WorldWideScience

Sample records for noninvasive imaging study1woa

  1. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  2. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  3. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  4. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  5. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  6. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  7. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  8. Noninvasive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Yu; Chen, Jie; Xia, Chun-Chao; Cao, Li-Kun; Duan, Ting; Song, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes. While based on conclusive enhancement patterns comprising arterial phase hyperenhancement and portal venous and/or delayed phase wash-out, contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the diagnostic tools for HCC without requirements for histopathologic confirmation. Functional MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography, show promise in providing further important information regarding tumor biological behaviors. In addition, evaluation of tumor imaging characteristics, including nodule size, margin, number, vascular invasion, and growth patterns, allows preoperative prediction of tumor microvascular invasion and patient prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the comprehensive noninvasive imaging evaluation of HCC. We also provide the basic key concepts of HCC development and an overview of the current practice guidelines. PMID:29904242

  9. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  10. Electrophysiological Source Imaging: A Noninvasive Window to Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Sohrabpour, Abbas; Brown, Emery; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-06-04

    Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales. Integration of electrophysiological source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging could further enhance spatiotemporal resolution and specificity to an extent that is not attainable with either technique alone. We review methodological developments in electrophysiological source imaging over the past three decades and envision its future advancement into a powerful functional neuroimaging technology for basic and clinical neuroscience applications.

  11. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U

    2008-01-01

    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real-time monit......While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  12. Assays for noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Barrio, J.R.; Herschman, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Repeated, noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression is emerging as a valuable tool for monitoring the expression of genes in animals and humans. Monitoring of organ/cell transplantation in living animals and humans, and the assessment of environmental, behavioral, and pharmacologic modulation of gene expression in transgenic animals should soon be possible. The earliest clinical application is likely to be monitoring human gene therapy in tumors transduced with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene. Several candidate assays for imaging reporter gene expression have been studied, utilizing cytosine deaminase (CD), HSV1-tk, and dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) as reporter genes. For the HSV1-tk reporter gene, both uracil nucleoside derivatives (e.g., 5-iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil [FIAU] labeled with 124 I, 131 I ) and acycloguanosine derivatives {e.g., 8-[ 18 F]fluoro-9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine (8-[ 18 F]-fluoroganciclovir) ([ 18 F]FGCV), 9-[(3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG)} have been investigated as reporter probes. For the D2R reporter gene, a derivative of spiperone {3-(2'-[ 18 F]-Fluoroethyl)spiperone ([ 18 F]FESP)} has been used with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this review, the principles and specific assays for imaging reporter gene expression are presented and discussed. Specific examples utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of a reporter gene as well as tumors expressing reporter genes are discussed

  13. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  14. Computing volume potentials for noninvasive imaging of cardiac excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, A W Maurits; Bhagirath, Pranav; van Driel, Vincent J H M; Ramanna, Hemanth; de Hooge, Jacques; de Groot, Natasja M S; Götte, Marco J W

    2015-03-01

    In noninvasive imaging of cardiac excitation, the use of body surface potentials (BSP) rather than body volume potentials (BVP) has been favored due to enhanced computational efficiency and reduced modeling effort. Nowadays, increased computational power and the availability of open source software enable the calculation of BVP for clinical purposes. In order to illustrate the possible advantages of this approach, the explanatory power of BVP is investigated using a rectangular tank filled with an electrolytic conductor and a patient specific three dimensional model. MRI images of the tank and of a patient were obtained in three orthogonal directions using a turbo spin echo MRI sequence. MRI images were segmented in three dimensional using custom written software. Gmsh software was used for mesh generation. BVP were computed using a transfer matrix and FEniCS software. The solution for 240,000 nodes, corresponding to a resolution of 5 mm throughout the thorax volume, was computed in 3 minutes. The tank experiment revealed that an increased electrode surface renders the position of the 4 V equipotential plane insensitive to mesh cell size and reduces simulated deviations. In the patient-specific model, the impact of assigning a different conductivity to lung tissue on the distribution of volume potentials could be visualized. Generation of high quality volume meshes and computation of BVP with a resolution of 5 mm is feasible using generally available software and hardware. Estimation of BVP may lead to an improved understanding of the genesis of BSP and sources of local inaccuracies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  16. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging based noninvasive measurements of brain hemodynamics in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, Jill B; Alderliesten, Thomas; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal disturbances of brain hemodynamics can have a detrimental effect on the brain's parenchyma with consequently adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Noninvasive, reliable tools to evaluate the neonate's brain hemodynamics are scarce. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have provided new...

  18. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling

  19. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  20. Non-invasive imaging of plant roots in different soils using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pflugfelder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root systems are highly plastic and adapt according to their soil environment. Studying the particular influence of soils on root development necessitates the adaptation and evaluation of imaging methods for multiple substrates. Non-invasive 3D root images in soil can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Not all substrates, however, are suitable for MRI. Using barley as a model plant we investigated the achievable image quality and the suitability for root phenotyping of six commercially available natural soil substrates of commonly occurring soil textures. The results are compared with two artificially composed substrates previously documented for MRI root imaging. Results In five out of the eight tested substrates, barley lateral roots with diameters below 300 µm could still be resolved. In two other soils, only the thicker barley seminal roots were detectable. For these two substrates the minimal detectable root diameter was between 400 and 500 µm. Only one soil did not allow imaging of the roots with MRI. In the artificially composed substrates, soil moisture above 70% of the maximal water holding capacity (WHCmax impeded root imaging. For the natural soil substrates, soil moisture had no effect on MRI root image quality in the investigated range of 50–80% WHCmax. Conclusions Almost all tested natural soil substrates allowed for root imaging using MRI. Half of these substrates resulted in root images comparable to our current lab standard substrate, allowing root detection down to a diameter of 300 µm. These soils were used as supplied by the vendor and, in particular, removal of ferromagnetic particles was not necessary. With the characterization of different soils, investigations such as trait stability across substrates are now possible using noninvasive MRI.

  1. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-02-26

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can be used to accurately diagnose endometriosis are available in clinical practice. This is the first review of diagnostic test accuracy of imaging tests for endometriosis that uses Cochrane methods to provide an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. • To provide estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) versus surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.• To describe performance of imaging tests for mapping of deep endometriotic lesions in the pelvis at specific anatomical sites.Imaging tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests that would assist decision making regarding diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We searched the following databases to 20 April 2015: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDION, DARE, and PubMed. Searches were not restricted to a particular study design or language nor to specific publication dates. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstracts, text words across the record and medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomised controlled trials of any size that included prospectively recruited women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: endometrioma, pelvic endometriosis, DIE or endometriotic lesions at specific intrapelvic anatomical locations. We included studies that compared the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more imaging modalities versus findings of surgical

  2. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can

  3. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  4. Non-invasive imaging for studying anti-angiogenic therapy effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehling, J.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Kiessling, F.

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging plays an emerging role in preclinical and clinical cancer research and has high potential to improve clinical translation of new drugs. This article summarises and discusses tools and methods to image tumour angiogenesis and monitor anti-angiogenic therapy effects. In this

  5. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  6. Diagnostic and prognostic value of non-invasive imaging in known or suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuijf, J.D.; Poldermans, D.; Shaw, L.J.; Jukema, J.W.; Wall, E.E. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Roos, A. de; Wijns, W.; Bax, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The role of non-invasive imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) has increased exponentially over the past decade. The traditionally available imaging modalities, including nuclear imaging, stress echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have relied on detection of CAD by visualisation of its functional consequences (i.e. ischaemia). However, extensive research is being invested in the development of non-invasive anatomical imaging using computed tomography or MRI to allow detection of (significant) atherosclerosis, eventually at a preclinical stage. In addition to establishing the presence of or excluding CAD, identification of patients at high risk for cardiac events is of paramount importance to determine post-test management, and the majority of non-invasive imaging tests can also be used for this purpose. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available non-invasive imaging modalities and their merits for the diagnostic and prognostic work-up in patients with suspected or known CAD. (orig.)

  7. Non-invasive cardiac imaging. Spectrum, methodology, indication and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, Michael; Flachskampf, Frank; Sechtem, Udo; Achenbach, Stephan; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Breithardt, Guenter

    2008-01-01

    The book contains 13 contributions concerning the following chapters: (1)methodology: echo cardiography; NMR imaging; nuclear medicine; computer tomography, (2) clinical protocols: contraction; cardiac valve function; perfusion and perfusion reserve; vitality; corona imaging; transmitters, receptors, enzymes; (3) clinic: coronary heart diseases; non-ischemic heart diseases. The appendix contains two contributions on future developments and certification/standardization

  8. Non-invasive vascular imaging in perforator flap surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Atzeni, Matteo; Ribuffo, Diego; Rozen, Warren Matthew; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Bura, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative imaging using a range of imaging modalities has become increasingly popular for preoperative planning in plastic surgery, in particular in perforator flap surgery. Modalities in this role include ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The evidence for the use of these techniques has been reported in only a handful of studies. In this paper we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature to establish the role for each of these modalities. The role of state-of-the-art vascular imaging as an application in perforator flap surgery is thus offered

  9. Validity of bioluminescence measurements for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumor load in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Clara P. W.; Overmeer, Renée M.; Niers, Tatjana M. H.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Richel, Dick J.; Buckle, Tessa; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    A relatively new strategy to longitudinally monitor tumor load in intact animals and the effects of therapy is noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The validity of BLI for quantitative assessment of tumor load in small animals is critically evaluated in the present review. Cancer cells are

  10. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  11. Noninvasive Quantification of Retinal Microglia Using Widefield Autofluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Schneider, Nadia; Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Helena; Jovanovic, Joel; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To validate widefield autofluorescence (AF) in vivo imaging of the retina in mice expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) in microglia, and to monitor retinal microglia reconstitution in vivo after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Transgenic Cx3cr1gfp/gfp and wildtype Balb/c mice were used in this study. A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used for AF imaging with a 55° and a widefield 102° lens. Intrasession reproducibility was assessed for each lens. To investigate reconstitution in vivo, bone marrow from Cx3cr1gfp/gfp mice was used to rescue lethally irradiated wildtype mice. Data were compared to confocal microscopy of retinal flat mounts. Both the 55° and the 102° lens produced high resolution images of retinal microglia with similar microglia density. However, compared to the 55° lens, the widefield 102° lens captured approximately 3.6 times more microglia cells (1515 ± 123 cells versus 445 ± 76 cells [mean ± SD], for 102° and 55°, respectively, P < 0.001). No statistical difference in the number of gfp positive cells within corresponding areas was observed within the same imaging session. Imaging of microglia reconstitution showed a similar time course compared to flat mount preparations with an excellent correlation between microglia cell numbers in AF and gfp-stained flat mounts (R = 0.92, P < 0.0001). Widefield AF imaging of mice with gfp expressing microglia can be used to quantify retinal microglia. In vivo microglia counts corresponded very well with ex vivo counts on retinal flat mounts. As such, AF imaging can largely replace ex vivo quantification.

  12. Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Wu, Di; Davis, Hunter C.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.

  13. An embedded system for image segmentation and multimodal registration in noninvasive skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Silvana; Soto, Javier E; Inostroza, Fabian; Godoy, Sebastian E; Figueroa, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    We present a heterogeneous architecture for image registration and multimodal segmentation on an embedded system for noninvasive skin cancer screening. The architecture combines Otsu thresholding and the random walker algorithm to perform image segmentation, and features a hardware implementation of the Harris corner detection algorithm to perform region-of-interest detection and image registration. Running on a Xilinx XC7Z020 reconfigurable system-on-a-chip, our prototype computes the initial segmentation of a 400×400-pixel region of interest in the visible spectrum in 12.1 seconds, and registers infrared images against this region at 540 frames per second, while consuming 1.9W.

  14. Noninvasive perfusion imaging of human brain tumors with EPISTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Warach, S. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen, P. [Department of Neurology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Thangaraj, V. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wielopolski, P. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Edelman, R.R. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A total of 17 patients with histologically proven diagnoses of low-grade astrocytoma (n = 4), high-grade astrocytoma (n = 8), lymphoma (n = 3), and meningioma (n = 2) were examined by using EPISTAR MR imaging. Meningiomas had the highest EPISTAR tumor/white matter contrast and low-grade astrocytomas and lymphomas the lowest. High-grade astrocytomas demonstrated elevated EPISTAR signal with marked regional heterogeneity. There was agreement between tumor vascularity by SPECT and EPISTAR in the five cases where both were done. Our results show that tumor vascularity can be assessed qualitatively by using EPISTAR without the need for contrast medium injection. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  15. 2017 multimodality appropriate use criteria for noninvasive cardiac imaging: Export consensus of the Asian society of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Kyong Min Sarah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Yeon Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-11-15

    In 2010, the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASCI) provided recommendations for cardiac CT and MRI, and this document reflects an update of the 2010 ASCI appropriate use criteria (AUC). In 2016, the ASCI formed a new working group for revision of AUC for noninvasive cardiac imaging. A major change that we made in this document is the rating of various noninvasive tests (exercise electrocardiogram, echocardiography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography/angiography), compared side by side for their applications in various clinical scenarios. Ninety-five clinical scenarios were developed from eight selected pre-existing guidelines and classified into four sections as follows: 1) detection of coronary artery disease, symptomatic or asymptomatic; 2) cardiac evaluation in various clinical scenarios; 3) use of imaging modality according to prior testing; and 4) evaluation of cardiac structure and function. The clinical scenarios were scored by a separate rating committee on a scale of 1–9 to designate appropriate use, uncertain use, or inappropriate use according to a modified Delphi method. Overall, the AUC ratings for CT were higher than those of previous guidelines. These new AUC provide guidance for clinicians choosing among available testing modalities for various cardiac diseases and are also unique, given that most previous AUC for noninvasive imaging include only one imaging technique. As cardiac imaging is multimodal in nature, we believe that these AUC will be more useful for clinical decision making.

