of the physical therapy was the worst(3.24±0.40). The radiological technologist have to effort to make positive image in the hospital. It is possible to be developed their knowledge and professionalism by cooperating between school and hospital as well as advertising with mass madia.

  9. Influencing Factors of Radiological Technologist Image of Allied Health College Students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jong Kwon; Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Medical Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Perception level and social position of radiological technologist influence satisfaction level of their job. This study aims to use foundational data to improve perception level and social position of radiological technologists. We conducted interviews and a fill-out survey with 233 students who have been majoring in health-related fields at five universities and colleges located in Busan and who finished internship programs. The study analyzed 233 answer sheets excluding 17 inadequate answer sheets using T-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis with SAS9.1. The mean score of perception level was 3.33{+-}0.56. The personal image of radiological technologist showed the best score(3.43{+-}0.56) whereas the social image showed the worst(3.12{+-}0.79). According to the classification of the subject, the answer, 'radiological technologist is specialized job', showed the best score(3.99{+-}0.79). The answer 'radiological technologist suffered from less stress and workload than others when they work usually' showed the worst score(2.88{+-}0.98). According to the classification of each health-related major, the mean score of students who are a major in the department of the radiological technologist was the best(3.46{+-}0.46) and the students who are major in department of the physical therapy was the worst(3.24{+-}0.40). The radiological technologist have to effort to make positive image in the hospital. It is possible to be developed their knowledge and professionalism by cooperating between school and hospital as well as advertising with mass madia.

  10. Forensic radiology: The role of cross-sectional imaging in virtual post-mortem examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham-Jones, Joshua; Ward, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this review is to assess the benefits and limitations of using Multi Slice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance as non-invasive post-mortem imaging methods. Method: The author utilised SciVerse (Science Direct), Scopus, PubMed and Discover to search for relevant articles. The following search terms were used: virtopsy, minimally invasive post-mortem imaging, autopsy, Multi Slice Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance. Articles which discussed the use of non-invasive imaging techniques for post-mortem examinations were included in the review. Any articles published before 2003 were excluded with a few exceptions. Findings: The decline in use of the conventional post-mortem method has led to the need for an alternative method of investigation which increases both sensitivity and specificity, and also is more acceptable to the family of the deceased. Discussion/conclusion: There are numerous factors affecting the usability of these non-invasive post-mortem options including cost and availability. With the price of non-invasive post-mortem examinations often rising above £1000, it is considered to be less economically viable than the conventional method. Therefore, further research into this method and its implementation in hospitals has been delayed

  11. CD-based image archival and management on a hybrid radiology intranet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R D; Henri, C J; Bret, P M

    1997-08-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a low-cost image archival and management solution on a radiology network consisting of UNIX, IBM personal computer-compatible (IBM, Purchase, NY) and Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) workstations. The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is modular, scaleable and conforms to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) 3.0 standard for image transfer, storage and retrieval. Image data is made available on soft-copy reporting workstations by a work-flow management scheme and on desktop computers through a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Data archival is based on recordable compact disc (CD) technology and is automated. The project has allowed the radiology department to eliminate the use of film in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography.

  12. Comparative evaluation of image quality in computed radiology systems using imaging plates with different usage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, M.V.; Luz, R.M. da; Capaverde, A.S.; Silva, A.M. Marques da

    2015-01-01

    Computed Radiology (CR) systems use imaging plates (IPs) for latent image acquisition. Taking into account the quality control (QC) of these systems, imaging plates usage time is undetermined. Different recommendations and publications on the subject suggest tests to evaluate these systems. The objective of this study is to compare the image quality of IPs of a CR system, in a mammography service, considering the usage time and consistency of assessments. 8 IPs were used divided into two groups: the first group included 4 IPs with 3 years of use (Group A); the second group consisted of 4 new IPs with no previous exposure (Group B). The tests used to assess the IP's quality were: Uniformity, Differential Signal to Noise Ratio (SDNR), Ghost Effect and Figure of Merit (FOM). Statistical results show that the proposed tests are shown efficient in assessing the conditions of image quality obtained in CR systems in mammography and can be used as determining factors for the replacement of IP's. Moreover, comparing the two sets of IP, results led to the replacement of all the set of IP’s with 3 years of use. This work demonstrates the importance of an efficient quality control, not only with regard to the quality of IP's used, but in the acquisition system as a whole. From this work, these tests will be conducted on an annual basis, already targeting as future work, monitoring the wear of IP's Group B and the creation of a baseline for analysis and future replacements. (author)

  13. Effect of direct neuroradiologist participation in physician marketing on imaging volumes in outpatient radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, L; Keiper, M; Vavricek, J; Horsley, W; Murphy, R; Grignon, A; Yu, F

    2014-08-01

    Over the past several years, decreased demand for and increased supply of imaging services has increased competition among outpatient imaging centers in the United States. This study hypothesizes that using a radiology sales representative and neuroradiologist as a team in marketing and sales will increase imaging referrals in outpatient imaging. From January to December 2009, baseline monthly physician referral data of CT and MR scans of 19 referring clinicians (neurologists, neurosurgeons, and anesthesiologists) to an outpatient radiology group were collected. During that time, a nonphysician radiology sales representative visited the referring clinicians' offices every 2 weeks. From January to June 2010, the same radiology sales representative visited the referring clinicians' offices every 2 weeks but was accompanied by a neuroradiologist once a month. From July 2010 to June 2011, the same radiology sales representative visited the referring clinicians' offices twice a month without a neuroradiologist. Cross-sectional imaging referral volumes were approximately 2.5 times greater during the 6-month period using the neuroradiologist for direct physician-to-physician marketing when compared with the volumes achieved with the sales representative alone, and continued neuroradiologist involvement in marketing and sales is required to maintain referral volumes over time. The impact on imaging referral volumes during the 6-month use of the neuroradiologist for direct physician-to-physician marketing in this study supports the assertion that neuroradiologist visits are an important element in establishing and maintaining a relationship with the referring clinician's office and thereby maximizing imaging referrals. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Technetium-99m labeled antisense oligonucleotide-noninvasive tumor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, W.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stranded RNA and DNA oligonucleotides may be useful as radiopharmaceuticals for antisense and other in vivo applications if convenient methods for stably attaching radionuclides such as 99m Tc can be developed. The c-myc oncogene works in cooperation with other oncogenes in a variety of malignant tumors. The concentration of c-myc messenger RNA increases rapidly 30 to 50 fold during DNA synthesis, thus making it a suitable target for following the progression of malignancy by noninvasive imaging with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. 2 Oligonucleotide Labeling: A fresh 50mg/ml solution of sodium tartrate was prepared in sterile 0.5 M ammonium The ability of the labeled DNA to hybridize to its complement was analyzed by Sep-Pak column chromatography before and after the addition of the complementary DNA. 3 Biodistribution and Tumor Imaging Studies: A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 32 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled oncogene probes were injected intravenously. A total of 8 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled sense or antisense probes, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5hr to 24hr with a gamma camera. Results: Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. The highest accumulation of label was in the liver first, with the kidney and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion

  15. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, Charles R.; Bratby, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies

  16. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  17. new possibilities in diagnostic radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) allows a non-invasive diffusion-based tissue characterization and thus offers completely new possibilities in the field of diagnostic radiology. On the one hand, this method allows an improved detection of pathological changes at the microstructural level, which are frequently not detectable in conventional MRI methods. On the other hand new strategies for therapy monitoring are feasible by quantification of diffusion parameters (e.g., Parallel, Radial and Mean ...

  18. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging - non-invasive imaging for interventions; Interventionelle Magnetresonanztomographie - nichtinvasive Bildgebung fuer Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, A.; Adam, G.; Neuerburg, J.M.; Glowinski, A.; Tacke, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet

    2000-02-01

    As a prerequisite for MR-guidance of interventional procedures, instruments have to be well depicted in the MR image without obscuring or distorting the underlying anatomy. For non-vascular interventions the imaging speed has to be in the range of seconds while control of vascular interventions requires real time imaging speed. The imaging contrast has to be maintained as well as a high spatial resolution. Furthermore, sufficient patient access has to be provided by the MR scanner. Neither an ideal magnet nor the optimal single sequence are available to fulfill the above-mentioned criteria. The type of sequence - gradient echo versus spin echo - together with changing of the echo time and phase encording direction will ensure an appropriate size of the artifact and thereby of the appearance of the instrument in the MR image. The feasibility of non-vascular MR-guided interventions has been proved at field strengths ranging from 0.064 T to 1.5 T. Bone biopsies, soft tissue biopsies, drainages, and control of interstitial thermo- and cryotherapy have been reported. For vascular interventions, different real time MR strategies are currently under investigation. The development of dedicated catheters and guide wires has enabled MR-guided dilatations, stenting, placement of vena cava filters, and TIPS procedures. Considering the fast progress being made in this field, there can be no question that interventional MRI will become a well-accepted clinical tool offering potential advantages such as excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging, flow measurements, high resolution imaging of vessel walls, and lack of ionizing radiation. (orig.) [German] Zur Durchfuehrung MR-gesteuerter Interventionen muessen interventionelle Instrumente gut sichtbar, aber ohne stoerende Artefakte darstellbar sein. Die Geschwindigkeit der Bilderstellung sollte fuer nichtvaskulaere Interventionen im Sekundenbereich liegen und fuer vaskulaere Interventionen Echtzeitbildgebung liefern. Weder

  19. Radiological imaging of the digestive tract in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, A.S.; Blickman, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive, up-to-date and extensively illustrated volume offers a multimodality approach to gastrointestinal imaging in children and infants. The role of each of the currently available imaging techniques is considered carefully, and diagnostic dilemmas are discussed and illustrated. After an initial chapter that addresses pediatric gastrointestinal imaging in the emergency setting, detailed individual chapters are devoted to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, accessory organs of digestion, small bowel and colon. A closing chapter focuses on pediatric interventional procedures performed with imaging guidance. Against the background of rapid recent advances in imaging technology and the distinctive aspects of gastrointestinal imaging in children and infants, this volume will serve as an essential reference work for all who are engaged in the field. (orig.)

  20. Features and limitations of mobile tablet devices for viewing radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, J H

    2015-03-01

    Mobile radiological image display systems are becoming increasingly common, necessitating a comparison of the features of these systems, specifically the operating system employed, connection to stationary PACS, data security and rang of image display and image analysis functions. In the fall of 2013, a total of 17 PACS suppliers were surveyed regarding the technical features of 18 mobile radiological image display systems using a standardized questionnaire. The study also examined to what extent the technical specifications of the mobile image display systems satisfy the provisions of the Germany Medical Devices Act as well as the provisions of the German X-ray ordinance (RöV). There are clear differences in terms of how the mobile systems connected to the stationary PACS. Web-based solutions allow the mobile image display systems to function independently of their operating systems. The examined systems differed very little in terms of image display and image analysis functions. Mobile image display systems complement stationary PACS and can be used to view images. The impacts of the new quality assurance guidelines (QS-RL) as well as the upcoming new standard DIN 6868 - 157 on the acceptance testing of mobile image display units for the purpose of image evaluation are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P.; Chacon, D.; Mattea, F.; Velasquez, J.

    2017-10-01

    International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)

  2. Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola - CONICET, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Cordoba (Argentina); Chacon, D.; Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, FAMAF, Laboratorio de Investigacion e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Velasquez, J., E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [ICOS Inmunomedica, Lago Puyehue 01745, Temuco (Chile)

    2017-10-15

    International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)

  3. Predictors of Knowledge and Image Interpretation Skill Development in Radiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Gijp, Anouk; Rutgers, Dirk R; Haaring, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To investigate knowledge and image interpretation skill development in residency by studying scores on knowledge and image questions on radiology tests, mediated by the training environment. Materials and Methods Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical review board of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education. Longitudinal test data of 577 of 2884 radiology residents who took semiannual progress tests during 5 years were retrospectively analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model taking training length as input variable. Tests included nonimage and image questions that assessed knowledge and image interpretation skill. Hypothesized predictors were hospital type (academic or nonacademic), training hospital, enrollment age, sex, and test date. Results Scores showed a curvilinear growth during residency. Image scores increased faster during the first 3 years of residency and reached a higher maximum than knowledge scores (55.8% vs 45.1%). The slope of image score development versus knowledge question scores of 1st-year residents was 16.8% versus 12.4%, respectively. Training hospital environment appeared to be an important predictor in both knowledge and image interpretation skill development (maximum score difference between training hospitals was 23.2%; P radiology residency and leveled off in the 3rd and 4th training year. The shape of the curve was mainly influenced by the specific training hospital. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Assisting in Radiology/Imaging. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is designed for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This…

  5. Tool for the verification of geometrical parameters and constancy of image quality in radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Verdu Martin, G.; Rodenas Escriba, F.; Marin Peinado, B.; Camapyo Esteban Nogueira, J. M.; Diez Domingo, S.; Villaescusa Blanca, J. I.; Hernando Gonzalez, I.; Ruiz Manzano, P.; Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Melcho Iniguez, M.; Asensio Martinez, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an innovative tool developed for the detailed quality control of diagnostic equipment. We have tried to validate such a tool for verification of geometrical parameters and the evaluation of the constancy of the image quality in radiology equipment, evaluating their usefulness by various services of Radio physics and radiation protection of different hospitals. (Author)

  6. Assessment of uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio in radiological image intensifier TV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.; O'Connor, M.K.; Maher, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of measuring the uniformity of radiological Image Intensifier-TV systems is described. Large non-uniformities were observed in the systems tested. A method of estimating the Signal-to-Noise Ratio in such systems is also presented and applied to characterise the effectiveness of the noise reduction techniques used in digital fluoroscopy. (author)

  7. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2017-10-14

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling and density, but also on the distribution of substrate porosity, roughness, accessibility of pores to liquid, and even the degree of pore intrusion related to the thin layer deposition process. The method can be particularly helpful in the fields of functional coatings or membranes to allow laterally-resolved studies under realistic application conditions thereby opening completely new research avenues. The approach is demonstrated in a study of two polymers of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1 and PIM-6FDA-OH, coated on polyacrylonitrile support and immersed in water. Variations of the skin morphology using different coating methods (floating, spin-coating and dip-coating) are evaluated with the help of the presented method. Surfaces of at least tens of cm2 can be potentially analyzed.

  8. Gold nanoparticles for non-invasive cell tracking with CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rinat; Betzer, Oshra; Barnoy, Eran; Motiei, Menachem; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2018-02-01

    Cell-based therapies use living cells with therapeutic traits to treat various diseases. This is a beneficial alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot cure efficiently. However, inconsistent results in clinical trials are preventing the advancement and implementation of cell-based therapy. In order to explain such results, there is a need to discover the fate of the transplanted cells. To answer this need, we developed a technique for noninvasive in vivo cell tracking, which uses gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for CT imaging. Herein, we investigate the design principles of this technique for intramuscular transplantation of therapeutic cells. Longitudinal studies were performed, demonstrating the ability to track cells over long periods of time. As few as 500 cells could be detected and a way to quantify the number of cells visualized by CT was demonstrated. This cell-tracking technology has the potential to become an essential tool in pre-clinical studies as well as in clinical trials and advance cell therapy.

  9. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  10. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakov, S.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  11. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    =100mg of TAG/g of FW), and 0.97 (or=100mg of TAG/g of FW). The CAUS methodology and software for digitally analyzing liver ultrasonographic images is considered feasible for noninvasive screening of fatty liver in dairy herd health programs. Using the single parameter linear regression equation might be ideal for practical applications. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic imaging, a 'parallel' discipline. Can current technology provide a reliable digital diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Eddleston, B.

    1985-01-01

    Only recently has any detailed criticism been voiced about the practicalities of the introduction of generalised, digital, imaging complexes in diagnostic radiology. Although attendant technological problems are highlighted the authors argue that the fundamental causes of current difficulties are not in the generation but in the processing, filing and subsequent retrieval for display of digital image records. In the real world, looking at images is a parallel process of some complexity and so it is perhaps untimely to expect versatile handling of vast image data bases by existing computer hardware and software which, by their current nature, perform tasks serially. (author)

  13. Informatics in radiology: automated structured reporting of imaging findings using the AIM standard and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and descriptive imaging data are a vital component of the radiology report and are frequently of paramount importance to the ordering physician. Unfortunately, current methods of recording these data in the report are both inefficient and error prone. In addition, the free-text, unstructured format of a radiology report makes aggregate analysis of data from multiple reports difficult or even impossible without manual intervention. A structured reporting work flow has been developed that allows quantitative data created at an advanced imaging workstation to be seamlessly integrated into the radiology report with minimal radiologist intervention. As an intermediary step between the workstation and the reporting software, quantitative and descriptive data are converted into an extensible markup language (XML) file in a standardized format specified by the Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project of the National Institutes of Health Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid. The AIM standard was created to allow image annotation data to be stored in a uniform machine-readable format. These XML files containing imaging data can also be stored on a local database for data mining and analysis. This structured work flow solution has the potential to improve radiologist efficiency, reduce errors, and facilitate storage of quantitative and descriptive imaging data for research. Copyright © RSNA, 2011.

  14. Enterprise-wide PACS: beyond radiology, an architecture to manage all medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, David; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine; Vallée, Jean-Paul

    2005-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have the vocation to manage all medical images acquired within the hospital. To address the various situations encountered in the imaging specialties, the traditional architecture used for the radiology department has to evolve. We present our preliminarily results toward an enterprise-wide PACS intended to support all kind of image production in medicine, from biomolecular images to whole-body pictures. Our solution is based on an existing radiologic PACS system from which images are distributed through an electronic patient record to all care facilities. This platform is enriched with a flexible integration framework supporting digital image communication in medicine (DICOM) and DICOM-XML formats. In addition, a generic workflow engine highly customizable is used to drive work processes. Echocardiology; hematology; ear, nose, and throat; and dermatology, including wounds, follow-up is the first implemented extensions outside of radiology. We also propose a global strategy for further developments based on three possible architectures for an enterprise-wide PACS.

  15. Subband directional vector quantization in radiological image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrout, Nabil M.; Diab, Chaouki; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert; Amiel, Michel

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new scheme for image compression. The method is very efficient for images which have directional edges such as the tree-like structure of the coronary vessels in digital angiograms. This method involves two steps. First, the original image is decomposed at different resolution levels using a pyramidal subband decomposition scheme. For decomposition/reconstruction of the image, free of aliasing and boundary errors, we use an ideal band-pass filter bank implemented in the Discrete Cosine Transform domain (DCT). Second, the high-frequency subbands are vector quantized using a multiresolution codebook with vertical and horizontal codewords which take into account the edge orientation of each subband. The proposed method reduces the blocking effect encountered at low bit rates in conventional vector quantization.

  16. Diagnostic radiology of apoplexy - imaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, A.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recent enhancements achieved in CT and MR imaging techniques have launched a debate about the techniques preferrably to be applied for diagnostic evaluation of acute cerebral stroke. At present, CT still is the modality of choice for primary evaluation of cerebral ischemia, due to relative cost-effectiveness, high availability, and the capability to reliably differentiate ischemia from hemorrhage. MRI on the other hand is superior to CT in detecting and imaging the infarction area within the first few hours, especially if the technique of diffusion-weighted sequencing is applied. Current research focuses on determining whether MRI with perfusion and diffusion-weighted sequencing will yield images distinctly showing the penumbra on the one hand, and the damaged brain tissue on the other. It remains to be seen whether improved tomographic imaging will lead to novel approaches for therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Multimedia presentation of radiological image data using the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, J.; Sell, C.; Hosten, N.; Fleck, E.; Felix, R.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: Recent developments of the Internet (World Wide Web) allow the integration of audio, video, digital film sequences, and three-dimensional data. The applicability of these innovations for medical documentation is demonstrated. Methods: Our existing software for medical image processing and 3D reconstruction was extended to provide images, film sequences, and complex 3D models in an Internet-compatible data format. Results: The multimedia results of the image processing were integrated into Internet documents. Specialized programs are no longer necessary for visualization. The Internet software allows for user-friendly handling and interactive presentation of the 2D and 3D data. Conclusions: The Internet offers public-domain software for display of images, audio/video, and 3D data. Thus, the tools of the Internet represent an ideal basis for local hospital information systems, computer-aided medical education, and teleconferencing. (orig.) [de

  18. Paul and Juhl's essentials of radiologic imaging. Fifth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the image processing technology in nuclear medicine. The techniques discussed are biomedical radiography, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and computerized tomography as used for diagnostic purpose of skeletal diseases; brain and spinal cord diseases; abdomen and gastrointestinal tract diseases; urinary and genital tract diseases and chest and face diseases. Infections diseases of chest and bone are described and specifically described in ultrasonography of uterine diseases and evaluation of pregnancy. Congenital malformation of skeleton and hereditary diseases are also discussed

  19. Contribution to the study of integrated system design in digital imaging. Application to digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, M.

    1987-02-01

    In the first part of this work, we describe the hardware and software used to design integrated systems able to acquire, memorize, process and visualize 1024 x 1024 x 8 bits images. In the second part, we present and analyse the first realised prototype system which is a digital radiology one. After a technical and economical digital radiology study, we present the angiographic and tomographic results. In the third part, we indicate possible evolution of this system and we show how the adopted structure and developed hardware allow applications in various fields [fr

  20. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  1. Determination of organ doses in radiographic imaging and diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjen, M.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier publications on diagnostic radiation exposure commonly presented data on the gonadal dose. This emphasis on the genetic radiation risk is no longer valid in view of recent radiobiological findings; equal attention should be paid to the somatic radiation risk which is manifested by the induction of malignant neoplasms, e.g. in the lungs, red bone marrow, thyroid and female breast (ICRP 26). The permissible radiation doses for these organs and the gonals for routine diagnostic radiology are determined. A formula is established on the basis of terms from relevant publications (e.g. open-air dose, backscattering factor) and from the author's own measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom (depth dose curves, dose decrements). The measurements were carried out using CaP 2 thermoluminescence dosemeters, and the organ doses for the various techniques of X-ray examination were calculated by computer. Calculations of this type will enable the radiologist to determine the patient exposure quickly and easily from the records kept according to Sect. 29 of the X-ray Ordinance. Experimental value from relevant publications are compared with the author's own results. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Study Manual for breast imaging for radiology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Benavides, Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease that affects women worldwide. This cancer has become a public health problem, currently holding the first incidence and mortality from neoplasms in women of Costa Rica. That's why early detection makes it so important, so you should educate patients about the importance of annual mammograms, regular breast self-examination and consult immediately with the appearance of any abnormality in the breast. Mammography has been the only continuous proven method of screening for breast cancer. However, breast ultrasound is a valuable and effective tool for the evaluation and diagnosis of breast disease. The country lacks a picture book in the breast that fits entirely on the conditions of post-degree program, be practical and use the own methodology of the health system; therefore, the objective of this research is to organize a manual with the review of recent literature on the radiologic evaluation of the breast, with guidance on the methodology and the own resources of the country. This manual aims to provide a guide or basis for the radiologist in training, the important task of obtaining the knowledge, skill and ability to meet the enormous responsibility to participate in early detection of breast cancer. It also may help prevent the development and progression of the dreaded breast cancer in patients during their subsequent professional performance. (author) [es

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  4. Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, L.; Welzel, Julia; Ciardo, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is an angiographic variation of OCT that non-invasively provides images of the in vivo microvasculature of the skin by combining conventional OCT images with flow data. The objective of this study was to investigate and report on the D.......001), and also the redness a measurements were positively correlated with the D-OCT measurements (r = 0.48; 95% CI [0.406, 0.55]). D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify morphologic changes in the vascular network consistent with the induced physiological changes of blood flow. Conclusion: This study has...... initiated validation of the use of D-OCT for imaging of skin blood flow. Our results showed that D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify changes in the skin vasculature consistent with the induced physiological blood flow changes. These basic findings support the use of D-OCT imaging for in vivo...

  5. Non-invasive retinal imaging in mice with fluorescent Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of the internal structures of the retina is critical for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of pathology as well as for medical research investigating the root causes of retinal degeneration. The aim of this thesis is to develop multi-modal non-invasive imaging technology for studying retinal degeneration and gene therapy in mice. We have constructed a FD-OCT prototype and combined it with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) to permit real time alignment of the retinal field of...

  6. Awake Craniotomy with Noninvasive Brain Mapping by 3-Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Excision of Low-grade Glioma: A Case of a Young Patient from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem Bhatti, Atta Ul; Jakhrani, Nasir Khan; Parekh, Maria Adnan

    2018-01-01

    The past few years have seen increasing support for gross total resection in the management of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), with a greater extent of resection correlated with better overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to malignant transformation. There is consistent evidence in literature supporting extent of safe resection as a good prognostic indicator as well as positively affecting seizure control, symptomatic relief in pressure symptoms, and longer progression-free and total survival. The operative goal in most LGG cases is to maximize the extent of resection for these benefits while avoiding postoperative neurologic deficits. Several advanced invasive and noninvasive surgical techniques such as intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescence-guided surgery, intraoperative functional pathway mapping, and neuronavigation have been developed in an attempt to better achieve maximal safe resection. We present a case of LGG in a young patient with a 5-year history of refractory seizures and gradual onset walking difficulty. Serial MRI brain scans revealed a progressive increase in right frontal tumor size with substantial edema and parafalcine herniation. Noninvasive brain mapping by functional MRI (fMRI) and sleep-awake-sleep type of anesthesia with endotracheal tube insertion was utilized during an awake craniotomy. Histopathology confirmed a Grade II oligodendroglioma, and genetic analysis revealed no codeletion at 1p/19q. Neurological improvement was remarkable in terms of immediate motor improvement, and the patient remained completely seizure free on a single antiepileptic drug. There is no radiologic or clinical evidence of recurrence 6 months postoperatively. This is the first published report of an awake craniotomy for LGG in Pakistan. The contemporary concept of supratotal resection in LGGs advocates generous functional resection even beyond MRI findings rather than mere excision of oncological boundaries. This relatively

  7. Training courses for radiological technicians: radiation protection of the patient and control of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Yoshimura, Elisabeth; Costa, Paulo Roberto; Furquim, Tania Aparecida; Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de; Valente, Marcelo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As in other countries, life expectancy is increasing in Brazil, and the number of radiological examinations tends to increase. Old equipment and high technology ones cohabit, radiology technicians are not well prepared to conduct practices, images and doses to patients are not optimized. Digital techniques that began to be introduced in the last years are also an important issue, because, as it is possible to modify the image digitally, there is less concern about the choice of equipment parameters that produce the best-image/lowest-dose compromise. Pediatric radiology, CT and fluoroscopy require attention too, as they are of dosimetric interest or because the patient ages imply higher risks or because the techniques deliver higher doses than the conventional ones. In our opinion, the most important role that we can play is educating and forming people to work in this area: training programs and refreshing courses are a way of facing the problem. This way, we are organizing, in a technical cooperation with IAEA, two training courses in quality assurance and radiation protection in radiology, one designed to physicists (60 h), and the radiological technicians (40 h). An important cooperation with a paediatric and a general hospital made it possible to offer courses with 50% practical lessons, performed both in the University and in hospital equipment. Both courses cover a basic Radiation Physics program, radiation protection, image formation and quality control in conventional and digital equipment, and patient dosimetry. Equipment donated by IAEA facilitate the practical QA and dosimetry lessons. The rationale of our project is making it sustainable through the formation of physicists that will go on in the education process of technicians in technical schools. We present the results of the first two courses (physicists and technicians), considering the selection process, the development of the activities, and the assessment both of the students enrolled

  8. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun" delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs, and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50 at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results

  9. Radiology imaging delays as independent predictors of length of hospital stay for emergency medical admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournane, S.; Conway, R.; Creagh, D.; Byrne, D.G.; Sheehy, N.; Silke, B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the extent to which the time to completion for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound could be shown to influence the length of stay and costs incurred while in hospital, while accounting for patient acuity. Materials and methods: All emergency admissions, totalling 25,326 imaging investigations between 2010–2014 were evaluated. The 50"t"h, 75"t"h, and 90"t"h centiles of completion times for each imaging type was entered into a multivariable truncated Poisson regression model predicting the length of hospital stay. Estimates of risk (odds or incidence rate ratios [IRRs]) of the regressors were adjusted for acute illness severity, Charlson comorbidity index, chronic disabling disease score, and sepsis status. Quantile regression analysis was used to examine the impact of imaging on total hospital costs. Results: For all imaging examinations, longer hospital lengths of stay were shown to be related to delays in imaging time. Increased delays in CT and MRI were shown to be associated with increased hospital episode costs, while ultrasound did not independently predict increased hospital costs. The magnitude of the effect of imaging delays on episode costs were equivalent to some measures of illness severity. Conclusion: CT, MRI, and ultrasound are undertaken in patients with differing clinical complexity; however, even with adjustment for complexity, the time delay in a more expeditious radiological service could potentially shorten the hospital episode and reduce costs. - Highlights: • There are differing clinical complexities for patients depending on the modality. • A predictive risk model, incorporating advanced imaging, was devised. • Inpatients delays in radiology imaging associated with longer LOS. • Inpatients who underwent radiology imaging associated with increased hospital costs.

  10. European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) Guidelines: MR Imaging of Leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Weston, Michael; Nougaret, Stephanie; Leonhardt, Henrik; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Maciel, Cristina; Rockall, Andrea; Forstner, Rosemarie

    2018-02-28

    The aim of the Female Pelvic Imaging Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) was to develop imaging guidelines for MR work-up in patients with known or suspected uterine leiomyomas. Guidelines for imaging uterine leiomyomas were defined based on a survey distributed to all members of the working group, an expert consensus meeting at European Congress of Radiology (ECR) 2017 and a critical review of the literature. The 25 returned questionnaires as well as the expert consensus meeting have shown reasonable homogeneity of practice among institutions. Expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to image uterine leiomyomas. Recommendations include indications for imaging, patient preparation, MR protocols and reporting criteria. The incremental value of functional imaging (DWI, DCE) is highlighted and the role of MR angiography discussed. MRI offers an outstanding and reproducible map of the size, site and distribution of leiomyomas. A standardised imaging protocol and method of reporting ensures that the salient features are recognised. These imaging guidelines are based on the current practice among expert radiologists in the field of female pelvic imaging and also incorporate essentials of the current published MR literature of uterine leiomyomas. • MRI allows comprehensive mapping of size and distribution of leiomyomas. • Basic MRI comprise T2W and T1W sequences centered to the uterus. • Standardized reporting ensures pivotal information on leiomyomas, the uterus and differential diagnosis. • MRI aids in differentiation of leiomyomas from other benign and malignant entities, including leiomyosarcoma.

  11. Modeling for the management of peak loads on a radiology image management network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.J.; Cox, G.G.; Templeton, A.W.; Cook, L.T.; Anderson, W.H.; Hensley, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a radiology image management network for a radiology department can now be assisted by a queueing model. The queueing model requires that the designers specify the following parameters: the number of tasks to be accomplished (acquisition of image data, transmission of data, archiving of data, displaying and manipulation of data, and generation of hard copies); the average times to complete each task; the patient scheduled arrival times; and the number/type of computer nodes interfaced to the network (acquisition nodes, interactive diagnostic display stations, archiving nodes, hard copy nodes, and gateways to hospital systems). The outcomes from the queuering model include mean throughput data rates and identified bottlenecks, and peak throughput data rates and identified bottlenecks. This exhibit presents the queueing model and illustrates its use in managing peak loads on an image management network

  12. Parametric biomedical imaging - what defines the quality of quantitative radiological approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueer, C.C.; Barkmann, R.; Bolte, H.; Heller, M.; Hahn, H.K.; Dicken, V.; Majumdar, S.; Eckstein, F.; Nickelsen, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative parametric imaging approaches provide new perspectives for radiological imaging. These include quantitative 2D, 3D, and 4D visualization options along with the parametric depiction of biological tissue properties and tissue function. This allows the interpretation of radiological data from a biochemical, biomechanical, or physiological perspective. Quantification permits the detection of small changes that are not yet visually apparent, thus allowing application in early disease diagnosis and monitoring therapy with enhanced sensitivity. This review outlines the potential of quantitative parametric imaging methods and demonstrates this on the basis of a few exemplary applications. One field of particular interest, the use of these methods for investigational new drug application studies, is presented. Assessment criteria for judging the quality of quantitative imaging approaches are discussed in the context of the potential and the limitations of these methods. While quantitative parametric imaging methods do not replace but rather supplement established visual interpretation methods in radiology, they do open up new perspectives for diagnosis and prognosis and in particular for monitoring disease progression and therapy. (orig.)

  13. Photoelectronic radiology 1983; X-ray imaging with the computer-assisted technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaoui, J.; Sylvestre, J.; Robillard, P.; Dussault, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the discipline of radiology has continued to progress from initial images depicting the structure of organs, to the exploration of dynamic and physiologic phenomena, improvements in the power of X-ray generators and with the refinement of non-toxic contrast media. Until the early part of the 1970s, radiology consisted in extrapolations from a two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional organ, and advances in diagnostic quality related chiefly to improvements in spatial resolution of the flat image. With the advent of cross-sectional imaging using computer reconstruction the emphasis has shifted to contrast resolution, to the acquisition of ''pure'' images in the XY plane and to an area-related approach in diagnosis, rather than to the traditional organ-oriented method. This new trend has only been made possible because of the influence of recent developments in the digital and electronics industry. This history of diagnostic radiology up to 1972 is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the major areas of interaction between X-ray and the computer, as represented by the major leading edge technologies that have already received broad acceptance by the health care profession. (author)

  14. Medical Practitioners of Radiology & Imaging in the Dock. ( Malpractice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyinda, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The average indemnification has doubled in the last 15 years for all physicians, it has tripled for radiology. Furthermore, 1/3 of all medical malpractice are lost by the radiologist. The most commonly missed diagnoses are breast cancer, lung cancer, and fracture of the spine. Clinical knowledge and practice is no longer a luxury of operating in calm and academic environment. In real life things don’t always go according to plan. Identification of the risk. This may vary depending upon the practice. E.g if the practice involves interpreting studies from a busy trauma center or a mammography center, the practice involves higher risk than a free-standing MRI center. When it is appropriate, a radiologist should not be reluctant to indicate that an additional study or procedure may be of diagnostic or confirmatory value when the initial diagnosis is not clear or in doubt Lack of appropriate and timely communication appears to be one of the greatest problems confronting radiologists today. However, this is the one area in which the radiologist can dramatically improve the odds against being sued, and that is by communicating and documenting the communication. The ACR Guideline for Communication indicates that a precise diagnosis should be given whenever possible and that a differential diagnosis should be given when appropriate Radiologist need be qualified to interpret or perform a procedure and maintain your competence. Do not attempt to interpret studies in an area in which you do not feel comfortable or have not had sufficient training. The ACR Guideline may be a double-edged sword for some. Certainly, the ACR Guideline can be used against you if you deviated from it and did not document why you did so

  15. Radiological informed consent in cardiovascular imaging: towards the medico-legal perfect storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loré Cosimo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of radiation for medical examinations and tests is the largest manmade source of radiation exposure. No one can doubt the immense clinical and scientific benefits of imaging to the modern practice of medicine. Every radiological and nuclear medicine examination confers a definite (albeit low long-term risk of cancer, but patients undergoing such examinations often receive no or inaccurate information about radiological dose exposure and corresponding risk directly related to the radiological dose received. Too detailed information on radiological dose and risk may result in undue anxiety, but information "economical with the truth" may violate basic patients' rights well embedded in ethics (Oviedo convention 1997 and law (97/43 Euratom Directive 1997. Informed consent is a procedure needed to establish a respectful and ethical relation between doctors and patients. Nevertheless, in an "ideal" consent process, the principle of patient autonomy in current radiological practice might be reinforced by making it mandatory to obtain explicit and transparent informed consent form for radiological examination with high exposure (≥ 500 chest x-rays. The form may spell-out the type of examination, the exposure in effective dose (mSv, derived from reference values in guidelines or – better – from actual values from their department. The dose equivalent might be also expressed in number of chest radiographs and the risk of cancer as number of extra cases in the exposed population, derived from most recent and authorative guidelines (e.g., BEIR VII Committee, release 2006. Common sense, deontological code, patients'rights, medical imaging guidelines, Euratom law, all coherently and concordantly encourage and recommend a justified, optimized, responsible and informed use of testing with ionizing radiation. Although the idea of informed consent for radiation dose does not seem to be on the immediate radar screen at least in the US, the

  16. Radiology and diagnostic images in the gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Alfonso; Acosta, Nelson; Alvarez R, Alfonso and others

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the chapter about diagnostic imaging included in the document of the first practical seminar about gastric carcinoma which took place at Betania (Huila) in the first few days of April 1992. This seminar was organized by the Colombian society of gastroenterology in coordination with other organization

  17. Automated identification of retained surgical items in radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Gady; Gan, Lin; Moric, Mario; Gluncic, Vicko

    2015-03-01

    Retained surgical items (RSIs) in patients is a major operating room (OR) patient safety concern. An RSI is any surgical tool, sponge, needle or other item inadvertently left in a patients body during the course of surgery. If left undetected, RSIs may lead to serious negative health consequences such as sepsis, internal bleeding, and even death. To help physicians efficiently and effectively detect RSIs, we are developing computer-aided detection (CADe) software for X-ray (XR) image analysis, utilizing large amounts of currently available image data to produce a clinically effective RSI detection system. Physician analysis of XRs for the purpose of RSI detection is a relatively lengthy process that may take up to 45 minutes to complete. It is also error prone due to the relatively low acuity of the human eye for RSIs in XR images. The system we are developing is based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms. We address the problem of low incidence by proposing synthesis algorithms. The CADe software we are developing may be integrated into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), be implemented as a stand-alone software application, or be integrated into portable XR machine software through application programming interfaces. Preliminary experimental results on actual XR images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Optimization of image quality in diagnostic radiology associated with exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, C.; Ramboiu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal parameters for a high quality image and minimal radiation risk for the patients were established. The characteristics that affect image quality speed, contrast factor, latitude, base density, fog density, reciprocity law failure and latent image fading were analyzed. Base density on the radiographic image was measured for Azoix film and it is 0.1 log units. Fog density is a function of development time and it will increase with 20% through the increase with 2 minutes of development time. The curve Hurter-Driffield was used to characterize photographic emulsion for Azoix film. The value of latitude of 0.7 log units is in the normally useful range of densities found in radiographs. The speed of Azoix film, as a function of the time interval between exposure and development, increase with 10% for the first 24 hours. The reduction in the patient exposure that could be effected by delaying the development of Azoix is so small, that it is far outweighed by the possible disadvantage of a delay in the acquisition of diagnostic information. Therefore, latent image fading is not very important from the point of view of patient exposure. The speeds evaluated for exposure times 0.08s, 0.16s, 0.64s were unmodified, that is reciprocity law failure was unimportant for Azoix film Perlux screen. The romania films Azoix used with Perlux screen and processed with original solutions are determined an optical density of 1.0 (average density of medical radiograph) with a minimum radiation exposure for the patient (59·10 -7 C/kg). (author)

  19. Improved Geologic Interpretation of Non-invasive Electrical Resistivity Imaging from In-situ Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucelli, A.; Aborn, L.; Jacob, R.; Malusis, M.; Evans, J.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are useful in characterizing the subsurface geology without disturbing the environment, however, the ability to interpret the subsurface is enhanced by invasive work. Since geologic materials have electrical resistivity values it allows for a geologic interpretation to be made based on variations of electrical resistivity measured by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This study focuses on the pre-characterization of the geologic subsurface from ERI collected adjacent to the Montandon Marsh, a wetland located near Lewisburg, PA within the West Branch of the Susquehanna River watershed. The previous invasive data, boreholes, indicate that the subsurface consists of limestone and shale bedrock overlain with sand and gravel deposits from glacial outwash and aeolian processes. The objective is to improve our understanding of the subsurface at this long-term hydrologic research site by using excavation results, specifically observed variations in geologic materials and electrical resistivity laboratory testing of subsurface samples. The pre-excavation ERI indicated that the shallow-most geologic material had a resistivity value of 100-500 ohm-m. In comparison, the laboratory testing indicated the shallow-most material had the same range of electrical resistivity values depending on saturation levels. The ERI also showed that there was an electrically conductive material, 7 to 70 ohm-m, that was interpreted to be clay and agreed with borehole data, however, the excavation revealed that at this depth range the geologic material varied from stratified clay to clay with cobbles to weathered residual clay. Excavation revealed that the subtle variations in the electrical conductive material corresponded well with the variations in the geologic material. We will use these results to reinterpret previously collected ERI data from the entire long-term research site.