  16. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  17. Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qizhi; Carney, Paul R; Yuan Zhen; Jiang Huabei [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu Zhao [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Chen Huanxin; Roper, Steven N [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0265 (United States)], E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu

    2008-04-07

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging imaging modality that has the potential to image the dynamic function of the brain due to its unique ability of imaging biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. Here we report the first application of our finite-element-based PAT for imaging of epileptic seizures in an animal model. In vivo photoacoustic images were obtained in rats with focal seizures induced by microinjection of bicuculline, a GABA{sub A} antagonist, into the neocortex. The seizure focus was accurately localized by PAT as confirmed with gold-standard electroencephalogram (EEG). Compared to the existing neuroimaging modalities, PAT not only has the unprecedented advantage of high spatial and temporal resolution in a single imaging modality, but also is portable and low in cost, making it possible to bring brain imaging to the bedside.

  18. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  19. Peering beneath the surface: novel imaging techniques to noninvasively select gametes and embryos for ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasensky, Joshua; Swain, Jason E

    2013-10-01

    Embryo imaging has long been a critical tool for in vitro fertilization laboratories, aiding in morphological assessment of embryos, which remains the primary tool for embryo selection. With the recent emergence of clinically applicable real-time imaging systems to assess embryo morphokinetics, a renewed interest has emerged regarding noninvasive methods to assess gamete and embryo development as a means of inferring quality. Several studies exist that utilize novel imaging techniques to visualize or quantify intracellular components of gametes and embryos with the intent of correlating localization of organelles or molecular constitution with quality or outcome. However, the safety of these approaches varies due to the potential detrimental impact of light exposure or other variables. Along with complexity of equipment and cost, these drawbacks currently limit clinical application of these novel microscopes and imaging techniques. However, as evidenced by clinical incorporation of some real-time imaging devices as well as use of polarized microscopy, some of these imaging approaches may prove to be useful. This review summarizes the existing literature on novel imaging approaches utilized to examine gametes and embryos. Refinement of some of these imaging systems may permit clinical application and serve as a means to offer new, noninvasive selection tools to improve outcomes for various assisted reproductive technology procedures.

  20. Noninvasive imaging systems for gametes and embryo selection in IVF programs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Marjan; Faramarzi, Azita; Agharahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedure by improving pregnancy rates and reducing the risks of multiple pregnancies simultaneously are the primary goals of the current assisted reproductive technology program. With the move to single embryo transfers, the need for more cost-effective and noninvasive methods for embryo selection prior to transfer is paramount. These aims require advancement in a more acquire gametes/embryo testing and selection procedures using high-tech devices. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive imaging systems in the current literatures, focusing on the potential clinical application in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments. In this regards, three advanced imaging systems of motile sperm organelle morphology examination, polarization microscopy and time-lapse monitoring for the best selection of the gametes and preimplantation embryos are introduced in full. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptake......-mannoheptulose in inhibiting insulin release. The 1-deoxy-1-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose only marginally affected INS-1 cell viability. These findings are compatible with the view that selected (19)F-heptuloses may represent suitable tools for the non-invasive imaging of hepatocytes...

  2. Non-invasive imaging of zebrafish with spinal deformities using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Liane; Beaudette, Kathy; Patten, Kessen; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Émilie; Strupler, Mathias; Moldovan, Florina; Boudoux, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    A zebrafish model has recently been introduced to study various genetic mutations that could lead to spinal deformities such as scoliosis. However, current imaging techniques make it difficult to perform longitudinal studies of this condition in zebrafish, especially in the early stages of development. The goal of this project is to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable non-invasive method to image zebrafish exhibiting spinal deformities. Images of both live and fixed malformed zebrafish (5 to 21 days postfertilization) as well as wild-type fish (5 to 29 days postfertilization) were acquired non-invasively using a commercial SD-OCT system, with a laser source centered at 930nm (λ=100nm), permitting axial and lateral resolutions of 7 and 8μm respectively. Using two-dimensional images and three-dimensional reconstructions, it was possible to identify the malformed notochord as well as deformities in other major organs at different stages of formation. Visualization of the notochord was facilitated with the development of a segmentation algorithm. OCT images were compared to HE histological sections and images obtained by calcein staining. Because of the possibility of performing longitudinal studies on a same fish and reducing image processing time as compared with staining techniques and histology, the use of OCT could facilitate phenotypic characterization in studying genetic factors leading to spinal deformities in zebrafish and could eventually contribute to the identification of the genetic causes of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  3. Non-Invasive Imaging Method of Microwave Near Field Based on Solid State Quantum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Du, Guanxiang; Dong, Yue; Liu, Guoquan; Hu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-invasive imaging method of microwave near field using a diamond containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. We applied synchronous pulsed sequence combined with charge coupled device camera to measure the amplitude of the microwave magnetic field. A full reconstruction formulation of the local field vector, including the amplitude and phase, is developed by measuring both left and right circular polarizations along the four nitrogen-vacancy axes. Compared to the raste...

  4. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Noninvasive three-dimensional live imaging methodology for the spindles at meiosis and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-gao; Huo, Tiancheng; Tian, Ning; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Fengying; Lu, Danyu; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Sun, Jia-lin; Xue, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The spindle plays a crucial role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis and mitosis. Studying spindles in living cells noninvasively is of great value in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Here, we present a novel spindle imaging methodology, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Without any dye labeling and fixation, we demonstrate the first successful application of FF-OCT to noninvasive three-dimensional (3-D) live imaging of the meiotic spindles within the mouse living oocytes at metaphase II as well as the mitotic spindles in the living zygotes at metaphase and telophase. By post-processing of the 3-D dataset obtained with FF-OCT, the important morphological and spatial parameters of the spindles, such as short and long axes, spatial localization, and the angle of meiotic spindle deviation from the first polar body in the oocyte were precisely measured with the spatial resolution of 0.7 μm. Our results reveal the potential of FF-OCT as an imaging tool capable of noninvasive 3-D live morphological analysis for spindles, which might be useful to ART related procedures and many other spindle related studies.

  6. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; van Westen, Danielle; Brockstedt, Sara; Lasič, Samo; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8±0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6±0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9±0.8 s(-1). In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Radowsky

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs, evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal's locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament. The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD and infrared (IR imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as "returned to normal locomotion" or "did not return to normal locomotion" with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53 compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76. With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a

  8. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  9. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans. PMID:29671781

  10. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru; He, Yong

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874⁻1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  11. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingquan Chu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI. The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  12. A review of non-invasive imaging methods and applications in contaminant hydrogeology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Charles J; Zhang, Changyong; Brusseau, Mark L; Oostrom, Mart; Baumann, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Contaminant hydrogeological processes occurring in porous media are typically not amenable to direct observation. As a result, indirect measurements (e.g., contaminant breakthrough at a fixed location) are often used to infer processes occurring at different scales, locations, or times. To overcome this limitation, non-invasive imaging methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology research. Four of the most common methods, and the subjects of this review, are optical imaging using UV or visible light, dual-energy gamma radiation, X-ray microtomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided valuable insights into a variety of complex systems and processes, including porous media characterization, multiphase fluid distribution, fluid flow, solute transport and mixing, colloidal transport and deposition, and reactions. In this paper we review the theory underlying these methods, applications of these methods to contaminant hydrogeology research, and methods' advantages and disadvantages. As expected, there is no perfect method or tool for non-invasive imaging. However, optical methods generally present the least expensive and easiest options for imaging fluid distribution, solute and fluid flow, colloid transport, and reactions in artificial two-dimensional (2D) porous media. Gamma radiation methods present the best opportunity for characterization of fluid distributions in 2D at the Darcy scale. X-ray methods present the highest resolution and flexibility for three-dimensional (3D) natural porous media characterization, and 3D characterization of fluid distributions in natural porous media. And MRI presents the best option for 3D characterization of fluid distribution, fluid flow, colloid transport, and reaction in artificial porous media. Obvious deficiencies ripe for method development are the ability to image transient processes such as fluid flow and colloid transport in natural porous media in three

  13. Non-invasive monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine efficacy using biophotonic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz M Alam

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 10(5 bacterial colony forming units (CFU in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines.

  14. Insights into Parkinson's disease models and neurotoxicity using non-invasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Isacson, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Loss of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system causes a severe impairment in motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease and in experimental neurotoxic models of the disease. We have used non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate in vivo the changes in the dopamine system in neurotoxic models of Parkinson's disease. In addition to classic neurotransmitter studies, in these models, it is also possible to characterize associated and perhaps pathogenic factors, such as the contribution of microglia activation and inflammatory responses to neuronal damage. Functional imaging techniques are instrumental to our understanding and modeling of disease mechanisms, which should in turn lead to development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders

  15. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  16. Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy for the Noninvasive Imaging of Langerhans Cells in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Biliana; Salabert, Nina; Tricot, Sabine; Boisgard, Raphaël; Rathaux, Mélanie; Le Grand, Roger; Chapon, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new approach to visualize skin Langerhans cells by in vivo fluorescence imaging in nonhuman primates. Macaques were intradermally injected with a monoclonal, fluorescently labeled antibody against HLA-DR molecule and were imaged for up to 5 days by fibered confocal microscopy (FCFM). The network of skin Langerhans cells was visualized by in vivo fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy. Quantification of Langerhans cells revealed no changes to cell density with time. Ex vivo experiments confirmed that injected fluorescent HLA-DR antibody specifically targeted Langerhans cells in the epidermis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of single-cell, in vivo imaging as a noninvasive technique to track Langerhans cells in nontransgenic animals.

  17. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  18. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices.

  19. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  20. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin; Schibli, Roger

    2017-01-01

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  1. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  2. Non-invasive imaging of retinal blood flow in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Hansen, Mathias M; Klefter, Oliver Niels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the circulation in the retinal vessels in patients with blood dyscrasia due to myeloproliferative neoplasms using non-invasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Prospective consecutive case series of seven treatment-naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 2), polycythemia vera...... present at baseline in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and were replaced by normal patterns at follow-up. Retinopathy, in the form of cotton-wool spots and retinal haemorrhages, was found at presentation in the two patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and in one patient with polycythemia vera...

  3. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. A General Approach to the Non-Invasive Imaging of Transgenes Using Cis-Linked Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri G. Tjuvajev

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive imaging of gene expression opens new prospects for the study of transgenic animals and the implementation of genetically based therapies in patients. We have sought to establish a general paradigm to enable whole body non-invasive imaging of any transgene. We show that the expression and imaging of HSV1-tk (a marker gene can be used to monitor the expression of the LacZ gene (a second gene under the transcriptional control of a single promoter within a bicistronic unit that includes a type II internal ribosomal entry site. In cells bearing a single copy of the vector, the expression of the two genes is proportional and constant, both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that non-invasive imaging of HSV1-tk gene accurately reflects the topology and activity of the other cis-linked transgene.

  5. Chronic pelvic pain: how does noninvasive imaging compare with diagnostic laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Daniels, Jane P; Khan, Khalid S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has an annual prevalence of 38/1000 in the UK, with coexisting pathologies often present. Diagnostic laparoscopy has long been the gold standard diagnostic test, but with up to 40% showing no abnormality, we explore the value of noninvasive imaging, such as pelvic ultrasound and MRI. A literature review from inception until January 2015 of the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica database, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe were performed to identify published studies assessing the usefulness of ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy in the diagnosis of CPP. Three studies (194 women) addressed their comparative performance in patients with endometriosis, showing the sensitivity of ultrasound ranged between 58 and 88.5%; MRI was 56-91.5% and in the one study using histology as its reference standard, the sensitivity of laparoscopy was 85.7%. Noninvasive imaging has the additional benefit of being well tolerated, safer, and cheaper than surgery. CPP, by nature of its multifactorial causation, can be difficult to manage and often requires a multidisciplinary team. Ultrasound and MRI may provide information about the presence or lack of abnormality, which would allow general practitioners or office gynaecologists to initiate treatment and think about surgery as a second-line investigative tool.

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration by multiparametric MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zelong; Yan, Chenggong; Yan, Shina; Liu, Qin; Hou, Meirong; Xu, Yikai; Guo, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Numerous biodegradable hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been widely used in the field of tissue engineering. However, to non-invasively monitor hydrogel degradation and efficiently evaluate cartilage restoration in situ is still challenging. Methods: A ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-labeled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)/silk fibroin (SF)-blended hydrogel system was developed to monitor hydrogel degradation during cartilage regeneration. The physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of the hydrogel were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration of different implants were assessed using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and further confirmed by histological analysis in a rabbit cartilage defect model for 3 months. Results: USPIO-labeled hydrogels showed sufficient MR contrast enhancement and retained stability without loss of the relaxation rate. Neither the mechanical properties of the hydrogels nor the proliferation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were affected by USPIO labeling in vitro. CNC/SF hydrogels with BMSCs degraded more quickly than the acellular hydrogels as reflected by the MR relaxation rate trends in vivo. The morphology of neocartilage was noninvasively visualized by the three-dimensional water-selective cartilage MRI scan sequence, and the cartilage repair was further demonstrated by macroscopic and histological observations. Conclusion: This USPIO-labeled CNC/SF hydrogel system provides a new perspective on image-guided tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration. PMID:29464005

  7. Theranostic Iron Oxide/Gold Ion Nanoprobes for MR Imaging and Noninvasive RF Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Sajid; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2017-08-30

    This work focuses on the development of a nanoparticulate system that can be used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and E-field noninvasive radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia. For this purpose, an amine-functional gold ion complex (GIC), [Au(III)(diethylenetriamine)Cl]Cl 2 , which generates heat upon RF exposure, was conjugated to carboxyl-functional poly(acrylic acid)-capped iron-oxide nanoparticles (IO-PAA NPs) to form IO-GIC NPs of size ∼100 nm. The multimodal superparamagnetic IO-GIC NPs produced T2-contrast on MR imaging and unlike IO-PAA NPs generated heat on RF exposure. The RF heating response of IO-GIC NPs was found to be dependent on the RF power, exposure period, and particle concentration. IO-GIC NPs at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL showed a high heating response (δT) of ∼40 °C when exposed to 100 W RF power for 1 min. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements on NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and 4T1 cancer cells showed that IO-GIC NPs are cytocompatible at high NP concentrations for up to 72 h. Upon in vitro RF exposure (100 W, 1 min), a high thermal response leads to cell death of 4T1 cancer cells incubated with IO-GIC NPs (1 mg/mL). Hematoxylin and eosin imaging of rat liver tissues injected with 100 μL of 2.5 mg/mL IO-GIC NPs and exposed to low RF power of 20 W for 10 min showed significant loss of tissue morphology at the site of injection, as against RF-exposed or nanoparticle-injected controls. In vivo MR imaging and noninvasive RF exposure of 4T1-tumor-bearing mice after IO-GIC NP administration showed T2 contrast enhancement and a localized generation of high temperatures in tumors, leading to tumor tissue damage. Furthermore, the administration of IO-GIC NPs followed by RF exposure showed no adverse acute toxicity effects in vivo. Thus, IO-GIC NPs show good promise as a theranostic agent for magnetic resonance imaging and noninvasive RF hyperthermia for cancer.