  20. Image fusion in open-architecture quality-oriented nuclear medicine and radiology departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjonen, H

    1998-12-31

    Imaging examinations of patients belong to the most widely used diagnostic procedures in hospitals. Multimodal digital imaging is becoming increasingly common in many fields of diagnosis and therapy planning. Patients are frequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound imaging (US) in addition to single photon (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the study was to provide means for improving the quality of the whole imaging and viewing chain in nuclear medicine and radiology. The specific aims were: (1) to construct and test a model for a quality assurance system in radiology based on ISO standards, (2) to plan a Dicom based image network for fusion purposes using ATM and Ethernet technologies, (3) to test different segmentation methods in quantitative SPET, (4) to study and implement a registration and visualisation method for multimodal imaging, (5) to apply the developed method in selected clinical brain and abdominal images, and (6) to investigate the accuracy of the registration procedure for brain SPET and MRI 90 refs. The thesis includes also six previous publications by author

  1. Image fusion in open-architecture quality-oriented nuclear medicine and radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Imaging examinations of patients belong to the most widely used diagnostic procedures in hospitals. Multimodal digital imaging is becoming increasingly common in many fields of diagnosis and therapy planning. Patients are frequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound imaging (US) in addition to single photon (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the study was to provide means for improving the quality of the whole imaging and viewing chain in nuclear medicine and radiology. The specific aims were: (1) to construct and test a model for a quality assurance system in radiology based on ISO standards, (2) to plan a Dicom based image network for fusion purposes using ATM and Ethernet technologies, (3) to test different segmentation methods in quantitative SPET, (4) to study and implement a registration and visualisation method for multimodal imaging, (5) to apply the developed method in selected clinical brain and abdominal images, and (6) to investigate the accuracy of the registration procedure for brain SPET and MRI

  2. Image fusion in open-architecture quality-oriented nuclear medicine and radiology departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjonen, H

    1997-12-31

    Imaging examinations of patients belong to the most widely used diagnostic procedures in hospitals. Multimodal digital imaging is becoming increasingly common in many fields of diagnosis and therapy planning. Patients are frequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound imaging (US) in addition to single photon (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the study was to provide means for improving the quality of the whole imaging and viewing chain in nuclear medicine and radiology. The specific aims were: (1) to construct and test a model for a quality assurance system in radiology based on ISO standards, (2) to plan a Dicom based image network for fusion purposes using ATM and Ethernet technologies, (3) to test different segmentation methods in quantitative SPET, (4) to study and implement a registration and visualisation method for multimodal imaging, (5) to apply the developed method in selected clinical brain and abdominal images, and (6) to investigate the accuracy of the registration procedure for brain SPET and MRI 90 refs. The thesis includes also six previous publications by author

  3. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  4. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  5. Justification of doctors' referral for radiological imaging among some Nigerian doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Osaigbovo Ighodaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demand for radiological examination has increased tremendously despite paucity of referring clinicians' knowledge on radiation protection. Reasons to justify these referrals vary. Consequently, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinicians' knowledge of radiological imaging dosage to their referral justification and guideline. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were developed with four sections (Section 1, sociodemographic data; Section 2, justification for imaging referral; Section 3, knowledge of radiation dose to patients; Section 4, effect of irradiation. The questionnaires were administered at a previous Nigerian Medical Association National Conference, which took place at Lagos in 2013. Sections 3 and 4 were scored and rated. Results: The respondents gave plausible reasons to refer patients for radiological evaluation despite the observation that majority of them were unaware of the existence of referral guidelines and had poor knowledge on radiation. Only 16 (12.2% of the respondents had a fair score on knowledge about radiation dose to patients while 110 (84.0% had poor score. Five (3.8% of the respondents had good score. Similarly, on identifying effect of radiation, 10 (7.6% had good score, 4 (3.1% fair score, and 117 (89.3% poor score. Conclusion: Most of the referrals of patients for radiological evaluation by the respondents were not based on the standard guidelines. Therefore, it is pertinent that referral guidelines should be developed and implemented and clinicians should be educated and trained on radiation protection.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of placenta-specific transgene expression by bioluminescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3. Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early

  7. Pioglitazone modulates vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic rabbits : noninvasive assessment with FDG-PET-CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, E.; Dickson, S.D.; Calcagno, C.; Rudd, J.H.F.; Moshier, E.; Hayashi, K.; Mounessa, J.S.; Roytman, M.; Moon, M.J.; Lin, J.; Tsimikas, S.; Fisher, E.A.; Nicolay, K.; Fuster, V.; Fayad, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the antiatherosclerotic properties of pioglitazone using multimethod noninvasive imaging techniques. Background Inflammation is an essential component of vulnerable or high-risk atheromas. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist,

  8. Imaging the neonate in the incubator: an investigation of the technical, radiological and nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, S J; Wentworth, S D P

    2007-11-01

    Modern neonatal incubators incorporate an X-ray tray device into the mattress support structure to facilitate patient examination with minimal disturbance and distress. However, the usual method of examination is to place the image plate directly underneath the baby. Users often cite radiological reasons for not using X-ray trays but modern quantitative evidence is lacking. This work looks at the technical and clinical aspects of imaging neonates in incubators and the impact that these may have in determining the imaging protocol. A number of hospitals were surveyed to determine their current method of examination and the reasons for their preference. Experimental measurements of the radiological impact of using (or not using) the X-ray tray were performed for a range of neonatal incubators. The average dose to the image plate was 5.9 microGy (range 5.4-6.4 microGy) for the "plate on mattress" method and 3.0 microGy (2.0-3.8 microGy) when using the tray--a 49% reduction owing to the mattress support materials. However, when using a computed radiography (CR) imaging system, the image quality differences were marginal. Survey results indicated that nurses preferred to use the tray but that radiographers were reluctant. We conclude that incubator manufacturers could do much to improve the radiological performance of their equipment and we offer recommendations. We also conclude that, with appropriate nurse and radiographer training and the advent of CR imaging systems, use of X-ray tray facilities may optimize imaging of the neonate in the incubator.

  9. Radiologic imaging of degenerative and inflammatory joint disorders in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestan, C.R.; Grampp, S.; Kainberger . christian.krestan@univie.ac.at

    2001-01-01

    Pain in joints and other structures of the musculoskeletal system is a common complaint in women. It may occur as functional pain, in many cases as inflammatory episode of arthrosis or of metabolic joint disease, sometimes as early manifestation of rheumatoid disease. With conventional radiography, high resolution sonography, and MR imaging it is possible to classify many of these clinical syndromes. A semiquantitative assessment of inflammatory activity can be made by analysing the degree of joint effusion, the thickness of the synovium and the extent of hypervascularization. (author)

  10. Advances in radiological imaging of the renal arteries and veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Xiaofan; Tang Lijun; Yang Bing

    2013-01-01

    Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the renal vessels and common variants is of particular importance for the operator who performs renal transplantation or therapeutic interventions in the renal vessels. Because of the recent major advances in multislice spiral computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) techniques, our ability has been considerably improved to determine the patterns and characters of renal arteries and veins. This article summarizes the research situation and progress in the area of renal vessel imaging anatomy. Some regularity in the distribution of renal vessel positions, dimensions and variations among patients who received MSCTA examinations, and these anatomical measurements are of great value for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  11. Image Gently: Challenges for radiologic technologists when performing digital radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goske, Marilyn J.; Smith, Susan N.; Charkot, Ellen; Herrmann, Tracy; John, Susan D.; Mills, Thalia T.; Morrison, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The development of digital radiography (DR) has provided numerous benefits for pediatric imaging, including the ability to post-process images and to make images immediately available for access by care providers. However, DR presents several significant challenges for the radiologic technologists who are responsible for operating the equipment and producing high-quality images in children. This paper discusses those challenges, including lack of standardization among vendors, particularly with regard to the exposure indicator; lack of pediatric-specific educational materials and pediatric techniques; the need for manual technique instead of the use of automatic exposure control in smaller children; and complications related to field size, collimation and shielding in small children. Specific actions and design modifications that might facilitate the effective management of these challenges will be also described. The implementation of measures to promote the production of optimal images while minimizing radiation exposure requires cooperation and communication among imaging professionals, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. (orig.)

  12. [Diagnosis. Radiological study. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Because of its low cost, availability in primary care and ease of interpretation, simple X-ray should be the first-line imaging technique used by family physicians for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, this technique should only be used if there are sound indications and if the results will influence decision-making. Despite the increase of indications in patients with rheumatological disease, the role of ultrasound in patients with osteoarthritis continues to be limited. Computed tomography (CT) is of some -although limited- use in osteoarthritis, especially in the study of complex joints (such as the sacroiliac joint and facet joints). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has represented a major advance in the evaluation of joint cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis but, because of its high cost and diagnostic-prognostic yield, this technique should only be used in highly selected patients. The indications for ultrasound, CT and MRI in patients with osteoarthritis continue to be limited in primary care and often coincide with situations in which the patient may require hospital referral. Patient safety should be bourne in mind. Patients should be protected from excessive ionizing radiation due to unnecessary repeat X-rays or inadequate views or to requests for tests such as CT, when not indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Zhou, Zhaoye; He, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Imaging myocardial activation from noninvasive body surface potentials promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. To investigate the ability of a noninvasive 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique for characterizing the activation patterns of dynamically changing ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in rabbits. Simultaneous body surface potential mapping and 3-dimensional intracardiac mapping were performed in a closed-chest condition in 8 rabbits. Data analysis was performed on premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and torsades de pointes (TdP) induced during intravenous administration of clofilium and phenylephrine with combinations of various infusion rates. The drug infusion led to a significant increase in the QT interval (from 175 ± 7 to 274 ± 31 ms) and rate-corrected QT interval (from 183 ± 5 to 262 ± 21 ms) during the first dose cycle. All the ectopic beats initiated by a focal activation pattern. The initial beat of TdPs arose at the focal site, whereas the subsequent beats were due to focal activity from different sites or 2 competing focal sites. The imaged results captured the dynamic shift of activation patterns and were in good correlation with the simultaneous measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65 ± 0.02 averaged over 111 ectopic beats. Sites of initial activation were localized to be ~5 mm from the directly measured initiation sites. The 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique could localize the origin of activation and image activation sequence of TdP during QT prolongation induced by clofilium and phenylephrine in rabbits. It offers the potential to noninvasively investigate the proarrhythmic effects of drug infusion and assess the mechanisms of arrhythmias on a beat-to-beat basis. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiological imaging in patients with low back pain and sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullerud, R.

    1999-01-01

    Low back pain and sciatica are among the most common medical problems in Western countries, affecting up to 80% of the population at some time during their lives. Plain radiography is still a sensitive method in degenerative spinal disease and for the identification of spondylolysis and destructions as well as transitional vertebra and other anomalies in the lumbosacral region. In lumbar disk herniation CT and MR have higher sensitivity than lumbar myelography and should be used as the primary imaging methods. Myelography is still the method of choice in lumbar spinal stenosis. Myelography should also be considered in patients with poor consistency between CT and MR findings and the clinical presentation. Postoperatively MR is superior to CT and myelography for distinguishing between scar tissue and recurrent disk herniation

  15. Imaging and Radiological Interventions of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidajat, N.; Stobbe, H.; Griesshaber, V.; Felix, R.; Schroder, R.J. [Academic Teaching Hospital of the Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Central Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hospital Peine

    2005-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is diagnosed by imaging methods. Once diagnosed by means of ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound can be performed to distinguish between a benign and malignant thrombus. If further information is required, magnetic resonance angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the next step, and if these tests are unsatisfactory, digital subtraction angiography should be performed. Many papers have been published dealing with alternative methods of treating PVT, but the material is fairly heterogeneous. In symptomatic non-cavernomatous PVT, recanalization using local methods is recommended by many authors. Implantation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is helpful in cirrhotic patients with non-cavernomatous PVT in reducing portal pressure and in diminishing the risk of re-thrombosis. In non-cirrhotic patients with recent PVT, some authors recommend anticoagulation alone. In chronic thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, local measures may be implemented if refractory symptoms of portal hypertension are evident.

  16. Aesthetic breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid: imaging findings and implications for radiological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanei Aparecida Bottaro Criado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid have recently been employed as a non-surgical alternative to implants such as silicone for aesthetic breast enhancement. Although their utilization is not yet widespread in Brazil, radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings in this context and of the implications of the presence of this filler for the radiological evaluation in the screening for breast cancer.

  17. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  18. RSVP radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.; Chaffee, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a relative scale of value for pediatric radiology (RSVPR). Neither the HCFA/ACA Relative Value Scale nor the Workload Measurement System developed by Health and Welfare Canada specifically addressed pediatric radiologic examinations. Technical and professional charges for examinations at Children's Hospital Medical Center were reviewed and compared with time and cost analysis. A scale was developed with chest radiography (PA and lateral views) assigned a value of 1. After review by pediatric radiologic technologists, radiologic administrators, pediatric radiologists, and chairs of departments of children's hospitals, this proposed scale was modified to reflect more accurately relative value components of pediatric radiologic and imaging examinations

  19. Radiological imaging detection of tumors localized in fossa cranii posterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Gashi, Sanije; Fazliu, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Shala, Nexhmedin

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial tumors are characterized by a variety imaging aspects and their detection is always a challenge. Clinical application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography has provided an earlier detection and treatment of many CNS pathologies. The aim of this study is to estimate the role of CT and MRI in the determination of posterior fossa tumors. During period 2000-2005 in UCCK-Prishtina, 368 patients were diagnosed with intracranial tumors. Fifty-nine of them were found to have tumor localized in fossa crani posterior (FCP) without any significant difference between genders (50.8% female vs. 49.2% male, chi2 test=0.02 p=0.896). The average age of patients with FCP tumors was 33.1 (SD +/- 22.5, rank 1-70). The most of these patients were registered in 2003 (20.3%) whereas the least in 2000 (11.9%). The most affected age-group was 0-9 (25.4%) and 50-59 (23.7%) whereas the incidences was between 30-39 years of age (3.4%). Tumor types that more often were found in young's individuals were: Astrocytomas with a peak incidence in teenagers (average age was 12-year-old SD +/- 7.5, rank 3-23), next was Medulloblastomas (average age was 11-years-old, SD +/- 2.9, rank 6-16 years) and ependymomas (average age was 6.8-years-old, SD +/- 4.6, rank 1-12). Patients with osseous tumors are characterized by older age than median (61.0, SD +/- 4.2, rank 58-64), then metastases (53.0, SD +/- 5.3, rank 45-60) and meningiomas (50.8, SD +/- 7.7, rank 38-63). The overall average mortality was 0.41 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with variations through years from 0.30-0.50/100,000 inhabitants. Comparing with other countries, for some types of FCP tumors, lower morbidity is shown in Kosova, with mean incidence 0.41/100,000. The most frequent tumors in children were medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas, astrocytomas and ependymomas whereas meningiomas and metastasis were most often found in adults. For FCP tumors detection, MRI had 100% sensitivity, specificity and

  20. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  1. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of non-invasive multispectral imaging as a tool for measuring the effect of systemic therapy in Kaposi sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana M Kainerstorfer

    Full Text Available Diffuse multi-spectral imaging has been evaluated as a potential non-invasive marker of tumor response. Multi-spectral images of Kaposi sarcoma skin lesions were taken over the course of treatment, and blood volume and oxygenation concentration maps were obtained through principal component analysis (PCA of the data. These images were compared with clinical and pathological responses determined by conventional means. We demonstrate that cutaneous lesions have increased blood volume concentration and that changes in this parameter are a reliable indicator of treatment efficacy, differentiating responders and non-responders. Blood volume decreased by at least 20% in all lesions that responded by clinical criteria and increased in the two lesions that did not respond clinically. Responses as assessed by multi-spectral imaging also generally correlated with overall patient clinical response assessment, were often detectable earlier in the course of therapy, and are less subject to observer variability than conventional clinical assessment. Tissue oxygenation was more variable, with lesions often showing decreased oxygenation in the center surrounded by a zone of increased oxygenation. This technique could potentially be a clinically useful supplement to existing response assessment in KS, providing an early, quantitative, and non-invasive marker of treatment effect.

  3. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  4. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  5. Postoperative radiologic imaging of joint arthroplasty; Postoperative radiologische Beurteilung von Gelenkendoprothesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldinger, P.R. [Abt. Orthopaedie I, Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, K. [Sektion Diagnostische Radiologie, Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    With increased life expectancy in industrialised countries, improvement of implant design and operative technique, arthroplasty has become a routine procedure. The hip and knee joints are treated by arthroplasty most frequently. Nowadays joint replacement can be performed in many other joints. Radiologic imaging is an important tool for evaluation of the operative results and for detection of early and late complications. In the following article we describe the relevance of different imaging modalities as well as their systematic application in patients with joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  6. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  7. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  8. Non-invasive red light optogenetic pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging for drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac pacing could be a powerful tool for investigating mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, traditional electrical pacing using pacemaker requires an invasive surgical procedure. Electrical currents from the implanted electrodes can also cause damage to heart tissue, further restricting its utility. Optogenetic pacing has been developed as a promising, non-invasive alternative to electrical stimulation for controlling animal heart rhythms. It induces heart contractions by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins, which in turn activate the light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins in optogenetic pacing, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we performed optogenetic pacing by expression of recently engineered red-shifted microbial opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in a well-established animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, using the 617 nm stimulation light pulses. The OCM technique enables non-invasive optical imaging of animal hearts with high speed and ultrahigh axial and transverse resolutions. We integrated a customized OCM system with the optical stimulation system to monitor the optogenetic pacing noninvasively. The use of red-sifted opsins enabled deeper penetration of simulating light at lower power, which is promising for applications of optogenetic pacing in mammalian cardiac pathology studies or clinical treatments in the future.

  9. DIMOND II: Measures for optimising radiological information content and dose in digital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Malone, J.; Marsh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The European Commission concerted action on 'Digital Imaging: Measures for Optimising Radiological Information Content and Dose', DIMOND II, was conducted by 12 European partners over the period January 1997 to June 1999. The objective of the concerted action was to initiate a project in the area of digital medical imaging where practice was evolving without structured research in radiation protection, optimisation or justification. The main issues addressed were patient and staff dosimetry, image quality, quality criteria and technical issues. The scope included computed radiography (CR), image intensifier radiography and fluoroscopy, cardiology and interventional procedures. The concerted action was based on the consolidation of work conducted in the partner's institutions together with elective new work. Protocols and approaches to dosimetry, radiological information content/image quality measurement and quality criteria were established and presented at an international workshop held in Dublin in June 1999. Details of the work conducted during the DIMOND II concerted action and a summary of the main findings and conclusions are presented in this contribution. (author)

  10. Image-Rich Radiology Reports: A Value-Based Model to Improve Clinical Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavik N; Lopez, Jose M; Jiang, Brian G; Roth, Christopher J; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-01-01

    To determine the value of image-rich radiology reports (IRRR) by evaluating the interest and preferences of referring physicians, potential impact on clinical workflow, and the willingness of radiologists to create them. Referring physicians and radiologists were interviewed in this prospective, HIPAA-compliant study. Subject willingness to participate in the study was determined by an e-mail. A single investigator conducted all interviews using a standard questionnaire. All subjects reviewed a video mockup demonstration of IRRR and three methods for viewing embedded images, as follows: (1) clickable hyperlinks to access a scrollable stack of images, (2) scrollable and enlargeable small-image thumbnails, and (3) scrollable but not enlargeable medium-sized images. Questionnaire responses, free comments, and general impressions were captured and analyzed. Seventy-two physicians (36 clinicians, 36 radiologists) were interviewed. Thirty-one clinicians (86%) expressed interest in using IRRR. Seventy-seven percent of subjects believed IRRR would improve communication. Ten clinicians (28%) preferred method 1, 18 (50%) preferred method 2, and 8 (22%) preferred method 3 for embedding images. Thirty clinicians (83%) stated that IRRR would improve efficiency. Twenty-two radiologists (61%) preferred selecting a tool button with a mouse and right-clicking images to embed them, 13 (36%) preferred pressing a function key, and 11 (31%) preferred dictating series and image numbers. The average time radiologists were willing to expend for embedding images was 66.7 seconds. Referring physicians and radiologist both believe IRRR would add value by improving communication with the potential to improve the workflow efficiency of referring physicians. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Digitalization of radiological imaging information and consequences for patient care in the hospital ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heeten, G J; Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    2001-08-25

    Determining the rate at which radiology must be digitalised has been a controversial issue for many years. Much radiological information is still obtained from the film-screen combination (X-rays) with all of its known inherent restrictions. The importance of imaging information in the healthcare process continues to increase for both radiologists and referring physicians, and the ongoing developments in information technology means that it is possible to integrate imaging information and electronic patient files. The healthcare process can only become more effective and efficient when the appropriate information is in the right place at the right time, something that conventional methods, using photos that need to be physically moved, can scarcely satisfy. There is also a desire for integration with information obtained from nuclear medicine, pathology and endoscopy, and eventually of all stand-alone data systems with relevance for the individually oriented hospital healthcare. The transition from a conventional to a digital process is complex; it is accompanied by the transition from a data-oriented to a process-oriented system. Many years have already been invested in the integration of information systems and the development of digital systems within radiology, the current performance of which is such that many hospitals are considering the digitalisation process or are already implementing parts of it.

  12. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepgras, A.; Gueckel, F.; Laemmler, B.; Weigel, R.; Schmiedek, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [de

  13. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca

    2014-08-17

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  14. Patient dosimetry and image quality in conventional diagnostic radiology. An experience from a local Serbian hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac; Milojko Kovacevic; Dusko Kosutic; Milan Loncar; Dajana Veljkovic

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The optimization of image quality vs. patient dose ins an important task in medical imaging. Maximal validity of optimization has to be based on clinical images. Simultaneous measurement of patient dose levels and image quality assessment is used to investigate possibilities for dose reduction and maintain image quality. The survey was conducted in a local hospital performing more than 60000 images annually and representing typical Serbian practice. For four most frequent diagnostic procedures (seven projections) patient exposure was measured using kerma area product meter. Image quality was assessed by experienced radiologists using 'European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images'. Following examination types were included into the survey: chest PA, chest LAT, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT and LSJ, skull PA and skull LAT. Comparing actual radiographic technique with recommended technique in European Guidelines, modification of practice was proposed and implemented and image quality was re-assessed. At least 10 adult patients were followed for each projection, before and after corrective actions. Large dose saving without compromising diagnostic information were found for some examination types, showing that this simple method is very efficient dose reduction tool in conventional diagnostic radiology. Also, need for staff training and difficulties related to practical implementation of optimization methods in Serbia were discussed.

  15. Deep Into the Fibers! Postmortem Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Forensic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Patricia Mildred; Schroth, Sarah; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Slotboom, Johannes; Kiefer, Claus; Germerott, Tanja; Thali, Michael J; El-Koussy, Marwan

    2015-09-01

    In traumatic brain injury, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging of the brain are essential techniques for determining the pathology sustained and the outcome. Postmortem cross-sectional imaging is an established adjunct to forensic autopsy in death investigation. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate postmortem diffusion tensor imaging in forensics for its feasibility, influencing factors and correlation to the cause of death compared with autopsy. Postmortem computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tracking were performed in 10 deceased subjects. The Likert scale grading of colored fractional anisotropy maps was correlated to the body temperature and intracranial pathology to assess the diagnostic feasibility of postmortem diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Optimal fiber tracking (>15,000 fiber tracts) was achieved with a body temperature at 10°C. Likert scale grading showed no linear correlation (P > 0.7) to fiber tract counts. No statistically significant correlation between total fiber count and postmortem interval could be observed (P = 0.122). Postmortem diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking allowed for radiological diagnosis in cases with shearing injuries but was impaired in cases with pneumencephalon and intracerebral mass hemorrhage. Postmortem diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tracking provides an exceptional in situ insight "deep into the fibers" of the brain with diagnostic benefit in traumatic brain injury and axonal injuries in the assessment of the underlying cause of death, considering influencing factors for optimal imaging technique.

  16. From Bertha Roentgen's hand to current medical imaging: one century of radiological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    From 1896 to 1996 radiology progressed at an amazing and unforeseen pace. The analysis of a few examples shows that these developments were due to a few groups and were enhanced by a close interaction between radiologists, physicists, engineers and manufacturers. Radiologists emphasize needs and are often able to suggest avenues for research; engineers exploit the basic discoveries of physicists and find new technologies. Manufacturers proceed from prototypes to instruments that can be built on an industrial scale at an affordable price. This system works efficiently only in a few developed countries. The gap between developing and developed countries is not narrowing and a large proportion of the world population has no access to adequate medical imaging. Very sophisticated imaging technologies used in industrialized countries are costly in terms of both money and human resources and in developing countries may usurp the limited assets that are needed for public health. Thus, the current challenge facing radiology is to take advantage of technological progress, firstly for building affordable and easy to maintain equipment giving images of sufficient quality, and secondly, through progress in telecommunications and computers, to improve medical education, telemedicine and build hospital networks. These networks will enable easier access to consultations with specialized radiologists and will give physicians the means of sharing their medical expertise. The aim is not only to narrow the gap but to provide a sufficient level of care in imaging medicine and radiotherapy throughout the world. This will only be achieved through a clear strategy and adequate human, technical and financial resources. The role of the radiological community, in particular ISR, RSNA and EAR, shall be crucial in this endeavour. (orig.)

  17. TU-CD-BRA-01: A Novel 3D Registration Method for Multiparametric Radiological Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbardeh, A; Parekth, VS; Jacobs, MA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Multiparametric and multimodality radiological imaging methods, such as, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), computed tomography(CT), and positron emission tomography(PET), provide multiple types of tissue contrast and anatomical information for clinical diagnosis. However, these radiological modalities are acquired using very different technical parameters, e.g.,field of view(FOV), matrix size, and scan planes, which, can lead to challenges in registering the different data sets. Therefore, we developed a hybrid registration method based on 3D wavelet transformation and 3D interpolations that performs 3D resampling and rotation of the target radiological images without loss of information Methods: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted-imaging(DWI), dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE) MRI and PET/CT were used in the registration algorithm from breast and prostate data at 3T MRI and multimodality(PET/CT) cases. The hybrid registration scheme consists of several steps to reslice and match each modality using a combination of 3D wavelets, interpolations, and affine registration steps. First, orthogonal reslicing is performed to equalize FOV, matrix sizes and the number of slices using wavelet transformation. Second, angular resampling of the target data is performed to match the reference data. Finally, using optimized angles from resampling, 3D registration is performed using similarity transformation(scaling and translation) between the reference and resliced target volume is performed. After registration, the mean-square-error(MSE) and Dice Similarity(DS) between the reference and registered target volumes were calculated. Results: The 3D registration method registered synthetic and clinical data with significant improvement(p<0.05) of overlap between anatomical structures. After transforming and deforming the synthetic data, the MSE and Dice similarity were 0.12 and 0.99. The average improvement of the MSE in breast was 62%(0.27 to 0.10) and prostate was

  18. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, M.; Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Bharwani, N.; Huchon, C.; Kinkel, K.; Cunha, T.M.; Guerra, A.; Manganaro, L.; Bunesch, L.; Kido, A.; Togashi, K.; Rockall, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition of unknown aetiology that primarily affects women of reproductive age. The accepted first-line imaging modality is pelvic ultrasound. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly performed as an additional investigation in complex cases and for surgical planning. There is currently no international consensus regarding patient preparation, MRI protocols or reporting criteria. Our aim was to develop clinical guidelines for MRI evaluation of pelvic endometriosis based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. This work was performed by a group of radiologists from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), experts in gynaecological imaging and a gynaecologist expert in methodology. The group discussed indications for MRI, technical requirements, patient preparation, MRI protocols and criteria for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis on MRI. The expert panel proposed a final recommendation for each criterion using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 levels of evidence. (orig.)

  19. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, M.; Thomassin-Naggara, I. [Tenon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bharwani, N. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Huchon, C. [CHI Poissy Saint-Germain en Laye, Versailles University France, Department of Obtetrics and Gynaecology, Poissy (France); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Chene-Bougeries (Switzerland); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Guerra, A. [Hospital da Luz, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Manganaro, L. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Bunesch, L. [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Department of Radiology (Urogenital Section), Barcelona (Spain); Kido, A.; Togashi, K. [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Rockall, A.G. [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition of unknown aetiology that primarily affects women of reproductive age. The accepted first-line imaging modality is pelvic ultrasound. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly performed as an additional investigation in complex cases and for surgical planning. There is currently no international consensus regarding patient preparation, MRI protocols or reporting criteria. Our aim was to develop clinical guidelines for MRI evaluation of pelvic endometriosis based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. This work was performed by a group of radiologists from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), experts in gynaecological imaging and a gynaecologist expert in methodology. The group discussed indications for MRI, technical requirements, patient preparation, MRI protocols and criteria for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis on MRI. The expert panel proposed a final recommendation for each criterion using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 levels of evidence. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability...... to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess...... the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8...

  1. Radiological image interpretation for hematoma and small tumors simulated in a head and neck phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Subarachnoidal hemorrhages (HSA) are caused by aneurysms and their symptom usually becomes evident after a rupture. Nevertheless, there are situations in which the aneurysms compress a nerve or produce a bleed before the rupture happens, as consequence one alert signal like headache occurs. It, often occurs after minutes or weeks previous the major rupture. The main goal is to prevent a massive hemorrhage. Thus the Computer Tomography (CT) scan of skull provides a basic and specific function: to reveal the position where the hemorrhage was produced, guiding to a additional medical procedures. On the other hand, CT does not prevent the cerebral tumor development, but precise diagnostic for some symptoms such as vomits, nauseas, epileptic attacks, weakness in arms or legs, require this image protocol. CT has its fundamental importance to tumor detection. Indeed CT reveals its importance in the tumor early diagnosis. Specialized training in CT analysis shall be done. Ahead of a precise diagnosis to manager an early intervention, a CT diagnostic training is suitable for a favorable prognostic. In this context, focusing on propose of radiological inquires; a head and neck phantom will be used to simulate hematomas and cerebral tumors. Images of CT of skull will be used to identify these lesions physically implanted in phantom. The radiological response will be analyzed with the purpose of validation of the skull's CT diagnosis, for a double blind test. The diagnostic with non contrast CT shows only higher 5mm diameter subjects (tumors) identified by the double blind test. Hemorrhage is identified by only the administrator (single-blind test). As conclusion, the author's launches the hypothesis that this object simulator shall provide assistance for specialized training on pathology interpretation on radiological images. (author)

  2. Clinico-radiological features of subarachnoid hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images in patients with meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Sakurai, K.; Hara, M.; Muto, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Tohyama, J.; Oguri, T.; Mitake, S.; Maeda, M.; Matsukawa, N.; Ojika, K.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical and radiological features of meningitis with subarachnoid diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity. Materials and methods: The clinical features, laboratory data, and radiological findings, including the number and distribution of subarachnoid DWI hyperintense lesions and other radiological abnormalities, of 18 patients seen at five institutions were evaluated. Results: The patients consisted of eight males and 10 females, whose ages ranged from 4 months to 82 years (median 65 years). Causative organisms were bacteria in 15 patients, including Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes. The remaining three were fungal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Subarachnoid DWI hyperintense lesions were multiple in 16 of the 18 cases (89%) and predominantly distributed around the frontal lobe in 16 of the 18 cases (89%). In addition to subarachnoid abnormality, subdural empyema, cerebral infarction, and intraventricular empyema were found in 50, 39, and 39%, respectively. Compared with paediatric patients, adult patients with bacterial meningitis tended to have poor prognoses (7/10 versus 1/5; p = 0.1). Conclusion: Both bacterial and fungal meningitis could cause subarachnoid hyperintensity on DWI, predominantly around the frontal lobe. This finding is often associated with poor prognosis in adult bacterial meningitis.

  3. Clinico-radiological features of subarachnoid hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images in patients with meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, T., E-mail: madarafuebuki@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Sakurai, K.; Hara, M. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Muto, M. [Department of Radiology, Okazaki City Hospital, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, M. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Tohyama, J. [Department of Radiology, Toyota-kai Medical Corporation Kariya Toyota General Hospital, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Oguri, T. [Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Mitake, S. [Department of Neurology, Tosei General Hospital, Seto-shi, Aichi (Japan); Maeda, M. [Department of Radiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie (Japan); Matsukawa, N.; Ojika, K. [Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shibamoto, Y. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Aim: To investigate the clinical and radiological features of meningitis with subarachnoid diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity. Materials and methods: The clinical features, laboratory data, and radiological findings, including the number and distribution of subarachnoid DWI hyperintense lesions and other radiological abnormalities, of 18 patients seen at five institutions were evaluated. Results: The patients consisted of eight males and 10 females, whose ages ranged from 4 months to 82 years (median 65 years). Causative organisms were bacteria in 15 patients, including Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes. The remaining three were fungal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Subarachnoid DWI hyperintense lesions were multiple in 16 of the 18 cases (89%) and predominantly distributed around the frontal lobe in 16 of the 18 cases (89%). In addition to subarachnoid abnormality, subdural empyema, cerebral infarction, and intraventricular empyema were found in 50, 39, and 39%, respectively. Compared with paediatric patients, adult patients with bacterial meningitis tended to have poor prognoses (7/10 versus 1/5; p = 0.1). Conclusion: Both bacterial and fungal meningitis could cause subarachnoid hyperintensity on DWI, predominantly around the frontal lobe. This finding is often associated with poor prognosis in adult bacterial meningitis.

  4. PACS for surgery and interventional radiology: Features of a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.; Berliner, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate use of information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronic (MT) systems is viewed by many experts as a means to improve workflow and quality of care in the operating room (OR). This will require a suitable information technology (IT) infrastructure, as well as communication and interface standards, such as specialized extensions of DICOM, to allow data interchange between surgical system components in the OR. A design of such an infrastructure, sometimes referred to as surgical PACS, but better defined as a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS), will be introduced in this article. A TIMMS should support the essential functions that enable and advance image guided therapy, and in the future, a more comprehensive form of patient-model guided therapy. Within this concept, the 'image-centric world view' of the classical PACS technology is complemented by an IT 'model-centric world view'. Such a view is founded in the special patient modelling needs of an increasing number of modern surgical interventions as compared to the imaging intensive working mode of diagnostic radiology, for which PACS was originally conceptualised and developed. The modelling aspects refer to both patient information and workflow modelling. Standards for creating and integrating information about patients, equipment, and procedures are vitally needed when planning for an efficient OR. The DICOM Working Group 24 (WG-24) has been established to develop DICOM objects and services related to image and model guided surgery. To determine these standards, it is important to define step-by-step surgical workflow practices and create interventional workflow models per procedures or per variable cases. As the boundaries between radiation therapy, surgery and interventional radiology are becoming less well-defined, precise patient models will become the greatest common denominator for all therapeutic disciplines. In addition to imaging, the focus of WG-24 is to serve

  5. PACS for surgery and interventional radiology: features of a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Heinz U; Berliner, Leonard

    2011-05-01

    Appropriate use of information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronic (MT) systems is viewed by many experts as a means to improve workflow and quality of care in the operating room (OR). This will require a suitable information technology (IT) infrastructure, as well as communication and interface standards, such as specialized extensions of DICOM, to allow data interchange between surgical system components in the OR. A design of such an infrastructure, sometimes referred to as surgical PACS, but better defined as a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS), will be introduced in this article. A TIMMS should support the essential functions that enable and advance image guided therapy, and in the future, a more comprehensive form of patient-model guided therapy. Within this concept, the "image-centric world view" of the classical PACS technology is complemented by an IT "model-centric world view". Such a view is founded in the special patient modelling needs of an increasing number of modern surgical interventions as compared to the imaging intensive working mode of diagnostic radiology, for which PACS was originally conceptualised and developed. The modelling aspects refer to both patient information and workflow modelling. Standards for creating and integrating information about patients, equipment, and procedures are vitally needed when planning for an efficient OR. The DICOM Working Group 24 (WG-24) has been established to develop DICOM objects and services related to image and model guided surgery. To determine these standards, it is important to define step-by-step surgical workflow practices and create interventional workflow models per procedures or per variable cases. As the boundaries between radiation therapy, surgery and interventional radiology are becoming less well-defined, precise patient models will become the greatest common denominator for all therapeutic disciplines. In addition to imaging, the focus of WG-24 is to serve

  6. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  7. Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerstra, H.J.; Taconis, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

  8. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  9. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glathe, S.; Neufang, K.F.R.; Haupt, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.) [de

  10. Detection matrix of an electromagnetic radiation and radiological image intensifier comprising such a matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraleux, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a detection matrix comprising, in an electrode lattice of lines and columns, addressing means constituted of thin film technology MOS transistors and photoconductances which enable the number of unit module crossings to be halved and to bring about an increase in the effective detection area. This detection matrix is employed in radiological image intensifiers where it ensures the conversion of incident X photons into reading electric signals or only the detection of a visible radiation in the case where the incident X photons are converted into lesser energy photons by a scintillator. The scintillator is then formed of a panel brought into contact with the detector mosaic [fr

  11. Radiology imaging delays as independent predictors of length of hospital stay for emergency medical admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Conway, R; Creagh, D; Byrne, D G; Sheehy, N; Silke, B

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which the time to completion for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound could be shown to influence the length of stay and costs incurred while in hospital, while accounting for patient acuity. All emergency admissions, totalling 25,326 imaging investigations between 2010-2014 were evaluated. The 50(th), 75(th), and 90(th) centiles of completion times for each imaging type was entered into a multivariable truncated Poisson regression model predicting the length of hospital stay. Estimates of risk (odds or incidence rate ratios [IRRs]) of the regressors were adjusted for acute illness severity, Charlson comorbidity index, chronic disabling disease score, and sepsis status. Quantile regression analysis was used to examine the impact of imaging on total hospital costs. For all imaging examinations, longer hospital lengths of stay were shown to be related to delays in imaging time. Increased delays in CT and MRI were shown to be associated with increased hospital episode costs, while ultrasound did not independently predict increased hospital costs. The magnitude of the effect of imaging delays on episode costs were equivalent to some measures of illness severity. CT, MRI, and ultrasound are undertaken in patients with differing clinical complexity; however, even with adjustment for complexity, the time delay in a more expeditious radiological service could potentially shorten the hospital episode and reduce costs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux in adult patients by radiology and isotope-imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigo, J.E.; Gutierrez Amares, M.T.; Bascuas, A.; Bueno Becerra, A.; Sousa, R.; Conde, M.A.; Bascuas, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative radiological and nuclear medicine in 191 adult patients, with a clinical diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflex, emphatizing the radiological role in diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflex. (author)

  13. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, J., E-mail: jinhun.joung@nucaremed.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel imaging method that can be applied to most applications in the field of radiological environment imaging. It resolves either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) distributions of radioactive sources in applications for homeland security, environmental monitoring, radiation contamination monitoring, baggage inspection, nuclear power plant monitoring, and more. The proposed imaging method uses a simple detector configured as a radiation-counting detector with spectroscopic capabilities. The detector module consists of two components: a flat field-of-view (FOV) collimator with a 30° FOV opening and a typical single-channel radiation detector made of a 2 in.×2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a 2 in photomultiplier tube (PMT). This simple detector module makes it possible to develop a cost-effective imaging system and provide design freedom in extending the system configuration to include one-dimensional (1D) or 2D detector-array shapes to meet the needs of various applications. One of most distinctive features of the new imaging method is that it uses only a pair of 2D projections to obtain a 3D reconstruction. The projections are measured by the proposed detector module at two positions orthogonal to one another; the measured projections are manipulated to enhance the resolution of the reconstructed 3D image. The imaging method comprises several steps performed consecutively: projection measurement, energy re-binning, projection separation, resolution and attenuation recovery, image reconstruction, and image consolidation and quantitative analysis. The resolution and attenuation recovery step provides the most distinctive and important processing by which the poor quality of projection data is enhanced. Such poor quality is mainly due to the use of a simple detector with a wide-opening flat FOV collimator. Simulation and experimental studies have been conducted to validate the proposed method. In this investigation, we

  14. Image quality assessment using the CD-DISC phantom for vascular radiology and vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struelens, Lara; Hambach, Lionel; Buls, Nico; Smans, Kristien; Malchair, Francoise; Hoornaert, Marie-Therese; Vanhavere, Filip; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate image quality (IQ) associated with vascular radiology and vascular surgery procedures in Belgium and to determine reference values for future image quality assessment. IQ was evaluated with the CD-DISC contrast-detail phantom. This circular PMMA phantom contains 225 holes with different diameter and depth, to quantify resolution and contrast. Images of the phantom were acquired for both fluoroscopy and subtraction images on 21 systems. Three observers evaluated the images by determining the threshold contrast visible for every diameter. This results in contrast-detail curves and image quality figures. We observed a large difference in IQ between the centres. No straightforward correlation could be found with radiation dose or other exposure settings. A comparison was made with the image quality evaluation of the systems performed with the TOR[18FG] phantom for fluoroscopy. There is no clear correlation observed between the results of the CD-DISC phantom and the TOR phantom. However, systems with very poor or very good image quality could be detected by both phantoms. An important result is that a 75th percentile reference contrast-detail curve could be proposed to separate the best centres from these with poorer quality. Some centres had also a significantly better image quality than others. Therefore, we introduced also a 25th percentile. Centres with IQ above this value are recommended to lower the dose and work with acceptable rather than excellent image quality. The CD-DISC phantom thus allows to guide the image quality setting

  15. Digitalization of the radiological image. A new philosophy of the radiological imagery: the high resolution of the contrasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of digitalization are to be considered: static digitalization of the conventional radiographic image; static digitalization of the calculated image, like tomodensitometric images; dynamic digitalization of television images [fr

  16. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): Three-Dimensional Image Interpretation Tool for Radiological Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S.; Shih, George L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications i...

  17. Utility of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) to non-invasively diagnose burn depth in a porcine model☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, David M.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Yang, Bruce; Becerra, Sandra C.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Christy, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical intervention of second degree burns is often delayed because of the difficulty in visual diagnosis, which increases the risk of scarring and infection. Non-invasive metrics have shown promise in accurately assessing burn depth. Here, we examine the use of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) for predicting burn depth. Contact burn wounds of increasing severity were created on the dorsum of a Yorkshire pig, and wounds were imaged with SFDI/LSI starting immediately after-burn and then daily for the next 4 days. In addition, on each day the burn wounds were biopsied for histological analysis of burn depth, defined by collagen coagulation, apoptosis, and adnexal/vascular necrosis. Histological results show that collagen coagulation progressed from day 0 to day 1, and then stabilized. Results of burn wound imaging using non-invasive techniques were able to produce metrics that correlate to different predictors of burn depth. Collagen coagulation and apoptosis correlated with SFDI scattering coefficient parameter ( μs′) and adnexal/vascular necrosis on the day of burn correlated with blood flow determined by LSI. Therefore, incorporation of SFDI scattering coefficient and blood flow determined by LSI may provide an algorithm for accurate assessment of the severity of burn wounds in real time. PMID:26138371

  18. Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu'an; Yang Kai; Li Zhigang; Zhao Cheng; Yang Jia; Shi Chunmeng

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.