  8. Non-invasive imaging technics for diagnosis in children with surgical abdominal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Koonosuke; Sato, Yutaka; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Misao

    1984-01-01

    The usefullness of non-invasive imaging technics namely CT and ultrasonography was evaluated in pediatric surgical abdominal diseases, under the categoly of A) inflammatory masses (10), B) biliary abnormalities (6), C) neoplasms (12), and D) blunt abdominal traumas (8), which were experienced at St. Marianna University Hospital from April 1978 to January 1982. According to the results of the clinical study, the plan of useful diagnostic approaches in each group by means of several imaging technics was outlined. In group A and B, ultrasonography is usually suffice for diagnosis and therapy planning, whereas in group C and D, in addition to the ultrasound, CT is sometimes required for evaluating the involvement of vascular structures and sorrounding vital structures in cases of neoplasm, and coexisting injuries in the traumas. (author)

  9. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition. (letters)

  10. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  11. Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of the effect of statins on endothelial inflammatory phenotype in early atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khanicheh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory changes on the endothelium are responsible for leukocyte recruitment to plaques in atherosclerosis. Noninvasive assessment of treatment-effects on endothelial inflammation may be of use for managing medical therapy and developing novel therapies. We hypothesized that molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU could assess treatment effects on endothelial phenotype in early atherosclerosis. METHODS: Mice with atherosclerosis produced by gene deletion of the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1-editing protein were studied. At 12 weeks of age, mice received 8 weeks of regular chow or atorvastatin-enriched chow (10 mg/kg/day. At 20 weeks, CEU molecular imaging for aortic endothelial VCAM-1 expression was performed with VCAM-1-targeted (MB(VCAM and control microbubbles (MB(Ctr. Aortic wall thickness was assessed with high frequency ultrasound. Histology, immunohistology and Western blot were used to assess plaque burden and VCAM-1 expression. RESULTS: Plaque burden was reduced on histology, and VCAM-1 was reduced on Western blot by atorvastatin, which corresponded to less endothelial expression of VCAM-1 on immunohistology. High frequency ultrasound did not detect differences in aortic wall thickness between groups. In contrast, CEU molecular imaging demonstrated selective signal enhancement for MB(VCAM in non-treated animals (MB(VCAM 2±0.3 vs MB(Ctr 0.7±0.2, p<0.01, but not in statin-treated animals (MB(VCAM 0.8±0.2 vs MB(Ctr 1.0±0.2, p = ns; p<0.01 for the effect of statin on MB(VCAM signal. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive CEU molecular imaging detects the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on endothelial inflammation in early atherosclerosis. This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients.

  12. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  13. Diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: imaging, non-invasive markers of fibrosis and liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopet, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of ‘cirrhosis’ is evolving and it is now clear that compensated and decompensated cirrhosis are completely different in terms of prognosis. Furthermore, the term ‘advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD)’ better reflects the continuum of histological changes occurring in the liver, which continue to progress even after cirrhosis has developed, and might regress after removing the etiological factor causing the liver disease. In compensated ACLD, portal hypertension marks the progression to a stage with higher risk of clinical complication and requires an appropriate evaluation and treatment. Invasive tests to diagnose cirrhosis (liver biopsy) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and endoscopy) remain of crucial importance in several difficult clinical scenarios, but their need can be reduced by using different non-invasive tests in standard cases. Among non-invasive tests, the accepted use, major limitations and major benefits of serum markers of fibrosis, elastography and imaging methods are summarized in the present review. PMID:28533906

  14. Noninvasive assessment of coronary collaterals in man by PET perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demer, L.L.; Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    At present, coronary collateralization cannot be identified or assessed noninvasively in patients. In animal studies, coronary collaterals are associated with coronary steal, defined as a regional fall in perfusion during coronary arteriolar vasodilation. To determine the effect of coronary arteriolar vasodilation on collateral bed perfusion in man, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed before and after pharmacologic coronary vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Regional myocardial activity of 82 Rb or 13 N ammonia was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and with intravenous dipyridamole/handgrip stress in 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in 25 control patients with similar CAD severity by quantitative arteriography. Regional myocardial activity decreased after dipyridamole, indicating coronary steal, in 25 of 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in only 4 of 25 control patients without angiographic collaterals. These findings suggest that developed collaterals are associated with myocardial steal in patients with CAD, allowing potential use of PET for non-invasive identification of coronary collateralization

  15. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  16. Novel Noninvasive Brain Disease Detection System Using a Facial Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain disease including any conditions or disabilities that affect the brain is fast becoming a leading cause of death. The traditional diagnostic methods of brain disease are time-consuming, inconvenient and non-patient friendly. As more and more individuals undergo examinations to determine if they suffer from any form of brain disease, developing noninvasive, efficient, and patient friendly detection systems will be beneficial. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel noninvasive brain disease detection system based on the analysis of facial colors. The system consists of four components. A facial image is first captured through a specialized sensor, where four facial key blocks are next located automatically from the various facial regions. Color features are extracted from each block to form a feature vector for classification via the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier. To thoroughly test the system and its performance, seven facial key block combinations were experimented. The best result was achieved using the second facial key block, where it showed that the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier is the most suitable. The overall performance of the proposed system achieves an accuracy −95%, a sensitivity −94.33%, a specificity −95.67%, and an average processing time (for one sample of <1 min at brain disease detection.

  17. Development of an X-ray Computed Tomography System for Non-Invasive Imaging of Industrial Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, J.; Sipaun, S. M.; Mustapha, I.; Zain, R. M.; Rahman, M. F. A.; Mustapha, M.; Shaari, M. R.; Hassan, H.; Said, M. K. M.; Mohamad, G. H. P.; Ibrahim, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique for viewing an object's inner structures in two-dimensional cross-section images without the need to physically section it. The invention of CT techniques revolutionised the field of medical diagnostic imaging because it provided more detailed and useful information than any previous non-invasive imaging techniques. The method is increasingly being used in industry, aerospace, geosciences and archaeology. This paper describes the development of an X-ray computed tomography system for imaging of industrial materials. The theoretical aspects of CT scanner, the system configurations and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. The penetrating rays from a 160 kV industrial X-ray machine were used to investigate structures that manifest in a manufactured component or product. Some results were presented in this paper

  18. Myocardial imaging in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with suspected ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Three noninvasive radioactive tracer techniques for evaluating patients with ischemic heart disease are described: (1) myocardial perfusion imaging, (2) acute infarct imaging, and (3) the gated blood pool scan. Myocardial perfusion imaging with tracers that distribute in the myocardium in relation to regional blood flow allows detection of patients with transmural and nontransmural infarction by the finding of decreased tracer concentration in the affected region of the myocardium. If these tracers are injected at the time of maximal stress to patients with significant coronary arterial stenosis but without infarction, areas of transient ischemia can be identified as zones of decreased tracer concentration not found when an examination is performed at rest. Acute infarct imaging with tracers that localize in acutely damaged tissue permits separation of patients with acute myocardial necrosis from those without infarction and those with more chronic damage. The gated blood pool scan permits assessment of left ventricular function and regional wall motion. The measurement of ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and regional wall motion adds significantly to the determination of hemodynamic variables in assessing patients with acute infarction. The technique also permits detection of right ventricular dysfunction. Performance of a combination of these radioactive tracer techniques is often advantageous, particularly in patients with suspected infarction. The techniques can establish whether infarction is present, whether it is acute, where the damage is located and how extensive it is; they can also provide a measure of the effect of this damage on left ventricular function

  19. Non-invasive assessment of vessel morphology and function in tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Jugold, Manfred; Woenne, Eva C.; Brix, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    The switch to an angiogenic phenotype is an important precondition for tumor growth, invasion and spread. Since newly formed vessels are characterized by structural, functional and molecular abnormalities, they offer promising targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies indicate that MRI is valuable to assess vessel morphology and function. It can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to improve delineation of proliferating areas within heterogeneous tumors. In addition, tracer kinetic analysis of contrast-enhanced image series allows the estimation of well-defined physiological parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and vessel permeability. Frequently, changes of these parameters during cytostatic, anti-angiogenic and radiation therapy precede tumor volume reduction. Moreover, target-specific MRI techniques can be used to elucidate the expression of angiogenic markers at the molecular level. This review summarizes strategies for non-invasive characterization of tumor vascularization by functional and molecular MRI, hereby introducing representative preclinical and clinical applications. (orig.)

  20. Noninvasive imaging of transplanted living functional cells transfected with a reporter estrogen receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Shinji [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinjit@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Furukawa, Takako [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The transplantation of functional cells such as dopaminergic cells into damaged tissue is now clinically ongoing, but at present the population of surviving cells at the transplantation site mostly cannot be noninvasively examined. To visualize surviving transplanted functional cells using a noninvasive method, we chose the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain (ERL) as a reporter molecule and 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) for its ligand. We used a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line for recipient cells as a model. To obtain ES cells that constitutively or inducibly express ERL, we transfected two types of expression vectors into EB5 parental ES cell line using the lipofection method and obtained about 30 clones for each of the two types of transfectants. Then, to examine the expression level of ERL, we performed Western blotting analysis. Ligand uptake experiments were carried out using [{sup 3}H]-estradiol with or without excessive unlabeled estradiol for control cells and ERL transfectants. Each selected clone was also used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies involving FES in nude mice transplanted with control cells and ERL transfectants. In some of the clones transfected with the inducible-type ERL gene, protein was expressed much higher than in the controls. However, constitutive-type ERL gene-transfected ES cells showed no protein production in spite of their gene expression activity being considerably high. All clones also expressed equal levels of the Oct-3/4 gene, a marker of pluripotency, in comparison with the parental cells. Also, the specific uptake of [{sup 3}H]-estradiol was over 30 times higher in inducer-treated ERL-expressing ES cells compared to untreated control cells. Finally, by performing dynamic PET imaging, we successfully visualized ERL-expressing teratomas using FES.

  1. Noninvasive imaging of transplanted living functional cells transfected with a reporter estrogen receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Shinji; Furukawa, Takako; Mori, Tetsuya; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    The transplantation of functional cells such as dopaminergic cells into damaged tissue is now clinically ongoing, but at present the population of surviving cells at the transplantation site mostly cannot be noninvasively examined. To visualize surviving transplanted functional cells using a noninvasive method, we chose the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain (ERL) as a reporter molecule and 16α-[ 18 F]-fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) for its ligand. We used a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line for recipient cells as a model. To obtain ES cells that constitutively or inducibly express ERL, we transfected two types of expression vectors into EB5 parental ES cell line using the lipofection method and obtained about 30 clones for each of the two types of transfectants. Then, to examine the expression level of ERL, we performed Western blotting analysis. Ligand uptake experiments were carried out using [ 3 H]-estradiol with or without excessive unlabeled estradiol for control cells and ERL transfectants. Each selected clone was also used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies involving FES in nude mice transplanted with control cells and ERL transfectants. In some of the clones transfected with the inducible-type ERL gene, protein was expressed much higher than in the controls. However, constitutive-type ERL gene-transfected ES cells showed no protein production in spite of their gene expression activity being considerably high. All clones also expressed equal levels of the Oct-3/4 gene, a marker of pluripotency, in comparison with the parental cells. Also, the specific uptake of [ 3 H]-estradiol was over 30 times higher in inducer-treated ERL-expressing ES cells compared to untreated control cells. Finally, by performing dynamic PET imaging, we successfully visualized ERL-expressing teratomas using FES

  2. Non-invasive quality evaluation of confluent cells by image-based orientation heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kei; Sasaki, Hiroto; Takahashi, Atsuki; Kang, Siu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, cell and tissue therapy in regenerative medicine have advanced rapidly towards commercialization. However, conventional invasive cell quality assessment is incompatible with direct evaluation of the cells produced for such therapies, especially in the case of regenerative medicine products. Our group has demonstrated the potential of quantitative assessment of cell quality, using information obtained from cell images, for non-invasive real-time evaluation of regenerative medicine products. However, image of cells in the confluent state are often difficult to evaluate, because accurate recognition of cells is technically difficult and the morphological features of confluent cells are non-characteristic. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new image-processing algorithm, heterogeneity of orientation (H-Orient) processing, to describe the heterogeneous density of cells in the confluent state. In this algorithm, we introduced a Hessian calculation that converts pixel intensity data to orientation data and a statistical profiling calculation that evaluates the heterogeneity of orientations within an image, generating novel parameters that yield a quantitative profile of an image. Using such parameters, we tested the algorithm's performance in discriminating different qualities of cellular images with three types of clinically important cell quality check (QC) models: remaining lifespan check (QC1), manipulation error check (QC2), and differentiation potential check (QC3). Our results show that our orientation analysis algorithm could predict with high accuracy the outcomes of all types of cellular quality checks (>84% average accuracy with cross-validation). Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  4. Selective isolation and noninvasive analysis of circulating cancer stem cells through Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Hossain, Md Khaled; Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hun Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-15

    Circulating cancer stem cells (CCSCs), a rare circulating tumor cell (CTC) type, recently arose as a useful resource for monitoring and characterizing both cancers and their metastatic derivatives. However, due to the scarcity of CCSCs among hematologic cells in the blood and the complexity of the phenotype confirmation process, CCSC research can be extremely challenging. Hence, we report a nanoparticle-mediated Raman imaging method for CCSC characterization which profiles CCSCs based on their surface marker expression phenotypes. We have developed an integrated combinatorial Raman-Active Nanoprobe (RAN) system combined with a microfluidic chip to successfully process complete blood samples. CCSCs and CTCs were detected (90% efficiency) and classified in accordance with their respective surface marker expression via completely distinct Raman signals of RANs. Selectively isolated CCSCs (93% accuracy) were employed for both in vitro and in vivo tumor phenotyping to identify the tumorigenicity of the CCSCs. We utilized our new method to predict metastasis by screening blood samples from xenograft models, showing that upon CCSC detection, all subjects exhibited liver metastasis. Having highly efficient detection and noninvasive isolation capabilities, we have demonstrated that our RAN-based Raman imaging method will be valuable for predicting cancer metastasis and relapse via CCSC detection. Moreover, the exclusion of peak overlapping in CCSC analysis with our Raman imaging method will allow to expand the RAN families for various cancer types, therefore, increasing therapeutic efficacy by providing detailed molecular features of tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging goes postmortem: noninvasive detection and assessment of myocardial infarction by postmortem MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackowski, Christian; Warntjes, Marcel J.B.; Persson, Anders; Berge, Johan; Baer, Walter

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the performance of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (pmMRI) in identification and characterization of lethal myocardial infarction in a non-invasive manner on human corpses. Before forensic autopsy, 20 human forensic corpses were examined on a 1.5-T system for the presence of myocardial infarction. Short axis, transversal and longitudinal long axis images (T1-weighted; T2-weighted; PD-weighted) were acquired in situ. In subsequent autopsy, the section technique was adapted to short axis images. Histological investigations were conducted to confirm autopsy and/or radiological diagnoses. Nineteen myocardial lesions were detected and age staged with pmMRI, of which 13 were histologically confirmed (chronic, subacute and acute). Six lesions interpreted as peracute by pmMRI showed no macroscopic or histological finding. Five of the six peracute lesions correlated well to coronary pathology, and one case displayed a severe hypertrophic alteration. pmMRI reliably demonstrates chronic, subacute and acute myocardial infarction in situ. In peracute cases pmMRI may display ischemic lesions undetectable at autopsy and routine histology. pmMRI has the potential to substantiate autopsy and to counteract the loss of reliable information on causes of death due to the recent disappearance of the clinical autopsy. (orig.)