  19. Specific Radiological Imaging Findings in Patients With Hereditary Pancreatitis During a Long Follow-up of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, A.A.J. van; Drenth, J.P.H.; Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of the pancreas. Radiological imaging is used to diagnose HP and to monitor complications. The aim of this study was to describe specific imaging findings in HP. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  1. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training

  2. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training.

  3. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.

  4. Is the iPad suitable for image display at American Board of Radiology examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Rachel J; Rainford, Louise A; Leong, David L; Butler, Marie-Louise; Evanoff, Michael G; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Ryan, John T

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the acceptability of the iPad 3 as a display option for American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations. A set of 20 cases for each of nine specialties examined by the ABR was prepared. Each comprised between one and seven images and case information and had been used in previous ABR Initial Certification examinations. Examining radiologists (n = 119) at the ABR oral Initial Certification examinations reviewed sets from one or more specialties on both a 2 MP LED monitor and on the iPad 3 and rated the visibility of the salient image features for each case. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare ratings. In addition, a thematic analysis of participants' opinions was undertaken. When all specialties were pooled, the iPad 3 ratings were significantly higher than the monitor ratings (p = 0.0217). The breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and nuclear medicine specialties also returned significantly higher ratings for the visibility of relevant image features for the iPad 3. Monitor ratings were significantly higher for the vascular and interventional specialty, although no images were rated unacceptably poor on the iPad in this specialty. The relevant image features were rated more visible on the iPad 3 than on the monitors overall. The iPad 3 was well accepted by a large majority of examiners and can be considered adequate for image display for examination in most or all specialties.

  5. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.

  6. The role of interventional radiology and imaging in pancreatic islet cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, S.; Tapping, C.R.; Walker, J.N.; Bratby, M.; Anthony, S.; Boardman, P.; Phillips-Hughes, J.; Uberoi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation (PICT) is a novel treatment for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control or hypoglycaemic unawareness, and who suffer from the microvascular/macrovascular complications of diabetes despite aggressive medical management. Islet transplantation primarily aims to improve the quality of life for type 1 diabetic patients by achieving insulin independence, preventing hypoglycaemic episodes, and reversing hypoglycaemic unawareness. The islet cells for transplantation are extracted and purified from the pancreas of brain-stem dead, heart-beating donors. They are infused into the recipient's portal vein, where they engraft into the liver to release insulin in order to restore euglycaemia. Initial strategies using surgical access to the portal vein have been superseded by percutaneous access using interventional radiology techniques, which are relatively straightforward to perform. It is important to be vigilant during the procedure in order to prevent major complications, such as haemorrhage, which can be potentially life-threatening. In this article we review the history of islet cell transplantation, present an illustrated review of our experience with islet cell transplantation by describing the role of imaging and interventional radiology, and discuss current research into imaging techniques for monitoring graft function.

  7. Film reject analysis and image quality in diagnostic Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Owusu-Banahene

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients usually undergo repeated X-ray examinations after their initial X-ray radiographs are rejected due to poor image quality. This subjects the patients to an excess radiation exposure and extra cost and necessitates the need to investigate the causes of reject. The use of reject analysis as part of the overall quality assurance programs in clinical radiography and radiology services is vital in the evaluation of image quality of a well-established practice. It is shown that, in spite of good quality control maintained by the Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana, reject analysis performed on a number of radiographic films developed indicated 14.1% reject rate against 85.9% accepted films. The highest reject rate was 57.1 ± 0.7% which occurs in cervical spine and the lowest was7.7 ± 0.5% for lumbar spine. The major factors contributing to film rejection were found to be over exposure and patient positioning in cervical spine examinations. The most frequent examination was chest X-ray which accounts for about 42.2% of the total examinations. The results show low reject rates by considering the factors for radiographic rejection analysis in relation to both equipment functionality and film development in the facility.

  8. Radiological imaging of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Pt. 1. The esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, J.; Grenacher, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the diagnosis of diseases of the esophagus, conventional x-ray evaluation still plays a more important role than endoscopy in the visualization of stenoses. CT plays a major role in the staging of malignancies of the esophagus, while MRI plays does not play a major part in the diagnostic evaluation of the upper GI-tract but is equal to CT for the staging and evaluation of the extent of local infiltration. The main indication for the radiological examination of the esophagus by barium studies is dysphagia. The use of barium allows a functional examination of esophageal motility. Swallow motility disorders can be diagnosed by videofluorography using high frame rate imaging. Zenker's diverticulum and other pulsion diverticula should also be investigated by functional esophageal imaging. Candida esophagitis can be identified by its characteristic ulcerations using barium swallow. The extension of gastroesophageal hernias are more accurately evaluated with barium studies than with endoscopy. The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease should be made by barium studies, but discrete inflammation as well as epithelial dysplasia are best investigated by classic endoscopy and modern endoscopic techniques. In cases of esophageal carcinoma, radiology adds to the findings of endoscopy and endosonography. (orig.) [de

  9. Protocol images for staging of gastric cancer in radiology Hospital San Vicente de Paul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarquin Salvatierra, Estibaliz

    2010-01-01

    The realization of a protocol for the evaluation of imaging in the radiology service of Hospital San Vicente de Paul in the province of Heredia is considered a useful tool that allows a clear and simple communication with the rest of the interdisciplinary team that serves patients with gastric cancer. The adequate management of this disease is important for an assessment and standardized reporting of images to facilitate preoperative planning; because the number of diagnostic studies that should be performed for the detection once obtained the histological diagnosis to establish the staging. Prior knowledge of stage according to TNM (Tumor/Nodes/Metastasis) classification is essential. The initial assessment for radiological detection of gastric cancer was performed with gastroduodenal series with double contrast medium and fluoroscopic control. The establishment of a study effects required for routine is important and avoid underdiagnosis.The new Hospital San Vicente de Paul will have the tomographic assessment and trans abdominal ultrasound (USTA) essential to assess the presence of metastasis to peritoneum and solid organs, in addition to the adenomegaly suggesting neoplastic infiltration. (author) [es

  10. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2014-05-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.

  11. Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Pierre, T G; Clark, P R; Chua-anusorn, W; Fleming, A; Pardoe, H; Jeffrey, G P; Olynyk, J K; Pootrakul, P; Jones, S; Moroz, P

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R 2 ) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Elastic Measurement of Liver Using Magnetic Resonance Tagging Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, the measurement of the stiffness of liver requires a special vibrational tool that limits its application in many hospitals. In this study, we developed a novel method for automatically assessing the elasticity of the liver without any use of contrast agents or mechanical devices. By calculating the non-rigid deformation of the liver from magnetic resonance (MR tagging images, the stiffness was quantified as the displacement of grids on the liver image during a forced exhalation cycle. Our methods include two major processes: (1 quantification of the non-rigid deformation as the bending energy (BE based on the thin-plate spline method in the spatial domain and (2 calculation of the difference in the power spectrum from the tagging images, by using fast Fourier transform in the frequency domain. By considering 34 cases (17 normal and 17 abnormal liver cases, a remarkable difference between the two groups was found by both methods. The elasticity of the liver was finally analyzed by combining the bending energy and power spectral features obtained through MR tagging images. The result showed that only one abnormal case was misclassified in our dataset, which implied our method for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis has the potential to reduce the traditional liver biopsy.

  13. Non-invasive imaging and monitoring of rodent retina using simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimalla, Peter; Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Hoefer, Aline; Wittig, Dierk; Funk, Richard; Koch, Edmund

    2011-03-01

    Spectral domain dual-band optical coherence tomography for simultaneous imaging of rodent retina in the 0.8 μm and 1.3 μm wavelength region and non-invasive monitoring of the posterior eye microstructure in the field of retinal degeneration research is demonstrated. The system is illuminated by a supercontinuum laser source and allows three-dimensional imaging with high axial resolution better than 3.8 μm and 5.3 μm in tissue at 800 nm and 1250 nm, respectively, for precise retinal thickness measurements. A fan-shaped scanning pattern with the pivot point close to the eye's pupil and a contact lens are applied to obtain optical access to the eye's fundus. First in vivo experiments in a RCS (royal college of surgeons) rat model with gene-related degeneration of the photoreceptor cells show good visibility of the retinal microstructure with sufficient contrast for thickness measurement of individual retinal layers. An enhanced penetration depth at 1250 nm is clearly identifiable revealing sub-choroidal structures that are not visible at 800 nm. Furthermore, additional simultaneous imaging at 1250 nm improves image quality by frequency compounding speckle noise reduction. These results are encouraging for time course studies of the rodent retina concerning its development related to disease progression and treatment response.

  14. TME10/380: Remote Transmission of Radiological Images by means of Intranet/Internet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurello, F; Pizzi, R

    1999-01-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta in Milano a network architecture has been developed to connect computers and diagnostic modalities, based on Intranet technology in order to allow the hospital to have an external access through the Internet. The Internet technology has become the "glue" that allows to link different computers and to develop applications able to work independently from the hardware/software platform. Using a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) system integrated to the diagnostic modalities by means of the standardized DICOM image format, the digital radiological images can be transferred, displayed and processed on special visualization workstations all around the hospital. From the workstations the same images can be transferred in DICOM format to a teleconsulting workstation. In fact the hospital is involved in a national project for the remote connection between many Italian hospitals. This national network is linked to already developed regional networks like the Toscana MAN and the ATM Sirius Network. Some links are performed directly in ATM (155 Mbps), others are based on CDN (Direct Numerical Connection, 2Mbps), others are simply based on ISDN connections. The system allows to make it simpler and faster the already established daily exchange of radiological reports between the involved hospitals, especially from Istituto Nazionale Neurologico and Istituto Nazionale deiTumori. All the actions performed by the radiologist are translated by the software into "events" and replied to the remote workstation and vice-versa. In this way the radiologists can see each others, speak together and act in real time on a common "board" of diagnostic images, each one with his own pointer. The adopted technology is evolving on a system based on a web architecture and Java applications, useful for small clinical centers not endowed with expensive information systems. These centers will be able to get consulting performances by the

  15. Predicting visual semantic descriptive terms from radiological image data: preliminary results with liver lesions in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Kurtz, Camille; Beaulieu, Christopher; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    We describe a framework to model visual semantics of liver lesions in CT images in order to predict the visual semantic terms (VST) reported by radiologists in describing these lesions. Computational models of VST are learned from image data using linear combinations of high-order steerable Riesz wavelets and support vector machines (SVM). In a first step, these models are used to predict the presence of each semantic term that describes liver lesions. In a second step, the distances between all VST models are calculated to establish a nonhierarchical computationally-derived ontology of VST containing inter-term synonymy and complementarity. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed framework was carried out using 74 liver lesions annotated with a set of 18 VSTs from the RadLex ontology. A leave-one-patient-out cross-validation resulted in an average area under the ROC curve of 0.853 for predicting the presence of each VST. The proposed framework is expected to foster human-computer synergies for the interpretation of radiological images while using rotation-covariant computational models of VSTs to 1) quantify their local likelihood and 2) explicitly link them with pixel-based image content in the context of a given imaging domain.

  16. Online patient dosimetry and an image quality audit system in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J. M.; Vano, E.; Ten, J. I.; Prieto, C.; Martinez, D.

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes an online patient dosimetry and an image quality audit system in digital radiology. the system allows auditing of different parameters depending on contents of DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) header. For the patient dosimetry audit, current mean values of entrance surface dose (ESD) were compared with local and national reference values (RVs) for the specific examination type evaluated. Mean values exceeding the RV trigger an alarm signal and then an evaluation of the technical parameters, operational practice and image quality starts, using data available in the DICOM header to derive any abnormal settings or performance to obtain the image. the X-ray tube output for different kVp values is measured periodically, allowing for the automatic calculation of the ESD. The system also allows for image quality audit linking it with the dose imparted and other technical parameters if the alarm condition if produced. Results and advantages derived from this online quality control are discussed. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis of isolated chylopericardium using precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131I-triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiseki, Yoshiki; Katsura, Tadahiko; Goto, Masakatsu; Kawanishi, Katsuyuki

    1982-01-01

    Chylopericardium is a rare disease and affects both sexes equally from neonate to adult. Usually, there are abnormal connections between the pericardial cavity and thoracic lymphatic systems. These connections are detected by (1) recovery of orally administered Sudan III from pericardial fluid, (2) evidence of radioactivity in the pericardial fluid by paracentesis after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein, and (3) lymphangiography. However, these method are technically difficult and invasive, thus sometimes dangerous for children. We employed precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein on a 9-year-old Japanese girl wth isolated chylopericardium before and after surgery. Abnormal connections and the back-ward flow to the pulmonary lymphatics were demonstrated by this method. This is an easy, non-invasive, reliable and safe method for detecting the abnormal connections of pericardial and lymphatic systems in children with chylopericardium. (author)

  18. Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Pinto, Frank M [ORNL; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

  19. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  20. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content

  1. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  2. Non-invasive quantitative pulmonary V/Q imaging using Fourier decomposition MRI at 1.5T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Corteville, Dominique M.R.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for quantitative pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using the Fourier Decomposition method were recently demonstrated. We combine these two techniques and show that ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imaging is possible using only a single MR acquisition of less than thirty seconds. The Fourier Decomposition method is used in combination with two quantification techniques, which extract baselines from within the images themselves and thus allows quantification. For the perfusion, a region assumed to consist of 100% blood is utilized, while for the ventilation the zero-frequency component is used. V/Q-imaging is then done by dividing the quantified ventilation map with the quantified perfusion map. The techniques were used on ten healthy volunteers and fifteen patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A mean V/Q-ratio of 1.15±0.22 was found for the healthy volunteers and a mean V/Q-ratio of 1.93±0.83 for the non-afflicted lung in the patients. Mean V/Q-ratio in the afflicted (tumor-bearing) lung was found to be 1.61±1.06. Functional defects were clearly visible in many of the patient images, but 5 of 15 patient images had to be excluded due to artifacts or low SNR, indicating a lack of robustness. Conclusion Non-invasive, quantitative V/Q-imaging is possible using Fourier Decomposition MRI. The method requires only a single acquisition of less than 30 seconds, but robustness in patients remains an issue.

  3. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  4. Non-Invasive and Minimally Invasive Imaging Evaluation of CSF Rhinorrhoea – a Retrospective Study with Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimala, Leena Robinson; Jasper, Anitha; Irodi, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Localization of a cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] fistula is a diagnostic challenge. The choice of an optimal imaging technique is necessary to locate the site of CSF leak which is required for surgical/endoscopic repair of the CSF fistula. Retrospective analysis of imaging was performed in 33 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of CSF rhinorrhoea over a period of two years. Either a bone defect on high resolution CT [HRCT] or CSF column extending extracranially from the subarachnoid space with or without brain/ meningeal herniation on magnetic resonance [MR] cisternography was considered positive for CSF leak. The MR imaging technique included 1-mm heavily T2-weighted [TR 2000 ms; TE-200 ms] fast spin echo study in coronal and sagittal planes. HRCT sections involved 0.625 to 0.8-mm sections in the coronal plane, with or without axial planes, through the paranasal sinuses, reconstructed in a sharp algorithm and acquired with the patient in prone position. Imaging findings were compared with endoscopic findings, being the gold standard for the assessment of CSF rhinorrhea. A total of 25 patients had a combination of HRCT and MR cisternography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV] and negative predictive value [NPV] of both MR cisternography and HRCT together were 93%, 100%, 100% and 50% respectively. Two patients underwent only MR cisternography, 5 patients underwent only HRCT and one patient underwent HRCT, MR cisternography and CT cisternography. Though PPV was 100% in the groups with HRCT alone, MR cisternography alone and combined CT cisternography, HRCT and MR cisternography, the results were not statistically significant as the number of patients in those groups was lower. Combination of MR cisternography and HRCT appears to be complementary, accurate and non-invasive and should be considered as optimal imaging modality for pre-op imaging in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhoea

  5. Non-invasive quantitative pulmonary V/Q imaging using Fourier decomposition MRI at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for quantitative pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using the Fourier Decomposition method were recently demonstrated. We combine these two techniques and show that ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imaging is possible using only a single MR acquisition of less than thirty seconds. The Fourier Decomposition method is used in combination with two quantification techniques, which extract baselines from within the images themselves and thus allows quantification. For the perfusion, a region assumed to consist of 100% blood is utilized, while for the ventilation the zero-frequency component is used. V/Q-imaging is then done by dividing the quantified ventilation map with the quantified perfusion map. The techniques were used on ten healthy volunteers and fifteen patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A mean V/Q-ratio of 1.15 ± 0.22 was found for the healthy volunteers and a mean V/Q-ratio of 1.93 ± 0.83 for the non-afflicted lung in the patients. Mean V/Q-ratio in the afflicted (tumor-bearing) lung was found to be 1.61 ± 1.06. Functional defects were clearly visible in many of the patient images, but 5 of 15 patient images had to be excluded due to artifacts or low SNR, indicating a lack of robustness. Non-invasive, quantitative V/Q-imaging is possible using Fourier Decomposition MRI. The method requires only a single acquisition of less than 30 seconds, but robustness in patients remains an issue. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  7. RadLex - German version: a radiological lexicon for indexing image and report information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwede, D.; Lobsien, D.; Kahn, T.; Daumke, P.; Marko, K.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Since 2003 the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has been developing a lexicon of standardized radiological terms (RadLex) intended to support the structured reporting of imaging observations and the indexing of teaching cases. The aim of this study was to translate the first version of the lexicon (1 - 2007) into German and to implement a language-independent online term browser. Materials and Methods: RadLex version 1 - 2007 contains 6303 terms in nine main categories. Two radiologists independently translated the lexicon using medical dictionaries. Terms translated differently were revised and translated by consensus. For the development of an online term browser, a text processing algorithm called morphosemantic indexing was used which splits up words into small semantic units and compares those units to language-specific subword thesauri. Results: In total 6240 of 6303 terms (99 %) were translated. Of those terms 3965 were German, 1893 were Latin, 359 were multilingual, and 23 were English terms that are also used in German and were therefore maintained. The online term browser supports a language-independent term search in RadLex (German/English) and other common medical terminology (e.g., ICD 10). The term browser displays term hierarchies and translations in different frames and the complexity of the result lists can be adapted by the user. Conclusion: RadLex version 1 - 2007 developed by the RSNA is now available in German and can be accessed online through a term browser with an efficient search function. This is an important precondition for the future comparison of national and international indexed radiological examination results and the interoperability between digital teaching resources. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m 2 . Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction

  9. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira, E-mail: fborelli@cardiol.br; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m{sup 2}. Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu; Norris, Jennifer L.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Williams, David R.; Carroll, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The rod photoreceptors are implicated in a number of devastating retinal diseases. However, routine imaging of these cells has remained elusive, even with the advent of adaptive optics imaging. Here, we present the first in vivo images of the contiguous rod photoreceptor mosaic in nine healthy human subjects. The images were collected with three different confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopes at two different institutions, using 680 and 775 nm superluminescent diodes for illumination. Estimates of photoreceptor density and rod:cone ratios in the 5°–15° retinal eccentricity range are consistent with histological findings, confirming our ability to resolve the rod mosaic by averaging multiple registered images, without the need for additional image processing. In one subject, we were able to identify the emergence of the first rods at approximately 190 μm from the foveal center, in agreement with previous histological studies. The rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics appear in focus at different retinal depths, with the rod mosaic best focus (i.e., brightest and sharpest) being at least 10 μm shallower than the cones at retinal eccentricities larger than 8°. This study represents an important step in bringing high-resolution imaging to bear on the study of rod disorders. PMID:21750765

  11. Image-assisted non-invasive and dynamic biomechanical analysis of human joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhit, Abdullah A; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, Jennifer M; Ward, Tom; Smith, Paul N

    2013-01-01

    Kinematic analysis provides a strong link between musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint conditions, treatment planning/monitoring and prosthesis design/outcome. However, fast and accurate 3D kinematic analysis still remains a challenge in order to translate this procedure into clinical scenarios. 3D computed tomography (CT) to 2D single-plane fluoroscopy registration is a promising non-invasive technology for biomechanical examination of human joints. Although this technique has proven to be very precise in terms of in-plane translation and rotation measurements, out-of-plane motion estimations have been a difficulty so far. Therefore, to enable this technology into clinical translation, precise and fast estimation of both in-plane and out-of-plane movements is crucial, which is the aim of this paper. Here, a fast and accurate 3D/2D registration technique is proposed to evaluate biomechanical/kinematic analysis. The proposed algorithm utilizes a new multi-modal similarity measure called ‘sum of conditional variances’, a coarse-to-fine Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach for robust gradient-descent optimization and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients for out-of-plane rotations. Computer simulations and in vitro experiments showed that the new approach was robust in terms of the capture range, required significantly less iterations to converge and achieved good registration and kinematic accuracy when compared to existing techniques and to the ‘gold-standard’ Roentgen stereo analysis. (paper)

  12. Non-invasive methods for estimating mPAP in COPD using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.S.; Capener, D.A.; Oram, C.; Wild, J.M.; Rajaram, S.; Elliot, C.; Condliffe, R.; Kiely, D.G.; Swift, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is diagnosed invasively. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) models. Patients with COPD and suspected PH, who underwent CMR and right heart catheter (RHC) were identified. Three candidate models were assessed: 1, CMR-RV model, based on right ventricular (RV) mass and interventricular septal angle; 2, CMR PA/RV includes RV mass, septal angle and pulmonary artery (PA) measurements; 3, the Alpha index, based on RV ejection fraction and PA size. Of 102 COPD patients, 87 had PH. The CMR-PA/RV model had the strongest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 92%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 96% and negative predictive value 63%, AUC 0.93, p<0.0001). Splitting RHC-mPAP, CMR-RV and CMR-PA/RV models by 35mmHg gave a significant difference in survival, with log-rank chi-squared 5.03, 5.47 and 7.10. RV mass and PA relative area change were the independent predictors of mortality at multivariate Cox regression (p=0.002 and 0.030). CMR provides diagnostic and prognostic information in PH-COPD. The CMR-PA/RV model is useful for diagnosis, the RV mass index and PA relative area change are useful to assess prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for degenerative diseases, including ischemic heart disease is now a clinical reality. In the search for the optimal cell type for each patient category, many different stem cell subpopulations have been used. In addition, different cell processing procedures and delivery methods......, migration and efficacy of the transplanted cells. Great effort is being made in finding new and better imaging techniques for different imaging modalities, and much have already been learned. But there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we give an overview of the imaging modalities used...

  14. Radiologic image communication and archive service: a secure, scalable, shared approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellingham, Linda L.; Kohli, Jagdish C.

    1995-11-01

    The Radiologic Image Communication and Archive (RICA) service is designed to provide a shared archive for medical images to the widest possible audience of customers. Images are acquired from a number of different modalities, each available from many different vendors. Images are acquired digitally from those modalities which support direct digital output and by digitizing films for projection x-ray exams. The RICA Central Archive receives standard DICOM 3.0 messages and data streams from the medical imaging devices at customer institutions over the public telecommunication network. RICA represents a completely scalable resource. The user pays only for what he is using today with the full assurance that as the volume of image data that he wishes to send to the archive increases, the capacity will be there to accept it. To provide this seamless scalability imposes several requirements on the RICA architecture: (1) RICA must support the full array of transport services. (2) The Archive Interface must scale cost-effectively to support local networks that range from the very small (one x-ray digitizer in a medical clinic) to the very large and complex (a large hospital with several CTs, MRs, Nuclear medicine devices, ultrasound machines, CRs, and x-ray digitizers). (3) The Archive Server must scale cost-effectively to support rapidly increasing demands for service providing storage for and access to millions of patients and hundreds of millions of images. The architecture must support the incorporation of improved technology as it becomes available to maintain performance and remain cost-effective as demand rises.

  15. Image quality and doses on selected studies of conventional radiology in designed hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina; Machado Tejeda, Adalberto; Mora Machado, Roxana de la; Pedroso, Luis; Martinez Acosta, Ubaldo; Fiqueroa Garcia, Luisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The medical exposures have a significant contribution to the doses received by the population, although it has been given minor attention than to other exposure forms, despite of existing potentialities of reducing doses to the patients as consequence of these applications. In the last years the scientific community and international organizations have defined requirements to contribute to that the doses to the patients are the minimum ones necessary to achieve their diagnostic objective. The present work gives the results obtained in the evaluation of the image quality and doses for exams of thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine lateral, carried out in 2 university hospitals of Havana, as well as the contribution on this investigation to the establishment of the guidance levels in the country. During the investigation it took as reference for the reference for the evaluation of the image quality of the radiological studies the emitted criteria by European Union. The behavior of these approaches for the case of the thorax studies presented its biggest difficulties with the achievement of the approaches related with the visualization of breathing structures, being the execution percentages lower than the remaining countries of the region. In general the behaviour of the approaches of quality image in the ARCAL project. The behaviour of the image quality approaches are associated to different technical factors. The obtained results of doses for thorax PA are bigger than the recommended International Standards Basics in both hospitals. (author)

  16. Quantitative, Noninvasive Imaging of DNA Damage in Vivo of Prostate Cancer Therapy by Transurethral Photoacoustic (TUPA) Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging with an optimized spectro -spatial detector configuration: theory and simulation, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., 99...with ultraviolet ( UV ) illumination, and wa- ter [13] and lipid [14] with near-infrared illumination. In fact, PAM can potentially image any molecule

  17. Current radiology. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular

  18. Invasive or non-invasive imaging for detecting high-risk coronary lesions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Patel (Kush); J. Tarkin (Jason); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E. Tenekecioglu (Erhan); N. Foin (Nicolas); Y. Zhang (Yaojun); T. Crake (Tom); J. Moon (James); A. Mathur (Anthony); C.V. Bourantas (Christos)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Introduction:_ Advances in our understanding about atherosclerotic evolution have enabled us to identify specific plaque characteristics that are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and cardiovascular events. With constant improvements in signal and image processing an

  19. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  20. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  1. Detection of Melanoma Metastases in Resected Human Lymph Nodes by Noninvasive Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Cornelis Langhout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR© multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.

  2. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  3. Estimated radiation exposure from medical imaging for patients of radiology service of Al Faraby Hospital, Oujda Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane Semghouli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effective dose received per radiological examination per patient and the additional cancer risk factor in the Radiological Service of Al Faraby Hospital in 2012. Methods: From the number of radiological procedures (NX made in 2012 in the radiology service of Al Faraby Hospital and the average effective dose DEX associated with each type of act exam X, it is possible to calculate the effective dose collective [S =∑ DEX * NX]. The additional cancer risk factor is calculated by the X-ray risk software promoting responsible imaging through patient and provider education. It is function of the effective dose received, the age at the time of exam, and gender of patient. Results: The radiological average effective dose received per act exam is 1 millisievert (mSv, whereas it is 4.45 mSv and 0.21 mSv for the computed tomography (CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the average number of acts per patient 2.66, the effective dose is 1.16 mSv and 3.8 mSv for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the average effective dose per patient 2.69 mSv, it is 5.16 mSv and 0.81 mSv for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the additional cancer risk in 40 years at the time of exam, the average additional cancer risk is equal to 2.17 × 10-4, wheras the risk is 4.17 × 10-4 and 6.54 × 10-5 for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. Conclusion: Medical exposure related to the diagnosis of patients in the radiology service in 2012 can be characterized by: (a 2.66 Act exams on average per patient diagnosis corresponding to a mean effective dose equal to 2.69 mSv per patient, (bfrequency of conventional radiology and CT scan was 81% and 19%, respectively. These act exams contribute to the collective effective dose by 17% and 83%, respectively, and (c radiological acts can be divided into three levels of exposures

  4. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  5. Image and dose quality in selected studies of conventional radiology in designed hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas H, J.; Martinez G, A.; Machado T, A.; Mora M, R. de la; Pedroso, L.; Villa Z, R.; Sotolongo C, J.A.; Rodriguez S, R.M.; Martinez A, U.; Figueroa G, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The medical exposures have a significant contribution to the received doses by the population. As they generally contribute to the patient's direct benefit during a lot of time has been paid smaller attention that to other exposure forms, in spite of existing potentialities of reducing dose to the patients as consequence of these applications. In such sense in the last years the scientific community and international organizations have defined requirements to contribute to that the doses to the patients are the minimum ones necessary to achieve its diagnostic objective. The work exposes the results obtained in the evaluation of the image quality and dose in studies of radiology of thorax posteroanterior and of lumbosacral column anteroposterior and lateral, carried out in 2 university hospitals of La Havana, as well as the contribution of this investigation to the establishment of guidance levels in our country. (Author)

  6. Hepatic lesions that mimic metastasis on radiological imaging during chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sung Hye; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Yeul Hong [Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    During chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy, the hepatic lesions may occur as chemotherapy-induced lesions or tumor-associated lesions, with exceptions for infectious conditions and other incidentalomas. Focal hepatic lesions arising from chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies (such as chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal injury and steatosis) and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess should be considered a mimicker of metastasis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy in the liver has roles in both the therapeutic effects for hepatic metastasis and injury to the non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma. In this article, we reviewed the updated concept of chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess in the liver, focusing on the pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the causative chemo-agent, pathophysiology, and characteristic imaging findings of these mimickers is critical for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary exposure of the patient to invasive tissue-based diagnosis and operation.

  7. Toward a unified view of radiological imaging systems. Part II: Noisy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    ''The imaging process is fundamentally a sampling process.'' This philosophy of Otto Schade, utilizing the concepts of sample number and sampling aperture, is applied to a systems analysis of radiographic imaging, including some aspects of vision. It leads to a simple modification of the Rose statistical model; this results in excellent fits to the Blackwell data on the detectability of disks as a function of contrast and size. It gives a straightforward prescription for calculating a signal-to-noise ratio, which is applicable to the detection of low-contrast detail in screen--film imaging, including the effects of magnification. The model lies between the optimistic extreme of the Rose model and the pessimistic extreme of the Morgan model. For high-contrast detail, the rules for the evaluation of noiseless images are recovered

  8. State of the art: noninvasive imaging and management of neurovascular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cothren C Clay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurotrauma represents a significant public health problem, accounting for a significant proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with all traumatic injuries. Both blunt and penetrating injuries to cervicocerebral vessels are significant and are likely more common than previously recognized. Imaging of such injuries is an important component in the evaluation of individuals presenting with such potential injuries, made all the more important since many of the vascular injuries are clinically silent. Management of injuries, particularly those caused by blunt trauma, is constantly evolving. This article addresses the current state of imaging and treatment of such injuries.

  9. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  10. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Non-invasive airway health assessment: Synchrotron imaging reveals effects of rehydrating treatments on mucociliary transit in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye S.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Farrow, Nigel R.; Stahr, Charlene S.; Boucher, Richard C.; Fouras, Andreas; Parsons, David W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of potential cystic fibrosis (CF) therapies we have developed a novel mucociliary transit (MCT) measurement that uses synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to non-invasively measure the transit rate of individual micron-sized particles deposited into the airways of live mice. The aim of this study was to image changes in MCT produced by a rehydrating treatment based on hypertonic saline (HS), a current CF clinical treatment. Live mice received HS containing a long acting epithelial sodium channel blocker (P308); isotonic saline; or no treatment, using a nebuliser integrated within a small-animal ventilator circuit. Marker particle motion was tracked for 20 minutes using PCXI. There were statistically significant increases in MCT in the isotonic and HS-P308 groups. The ability to quantify in vivo changes in MCT may have utility in pre-clinical research studies designed to bring new genetic and pharmaceutical treatments for respiratory diseases into clinical trials.

  13. Multiparametric Functional MRI: Non-Invasive Imaging of Inflammation and Edema Formation after Kidney Transplantation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation (ktx in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used.Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping to assess graft inflammation and edema formation. To characterize graft pathology, we used PAS-staining, counted CD3-positive T-lymphocytes, analyzed leukocytes by means flow cytometry.DWI revealed progressive restriction of diffusion of water molecules in allogenic kidney grafts. This was paralleled by enhanced infiltration of the kidney by inflammatory cells. Changes in tissue diffusion were not seen following isogenic ktx. T2-times in renal cortex were increased after both isogenic and allogenic transplantation, consistent with tissue edema due to ischemic injury following prolonged cold ischemia time of 60 minutes. Lack of T2 increase in the inner stripe of the inner medulla in allogenic kidney grafts matched loss of tubular autofluorescence and may result from rejection-driven reductions in tubular water content due to tubular dysfunction and renal functional impairment.Functional MRI is a valuable non-invasive technique for monitoring inflammation, tissue edema and tubular function. It permits on to differentiate between acute rejection and ischemic renal injury in a mouse model of ktx.

  14. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  15. Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Noninvasive Risk Stratification in Tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Jouke P.; de Wilde, Koen C.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; van Dijk, Arie P.; van Melle, Joost P.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.

    IMPORTANCE Adults late after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are at risk for majorcomplications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is recommended toquantify right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function. However, a commonly usedrisk model by Khairy et al

  16. Paradox image: a noninvasive index of regional left-ventricular dyskinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Idoine, J.; Zielonka, J.; Neill, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paradox image, a functional image of regional dyskinesis derived from the equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculogram, was constructed by subtracting the background-corrected end-diastolic frame from the background-corrected end-systolic frame. In 11 patients showing dyskinesis by contrast ventriculography, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox ranged from 3.6 to 55.6% (21.44% +- 4.45 s.e.m.). In 11 patients with normokinesis and in eight patients with hypookinesis by contrast ventriculography, the left-ventricular picture elements demonstrating paradox were less than 1.1% in all cases. In nine patients with akinesis, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox was 2.05% +- 0.96 s.e.m. and was less than 2% in seven patients. There was also an excellent agreement between the location of dyskinesis on the paradox image and that by contrast ventriculography. The paradox image is a sensitive indicator of left-ventricular dyskinesis and should be useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected left-ventricular asynergy

  17. Noninvasive imaging of protein metabolic labeling in single human cells using stable isotopes and Raman microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    We have combined nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy and spectral imaging with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to selectively detect the incorporation of deuterium-labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine into proteins in intact, single HeLa cells. The C−D

  18. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  19. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging; 5. Deutsche Kardiodiagnostik-Tage 2013 mit 6. Leipziger Symposium Nichtinvasive Kardiovaskulaere Bildgebung. Herausforderungen und Grenzen der nicht-invasiven kardialen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  20. Quantifying the margin sharpness of lesions on radiological images for content-based image retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajing; Napel, Sandy; Greenspan, Hayit; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Agrawal, Neeraj; Rubin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the margin sharpness of lesions on CT and to evaluate it in simulations and CT scans of liver and lung lesions. Methods: The authors computed two attributes of margin sharpness: the intensity difference between a lesion and its surroundings, and the sharpness of the intensity transition across the lesion boundary. These two attributes were extracted from sigmoid curves fitted along lines automatically drawn orthogonal to the lesion margin. The authors then represented the margin characteristics for each lesion by a feature vector containing histograms of these parameters. The authors created 100 simulated CT scans of lesions over a range of intensity difference and margin sharpness, and used the concordance correlation between the known parameter and the corresponding computed feature as a measure of performance. The authors also evaluated their method in 79 liver lesions (44 patients: 23 M, 21 F, mean age 61) and 58 lung nodules (57 patients: 24 M, 33 F, mean age 66). The methodology presented takes into consideration the boundary of the liver and lung during feature extraction in clinical images to ensure that the margin feature do not get contaminated by anatomy other than the normal organ surrounding the lesions. For evaluation in these clinical images, the authors created subjective independent reference standards for pairwise margin sharpness similarity in the liver and lung cohorts, and compared rank orderings of similarity used using our sharpness feature to that expected from the reference standards using mean normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) over all query images. In addition, the authors compared their proposed feature with two existing techniques for lesion margin characterization using the simulated and clinical datasets. The authors also evaluated the robustness of their features against variations in delineation of the lesion margin by simulating five types of deformations of the lesion margin

  1. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C.; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  2. Noninvasive imaging in the assessment and prevention of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llerena Rojas, Luis Roberto; Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Valiente Mustelier, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear cardiology can all help prevent coronary heart disease. Echocardiography can identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk of coronary disease and who should receive aggressive preventative therapy by providing data on the carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. The calcium score is an independent predictor of cardiac events that influences clinical risk scores such as the Framingham risk score. By using multidetector computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for coronary angiography, it is possible to visualize both the lumen and vessel walls of coronary arteries and to discriminate between calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque before invasive coronary angiography is performed. With nuclear cardiology, the functional effects of atherosclerotic lesions can be evaluated by assessing perfusion and ventricular function simultaneously

  3. Noninvasive spectral imaging of skin chromophores based on multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Wiswadarma, Aditya; Hase, Yota; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize melanin and blood concentrations and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue, a simple imaging technique based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images acquired at six wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 580 and 600nm) was developed. The technique utilizes multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance spectra. Using the absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are deduced numerically in advance, while oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments with human skin of the human hand during upper limb occlusion and of the inner forearm exposed to UV irradiation demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin tissue.

  4. Noninvasive Label-Free Detection of Micrometastases in the Lymphatics with Ultrasound-Guided Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    imaging can be used to guide dissection. We have also successfully integrated a programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ) and tunable pulsed...Mobile HE) with the programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ). We have synchronized the signals to enable interleaved acquisition of US...transducer (L11-4v, Verasonics Inc.) and build a housing which effectively couples fiber optic light delivery. o What opportunities for training and

  5. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Ringstad

    Full Text Available Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of "true" normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43. Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26, and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97. Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate

  6. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  7. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xinyang; Hu, Yuzhu; Gu, Yueqing

    2008-05-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 °C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment.

  8. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Hu Yuzhu; Zhang Jian; Liu Fei; Chen Xinyang; Gu Yueqing; Qian Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 deg. C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment

  9. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of brain oxygen metabolism in children with primary nocturnal enuresis during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Hongwei; Peng, Miao; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-05-01

    A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique. Neurological evaluation, structural imaging, phase-contrast, and the TRUST imaging method were applied in children with PNE (n = 37) and healthy age- and sex-matched control volunteers (n = 39) during natural sleep to assess whole-brain CMRO 2 , CBF, OEF, and arousal from sleep scores. Results showed that whole-brain CMRO 2 and OEF values of PNE children were higher in controls, while there was no significant difference in CBF. Consequently, OEF levels of PNE children were increased to maintain oxygen supply. The elevation of OEF was positively correlated with the difficulty of arousal. Our results provide the first evidence that high oxygen consumption and high OEF values could make PNE children more susceptible to hypoxia, which may induce cumulative arousal deficits and make them more prone to nocturnal enuresis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2532-2539, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients: Image quality and dose in mammography (co-ordinated research in Europe). Results of the coordinated research project on optimization of protection mammography in some eastern European States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    Mammography is an extremely useful non-invasive imaging technique with unparalleled advantages for the detection of breast cancer. It has played an immense role in the screening of women above a certain age or with a family history of breast cancer. The IAEA has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (BSS) and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by FAO, ILO, WHO, PAHO and NEA, is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. In keeping with its responsibility on the application of standards, the IAEA programme on Radiological Protection of Patients attempts to reduce radiation doses to patients while balancing quality assurance considerations. IAEA-TECDOC-796, Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction (1995), addresses this aspect. The related IAEA-TECDOC-1423 on Optimization of the Radiological Protection of Patients undergoing Radiography, Fluoroscopy and Computed Tomography, (2004) constitutes the final report of the coordinated research in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe. The preceding publications do not explicitly consider mammography. Mindful of the importance of this imaging technique, the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project on Optimization of Protection in Mammography in some eastern European States. The present publication is the outcome of this project: it is aimed at evaluating the situation in a number of countries, identifying variations in the technique, examining the status of the equipment and comparing performance in the light of the norms established by the European Commission. A number of important aspects are covered, including: - quality control of mammography equipment; - imaging

  12. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  13. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  14. Noninvasive imaging of tumor integrin expression using 18F-labeled RGD dimer peptide with PEG4 linkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaofei; Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Fan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Various radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides have been previously investigated for tumor integrin α v β 3 imaging. To further develop RGD radiotracers with enhanced tumor-targeting efficacy and improved in vivo pharmacokinetics, we designed a new RGD homodimeric peptide with two PEG 4 spacers (PEG 4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) between the two monomeric RGD motifs and one PEG 4 linker on the glutamate α-amino group ( 18 F-labeled PEG 4 -E[PEG 4 -c(RGDfK)] 2 , P-PRGD2), as a promising agent for noninvasive imaging of integrin expression in mouse models. P-PRGD2 was labeled with 18 F via 4-nitrophenyl 2- 18 F-fluoropropionate ( 18 F-FP) prosthetic group. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of the new dimeric RGD peptide tracer 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 were investigated and compared with those of 18 F-FP-P-RGD2 ( 18 F-labeled RGD dimer without two PEG 4 spacers between the two RGD motifs). The ability of 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 to image tumor vascular integrin expression was evaluated in a 4T1 murine breast tumor model. With the insertion of two PEG 4 spacers between the two RGD motifs, 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 showed enhanced integrin α v β 3 -binding affinity, increased tumor uptake and tumor-to-nontumor background ratios compared with 18 F-FP-P-RGD2 in U87MG tumors. MicroPET imaging with 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 revealed high tumor contrast and low background in tumor-bearing nude mice. Biodistribution studies confirmed the in vivo integrin α v β 3 -binding specificity of 18 F-FP-P-RGD2. 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 can specifically image integrin α v β 3 on the activated endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 can provide important information on integrin expression on the tumor vasculature. The high integrin binding affinity and specificity, excellent pharmacokinetic properties and metabolic stability make the new RGD dimeric tracer 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 a promising agent for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis and for monitoring the efficacy of antiangiogenic