  6. Noninvasive imaging of coronary arteries: current and future role of multidetector row computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, M.; Stoinova, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: This review will present the current and future role of cardiac computer tomography (CCT), and particular multidetector CCT, for imaging of atherosclerotic pathologic changes of the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis and its cardio-vascular complications represent one of the major issues of public health in industrial countries. Different imaging modalities, including invasive coronarography, have been aimed to the diagnosis of the disease, when it provokes symptomatic decrease of the blood flow. In spite of development of surgical and percutaneous methods for coronary revascularization, coronary artery disease remains the major cause of death in North America and Europe. This demonstrates the need of novel, complementary diagnostic strategies, aimed to identify asymptomatic stages as the basis of pharmacological interventions. Noninvasive coronary angiography with multidetector CT allows both assessment of luminal stenosis and subclinical disease of arterial wall. Large trails are missing now to understand and present what will be the role of this technology in the comprehensive assessment of patients, suspected of having CAD. Based on experience and current potentials we will describe how tomographic coronary imaging may eventually supplement traditional angiographic techniques in understanding the patterns of atherosclerotic CAD development

  7. Non-invasive pre-clinical MR imaging of prostate tumor hypoxia for radiation therapy prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek White

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OE-MRI changes in signal intensity related to oxygen challenge for predicting tumor response to radiation therapy.Methods: Dynamic MR signal changes were acquired using Varian 4.7T small animal MR scanner prior to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT of small (n = 6 and large subcutaneous (n = 5 prostate tumors in adult male rats. An interleaved blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD and tissue-oxygen level dependent (TOLD data acquisition or (IBT was performed using a baseline of medical air as positive control and using medical oxygen as a breathing challenge. BOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo with multi-echo sequence. TOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Voxel changes in signal intensity were determined by a correlation coefficient mapping technique. Irradiation technique planned consisted of 1F × 15 Gy AP/PA or 2F × 7.5 Gy AP/PA to the gross tumor volume (GTV. Tumor growth measurements were recorded over time to assess the response to IGRT.Results: BOLD and TOLD signals variously illustrated positive or negative impulse responses in the tumor ROI due to inhaling medical oxygen. Correlation coefficient mapping demonstrated heterogeneity in tumors after inhaling medical oxygen. BOLD and TOLD signals exhibited increased changes in signal intensities after the first fraction of dose. Multi-fractionation had minimum effect until the second fraction of dose was applied. Tumor growth delays were observed when inhaling medical oxygen during IGRT.Conclusion: OE-MRI is a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide insight to the oxygen status of tumors. Observed increase percent changes in BOLD and TOLD signal intensities after the first fraction of dose suggest tumors experienced reoxygenation. OE-MRI could be used for predicting tumor response to IGRT when using medical oxygen for increasing GTV radiosensitivity, suggesting

  8. Patient management after noninvasive cardiac imaging results from SPARC (Study of myocardial perfusion and coronary anatomy imaging roles in coronary artery disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hachamovitch, R.; Nutter, B.; Hlatky, M.A.; Shaw, L.J.; Ridner, M.L.; Dorbala, S.; Beanlands, R.S.; Chow, B.J.; Branscomb, E.; Chareonthaitawee, P.; Weigold, W.G.; Voros, S.; Abbara, S.; Yasuda, T.; Jacobs, J.E.; Lesser, J.; Berman, D.S.; Thomson, L.E.; Raman, S.; Heller, G.V.; Schussheim, A.; Brunken, R.; Williams, K.A.; Farkas, S.; Delbeke, D.; Schoepf, U.J.; Reichek, N.; Rabinowitz, S.; Sigman, S.R.; Patterson, R.; Corn, C.R.; White, R.; Kazerooni, E.; Corbett, J.; Bokhari, S.; Machac, J.; Guarneri, E.; Borges-Neto, S.; Millstine, J.W.; Caldwell, J.; Arrighi, J.; Hoffmann, U.; Budoff, M.; Lima, J.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, B.; Gaber, M.; Williams, J.A.; Foster, C.; Hainer, J.; Carli, M.F. Di

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined short-term cardiac catheterization rates and medication changes after cardiac imaging. BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used in coronary artery disease, but its effects on subsequent patient management are unclear. METHODS: We assessed the 90-day

  9. Value of magnetic resonance imaging for the noninvasive detection of stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafts and recipient coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, Susan E.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kunz, Patrik; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Lamb, Hildo J.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; de Roos, Albert

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential noninvasive diagnostic tool to detect coronary artery bypass graft stenosis, but its value in clinical practice remains to be established. We investigated the value of MRI in detecting stenotic grafts, including recipient vessels. METHODS

  10. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  11. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cesar A; Cabral, Glauber; Knight, Robert A; Ding, Guangliang; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2018-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) provides important information regarding renal physiology and nephropathies. Arterial spin labeling-magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) is a noninvasive method of measuring blood flow without exogenous contrast media. However, low signal-to-noise ratio and respiratory motion artifacts are challenges for RBF measurements in small animals. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of RBF measurements by ASL-MRI using respiratory-gating and navigator correction methods to reduce motion artifacts. ASL-MRI images were obtained from the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on a 7-Tesla Varian MRI system with a spin-echo imaging sequence. After 4 days, the study was repeated to evaluate its reproducibility. RBF was also measured in animals under unilateral nephrectomy and in renal artery stenosis (RST) to evaluate the sensitivity in high and low RBF models, respectively. RBF was also evaluated in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). In SD rats, the cortical RBFs (cRBF) were 305 ± 59 and 271.8 ± 39 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 in the right and left kidneys, respectively. Retest analysis revealed no differences ( P = 0.2). The test-retest reliability coefficient was 92 ± 5%. The cRBFs before and after the nephrectomy were 296.8 ± 30 and 428.2 ± 45 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ( P = 0.02), respectively. The kidneys with RST exhibited a cRBF decrease compared with sham animals (86 ± 17.6 vs. 198 ± 33.7 ml·min -1 ·100 g tissue -1 ; P < 0.01). The cRBFs in SD, Dahl-SS, and SHR rats were not different ( P = 0.35). We conclude that ASL-MRI performed with navigator correction and respiratory gating is a feasible and reliable noninvasive method for measuring RBF in rats.

  13. Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on the role of noninvasive imaging modalities in clinical decision making of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, I.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains ten papers on the use of noninvasive imaging in clinical diagnosis and decision making. Topics include a cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in medical technology, diagnostic uses of MRI in chronic coronary artery disease, clinical applications of cine computed tomography, the use of PET as a clinical tool, and the use of echocardiography in coronary artery disease. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  14. Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, Fabien; Jouvion, Grégory; Khun, Huot; Glomski, Ian Justin; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Rougeaux, Clémence; Tang, Wei-Jen; Mock, Michèle; Huerre, Michel; Goossens, Pierre Louis

    2011-06-01

    Powerful noninvasive imaging technologies enable real-time tracking of pathogen-host interactions in vivo, giving access to previously elusive events. We visualized the interactions between wild-type Bacillus anthracis and its host during a spore infection through bioluminescence imaging coupled with histology. We show that edema toxin plays a central role in virulence in guinea pigs and during inhalational infection in mice. Edema toxin (ET), but not lethal toxin (LT), markedly modified the patterns of bacterial dissemination leading, to apparent direct dissemination to the spleen and provoking apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Each toxin alone provoked particular histological lesions in the spleen. When ET and LT are produced together during infection, a specific temporal pattern of lesion developed, with early lesions typical of LT, followed at a later stage by lesions typical of ET. Our study provides new insights into the complex spatial and temporal effects of B. anthracis toxins in the infected host, suggesting a greater role than previously suspected for ET in anthrax and suggesting that therapeutic targeting of ET contributes to protection. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  16. Risk stratification by using non-invasive radionuclide imaging in patients with unstable angina spec tories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Unstable angina represents a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical entities between chronic stable angina and acute myocardial infraction. Acute ischemic syndromes (including unstable angina) result from abrupt reduction in coronary flow, frequently after atherosclerotic plaque disruption and with or without associated thrombosis or vasospasm. Nuclear cardiology studies and in particular, myocardial perfusion imaging are powerful noninvasive tools for detecting and assessing the severity of acute ischemic syndromes, including unstable angina pec tories. The information derived from a nuclear cardiology study can answer unresolved clinical question and aid in subsequent patient management, specifically jeopardized myocardium detected during spontaneously occurring acute chest pain or controlled stress testing are important determinant of: 1) The need for admission to an intensive care monitoring unit 2) The need for and urgency of coronary angiography 3) The appropriate use of percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization procedures. Extensive information suggests the stress nuclear perfusion imaging is the best validated technique for predischarge risk stratification with unstable angina patients who have been medically stabilized. Early information suggests avoidance of unecessary coronary angiography or revascularization is the cost effective strategy

  17. Steato-Score: Non-Invasive Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat by Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Nicole; Avigo, Cinzia; Salvati, Antonio; Martini, Nicola; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Prinster, Anna; Chiappino, Dante; Mancini, Marcello; D'Elia, Domenico; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Faita, Francesco

    2018-05-04

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming a global epidemic. The aim of this study was to develop a system for assessing liver fat content based on ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were obtained in 61 patients and the controlled attenuation parameter in 54. Ultrasound images were acquired for all 115 participants and used to calculate the hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization. The Steato-score was obtained by combining these five parameters. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization; Steato-score was dependent on hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate and diaphragm visualization. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was equal to 0.98, with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Controlled attenuation parameter values were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and Steato-score; the area under the curve was 0.79. This system could be a valid alternative as a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive assessment of intrahepatic fat. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Syntheses of Radioiodinated Pyrimidine-2,4,6-Triones as Potential Agents for Non-Invasive Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Breyholz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated expression or activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs is observed in many kinds of live-threatening diseases. Therefore, MMP imaging for example with radiolabelled MMP inhibitors (MMPIs potentially represents a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics using non-invasive single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or positron emission tomography (PET imaging. This work includes the organic chemical syntheses and in vitro evaluation of five iodinated barbiturate based MMPIs and the selection of derivative 9 for radiosyntheses of isotopologues [123I]9 potentially useful for MMP SPECT imaging and [124I]9 for MMP PET imaging.

  19. Non-invasive In Vivo Fluorescence Optical Imaging of Inflammatory MMP Activity Using an Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Johannes; Maier, Florian C; Kneilling, Manfred; Wiehr, Stefan; Fuchs, Kerstin

    2017-05-08

    This paper describes a non-invasive method for imaging matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-activity by an activatable fluorescent probe, via in vivo fluorescence optical imaging (OI), in two different mouse models of inflammation: a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHR) model. Light with a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR) window (650 - 950 nm) allows a deeper tissue penetration and minimal signal absorption compared to wavelengths below 650 nm. The major advantages using fluorescence OI is that it is cheap, fast and easy to implement in different animal models. Activatable fluorescent probes are optically silent in their inactivated states, but become highly fluorescent when activated by a protease. Activated MMPs lead to tissue destruction and play an important role for disease progression in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) such as RA and CHR. Furthermore, MMPs are the key proteases for cartilage and bone degradation and are induced by macrophages, fibroblasts and chondrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we use a probe that is activated by the key MMPs like MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13 and describe an imaging protocol for near infrared fluorescence OI of MMP activity in RA and control mice 6 days after disease induction as well as in mice with acute (1x challenge) and chronic (5x challenge) CHR on the right ear compared to healthy ears.

  20. Technetium-99m labeled antisense oligonucleotide-noninvasive tumor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, W.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stranded RNA and DNA oligonucleotides may be useful as radiopharmaceuticals for antisense and other in vivo applications if convenient methods for stably attaching radionuclides such as 99m Tc can be developed. The c-myc oncogene works in cooperation with other oncogenes in a variety of malignant tumors. The concentration of c-myc messenger RNA increases rapidly 30 to 50 fold during DNA synthesis, thus making it a suitable target for following the progression of malignancy by noninvasive imaging with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. 2 Oligonucleotide Labeling: A fresh 50mg/ml solution of sodium tartrate was prepared in sterile 0.5 M ammonium The ability of the labeled DNA to hybridize to its complement was analyzed by Sep-Pak column chromatography before and after the addition of the complementary DNA. 3 Biodistribution and Tumor Imaging Studies: A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 32 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled oncogene probes were injected intravenously. A total of 8 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled sense or antisense probes, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5hr to 24hr with a gamma camera. Results: Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. The highest accumulation of label was in the liver first, with the kidney and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion

  1. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging - non-invasive imaging for interventions; Interventionelle Magnetresonanztomographie - nichtinvasive Bildgebung fuer Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, A.; Adam, G.; Neuerburg, J.M.; Glowinski, A.; Tacke, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet

    2000-02-01

    As a prerequisite for MR-guidance of interventional procedures, instruments have to be well depicted in the MR image without obscuring or distorting the underlying anatomy. For non-vascular interventions the imaging speed has to be in the range of seconds while control of vascular interventions requires real time imaging speed. The imaging contrast has to be maintained as well as a high spatial resolution. Furthermore, sufficient patient access has to be provided by the MR scanner. Neither an ideal magnet nor the optimal single sequence are available to fulfill the above-mentioned criteria. The type of sequence - gradient echo versus spin echo - together with changing of the echo time and phase encording direction will ensure an appropriate size of the artifact and thereby of the appearance of the instrument in the MR image. The feasibility of non-vascular MR-guided interventions has been proved at field strengths ranging from 0.064 T to 1.5 T. Bone biopsies, soft tissue biopsies, drainages, and control of interstitial thermo- and cryotherapy have been reported. For vascular interventions, different real time MR strategies are currently under investigation. The development of dedicated catheters and guide wires has enabled MR-guided dilatations, stenting, placement of vena cava filters, and TIPS procedures. Considering the fast progress being made in this field, there can be no question that interventional MRI will become a well-accepted clinical tool offering potential advantages such as excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging, flow measurements, high resolution imaging of vessel walls, and lack of ionizing radiation. (orig.) [German] Zur Durchfuehrung MR-gesteuerter Interventionen muessen interventionelle Instrumente gut sichtbar, aber ohne stoerende Artefakte darstellbar sein. Die Geschwindigkeit der Bilderstellung sollte fuer nichtvaskulaere Interventionen im Sekundenbereich liegen und fuer vaskulaere Interventionen Echtzeitbildgebung liefern. Weder

  2. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2017-10-14

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling and density, but also on the distribution of substrate porosity, roughness, accessibility of pores to liquid, and even the degree of pore intrusion related to the thin layer deposition process. The method can be particularly helpful in the fields of functional coatings or membranes to allow laterally-resolved studies under realistic application conditions thereby opening completely new research avenues. The approach is demonstrated in a study of two polymers of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1 and PIM-6FDA-OH, coated on polyacrylonitrile support and immersed in water. Variations of the skin morphology using different coating methods (floating, spin-coating and dip-coating) are evaluated with the help of the presented method. Surfaces of at least tens of cm2 can be potentially analyzed.

  3. Gold nanoparticles for non-invasive cell tracking with CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rinat; Betzer, Oshra; Barnoy, Eran; Motiei, Menachem; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2018-02-01

    Cell-based therapies use living cells with therapeutic traits to treat various diseases. This is a beneficial alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot cure efficiently. However, inconsistent results in clinical trials are preventing the advancement and implementation of cell-based therapy. In order to explain such results, there is a need to discover the fate of the transplanted cells. To answer this need, we developed a technique for noninvasive in vivo cell tracking, which uses gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for CT imaging. Herein, we investigate the design principles of this technique for intramuscular transplantation of therapeutic cells. Longitudinal studies were performed, demonstrating the ability to track cells over long periods of time. As few as 500 cells could be detected and a way to quantify the number of cells visualized by CT was demonstrated. This cell-tracking technology has the potential to become an essential tool in pre-clinical studies as well as in clinical trials and advance cell therapy.

  4. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    =100mg of TAG/g of FW), and 0.97 (or=100mg of TAG/g of FW). The CAUS methodology and software for digitally analyzing liver ultrasonographic images is considered feasible for noninvasive screening of fatty liver in dairy herd health programs. Using the single parameter linear regression equation might be ideal for practical applications. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, L.; Welzel, Julia; Ciardo, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is an angiographic variation of OCT that non-invasively provides images of the in vivo microvasculature of the skin by combining conventional OCT images with flow data. The objective of this study was to investigate and report on the D.......001), and also the redness a measurements were positively correlated with the D-OCT measurements (r = 0.48; 95% CI [0.406, 0.55]). D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify morphologic changes in the vascular network consistent with the induced physiological changes of blood flow. Conclusion: This study has...... initiated validation of the use of D-OCT for imaging of skin blood flow. Our results showed that D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify changes in the skin vasculature consistent with the induced physiological blood flow changes. These basic findings support the use of D-OCT imaging for in vivo...

  6. Non-invasive retinal imaging in mice with fluorescent Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of the internal structures of the retina is critical for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of pathology as well as for medical research investigating the root causes of retinal degeneration. The aim of this thesis is to develop multi-modal non-invasive imaging technology for studying retinal degeneration and gene therapy in mice. We have constructed a FD-OCT prototype and combined it with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) to permit real time alignment of the retinal field of...

  7. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun" delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs, and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50 at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results

  8. Improved Geologic Interpretation of Non-invasive Electrical Resistivity Imaging from In-situ Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucelli, A.; Aborn, L.; Jacob, R.; Malusis, M.; Evans, J.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are useful in characterizing the subsurface geology without disturbing the environment, however, the ability to interpret the subsurface is enhanced by invasive work. Since geologic materials have electrical resistivity values it allows for a geologic interpretation to be made based on variations of electrical resistivity measured by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This study focuses on the pre-characterization of the geologic subsurface from ERI collected adjacent to the Montandon Marsh, a wetland located near Lewisburg, PA within the West Branch of the Susquehanna River watershed. The previous invasive data, boreholes, indicate that the subsurface consists of limestone and shale bedrock overlain with sand and gravel deposits from glacial outwash and aeolian processes. The objective is to improve our understanding of the subsurface at this long-term hydrologic research site by using excavation results, specifically observed variations in geologic materials and electrical resistivity laboratory testing of subsurface samples. The pre-excavation ERI indicated that the shallow-most geologic material had a resistivity value of 100-500 ohm-m. In comparison, the laboratory testing indicated the shallow-most material had the same range of electrical resistivity values depending on saturation levels. The ERI also showed that there was an electrically conductive material, 7 to 70 ohm-m, that was interpreted to be clay and agreed with borehole data, however, the excavation revealed that at this depth range the geologic material varied from stratified clay to clay with cobbles to weathered residual clay. Excavation revealed that the subtle variations in the electrical conductive material corresponded well with the variations in the geologic material. We will use these results to reinterpret previously collected ERI data from the entire long-term research site.

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of placenta-specific transgene expression by bioluminescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3. Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early

  10. Pioglitazone modulates vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic rabbits : noninvasive assessment with FDG-PET-CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, E.; Dickson, S.D.; Calcagno, C.; Rudd, J.H.F.; Moshier, E.; Hayashi, K.; Mounessa, J.S.; Roytman, M.; Moon, M.J.; Lin, J.; Tsimikas, S.; Fisher, E.A.; Nicolay, K.; Fuster, V.; Fayad, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the antiatherosclerotic properties of pioglitazone using multimethod noninvasive imaging techniques. Background Inflammation is an essential component of vulnerable or high-risk atheromas. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist,

  11. Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Zhou, Zhaoye; He, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Imaging myocardial activation from noninvasive body surface potentials promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. To investigate the ability of a noninvasive 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique for characterizing the activation patterns of dynamically changing ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in rabbits. Simultaneous body surface potential mapping and 3-dimensional intracardiac mapping were performed in a closed-chest condition in 8 rabbits. Data analysis was performed on premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and torsades de pointes (TdP) induced during intravenous administration of clofilium and phenylephrine with combinations of various infusion rates. The drug infusion led to a significant increase in the QT interval (from 175 ± 7 to 274 ± 31 ms) and rate-corrected QT interval (from 183 ± 5 to 262 ± 21 ms) during the first dose cycle. All the ectopic beats initiated by a focal activation pattern. The initial beat of TdPs arose at the focal site, whereas the subsequent beats were due to focal activity from different sites or 2 competing focal sites. The imaged results captured the dynamic shift of activation patterns and were in good correlation with the simultaneous measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65 ± 0.02 averaged over 111 ectopic beats. Sites of initial activation were localized to be ~5 mm from the directly measured initiation sites. The 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique could localize the origin of activation and image activation sequence of TdP during QT prolongation induced by clofilium and phenylephrine in rabbits. It offers the potential to noninvasively investigate the proarrhythmic effects of drug infusion and assess the mechanisms of arrhythmias on a beat-to-beat basis. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of non-invasive multispectral imaging as a tool for measuring the effect of systemic therapy in Kaposi sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana M Kainerstorfer

    Full Text Available Diffuse multi-spectral imaging has been evaluated as a potential non-invasive marker of tumor response. Multi-spectral images of Kaposi sarcoma skin lesions were taken over the course of treatment, and blood volume and oxygenation concentration maps were obtained through principal component analysis (PCA of the data. These images were compared with clinical and pathological responses determined by conventional means. We demonstrate that cutaneous lesions have increased blood volume concentration and that changes in this parameter are a reliable indicator of treatment efficacy, differentiating responders and non-responders. Blood volume decreased by at least 20% in all lesions that responded by clinical criteria and increased in the two lesions that did not respond clinically. Responses as assessed by multi-spectral imaging also generally correlated with overall patient clinical response assessment, were often detectable earlier in the course of therapy, and are less subject to observer variability than conventional clinical assessment. Tissue oxygenation was more variable, with lesions often showing decreased oxygenation in the center surrounded by a zone of increased oxygenation. This technique could potentially be a clinically useful supplement to existing response assessment in KS, providing an early, quantitative, and non-invasive marker of treatment effect.

  13. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  14. Non-invasive red light optogenetic pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging for drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac pacing could be a powerful tool for investigating mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, traditional electrical pacing using pacemaker requires an invasive surgical procedure. Electrical currents from the implanted electrodes can also cause damage to heart tissue, further restricting its utility. Optogenetic pacing has been developed as a promising, non-invasive alternative to electrical stimulation for controlling animal heart rhythms. It induces heart contractions by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins, which in turn activate the light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins in optogenetic pacing, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we performed optogenetic pacing by expression of recently engineered red-shifted microbial opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in a well-established animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, using the 617 nm stimulation light pulses. The OCM technique enables non-invasive optical imaging of animal hearts with high speed and ultrahigh axial and transverse resolutions. We integrated a customized OCM system with the optical stimulation system to monitor the optogenetic pacing noninvasively. The use of red-sifted opsins enabled deeper penetration of simulating light at lower power, which is promising for applications of optogenetic pacing in mammalian cardiac pathology studies or clinical treatments in the future.

  15. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepgras, A.; Gueckel, F.; Laemmler, B.; Weigel, R.; Schmiedek, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [de

  16. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability...... to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess...... the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8...

  17. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  18. Utility of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) to non-invasively diagnose burn depth in a porcine model☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, David M.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Yang, Bruce; Becerra, Sandra C.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Christy, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical intervention of second degree burns is often delayed because of the difficulty in visual diagnosis, which increases the risk of scarring and infection. Non-invasive metrics have shown promise in accurately assessing burn depth. Here, we examine the use of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) for predicting burn depth. Contact burn wounds of increasing severity were created on the dorsum of a Yorkshire pig, and wounds were imaged with SFDI/LSI starting immediately after-burn and then daily for the next 4 days. In addition, on each day the burn wounds were biopsied for histological analysis of burn depth, defined by collagen coagulation, apoptosis, and adnexal/vascular necrosis. Histological results show that collagen coagulation progressed from day 0 to day 1, and then stabilized. Results of burn wound imaging using non-invasive techniques were able to produce metrics that correlate to different predictors of burn depth. Collagen coagulation and apoptosis correlated with SFDI scattering coefficient parameter ( μs′) and adnexal/vascular necrosis on the day of burn correlated with blood flow determined by LSI. Therefore, incorporation of SFDI scattering coefficient and blood flow determined by LSI may provide an algorithm for accurate assessment of the severity of burn wounds in real time. PMID:26138371

  19. Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu'an; Yang Kai; Li Zhigang; Zhao Cheng; Yang Jia; Shi Chunmeng

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.

  20. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.

  1. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2014-05-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.

  2. Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Pierre, T G; Clark, P R; Chua-anusorn, W; Fleming, A; Pardoe, H; Jeffrey, G P; Olynyk, J K; Pootrakul, P; Jones, S; Moroz, P

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R 2 ) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage

  3. Non-Invasive Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Elastic Measurement of Liver Using Magnetic Resonance Tagging Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, the measurement of the stiffness of liver requires a special vibrational tool that limits its application in many hospitals. In this study, we developed a novel method for automatically assessing the elasticity of the liver without any use of contrast agents or mechanical devices. By calculating the non-rigid deformation of the liver from magnetic resonance (MR tagging images, the stiffness was quantified as the displacement of grids on the liver image during a forced exhalation cycle. Our methods include two major processes: (1 quantification of the non-rigid deformation as the bending energy (BE based on the thin-plate spline method in the spatial domain and (2 calculation of the difference in the power spectrum from the tagging images, by using fast Fourier transform in the frequency domain. By considering 34 cases (17 normal and 17 abnormal liver cases, a remarkable difference between the two groups was found by both methods. The elasticity of the liver was finally analyzed by combining the bending energy and power spectral features obtained through MR tagging images. The result showed that only one abnormal case was misclassified in our dataset, which implied our method for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis has the potential to reduce the traditional liver biopsy.

  4. Non-invasive imaging and monitoring of rodent retina using simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimalla, Peter; Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Hoefer, Aline; Wittig, Dierk; Funk, Richard; Koch, Edmund

    2011-03-01

    Spectral domain dual-band optical coherence tomography for simultaneous imaging of rodent retina in the 0.8 μm and 1.3 μm wavelength region and non-invasive monitoring of the posterior eye microstructure in the field of retinal degeneration research is demonstrated. The system is illuminated by a supercontinuum laser source and allows three-dimensional imaging with high axial resolution better than 3.8 μm and 5.3 μm in tissue at 800 nm and 1250 nm, respectively, for precise retinal thickness measurements. A fan-shaped scanning pattern with the pivot point close to the eye's pupil and a contact lens are applied to obtain optical access to the eye's fundus. First in vivo experiments in a RCS (royal college of surgeons) rat model with gene-related degeneration of the photoreceptor cells show good visibility of the retinal microstructure with sufficient contrast for thickness measurement of individual retinal layers. An enhanced penetration depth at 1250 nm is clearly identifiable revealing sub-choroidal structures that are not visible at 800 nm. Furthermore, additional simultaneous imaging at 1250 nm improves image quality by frequency compounding speckle noise reduction. These results are encouraging for time course studies of the rodent retina concerning its development related to disease progression and treatment response.