  15. Noninvasive quantification of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity by Markovian analysis in SPECT nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and third of these deaths are caused by coronary artery disease and rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The heterogeneous alteration of the coronary microcirculation is an early phenomenon associated with many cardiovascular risk factors that can strongly predict the subsequent development of coronary artery disease, and lead to the appearance of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity. Nuclear medicine allows the study of myocardial perfusion in clinical routine through scintigraphic scans performed after injection of a radioactive tracer of coronary blood flow. Analysis of scintigraphic perfusion images currently allows the detection of myocardial ischemia, but the ability of the technique to measure the perfusion heterogeneity in apparently normally perfused areas is unknown. The first part of this thesis focuses on a retrospective clinical study to determine the feasibility of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity quantification measured by Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. The clinical study has demonstrated the ability of routine thallium-201 SPECT imaging to quantify greater myocardial perfusion heterogeneity in diabetic patients compared with normal subjects. The second part of this thesis tests the hypothesis that the myocardial perfusion heterogeneity could be quantified in small animal SPECT imaging by Thallium-201 and/or Technetium-99m-MIBI in an experimental study using two animal models of diabetes, and is correlated with histological changes. The lack of difference in myocardial perfusion heterogeneity between control and diabetic animals suggests that animal models are poorly suited, or that the technology currently available does not seem satisfactory to obtain similar results as the clinical study. (author)

  16. Radiation exposure and image quality in X-ray diagnostic radiology. Physical principles and clinical applications. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saebel, Manfred; Aichinger, Horst; Dierker, Joachim; Joite-Barfuss, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic X-rays are the largest contributor to radiation exposure to the general population, and protecting the patient from radiation damage is a major aim of modern health policy. Once the decision has been taken to use ionising radiation for imaging in a particular patient, it is necessary to optimize the image acquisition process taking into account the diagnostic quality of the images and the radiation dose to the patient. Both image quality and radiation dose are affected by a number of parameters, knowledge of which permits scientifically based decision making. The authors of this second edition of Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology have spent many years studying the optimization of radiological imaging. In this book they present in detail the basic physical principles of diagnostic radiology and their application to clinical problems. Particular attention is devoted to evaluation of the dose to the patient, the influence of scattered radiation on image quality, the use of antiscatter grids, and optimization of image quality and dose. The final section is a supplement containing tables of data and graphical depictions of X-ray spectra, interaction coefficients, characteristics of X-ray beams, and other aspects relevant to patient dose calculations. In addition, a complementary CD-ROM contains a user-friendly Excel file database covering these aspects that can be used in the reader's own programs. Since the first edition, the text, figures, tables, and references have all been thoroughly updated, and more detailed attention is now paid to image quality and radiation exposure when using digital imaging and computed tomography. This book will be an invaluable aid to medical physicists when performing calculations relating to patient dose and image quality, and will also prove useful for diagnostic radiologists and engineers. (orig.)

  17. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L

    2013-08-01

    Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students' deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9±4.8 to 49.5±5.4 (pability by 11.3% (psoftware into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby even diagnostic skills for imaging modalities not included in the course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing the inflammatory tissue response to acute myocardial infarction by clinical multimodality noninvasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Tim; Roentgen, Philipp; Schäfer, Andreas; Schatka, Imke; Zwadlo, Caroline; Brunkhorst, Thomas; Berding, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann; Bengel, Frank M

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response which determines subsequent healing. Experimentally, cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used successfully to obtain mechanistic insights. We explored the translational potential in patients early after MI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance were performed in 15 patients sources of inflammatory cells. Positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance multimodality characterization of the acutely infarcted, inflamed myocardium may provide multiparametric end points for clinical studies aiming at support of infarct healing. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. How doctors generate diagnostic hypotheses: a study of radiological diagnosis with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Melo

    Full Text Available In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life.To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14 seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13 seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds. The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals.Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and naming in everyday life are supported by similar

  20. Full-field digital mammography versus computed radiology mammography: comparison in image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxia; Song Shaojuan; Liu Chuanya; Qi Hengtao; Qin Weichang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences in image quality and radiation dose between full- field digital mammography (FFDM) system and compute radiology mammography (CRM) system. Methods: The ALVIM mammographic phantom was exposed by FFDM system with automatic exposure control (AEC) and then exposed by CRM system with the unique imaging plank on the same condition. The FFDM system applied the same kV value and the different mAs values (14, 16, 18, 22 and 24 mAs), and the emission skin dose (ESD) and the average gland dose (AGD) were recorded for the above-mentioned exposure factors. All images were read by five experienced radiologists under the same condition and judged based on 5-point scales. And then receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the probability (P det ) values were calculated. The data were statistically processed with ANOVA. Results: The P det values of calcifications and lesion lump were higher with FFDM system than with CRM system at the same dose (1.36 mGy). Especially, for microcalcifications and lesion lump, the largest difference of the P det value was 0.215, and that of lesion lump was 0.245. In comparison with CRM system, the radiation dose of FFDM system could be reduced at the same P det value. The ESD value was reduced by 26%, and the ACD value was reduced by 41%. When the mAs value exceed AEC value, the P det value almost had no change, though the radiation dose was increased. Conclusions: The detection rates of microcalcifications and lesion lump with FFDM system are proven to be superior to CRM system at the same dose. The radiation dose of FFDM system was less than CRM system for the same image quality. (authors)

  1. Non-invasive ultrasound-based temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency heating-phantom results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, M J; Varghese, T; Madsen, E L; Zagzebski, J A

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapies (such as radiofrequency ablation) are becoming more commonly used in the United States for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas and liver metastases. Unfortunately, these procedures suffer from high recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (∼34-55%) or metastases following ablation therapy. The ability to perform real-time temperature imaging while a patient is undergoing radiofrequency ablation could provide a significant reduction in these recurrence rates. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasound-based temperature imaging on a tissue-mimicking phantom undergoing radiofrequency heating. Ultrasound echo signals undergo time shifts with increasing temperature, which are tracked using 2D correlation-based speckle tracking methods. Time shifts or displacements in the echo signal are accumulated, and the gradient of these time shifts are related to changes in the temperature of the tissue-mimicking phantom material using a calibration curve generated from experimental data. A tissue-mimicking phantom was developed that can undergo repeated radiofrequency heating procedures. Both sound speed and thermal expansion changes of the tissue-mimicking material were measured experimentally and utilized to generate the calibration curve relating temperature to the displacement gradient. Temperature maps were obtained, and specific regions-of-interest on the temperature maps were compared to invasive temperatures obtained using fiber-optic temperature probes at the same location. Temperature elevation during a radiofrequency ablation procedure on the phantom was successfully tracked to within ±0.5 0 C

  2. A quantitative non-invasive assessment of femoroacetabular impingement with CT-based dynamic simulation - Cadaveric validation study Clinical diagnostics and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Röling (Maarten); M.I. Visser (Monique I); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P. Pilot (Peter); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); R.M. Bloem (Rolf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is caused by an anatomic deviation of the acetabular rim or proximal femur, which causes chronic groin pain. Radiological identification of FAI can be challenging. Advances in imaging techniques with the use of computed tomography (CT) scan

  3. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  4. Non-invasive perfusion imaging by modified STAR using asymmetric inversion slabs (ASTAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tokunori

    2000-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) such as STAR, EPISTAR, and FAIR have been used as imaging techniques of tissue perfusion and blood vessels (in MRA). We have developed 'ASTAR', a modified version of STAR by using asymmetric inversion slabs. ASTAR solves the problems of suppression of venous inflow and subtraction error of stationary tissue signal caused by the imbalance of signal variations. The signal variations are dependent on MT effects. In order to avoid overlapping the control slab to the tissue (including large veins), the control and tag slabs are arranged asymmetrically to preserve the same offset of modulation frequency. We evaluated both the subtraction error caused by the MT effects, and the imperfection of an IR slab using a stationary phantom. We then measured the vessel signal on the brain of a volunteer, using the above methods. Two indexes were used for the evaluation: ASL signal to control signal ratio (ASLR [%]=100*deltaS/S cont ) and ASL signal to noise ratio (ASLNR=delatS/Noise) where deltaS=|S cont -S tag |. Phantom study: each ASLR and ASLNR between ASTAR and EPISTAR was comparable and showed a decrease in noise signal level. This means that the ASL signal from the stationary tissue with an imbalance in MT effects and the imperfection in inversion slab profiles were cancelled out almost perfectly. When calculating CBF, ASLR for zero perfusion stationary tissue should be below 0.1%. We were able to satisfy this requirement in our ASTAR experiment. ASLR and ASLNR in FAIR were 40% larger than in EPISTAR and ASTAR. Volunteer brain study: compared with each ASL image, the MT effects were cancelled out in EPISTAR and ASTAR. Veins (sagittal sinus etc) disappeared in STAR and ASTAR, but were visible in EPISTAR and FAIR. Perfusion signals were similar in ASTAR and EPISTAR, indicating that both cancellation of MT effects and venous inflow from the opposite side of the tag were suppressed in ASTAR. In conclusion, ASTAR is a practical method to image blood

  5. A prior authorization program of a radiology benefits management company and how it has affected utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Bree, Robert L; Rao, Vijay M; Johnson, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Radiology benefits management companies have evolved in recent years to meet the need to control the rapid growth in advanced diagnostic imaging. The Obama administration and other key policymakers have proposed using them as a cost-control mechanism, but little is known about how they operate or what results they have produced. The main tool they use is prior authorization. The authors describe the inner workings of the call center of one radiology benefits management company and how its prior authorization program seems to have slowed the growth in the utilization of MRI, CT, and PET in the large markets of one commercial payer. Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Image Gently(SM): a national education and communication campaign in radiology using the science of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Boylan, Jennifer; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Jaramillo, Diego; Johnson, Neil D; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Strauss, Keith J

    2008-12-01

    Communication campaigns are an accepted method for altering societal attitudes, increasing knowledge, and achieving social and behavioral change particularly within public health and the social sciences. The Image Gently(SM) campaign is a national education and awareness campaign in radiology designed to promote the need for and opportunities to decrease radiation to children when CT scans are indicated. In this article, the relatively new science of social marketing is reviewed and the theoretical basis for an effective communication campaign in radiology is discussed. Communication strategies are considered and the type of outcomes that should be measured are reviewed. This methodology has demonstrated that simple, straightforward safety messages on radiation protection targeted to medical professionals throughout the radiology community, utilizing multiple media, can affect awareness potentially leading to change in practice.

  7. Noninvasive imaging of malignant tumors using laminin peptide fragments YIGSR labeled with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; Hu, J.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals that localize specifically at certain sites (such as peptides directed against receptors expressed on tumor cells or antibodies with high binding affinities for bacterial determinants) may be expected to display greater specificity of localization. Peptides, which diffuse rapidly into target lesions and clear rapidly elsewhere, may be expected to enjoy a pharmacokinetic advantage over those, such as antibodies, which accumulate and clear more slowly. The laminin peptide fragments YIGSR is known to bind to a 67-kDa laminin receptor. This receptor is understood to be expressed at higher than normal levels in malignant tumor cells, particularly those of breast and colon carcinomas. Methods 1 peptide conjugation and labeling A 2.5 mg/mL solution of YIGSR in 0.1 M N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, pH8.0, and a fresh 10mg/mL solution of NHS-S-acetyl-MAG 3 in dimethylformamide dried over molecular sieve were prepared. 2 biodistribution and imaging studies A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich (breast) carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 40 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR were injected intravenously. A total of 10 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5 hr to 24 hr with a gamma camera. The identical imaging procedure was also performed in mice with sterile infection/inflammation lesions to evaluate the specificity. Results Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The highest accumulation of label was in the kidney first, with the liver and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion as early as 15 min and reached a saturation value at 3

  8. Ultrasonography for Noninvasive Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-07-15

    Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow. In addition, elastography for the liver and spleen covers a wider field beyond the original purpose of fibrosis assessment. These developments enhance the practical use of US in the evaluation of portal hemodynamic abnormalities. This article reviews the recent progress of US in the assessment of portal hypertension.

  9. Dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging: a valuable method in the noninvasive diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijkman, Paul R M; Kuijpers, Dirkjan A; Blom, Bernadette M; van Herpen, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the clinical applicability of dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging (DS-MRI) for the detection of myocardial ischemia and myocardial viability. One hundred patients with suspected coronary artery disease and inconclusive exercise electrocardiography or significant repolarization abnormalities on the resting ECG underwent breath hold DS-MRI (1 Tesla), 4 days after cessation of anti-ischemic medication. Three left ventricular short axis planes were imaged at increasing doses of dobutamine. Recovery of wall thickening in a previously diminished or non contracting segment at low dose dobutamine was considered proof of viability. Development of hypo-, a- or dyskinesia at higher doses of dobutamine was taken to indicate ischemia. If the DS-MRI test was positive for ischemia, coronary angiography was performed. If indicated, this was followed by revascularization. If DS-MRI did not demonstrate ischemia, neither angiography nor revascularization were carried out. Ninety five DS-MRI investigations were available for diagnosis. Forty two patients had DS-MRI scans positive for ischemia and subsequently coronary angiography assessment of the clinical applicability of DS-MRI for the detection of myocardial ischemia was performed. One patient was false-positive. All 53 patients with non-ischemic DS-MRI scans had follow-up for 11-23 months (mean 17 months). One patient died suddenly 2 weeks after the MRI-test. The other 52 patients did not experience any coronary event nor sudden cardiac death. The predictive value of a positive (for ischemia) DS-MRI test is 98% and the predictive value of a negative DS-MRI test is also 98%.

  10. Noninvasive staging of lung cancer. Indications and limitations of gallium-67 citrate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekerman, C.; Caride, V.J.; Hoffer, P.B.; Boles, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the hila and mediastinum with 67Ga scans are contradictory, as are the recommendations by different investigators on the use of 67Ga scintigraphy in the clinical evaluation of patients with primary lung carcinoma. Nevertheless, the economy and logistic simplicity of evaluating local and distant metastases with a single imaging procedure are attractive, especially because the symptoms may not enable the physician to make a correct identification of the organ systems affected by metastases. Neumann and Hoffer state that at present conventional Ga-67 scanning techniques cannot be recommended for preoperative staging of mediastinal lymph node metastases in lung cancer patients. According to Waxman, 67Ga scintigraphy, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of a tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities may be poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for detection of mediastinal lesions suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. The results obtained locally are probably the best guide for individual physicians in the selection of diagnostic tests for their patients. Gallium scans may thus be helpful in the clinical evaluation of patients with lung cancer. Although gallium scans identify mediastinal node involvement, there is considerable controversy over the relationship between the sensitivity and specificity of the method. By detecting distant extrathoracic metastases, the 67Ga scan may identify a small group of patients who can be spared a needless operation. 92 references

  11. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images; Metodologia de processamento digital aplicada a exploracao de imagens radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-07-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  12. Compression of digital images in radiology. Results of a consensus conference; Kompression digitaler Bilddaten in der Radiologie. Ergebnisse einer Konsensuskonferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Braunschweig, R. [BG Kliniken Bergmannstrost, Halle/Saale (Germany). Klinik fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionsradiologie; Kotter, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Mildenberger, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Simmler, R.; Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Recommendations for lossy compression of digital radiological DICOM images in Germany by means of a consensus conference. The compression of digital radiological images was evaluated in many studies. Even though the results demonstrate full diagnostic image quality of modality-dependent compression between 1:5 and 1:200, there are only a few clinical applications. Materials and Methods: A consensus conference with approx. 80 interested participants (radiology, industry, physics, and agencies) without individual invitation was organized by the working groups AGIT and APT of the German Roentgen Society DRG to determine compression factors without loss of diagnostic image quality for different anatomical regions for CT, CR/DR, MR, RF/XA examinations. The consent level was specified as at least 66 %. Results: For individual modalities the following compression factors were recommended: CT (brain) 1:5, CT (all other applications) 1:8, CR/DR (all applications except mammography) 1:10, CR/DR (mammography) 1:15, MR (all applications) 1:7, RF/XA (fluoroscopy, DSA, cardiac angio) 1:6. The recommended compression ratios are valid for JPEG and JPEG 2000 /Wavelet compressions. Conclusion: The results may be understood as recommendations and indicate limits of compression factors with no expected reduction of diagnostic image quality. They are similar to the current national recommendations for Canada and England. (orig.)

  13. Noninvasive monitoring of cancer therapy induced activated T cells using [18F]FB-IL-2 PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, S V; Draghiciu, O; van de Wall, S; Manuelli, V; Dierckx, R A J O; Nijman, H W; Daemen, T; de Vries, E F J

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy urgently calls for methods to monitor immune responses at the site of the cancer. Since activated T lymphocytes may serve as a hallmark for anticancer responses, we targeted these cells using the radiotracer N-(4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoyl)-interleukin-2 ([ 18 F]FB-IL-2) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thus, we noninvasively monitored the effects of local tumor irradiation and/or immunization on tumor-infiltrating and systemic activated lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice. A 10- and 27-fold higher [ 18 F]FB-IL-2 uptake was observed in tumors of mice receiving tumor irradiation alone or in combination with immunization, respectively. This increased uptake was extended to several non-target tissues. Administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reduced tracer uptake by 2.8-fold, indicating a CXCR4-dependent infiltration of activated T lymphocytes upon cancer treatment. In conclusion, [ 18 F]FB-IL-2 PET can serve as a clinical biomarker to monitor treatment-induced infiltration of activated T lymphocytes and, on that basis, may guide cancer immunotherapies.

  14. Feasibility study of the non-invasive estimation of the β+ arterial input function for human PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, X.

    2009-12-01

    This work deals with the estimation of the concentration of molecules in arterial blood which are labelled with positron-emitting radioelements. This concentration is called 'β + arterial input function'. This concentration has to be estimated for a large number of pharmacokinetic analyses. Nowadays it is measured through series of arterial sampling, which is an accurate method but requiring a stringent protocol. Complications might occur during arterial blood sampling because this method is invasive (hematomas, nosocomial infections). The objective of this work is to overcome this risk through a non-invasive estimation of β + input function with an external detector and a collimator. This allows the reconstruction of blood vessels and thus the discrimination of arterial signal from signals in other tissues. Collimators in medical imaging are not adapted to estimate β + input function because their sensitivity is very low. During this work, they are replaced by coded-aperture collimators, originally developed for astronomy. New methods where coded apertures are used with statistical reconstruction algorithms are presented. Techniques for analytical ray-tracing and for the acceleration of reconstructions are proposed. A new method which decomposes reconstructions on temporal sets and on spatial sets is also developed to efficiently estimate arterial input function from series of temporal acquisitions. This work demonstrates that the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution in PET can be improved thanks to coded aperture collimators and statistical reconstruction algorithm; it also provides new tools to implement such improvements. (author)

  15. Burn-injured tissue detection for debridement surgery through the combination of non-invasive optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Juesas, Juan; Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Lu, Yang; Squiers, John J; King, Darlene; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A

    2018-04-01

    The process of burn debridement is a challenging technique requiring significant skills to identify the regions that need excision and their appropriate excision depths. In order to assist surgeons, a machine learning tool is being developed to provide a quantitative assessment of burn-injured tissue. This paper presents three non-invasive optical imaging techniques capable of distinguishing four kinds of tissue-healthy skin, viable wound bed, shallow burn, and deep burn-during serial burn debridement in a porcine model. All combinations of these three techniques have been studied through a k-fold cross-validation method. In terms of global performance, the combination of all three techniques significantly improves the classification accuracy with respect to just one technique, from 0.42 up to more than 0.76. Furthermore, a non-linear spatial filtering based on the mode of a small neighborhood has been applied as a post-processing technique, in order to improve the performance of the classification. Using this technique, the global accuracy reaches a value close to 0.78 and, for some particular tissues and combination of techniques, the accuracy improves by 13%.