  5. Non-invasive diagnosis of isolated chylopericardium using precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131I-triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiseki, Yoshiki; Katsura, Tadahiko; Goto, Masakatsu; Kawanishi, Katsuyuki

    1982-01-01

    Chylopericardium is a rare disease and affects both sexes equally from neonate to adult. Usually, there are abnormal connections between the pericardial cavity and thoracic lymphatic systems. These connections are detected by (1) recovery of orally administered Sudan III from pericardial fluid, (2) evidence of radioactivity in the pericardial fluid by paracentesis after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein, and (3) lymphangiography. However, these method are technically difficult and invasive, thus sometimes dangerous for children. We employed precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein on a 9-year-old Japanese girl wth isolated chylopericardium before and after surgery. Abnormal connections and the back-ward flow to the pulmonary lymphatics were demonstrated by this method. This is an easy, non-invasive, reliable and safe method for detecting the abnormal connections of pericardial and lymphatic systems in children with chylopericardium. (author)

  6. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  7. Non-invasive quantitative pulmonary V/Q imaging using Fourier decomposition MRI at 1.5T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Corteville, Dominique M.R.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for quantitative pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using the Fourier Decomposition method were recently demonstrated. We combine these two techniques and show that ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imaging is possible using only a single MR acquisition of less than thirty seconds. The Fourier Decomposition method is used in combination with two quantification techniques, which extract baselines from within the images themselves and thus allows quantification. For the perfusion, a region assumed to consist of 100% blood is utilized, while for the ventilation the zero-frequency component is used. V/Q-imaging is then done by dividing the quantified ventilation map with the quantified perfusion map. The techniques were used on ten healthy volunteers and fifteen patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A mean V/Q-ratio of 1.15±0.22 was found for the healthy volunteers and a mean V/Q-ratio of 1.93±0.83 for the non-afflicted lung in the patients. Mean V/Q-ratio in the afflicted (tumor-bearing) lung was found to be 1.61±1.06. Functional defects were clearly visible in many of the patient images, but 5 of 15 patient images had to be excluded due to artifacts or low SNR, indicating a lack of robustness. Conclusion Non-invasive, quantitative V/Q-imaging is possible using Fourier Decomposition MRI. The method requires only a single acquisition of less than 30 seconds, but robustness in patients remains an issue.

  8. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  9. Non-Invasive and Minimally Invasive Imaging Evaluation of CSF Rhinorrhoea – a Retrospective Study with Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimala, Leena Robinson; Jasper, Anitha; Irodi, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Localization of a cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] fistula is a diagnostic challenge. The choice of an optimal imaging technique is necessary to locate the site of CSF leak which is required for surgical/endoscopic repair of the CSF fistula. Retrospective analysis of imaging was performed in 33 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of CSF rhinorrhoea over a period of two years. Either a bone defect on high resolution CT [HRCT] or CSF column extending extracranially from the subarachnoid space with or without brain/ meningeal herniation on magnetic resonance [MR] cisternography was considered positive for CSF leak. The MR imaging technique included 1-mm heavily T2-weighted [TR 2000 ms; TE-200 ms] fast spin echo study in coronal and sagittal planes. HRCT sections involved 0.625 to 0.8-mm sections in the coronal plane, with or without axial planes, through the paranasal sinuses, reconstructed in a sharp algorithm and acquired with the patient in prone position. Imaging findings were compared with endoscopic findings, being the gold standard for the assessment of CSF rhinorrhea. A total of 25 patients had a combination of HRCT and MR cisternography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV] and negative predictive value [NPV] of both MR cisternography and HRCT together were 93%, 100%, 100% and 50% respectively. Two patients underwent only MR cisternography, 5 patients underwent only HRCT and one patient underwent HRCT, MR cisternography and CT cisternography. Though PPV was 100% in the groups with HRCT alone, MR cisternography alone and combined CT cisternography, HRCT and MR cisternography, the results were not statistically significant as the number of patients in those groups was lower. Combination of MR cisternography and HRCT appears to be complementary, accurate and non-invasive and should be considered as optimal imaging modality for pre-op imaging in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhoea

  10. Non-invasive quantitative pulmonary V/Q imaging using Fourier decomposition MRI at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for quantitative pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using the Fourier Decomposition method were recently demonstrated. We combine these two techniques and show that ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imaging is possible using only a single MR acquisition of less than thirty seconds. The Fourier Decomposition method is used in combination with two quantification techniques, which extract baselines from within the images themselves and thus allows quantification. For the perfusion, a region assumed to consist of 100% blood is utilized, while for the ventilation the zero-frequency component is used. V/Q-imaging is then done by dividing the quantified ventilation map with the quantified perfusion map. The techniques were used on ten healthy volunteers and fifteen patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A mean V/Q-ratio of 1.15 ± 0.22 was found for the healthy volunteers and a mean V/Q-ratio of 1.93 ± 0.83 for the non-afflicted lung in the patients. Mean V/Q-ratio in the afflicted (tumor-bearing) lung was found to be 1.61 ± 1.06. Functional defects were clearly visible in many of the patient images, but 5 of 15 patient images had to be excluded due to artifacts or low SNR, indicating a lack of robustness. Non-invasive, quantitative V/Q-imaging is possible using Fourier Decomposition MRI. The method requires only a single acquisition of less than 30 seconds, but robustness in patients remains an issue. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m 2 . Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction

  12. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira, E-mail: fborelli@cardiol.br; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m{sup 2}. Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu; Norris, Jennifer L.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Williams, David R.; Carroll, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The rod photoreceptors are implicated in a number of devastating retinal diseases. However, routine imaging of these cells has remained elusive, even with the advent of adaptive optics imaging. Here, we present the first in vivo images of the contiguous rod photoreceptor mosaic in nine healthy human subjects. The images were collected with three different confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopes at two different institutions, using 680 and 775 nm superluminescent diodes for illumination. Estimates of photoreceptor density and rod:cone ratios in the 5°–15° retinal eccentricity range are consistent with histological findings, confirming our ability to resolve the rod mosaic by averaging multiple registered images, without the need for additional image processing. In one subject, we were able to identify the emergence of the first rods at approximately 190 μm from the foveal center, in agreement with previous histological studies. The rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics appear in focus at different retinal depths, with the rod mosaic best focus (i.e., brightest and sharpest) being at least 10 μm shallower than the cones at retinal eccentricities larger than 8°. This study represents an important step in bringing high-resolution imaging to bear on the study of rod disorders. PMID:21750765

  14. Image-assisted non-invasive and dynamic biomechanical analysis of human joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhit, Abdullah A; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, Jennifer M; Ward, Tom; Smith, Paul N

    2013-01-01

    Kinematic analysis provides a strong link between musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint conditions, treatment planning/monitoring and prosthesis design/outcome. However, fast and accurate 3D kinematic analysis still remains a challenge in order to translate this procedure into clinical scenarios. 3D computed tomography (CT) to 2D single-plane fluoroscopy registration is a promising non-invasive technology for biomechanical examination of human joints. Although this technique has proven to be very precise in terms of in-plane translation and rotation measurements, out-of-plane motion estimations have been a difficulty so far. Therefore, to enable this technology into clinical translation, precise and fast estimation of both in-plane and out-of-plane movements is crucial, which is the aim of this paper. Here, a fast and accurate 3D/2D registration technique is proposed to evaluate biomechanical/kinematic analysis. The proposed algorithm utilizes a new multi-modal similarity measure called ‘sum of conditional variances’, a coarse-to-fine Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach for robust gradient-descent optimization and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients for out-of-plane rotations. Computer simulations and in vitro experiments showed that the new approach was robust in terms of the capture range, required significantly less iterations to converge and achieved good registration and kinematic accuracy when compared to existing techniques and to the ‘gold-standard’ Roentgen stereo analysis. (paper)

  15. Non-invasive methods for estimating mPAP in COPD using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.S.; Capener, D.A.; Oram, C.; Wild, J.M.; Rajaram, S.; Elliot, C.; Condliffe, R.; Kiely, D.G.; Swift, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is diagnosed invasively. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) models. Patients with COPD and suspected PH, who underwent CMR and right heart catheter (RHC) were identified. Three candidate models were assessed: 1, CMR-RV model, based on right ventricular (RV) mass and interventricular septal angle; 2, CMR PA/RV includes RV mass, septal angle and pulmonary artery (PA) measurements; 3, the Alpha index, based on RV ejection fraction and PA size. Of 102 COPD patients, 87 had PH. The CMR-PA/RV model had the strongest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 92%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 96% and negative predictive value 63%, AUC 0.93, p<0.0001). Splitting RHC-mPAP, CMR-RV and CMR-PA/RV models by 35mmHg gave a significant difference in survival, with log-rank chi-squared 5.03, 5.47 and 7.10. RV mass and PA relative area change were the independent predictors of mortality at multivariate Cox regression (p=0.002 and 0.030). CMR provides diagnostic and prognostic information in PH-COPD. The CMR-PA/RV model is useful for diagnosis, the RV mass index and PA relative area change are useful to assess prognosis. (orig.)

  16. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for degenerative diseases, including ischemic heart disease is now a clinical reality. In the search for the optimal cell type for each patient category, many different stem cell subpopulations have been used. In addition, different cell processing procedures and delivery methods......, migration and efficacy of the transplanted cells. Great effort is being made in finding new and better imaging techniques for different imaging modalities, and much have already been learned. But there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we give an overview of the imaging modalities used...

  17. Quantitative, Noninvasive Imaging of DNA Damage in Vivo of Prostate Cancer Therapy by Transurethral Photoacoustic (TUPA) Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging with an optimized spectro -spatial detector configuration: theory and simulation, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., 99...with ultraviolet ( UV ) illumination, and wa- ter [13] and lipid [14] with near-infrared illumination. In fact, PAM can potentially image any molecule

  18. Invasive or non-invasive imaging for detecting high-risk coronary lesions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Patel (Kush); J. Tarkin (Jason); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E. Tenekecioglu (Erhan); N. Foin (Nicolas); Y. Zhang (Yaojun); T. Crake (Tom); J. Moon (James); A. Mathur (Anthony); C.V. Bourantas (Christos)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Introduction:_ Advances in our understanding about atherosclerotic evolution have enabled us to identify specific plaque characteristics that are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and cardiovascular events. With constant improvements in signal and image processing an

  19. MRI-Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    patients has revealed atypical gelatinous necrosis. We have coined this abnormality bevacizumab-related imaging abnormality (BRIA) and have observed that...neurologic disorders . Radiology 1986;161: 401–7. 25. Merboldt K-D, HanickeW, Frahm J. Self-diffusion NMR imaging using stimulated echoes. J Magn Reson...sensitivity and functional characterization 8 Left peripheral mid gland 3–5 o’clock Bulges the capsule, no gross extraprostatic extension Motion and

  20. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  1. Detection of Melanoma Metastases in Resected Human Lymph Nodes by Noninvasive Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Cornelis Langhout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR© multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.

  2. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  3. State of the art: noninvasive imaging and management of neurovascular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cothren C Clay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurotrauma represents a significant public health problem, accounting for a significant proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with all traumatic injuries. Both blunt and penetrating injuries to cervicocerebral vessels are significant and are likely more common than previously recognized. Imaging of such injuries is an important component in the evaluation of individuals presenting with such potential injuries, made all the more important since many of the vascular injuries are clinically silent. Management of injuries, particularly those caused by blunt trauma, is constantly evolving. This article addresses the current state of imaging and treatment of such injuries.

  4. Non-invasive airway health assessment: Synchrotron imaging reveals effects of rehydrating treatments on mucociliary transit in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye S.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Farrow, Nigel R.; Stahr, Charlene S.; Boucher, Richard C.; Fouras, Andreas; Parsons, David W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of potential cystic fibrosis (CF) therapies we have developed a novel mucociliary transit (MCT) measurement that uses synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to non-invasively measure the transit rate of individual micron-sized particles deposited into the airways of live mice. The aim of this study was to image changes in MCT produced by a rehydrating treatment based on hypertonic saline (HS), a current CF clinical treatment. Live mice received HS containing a long acting epithelial sodium channel blocker (P308); isotonic saline; or no treatment, using a nebuliser integrated within a small-animal ventilator circuit. Marker particle motion was tracked for 20 minutes using PCXI. There were statistically significant increases in MCT in the isotonic and HS-P308 groups. The ability to quantify in vivo changes in MCT may have utility in pre-clinical research studies designed to bring new genetic and pharmaceutical treatments for respiratory diseases into clinical trials.

  5. Multiparametric Functional MRI: Non-Invasive Imaging of Inflammation and Edema Formation after Kidney Transplantation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation (ktx in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used.Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping to assess graft inflammation and edema formation. To characterize graft pathology, we used PAS-staining, counted CD3-positive T-lymphocytes, analyzed leukocytes by means flow cytometry.DWI revealed progressive restriction of diffusion of water molecules in allogenic kidney grafts. This was paralleled by enhanced infiltration of the kidney by inflammatory cells. Changes in tissue diffusion were not seen following isogenic ktx. T2-times in renal cortex were increased after both isogenic and allogenic transplantation, consistent with tissue edema due to ischemic injury following prolonged cold ischemia time of 60 minutes. Lack of T2 increase in the inner stripe of the inner medulla in allogenic kidney grafts matched loss of tubular autofluorescence and may result from rejection-driven reductions in tubular water content due to tubular dysfunction and renal functional impairment.Functional MRI is a valuable non-invasive technique for monitoring inflammation, tissue edema and tubular function. It permits on to differentiate between acute rejection and ischemic renal injury in a mouse model of ktx.

  6. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  7. Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Noninvasive Risk Stratification in Tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Jouke P.; de Wilde, Koen C.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; van Dijk, Arie P.; van Melle, Joost P.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.

    IMPORTANCE Adults late after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are at risk for majorcomplications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is recommended toquantify right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function. However, a commonly usedrisk model by Khairy et al

  8. Paradox image: a noninvasive index of regional left-ventricular dyskinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Idoine, J.; Zielonka, J.; Neill, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paradox image, a functional image of regional dyskinesis derived from the equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculogram, was constructed by subtracting the background-corrected end-diastolic frame from the background-corrected end-systolic frame. In 11 patients showing dyskinesis by contrast ventriculography, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox ranged from 3.6 to 55.6% (21.44% +- 4.45 s.e.m.). In 11 patients with normokinesis and in eight patients with hypookinesis by contrast ventriculography, the left-ventricular picture elements demonstrating paradox were less than 1.1% in all cases. In nine patients with akinesis, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox was 2.05% +- 0.96 s.e.m. and was less than 2% in seven patients. There was also an excellent agreement between the location of dyskinesis on the paradox image and that by contrast ventriculography. The paradox image is a sensitive indicator of left-ventricular dyskinesis and should be useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected left-ventricular asynergy

  9. Noninvasive imaging of protein metabolic labeling in single human cells using stable isotopes and Raman microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    We have combined nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy and spectral imaging with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to selectively detect the incorporation of deuterium-labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine into proteins in intact, single HeLa cells. The C−D

  10. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  11. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging; 5. Deutsche Kardiodiagnostik-Tage 2013 mit 6. Leipziger Symposium Nichtinvasive Kardiovaskulaere Bildgebung. Herausforderungen und Grenzen der nicht-invasiven kardialen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  12. Noninvasive imaging in the assessment and prevention of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llerena Rojas, Luis Roberto; Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Valiente Mustelier, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear cardiology can all help prevent coronary heart disease. Echocardiography can identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk of coronary disease and who should receive aggressive preventative therapy by providing data on the carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. The calcium score is an independent predictor of cardiac events that influences clinical risk scores such as the Framingham risk score. By using multidetector computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for coronary angiography, it is possible to visualize both the lumen and vessel walls of coronary arteries and to discriminate between calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque before invasive coronary angiography is performed. With nuclear cardiology, the functional effects of atherosclerotic lesions can be evaluated by assessing perfusion and ventricular function simultaneously

  13. Noninvasive spectral imaging of skin chromophores based on multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Wiswadarma, Aditya; Hase, Yota; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize melanin and blood concentrations and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue, a simple imaging technique based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images acquired at six wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 580 and 600nm) was developed. The technique utilizes multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance spectra. Using the absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are deduced numerically in advance, while oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments with human skin of the human hand during upper limb occlusion and of the inner forearm exposed to UV irradiation demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin tissue.

  14. Noninvasive Label-Free Detection of Micrometastases in the Lymphatics with Ultrasound-Guided Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    imaging can be used to guide dissection. We have also successfully integrated a programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ) and tunable pulsed...Mobile HE) with the programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ). We have synchronized the signals to enable interleaved acquisition of US...transducer (L11-4v, Verasonics Inc.) and build a housing which effectively couples fiber optic light delivery. o What opportunities for training and

  15. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Ringstad

    Full Text Available Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of "true" normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43. Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26, and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97. Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate

  16. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  17. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xinyang; Hu, Yuzhu; Gu, Yueqing

    2008-05-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 °C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment.

  18. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Hu Yuzhu; Zhang Jian; Liu Fei; Chen Xinyang; Gu Yueqing; Qian Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 deg. C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment

  19. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue.

  20. Noninvasive imaging of brain oxygen metabolism in children with primary nocturnal enuresis during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Hongwei; Peng, Miao; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-05-01

    A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique. Neurological evaluation, structural imaging, phase-contrast, and the TRUST imaging method were applied in children with PNE (n = 37) and healthy age- and sex-matched control volunteers (n = 39) during natural sleep to assess whole-brain CMRO 2 , CBF, OEF, and arousal from sleep scores. Results showed that whole-brain CMRO 2 and OEF values of PNE children were higher in controls, while there was no significant difference in CBF. Consequently, OEF levels of PNE children were increased to maintain oxygen supply. The elevation of OEF was positively correlated with the difficulty of arousal. Our results provide the first evidence that high oxygen consumption and high OEF values could make PNE children more susceptible to hypoxia, which may induce cumulative arousal deficits and make them more prone to nocturnal enuresis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2532-2539, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  2. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  3. Noninvasive imaging of tumor integrin expression using 18F-labeled RGD dimer peptide with PEG4 linkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaofei; Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Fan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Various radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides have been previously investigated for tumor integrin α v β 3 imaging. To further develop RGD radiotracers with enhanced tumor-targeting efficacy and improved in vivo pharmacokinetics, we designed a new RGD homodimeric peptide with two PEG 4 spacers (PEG 4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) between the two monomeric RGD motifs and one PEG 4 linker on the glutamate α-amino group ( 18 F-labeled PEG 4 -E[PEG 4 -c(RGDfK)] 2 , P-PRGD2), as a promising agent for noninvasive imaging of integrin expression in mouse models. P-PRGD2 was labeled with 18 F via 4-nitrophenyl 2- 18 F-fluoropropionate ( 18 F-FP) prosthetic group. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of the new dimeric RGD peptide tracer 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 were investigated and compared with those of 18 F-FP-P-RGD2 ( 18 F-labeled RGD dimer without two PEG 4 spacers between the two RGD motifs). The ability of 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 to image tumor vascular integrin expression was evaluated in a 4T1 murine breast tumor model. With the insertion of two PEG 4 spacers between the two RGD motifs, 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 showed enhanced integrin α v β 3 -binding affinity, increased tumor uptake and tumor-to-nontumor background ratios compared with 18 F-FP-P-RGD2 in U87MG tumors. MicroPET imaging with 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 revealed high tumor contrast and low background in tumor-bearing nude mice. Biodistribution studies confirmed the in vivo integrin α v β 3 -binding specificity of 18 F-FP-P-RGD2. 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 can specifically image integrin α v β 3 on the activated endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 can provide important information on integrin expression on the tumor vasculature. The high integrin binding affinity and specificity, excellent pharmacokinetic properties and metabolic stability make the new RGD dimeric tracer 18 F-FP-P-PRGD2 a promising agent for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis and for monitoring the efficacy of antiangiogenic

  4. Noninvasive quantification of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity by Markovian analysis in SPECT nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and third of these deaths are caused by coronary artery disease and rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The heterogeneous alteration of the coronary microcirculation is an early phenomenon associated with many cardiovascular risk factors that can strongly predict the subsequent development of coronary artery disease, and lead to the appearance of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity. Nuclear medicine allows the study of myocardial perfusion in clinical routine through scintigraphic scans performed after injection of a radioactive tracer of coronary blood flow. Analysis of scintigraphic perfusion images currently allows the detection of myocardial ischemia, but the ability of the technique to measure the perfusion heterogeneity in apparently normally perfused areas is unknown. The first part of this thesis focuses on a retrospective clinical study to determine the feasibility of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity quantification measured by Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. The clinical study has demonstrated the ability of routine thallium-201 SPECT imaging to quantify greater myocardial perfusion heterogeneity in diabetic patients compared with normal subjects. The second part of this thesis tests the hypothesis that the myocardial perfusion heterogeneity could be quantified in small animal SPECT imaging by Thallium-201 and/or Technetium-99m-MIBI in an experimental study using two animal models of diabetes, and is correlated with histological changes. The lack of difference in myocardial perfusion heterogeneity between control and diabetic animals suggests that animal models are poorly suited, or that the technology currently available does not seem satisfactory to obtain similar results as the clinical study. (author)

  5. Double contrast barium enema combined with non-invasive imaging in peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Bellomi, M.; Frigerio, L.F.; Ostinelli, C.; Marchiano, A.; Petrillo, R.; Severini, A.; Milan Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from serosal linings of the major serous cavities. Five patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and ultrasonography (US) (2 patients), computed tomography (CT) (3 patients) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3 patients). The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The radiologic pattern at DCBE is unspecific and consists of compression and dislocation of bowel loops by extrinsic masses. Mesenteric retraction and segmental stenosis may be present. In one patient DCBE was normal. US, CT and MRI findings are also unspecific but when combined with information obtained from DCBE the site and abdominal extension of the disease are well defined. (orig.)

  6. Characterizing the inflammatory tissue response to acute myocardial infarction by clinical multimodality noninvasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Tim; Roentgen, Philipp; Schäfer, Andreas; Schatka, Imke; Zwadlo, Caroline; Brunkhorst, Thomas; Berding, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann; Bengel, Frank M

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response which determines subsequent healing. Experimentally, cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used successfully to obtain mechanistic insights. We explored the translational potential in patients early after MI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance were performed in 15 patients sources of inflammatory cells. Positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance multimodality characterization of the acutely infarcted, inflamed myocardium may provide multiparametric end points for clinical studies aiming at support of infarct healing. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Non-invasive ultrasound-based temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency heating-phantom results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, M J; Varghese, T; Madsen, E L; Zagzebski, J A

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapies (such as radiofrequency ablation) are becoming more commonly used in the United States for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas and liver metastases. Unfortunately, these procedures suffer from high recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (∼34-55%) or metastases following ablation therapy. The ability to perform real-time temperature imaging while a patient is undergoing radiofrequency ablation could provide a significant reduction in these recurrence rates. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasound-based temperature imaging on a tissue-mimicking phantom undergoing radiofrequency heating. Ultrasound echo signals undergo time shifts with increasing temperature, which are tracked using 2D correlation-based speckle tracking methods. Time shifts or displacements in the echo signal are accumulated, and the gradient of these time shifts are related to changes in the temperature of the tissue-mimicking phantom material using a calibration curve generated from experimental data. A tissue-mimicking phantom was developed that can undergo repeated radiofrequency heating procedures. Both sound speed and thermal expansion changes of the tissue-mimicking material were measured experimentally and utilized to generate the calibration curve relating temperature to the displacement gradient. Temperature maps were obtained, and specific regions-of-interest on the temperature maps were compared to invasive temperatures obtained using fiber-optic temperature probes at the same location. Temperature elevation during a radiofrequency ablation procedure on the phantom was successfully tracked to within ±0.5 0 C

  8. Non-invasive perfusion imaging by modified STAR using asymmetric inversion slabs (ASTAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tokunori

    2000-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) such as STAR, EPISTAR, and FAIR have been used as imaging techniques of tissue perfusion and blood vessels (in MRA). We have developed 'ASTAR', a modified version of STAR by using asymmetric inversion slabs. ASTAR solves the problems of suppression of venous inflow and subtraction error of stationary tissue signal caused by the imbalance of signal variations. The signal variations are dependent on MT effects. In order to avoid overlapping the control slab to the tissue (including large veins), the control and tag slabs are arranged asymmetrically to preserve the same offset of modulation frequency. We evaluated both the subtraction error caused by the MT effects, and the imperfection of an IR slab using a stationary phantom. We then measured the vessel signal on the brain of a volunteer, using the above methods. Two indexes were used for the evaluation: ASL signal to control signal ratio (ASLR [%]=100*deltaS/S cont ) and ASL signal to noise ratio (ASLNR=delatS/Noise) where deltaS=|S cont -S tag |. Phantom study: each ASLR and ASLNR between ASTAR and EPISTAR was comparable and showed a decrease in noise signal level. This means that the ASL signal from the stationary tissue with an imbalance in MT effects and the imperfection in inversion slab profiles were cancelled out almost perfectly. When calculating CBF, ASLR for zero perfusion stationary tissue should be below 0.1%. We were able to satisfy this requirement in our ASTAR experiment. ASLR and ASLNR in FAIR were 40% larger than in EPISTAR and ASTAR. Volunteer brain study: compared with each ASL image, the MT effects were cancelled out in EPISTAR and ASTAR. Veins (sagittal sinus etc) disappeared in STAR and ASTAR, but were visible in EPISTAR and FAIR. Perfusion signals were similar in ASTAR and EPISTAR, indicating that both cancellation of MT effects and venous inflow from the opposite side of the tag were suppressed in ASTAR. In conclusion, ASTAR is a practical method to image blood

  9. Noninvasive imaging of malignant tumors using laminin peptide fragments YIGSR labeled with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; Hu, J.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals that localize specifically at certain sites (such as peptides directed against receptors expressed on tumor cells or antibodies with high binding affinities for bacterial determinants) may be expected to display greater specificity of localization. Peptides, which diffuse rapidly into target lesions and clear rapidly elsewhere, may be expected to enjoy a pharmacokinetic advantage over those, such as antibodies, which accumulate and clear more slowly. The laminin peptide fragments YIGSR is known to bind to a 67-kDa laminin receptor. This receptor is understood to be expressed at higher than normal levels in malignant tumor cells, particularly those of breast and colon carcinomas. Methods 1 peptide conjugation and labeling A 2.5 mg/mL solution of YIGSR in 0.1 M N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, pH8.0, and a fresh 10mg/mL solution of NHS-S-acetyl-MAG 3 in dimethylformamide dried over molecular sieve were prepared. 2 biodistribution and imaging studies A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich (breast) carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 40 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR were injected intravenously. A total of 10 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5 hr to 24 hr with a gamma camera. The identical imaging procedure was also performed in mice with sterile infection/inflammation lesions to evaluate the specificity. Results Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The highest accumulation of label was in the kidney first, with the liver and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion as early as 15 min and reached a saturation value at 3

  10. Dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging: a valuable method in the noninvasive diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijkman, Paul R M; Kuijpers, Dirkjan A; Blom, Bernadette M; van Herpen, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the clinical applicability of dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging (DS-MRI) for the detection of myocardial ischemia and myocardial viability. One hundred patients with suspected coronary artery disease and inconclusive exercise electrocardiography or significant repolarization abnormalities on the resting ECG underwent breath hold DS-MRI (1 Tesla), 4 days after cessation of anti-ischemic medication. Three left ventricular short axis planes were imaged at increasing doses of dobutamine. Recovery of wall thickening in a previously diminished or non contracting segment at low dose dobutamine was considered proof of viability. Development of hypo-, a- or dyskinesia at higher doses of dobutamine was taken to indicate ischemia. If the DS-MRI test was positive for ischemia, coronary angiography was performed. If indicated, this was followed by revascularization. If DS-MRI did not demonstrate ischemia, neither angiography nor revascularization were carried out. Ninety five DS-MRI investigations were available for diagnosis. Forty two patients had DS-MRI scans positive for ischemia and subsequently coronary angiography assessment of the clinical applicability of DS-MRI for the detection of myocardial ischemia was performed. One patient was false-positive. All 53 patients with non-ischemic DS-MRI scans had follow-up for 11-23 months (mean 17 months). One patient died suddenly 2 weeks after the MRI-test. The other 52 patients did not experience any coronary event nor sudden cardiac death. The predictive value of a positive (for ischemia) DS-MRI test is 98% and the predictive value of a negative DS-MRI test is also 98%.