  16. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  17. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of rotator cuff tears using a microscopy coil. Noninvasive detection without intraarticular contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi, Shin; Takase, Kei; Higano, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shoki; Tanaka, Minoru; Tojo, Yuichi; Tabata, Shiro; Majima, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a microscopy coil for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears by comparing the method to conventional MRI and MRI arthrography. A total of 68 shoulders were prospectively studied using a 1.5-T MRI unit. Conventional MRI scans were obtained with a surface coil and high-resolution MRI scans with a microscopy coil. MRI arthrography was performed in 28 shoulders using a surface coil. MRI evaluation of tears of rotator cuff tendons was compared with arthroscopic findings and surgical results. The surgery revealed 40 full-thickness tears, 13 partial-thickness tears, and 15 intact cuffs. In all, 35 (88%) full-thickness tears were correctly diagnosed on conventional MRI and 40 (100%) on high-resolution MRI. MR arthrography delineated 11 of 12 (92%) full-thickness tears. Altogether, 5 (38%) of the partial-thickness tears were detected on conventional MRI, and 12 (92%) were clearly demonstrated on high-resolution MRI. MRI arthrography depicted three (60%) of five partial-thickness tears. High-resolution MRI showed higher sensitivity than conventional MRI (P<0.05) and had values equivalent to those of MRI arthrography for diagnosing partial-thickness tears. High-resolution MRI with a microscopy coil is a feasible, noninvasive technique for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. (author)

  18. Noninvasive measurements of cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolites in dilated cardiomyopathy by using 31P spectroscopic chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, A.; Rzanny, R.; Heyne, J.-P.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Kaiser, W.A.; Leder, U.

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is accompanied by an impaired cardiac energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic ratios in patients with DCM compared to controls by using spectroscopic two-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D-CSI). Twenty volunteers and 15 patients with severe symptoms (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF 30%) of DCM were investigated. Cardiac 31 P MR 2D-CSI measurements (voxel size: 40 x 40 x 100 mm 3 ) were performed with a 1.5 T whole-body scanner. Measurement time ranged from 15 min to 30 min. Peak areas and ratios of different metabolites were evaluated, including high-energy phosphates (PCr, ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and phosphodiesters (PDE). In addition, we evaluated how PCr/ATP ratios correlate with LVEF as an established prognostic factor of heart failure. The PCr/γ-ATP ratio was significantly decreased in patients with moderate and severe DCM and showed a linear correlation with reduced LVEFs. PDE/ATP ratios were significantly increased only in patients with severe DCM as compared to volunteers. Applying 31 P MRS with commonly-available 2D-CSI sequences is a valuable technique to evaluate DCM by determining PCr/ATP ratios noninvasively. In addition to reduced PCr/ATP ratios observed in patients suffering from DCM, significantly-increased PDE/ATP ratios were found in patients with severe DCM. (orig.)

  19. Non-invasive imaging of tumors by monitoring autotaxin activity using an enzyme-activated near-infrared fluorogenic substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Madan

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX, an autocrine motility factor that is highly upregulated in metastatic cancer, is a lysophospholipase D enzyme that produces the lipid second messenger lysophosphatidic acid (LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC. Dysregulation of the lysolipid signaling pathway is central to the pathophysiology of numerous cancers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the ATX/LPA pathway has emerged as an important source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Herein we describe development and validation of a fluorogenic analog of LPC (AR-2 that enables visualization of ATX activity in vivo. AR-2 exhibits minimal fluorescence until it is activated by ATX, which substantially increases fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR region, the optimal spectral window for in vivo imaging. In mice with orthotopic ATX-expressing breast cancer tumors, ATX activated AR-2 fluorescence. Administration of AR-2 to tumor-bearing mice showed high fluorescence in the tumor and low fluorescence in most healthy tissues with tumor fluorescence correlated with ATX levels. Pretreatment of mice with an ATX inhibitor selectively decreased fluorescence in the tumor. Together these data suggest that fluorescence directly correlates with ATX activity and its tissue expression. The data show that AR-2 is a non-invasive and selective tool that enables visualization and quantitation of ATX-expressing tumors and monitoring ATX activity in vivo.

  20. Image Format Conversion to DICOM and Lookup Table Conversion to Presentation Value of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) Standard Digital Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Satoshi; Imahana, Masato; Suwa, Kazuaki; Sugimura, Hitomi; Nishiki, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.

  1. Radiologic investigation of portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.; Wegmueller, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiologic evaluation of patients with portal hypertension in the pre- and postoperative period can be done with several non-invasive or invasive imaging modalities which offer complementary information. Doppler-ultrasonography (-US) is the method of choice for initial non-invasive screening as well as for follow-up tests after shunt surgery. The diagnostic information provided by Doppler-US regarding morphology and blood flow in the upper abdominal organs and vessels is sufficient in many instances. Dynamic computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and recently, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are additional non-invasive imaging techniques that may add valuable information if necessary. Conventional angiography is usually performed immediately prior to surgery to demonstrate the vascular morphology. The standard angiographic technique to demonstrate both the arterial and portal venous system is arterioportography (late-phase portography) by means of selective catheterization of the celiac, the splenic, the superior mesenteric or inferior mesenteric arteries. The dose of iodinated contrast material may be reduced by 50% if digital subtraction angiography is used instead of the conventional technique. Inferior venacavography and hepatic venography are indicated in patients with suspected postsinusoidal portal hypertension, e.g. the Budd-Chiari syndrome; hepatic wedge manometry offers valuable information regarding pressure gradients between the portal and systemic venous system prior to shunt surgery. The angiographic access through the inferior vena cava is also used for direct catheterization of surgical porto-caval or spleno-renal shunts for both angiography, manometry and, if necessary, balloon angioplasty. (authors)

  2. Noninvasive Localization of Accessory Pathways in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Strain Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Omran, Mohammad Taghi Salehi; Maleki, Majid; Haghjoo, Majid; Noohi, Feridoun; Haghighi, Zahra Ojaghi; Sadeghpour, Anita; Davari, Paridokht Nakhostin; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive techniques for the localization of the accessory pathways (APs) might help guide mapping procedures and ablation techniques. We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of strain imaging for the localization of the APs in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Methods: We prospectively studied 25 patients (mean age = 32 ± 17 years, 58.3% men) with evidence of pre-excitation on electrocardiography (ECG). Electromechanical interval was defined as the time difference between the onset of delta wave and the onset of regional myocardial contraction. Time differences between the onset of delta wave (δ) and the onset of regional myocardial contraction (δ-So), peak systolic motion (δ-Sm), regional strain (δ-ε), peak strain (δ-εp), and peak strain rate (δ-SRp) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between time to onset of delta wave to onset of peak systolic motion (mean ± SD) in the AP location (A) and normal segments (B) versus that in the normal volunteers (C) [A: (57.08 ± 23.88 msec) vs. B: (75.20 ± 14.75) vs. C: (72.9 0 ± 11.16); p value (A vs. B) = 0.004 and p value (A vs. C) = 0.18] and [A: (49.17 ± 35.79) vs. B: (67.60 ± 14.51) vs. C: (67.40 ± 6.06 msec); p value (A vs. B) < 0.001 and p value (A vs. C) = 0.12, respectively]. Conclusion: Our study showed that strain imaging parameters [(δ-So) and (δ-Strain)] are superior to the ECG in the localization of the APs (84% vs. 76%). PMID:23967027

  3. Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasively Detects Renal Fibrosis in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Ferguson, Christopher M; Woollard, John R; Zhu, Xiangyang; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-11-01

    Renal fibrosis is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic interventions of renal diseases but often requires invasive testing. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI), which evaluates the presence of macromolecules, offers a noninvasive tool to probe renal fibrosis in murine renal artery stenosis (RAS) at 16.4 T. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS). To select the appropriate offset frequency, an MT-MRI study was performed on a phantom containing 0% to 40% collagen I and III with offset frequencies from -1600 to +1600 Hz and other MT parameters empirically set as pulse width at 16 milliseconds and flip angle at 800 degrees. Then selected MT parameters were used in vivo on pigs 12 weeks after sham (n = 8) or RAS (n = 10) surgeries. The ARAS pigs were fed with high-cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The MT ratio (MTR) was compared with ex vivo renal fibrosis measured using Sirius-red staining. Offset frequencies at 600 and 1000 Hz were selected for collagen detection without direct saturation of free water signal, and subsequently applied in vivo. The ARAS kidneys showed mild cortical and medullary fibrosis by Sirius-red staining. The cortical and medullary MTRs at 600 and 1000 Hz were both increased. Renal fibrosis measured ex vivo showed good linear correlations with MTR at 600 (cortex: Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.87, P 3.0 T. Therefore, MT-MRI may potentially be clinically applicable and useful for detection and monitoring of renal pathology in subjects with RAS.

  4. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharuddin, Mohammad; Bera, Sumanta Kr; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermal fluctuation patterns occurring at the ocular surface of the left and right eyes for aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients and control subjects by thermal imaging. We conducted our experiment on 42 patients (84 eyes) with aqueous deficient dry eyes and compared with 36 healthy volunteers (72 eyes) without any history of ocular surface disorder. Schirmer's test, Tear Break-up Time, tear Meniscus height and fluorescein staining tests were conducted. Ocular surface temperature measurement was done, using an FL-IR thermal camera and thermal fluctuation in left and right eyes was calculated and analyzed using MATLAB. The time series containing the sum of squares of the temperature fluctuation on the ocular surface were compared for aqueous deficient dry eye and control subjects. Significant statistical difference between the fluctuation patterns for control and ADDE was observed (p eyes are significantly correlated in controls but not in ADDE subjects. The possible origin of such correlation in control and lack of correlation in the ADDE subjects is discussed in the text. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MEMO radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1989-01-01

    This radiology volume is a concise handbook of imaging techniques, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy, albeit that the main emphasis is on classic radiology. It offers, for instance, a survey of radiological findings for the most frequent pathological conditions, many overviews of differential diagnosis, a glossary of the technical bases of radiology and so forth. The contents are divided into the following chapters: Physical and biological bases; skeleton; thorax with the subdivisions lungs, heart, mediastinum, and pleura; gastrointestinal tract with the subsections esophagus, small and large intestine; liver; biliary tract; pancreas; retroperitoneal space; kidney; suprarenal glands; bladder; blood vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; mammary glands; female genitals; prostate and scrotum, epididymis and seminal vesicle. (orig./MG) With 23 figs [de

  6. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  7. Development of a reporting system with voice entry for radiological imaging and its application for liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Fumio; Matsumoto, Toru; Tateno, Yukio

    1984-01-01

    A system radiological imaging reports with voice data-entry was developed and was used for liver scintigraphy. The system consists of speech recognizer DP-200 (NEC), and microprocessor PC-8801 (NEC) with a CRT display, a printer, and floppy disc units. The data obtained by the system can be transfered to minicomputer ACOS-700 by means of floppy disc with off line. It is suggested that the system is useful for making an imaging report and for data-acquisition for efficacy study of medical imaging. (author)

  8. 3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmes, D.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.

    1998-01-01

    annual SAGEEP conference (Shi et al., 1998). The authors have developed algorithms for forward modeling and inversion of spectral IP data in 3-D media. The algorithms accommodate a general earth model with a complex electrical conductivity as a function of frequency and 3-D spatial position. Using regularization and optimization techniques, the inversion algorithm obtains a 3-D image of resistivity amplitude and phase for each frequency contained in the data set. They have begun testing their algorithms on synthetic data generated from a simple model of a contaminant plume. The complex resistivity parameters of the background medium and plume are based on the laboratory results described above.'

  9. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  10. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Kang, Gi Bong; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future

  11. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gi Bong [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Shinhan University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-03-15

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future.

  12. Emergency radiology elective improves second-year medical students' perceived confidence and knowledge of appropriate imaging utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschied, Jessica R; Knoepp, Ursula S; Hoff, Carrie Nicole; Mazza, Michael B; Klein, Katherine A; Mullan, Patricia B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints. Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge. Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5. Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A matter of collection and detection for intraoperative and noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging: To see or not to see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although fluorescence molecular imaging is rapidly evolving as a new combinational drug/device technology platform for molecularly guided surgery and noninvasive imaging, there remains no performance standards for efficient translation of “first-in-humans” fluorescent imaging agents using these devices. Methods: The authors employed a stable, solid phantom designed to exaggerate the confounding effects of tissue light scattering and to mimic low concentrations (nM–pM) of near-infrared fluorescent dyes expected clinically for molecular imaging in order to evaluate and compare the commonly used charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems employed in preclinical studies and in human investigational studies. Results: The results show that intensified CCD systems offer greater contrast with larger signal-to-noise ratios in comparison to their unintensified CCD systems operated at clinically reasonable, subsecond acquisition times. Conclusions: Camera imaging performance could impact the success of future “first-in-humans” near-infrared fluorescence imaging agent studies. PMID:24506637

  14. Non-invasive diagnostic method using the phase image for the Kent fiber position in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Makino, Katsutoshi; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Futagami, Yasuo; Hamada, Masayuki (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    Gated blood pool scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-RBC was performed in patients with WPW syndrome and healthy controls. The contraction of the normal ventricle and the Kent fiber position in cases of WPW syndrome were observed on the phase image obtained by Fourier-transformation of the time activity curve. This method is considered to be more valuable than the other non-invasive procedures in cases of WPW syndrome, especially in the preoperative examination for transecting Kent fibers.

  15. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of arthritis in a collagen-induced murine model with phosphatidylserine-binding near-infrared (NIR) dye

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Marion M; Gray, Brian D; Pak, Koon Y; Fong, Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Development of non-invasive molecular imaging techniques that are based on cellular changes in inflammation has been of active interest for arthritis diagnosis. This technology will allow real-time detection of tissue damage and facilitate earlier treatment of the disease, thus representing an improvement over X-rays, which detect bone damage at the advanced stage. Tracing apoptosis, an event occurring in inflammation, has been a strategy used. PSVue 794 is a low-molecular-weight...

  16. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lefevre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears.

  17. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Nicolas; Naouri, Jean Francois; Herman, Serge; Gerometta, Antoine; Klouche, Shahnaz; Bohu, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears. PMID:27057352

  18. Preliminary study of using imaging plates to map skin dose of patients in interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, H.; Satoh, T.; Eguchi, Y.; Mori, K.

    2005-01-01

    A method using europium-doped BaFBr imaging plates (IPs) has been studied for mapping entrance skin doses during interventional radiology (IR); the mapping is useful for detecting overlap between irradiation fields and determining the most exposed skin areas. IPs, which are two-dimensional radiation sensors made of photostimulated luminescence materials, have a linear dose response up to ∼100 Gy, can accurately measure doses from 1 μGy to 10 Gy and can be used repeatedly. Because the energy dependence of IPs is rather high, the IPs were characterised in this study and a sensitivity variation of ∼13% was observed for effective energies of 32.7 to 44.7 keV, which are used in IR procedures. Simulation of actual interventional cardiology procedures showed that the variation of sensitivity was within 5%, meaning that IPs are practical for measuring skin doses during IR. Moreover, the patient data can be stored online and easily called up when IR procedures must be repeated, helping to prevent radiation injuries. (authors)

  19. Preliminary reports of pancreas transplantation: assessment of post operative radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Moon Gyu; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Bang, Sun Woo; Han, Duk Jong; Auh, Yong Ho

    1994-01-01

    We report seven cases of pancreas transplantation, first performed in Korea, in the context of postsurgical radiologic studies. All patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus received transplants from cadevaric(n=6) or living related donor(n=1). Retrospective analysis of 27 US(including 19 Duplex US), two CT, four MRI, and three scintigraphy for these patients was made with surgico-pathological correlation in five cases. Of the seven patients, three-month graft survival was five and one-year survival was two. One patient died of abdominal abscess following surgery. US gave the valuable information regarding the graft swelling, vascular complication, and perigraft fluid collection. RBC bleeding scan was effective of the presence or absence and location of intestinal bleeding. CT was useful in determining the extent and severity of the pancreatitis. MRI gave a little information about functional status of the grafted pancreas. The choice of appropriate imaging modalities for postsurgical work up in patients who had pancreas transplantation depends on the clinical conditions of the patients and complications suspected. Further prospective studies appear to be necessary to establish the interval and modality choice for early detection of the complication

  20. Radiological imaging of osteoarthritis of the knee; Radiologische Bildgebung der Kniegelenkarthrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, M.C.; Jaschke, W.; Klauser, A.S. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Department Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative age-related joint disease leading to typical degradation of articular cartilage with severe pain and limitation of joint motion. Although knee radiographs are widely considered as the gold standard for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis in clinical and scientific settings they increasingly have significant limitations in situations when resolution and assessment of cartilage is required. Analysis of osteoarthritis of the knee with conventional x-ray is associated with many technical limitations and is increasingly being replaced by high-quality assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or sonography both in the clinical routine and scientific studies. Novel imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound enable in vivo visualization of the quality of the cartilaginous structure and bone as well as all articular and periarticular tissue. Therefore, the limitations of radiographs in assessment of knee osteoarthritis could be overcome by these techniques. This review article aims to provide insights into the most important radiological features of knee osteoarthritis and systematic visualization with different imaging approaches. The demographic development in western industrialized countries predicts an increase of ageing-related osteoarthritis of the knee for the next decades. A systematic radiological evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis includes the assessment of the periarticular soft tissue, cartilaginous thickness, cartilage volume, possible cartilage defects, the macromodular network of hyaline cartilage, bone marrow edema, menisci and articular ligaments. Modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and sonography allow the limitations of conventional radiography to be overcome and to visualize the knee structures in great detail to quantitatively assess the severity of knee osteoarthritis. (orig.) [German] Die Arthrose ist die haeufigste chronische, altersassoziierte, degenerative Gelenkerkrankung

  1. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…

  2. Noninvasive Imaging of Retinal Morphology and Microvasculature in Obese Mice Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Chao, Jennifer R.; Wietecha, Tomasz; Hudkins, Kelly L.; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate early diabetes-induced changes in retinal thickness and microvasculature in a type 2 diabetic mouse model by using optical coherence tomography (OCT)/optical microangiography (OMAG). Methods. Twenty-two-week-old obese (OB) BTBR mice (n = 10) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n = 10) were imaged. Three-dimensional (3D) data volumes were captured with spectral domain OCT using an ultrahigh-sensitive OMAG scanning protocol for 3D volumetric angiography of the retina and dense A-scan protocol for measurement of the total retinal blood flow (RBF) rate. The thicknesses of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) and that of the NFL to the inner plexiform layer (IPL) were measured and compared between OB and WT mice. The linear capillary densities within intermediate and deep capillary layers were determined by the number of capillaries crossing a 500-μm line. The RBF rate was evaluated using an en face Doppler approach. These quantitative measurements were compared between OB and WT mice. Results. The retinal thickness of the NFL to IPL was significantly reduced in OB mice (P < 0.01) compared to that in WT mice, whereas the NFL thickness between the two was unchanged. 3D depth-resolved OMAG angiography revealed the first in vivo 3D model of mouse retinal microcirculation. Although no obvious differences in capillary vessel densities of the intermediate and deep capillary layers were detected between normal and OB mice, the total RBF rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in OB mice than in WT mice. Conclusions. We conclude that OB BTBR mice have significantly reduced NFL–IPL thicknesses and total RBF rates compared with those of WT mice, as imaged by OCT/OMAG. OMAG provides an unprecedented capability for high-resolution depth-resolved imaging of mouse retinal vessels and blood flow that may play a pivotal role in providing a noninvasive method for detecting early microvascular changes in patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24458155

  3. A preclinical model for noninvasive imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression; comparison with an exogenous marker of tumor hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bixiu; Burgman, Paul; Zanzonico, Pat; O' Donoghue, Joseph; Li, Gloria C.; Ling, C. Clifton [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York (United States); Cai Shangde; Finn, Ron [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Serganova, Inna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States); Blasberg, Ronald; Gelovani, Juri [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Hypoxia is associated with tumor aggressiveness and is an important cause of resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Assays of tumor hypoxia could provide selection tools for hypoxia-modifying treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a rodent tumor model with a reporter gene construct that would be transactivated by the hypoxia-inducible molecular switch, i.e., the upregulation of HIF-1. The reporter gene construct is the herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the regulation of an artificial hypoxia-responsive enhancer/promoter. In this model, tumor hypoxia would up-regulate HIF-1, and through the hypoxia-responsive promoter transactivate the HSV1-tkeGFPfusion gene. The expression of this reporter gene can be assessed with the {sup 124}I-labeled reporter substrate 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ({sup 124}I-FIAU), which is phosphorylated by the HSV1-tk enzyme and trapped in the hypoxic cells. Animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and phosphor plate imaging (PPI) were used in this study to visualize the trapped {sup 124}I-FIAU, providing a distribution of the hypoxia-induced molecular events. The distribution of {sup 124}I-FIAU was also compared with that of an exogenous hypoxic cell marker, {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). Our results showed that {sup 124}I-FIAU microPET imaging of the hypoxia-induced reporter gene expression is feasible, and that the intratumoral distributions of {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO are similar. In tumor sections, detailed radioactivity distributions were obtained with PPI which also showed similarity between {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO. This reporter system is sufficiently sensitive to detect hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation by noninvasive imaging and migh