  11. Noninvasive staging of lung cancer. Indications and limitations of gallium-67 citrate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekerman, C.; Caride, V.J.; Hoffer, P.B.; Boles, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the hila and mediastinum with 67Ga scans are contradictory, as are the recommendations by different investigators on the use of 67Ga scintigraphy in the clinical evaluation of patients with primary lung carcinoma. Nevertheless, the economy and logistic simplicity of evaluating local and distant metastases with a single imaging procedure are attractive, especially because the symptoms may not enable the physician to make a correct identification of the organ systems affected by metastases. Neumann and Hoffer state that at present conventional Ga-67 scanning techniques cannot be recommended for preoperative staging of mediastinal lymph node metastases in lung cancer patients. According to Waxman, 67Ga scintigraphy, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of a tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities may be poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for detection of mediastinal lesions suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. The results obtained locally are probably the best guide for individual physicians in the selection of diagnostic tests for their patients. Gallium scans may thus be helpful in the clinical evaluation of patients with lung cancer. Although gallium scans identify mediastinal node involvement, there is considerable controversy over the relationship between the sensitivity and specificity of the method. By detecting distant extrathoracic metastases, the 67Ga scan may identify a small group of patients who can be spared a needless operation. 92 references

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of cancer therapy induced activated T cells using [18F]FB-IL-2 PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, S V; Draghiciu, O; van de Wall, S; Manuelli, V; Dierckx, R A J O; Nijman, H W; Daemen, T; de Vries, E F J

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy urgently calls for methods to monitor immune responses at the site of the cancer. Since activated T lymphocytes may serve as a hallmark for anticancer responses, we targeted these cells using the radiotracer N-(4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoyl)-interleukin-2 ([ 18 F]FB-IL-2) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thus, we noninvasively monitored the effects of local tumor irradiation and/or immunization on tumor-infiltrating and systemic activated lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice. A 10- and 27-fold higher [ 18 F]FB-IL-2 uptake was observed in tumors of mice receiving tumor irradiation alone or in combination with immunization, respectively. This increased uptake was extended to several non-target tissues. Administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reduced tracer uptake by 2.8-fold, indicating a CXCR4-dependent infiltration of activated T lymphocytes upon cancer treatment. In conclusion, [ 18 F]FB-IL-2 PET can serve as a clinical biomarker to monitor treatment-induced infiltration of activated T lymphocytes and, on that basis, may guide cancer immunotherapies.

  13. Feasibility study of the non-invasive estimation of the β+ arterial input function for human PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, X.

    2009-12-01

    This work deals with the estimation of the concentration of molecules in arterial blood which are labelled with positron-emitting radioelements. This concentration is called 'β + arterial input function'. This concentration has to be estimated for a large number of pharmacokinetic analyses. Nowadays it is measured through series of arterial sampling, which is an accurate method but requiring a stringent protocol. Complications might occur during arterial blood sampling because this method is invasive (hematomas, nosocomial infections). The objective of this work is to overcome this risk through a non-invasive estimation of β + input function with an external detector and a collimator. This allows the reconstruction of blood vessels and thus the discrimination of arterial signal from signals in other tissues. Collimators in medical imaging are not adapted to estimate β + input function because their sensitivity is very low. During this work, they are replaced by coded-aperture collimators, originally developed for astronomy. New methods where coded apertures are used with statistical reconstruction algorithms are presented. Techniques for analytical ray-tracing and for the acceleration of reconstructions are proposed. A new method which decomposes reconstructions on temporal sets and on spatial sets is also developed to efficiently estimate arterial input function from series of temporal acquisitions. This work demonstrates that the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution in PET can be improved thanks to coded aperture collimators and statistical reconstruction algorithm; it also provides new tools to implement such improvements. (author)

  14. Burn-injured tissue detection for debridement surgery through the combination of non-invasive optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Juesas, Juan; Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Lu, Yang; Squiers, John J; King, Darlene; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A

    2018-04-01

    The process of burn debridement is a challenging technique requiring significant skills to identify the regions that need excision and their appropriate excision depths. In order to assist surgeons, a machine learning tool is being developed to provide a quantitative assessment of burn-injured tissue. This paper presents three non-invasive optical imaging techniques capable of distinguishing four kinds of tissue-healthy skin, viable wound bed, shallow burn, and deep burn-during serial burn debridement in a porcine model. All combinations of these three techniques have been studied through a k-fold cross-validation method. In terms of global performance, the combination of all three techniques significantly improves the classification accuracy with respect to just one technique, from 0.42 up to more than 0.76. Furthermore, a non-linear spatial filtering based on the mode of a small neighborhood has been applied as a post-processing technique, in order to improve the performance of the classification. Using this technique, the global accuracy reaches a value close to 0.78 and, for some particular tissues and combination of techniques, the accuracy improves by 13%.

  15. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of rotator cuff tears using a microscopy coil. Noninvasive detection without intraarticular contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi, Shin; Takase, Kei; Higano, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shoki; Tanaka, Minoru; Tojo, Yuichi; Tabata, Shiro; Majima, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a microscopy coil for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears by comparing the method to conventional MRI and MRI arthrography. A total of 68 shoulders were prospectively studied using a 1.5-T MRI unit. Conventional MRI scans were obtained with a surface coil and high-resolution MRI scans with a microscopy coil. MRI arthrography was performed in 28 shoulders using a surface coil. MRI evaluation of tears of rotator cuff tendons was compared with arthroscopic findings and surgical results. The surgery revealed 40 full-thickness tears, 13 partial-thickness tears, and 15 intact cuffs. In all, 35 (88%) full-thickness tears were correctly diagnosed on conventional MRI and 40 (100%) on high-resolution MRI. MR arthrography delineated 11 of 12 (92%) full-thickness tears. Altogether, 5 (38%) of the partial-thickness tears were detected on conventional MRI, and 12 (92%) were clearly demonstrated on high-resolution MRI. MRI arthrography depicted three (60%) of five partial-thickness tears. High-resolution MRI showed higher sensitivity than conventional MRI (P<0.05) and had values equivalent to those of MRI arthrography for diagnosing partial-thickness tears. High-resolution MRI with a microscopy coil is a feasible, noninvasive technique for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. (author)

  17. Noninvasive measurements of cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolites in dilated cardiomyopathy by using 31P spectroscopic chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, A.; Rzanny, R.; Heyne, J.-P.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Kaiser, W.A.; Leder, U.

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is accompanied by an impaired cardiac energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic ratios in patients with DCM compared to controls by using spectroscopic two-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D-CSI). Twenty volunteers and 15 patients with severe symptoms (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF 30%) of DCM were investigated. Cardiac 31 P MR 2D-CSI measurements (voxel size: 40 x 40 x 100 mm 3 ) were performed with a 1.5 T whole-body scanner. Measurement time ranged from 15 min to 30 min. Peak areas and ratios of different metabolites were evaluated, including high-energy phosphates (PCr, ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and phosphodiesters (PDE). In addition, we evaluated how PCr/ATP ratios correlate with LVEF as an established prognostic factor of heart failure. The PCr/γ-ATP ratio was significantly decreased in patients with moderate and severe DCM and showed a linear correlation with reduced LVEFs. PDE/ATP ratios were significantly increased only in patients with severe DCM as compared to volunteers. Applying 31 P MRS with commonly-available 2D-CSI sequences is a valuable technique to evaluate DCM by determining PCr/ATP ratios noninvasively. In addition to reduced PCr/ATP ratios observed in patients suffering from DCM, significantly-increased PDE/ATP ratios were found in patients with severe DCM. (orig.)

  18. Non-invasive imaging of tumors by monitoring autotaxin activity using an enzyme-activated near-infrared fluorogenic substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Madan

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX, an autocrine motility factor that is highly upregulated in metastatic cancer, is a lysophospholipase D enzyme that produces the lipid second messenger lysophosphatidic acid (LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC. Dysregulation of the lysolipid signaling pathway is central to the pathophysiology of numerous cancers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the ATX/LPA pathway has emerged as an important source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Herein we describe development and validation of a fluorogenic analog of LPC (AR-2 that enables visualization of ATX activity in vivo. AR-2 exhibits minimal fluorescence until it is activated by ATX, which substantially increases fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR region, the optimal spectral window for in vivo imaging. In mice with orthotopic ATX-expressing breast cancer tumors, ATX activated AR-2 fluorescence. Administration of AR-2 to tumor-bearing mice showed high fluorescence in the tumor and low fluorescence in most healthy tissues with tumor fluorescence correlated with ATX levels. Pretreatment of mice with an ATX inhibitor selectively decreased fluorescence in the tumor. Together these data suggest that fluorescence directly correlates with ATX activity and its tissue expression. The data show that AR-2 is a non-invasive and selective tool that enables visualization and quantitation of ATX-expressing tumors and monitoring ATX activity in vivo.

  19. Noninvasive Localization of Accessory Pathways in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Strain Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Omran, Mohammad Taghi Salehi; Maleki, Majid; Haghjoo, Majid; Noohi, Feridoun; Haghighi, Zahra Ojaghi; Sadeghpour, Anita; Davari, Paridokht Nakhostin; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive techniques for the localization of the accessory pathways (APs) might help guide mapping procedures and ablation techniques. We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of strain imaging for the localization of the APs in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Methods: We prospectively studied 25 patients (mean age = 32 ± 17 years, 58.3% men) with evidence of pre-excitation on electrocardiography (ECG). Electromechanical interval was defined as the time difference between the onset of delta wave and the onset of regional myocardial contraction. Time differences between the onset of delta wave (δ) and the onset of regional myocardial contraction (δ-So), peak systolic motion (δ-Sm), regional strain (δ-ε), peak strain (δ-εp), and peak strain rate (δ-SRp) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between time to onset of delta wave to onset of peak systolic motion (mean ± SD) in the AP location (A) and normal segments (B) versus that in the normal volunteers (C) [A: (57.08 ± 23.88 msec) vs. B: (75.20 ± 14.75) vs. C: (72.9 0 ± 11.16); p value (A vs. B) = 0.004 and p value (A vs. C) = 0.18] and [A: (49.17 ± 35.79) vs. B: (67.60 ± 14.51) vs. C: (67.40 ± 6.06 msec); p value (A vs. B) < 0.001 and p value (A vs. C) = 0.12, respectively]. Conclusion: Our study showed that strain imaging parameters [(δ-So) and (δ-Strain)] are superior to the ECG in the localization of the APs (84% vs. 76%). PMID:23967027

  20. Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasively Detects Renal Fibrosis in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Ferguson, Christopher M; Woollard, John R; Zhu, Xiangyang; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-11-01

    Renal fibrosis is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic interventions of renal diseases but often requires invasive testing. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI), which evaluates the presence of macromolecules, offers a noninvasive tool to probe renal fibrosis in murine renal artery stenosis (RAS) at 16.4 T. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS). To select the appropriate offset frequency, an MT-MRI study was performed on a phantom containing 0% to 40% collagen I and III with offset frequencies from -1600 to +1600 Hz and other MT parameters empirically set as pulse width at 16 milliseconds and flip angle at 800 degrees. Then selected MT parameters were used in vivo on pigs 12 weeks after sham (n = 8) or RAS (n = 10) surgeries. The ARAS pigs were fed with high-cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The MT ratio (MTR) was compared with ex vivo renal fibrosis measured using Sirius-red staining. Offset frequencies at 600 and 1000 Hz were selected for collagen detection without direct saturation of free water signal, and subsequently applied in vivo. The ARAS kidneys showed mild cortical and medullary fibrosis by Sirius-red staining. The cortical and medullary MTRs at 600 and 1000 Hz were both increased. Renal fibrosis measured ex vivo showed good linear correlations with MTR at 600 (cortex: Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.87, P 3.0 T. Therefore, MT-MRI may potentially be clinically applicable and useful for detection and monitoring of renal pathology in subjects with RAS.

  1. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharuddin, Mohammad; Bera, Sumanta Kr; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermal fluctuation patterns occurring at the ocular surface of the left and right eyes for aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients and control subjects by thermal imaging. We conducted our experiment on 42 patients (84 eyes) with aqueous deficient dry eyes and compared with 36 healthy volunteers (72 eyes) without any history of ocular surface disorder. Schirmer's test, Tear Break-up Time, tear Meniscus height and fluorescein staining tests were conducted. Ocular surface temperature measurement was done, using an FL-IR thermal camera and thermal fluctuation in left and right eyes was calculated and analyzed using MATLAB. The time series containing the sum of squares of the temperature fluctuation on the ocular surface were compared for aqueous deficient dry eye and control subjects. Significant statistical difference between the fluctuation patterns for control and ADDE was observed (p eyes are significantly correlated in controls but not in ADDE subjects. The possible origin of such correlation in control and lack of correlation in the ADDE subjects is discussed in the text. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmes, D.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.

    1998-01-01

    annual SAGEEP conference (Shi et al., 1998). The authors have developed algorithms for forward modeling and inversion of spectral IP data in 3-D media. The algorithms accommodate a general earth model with a complex electrical conductivity as a function of frequency and 3-D spatial position. Using regularization and optimization techniques, the inversion algorithm obtains a 3-D image of resistivity amplitude and phase for each frequency contained in the data set. They have begun testing their algorithms on synthetic data generated from a simple model of a contaminant plume. The complex resistivity parameters of the background medium and plume are based on the laboratory results described above.'

  3. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  4. A matter of collection and detection for intraoperative and noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging: To see or not to see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although fluorescence molecular imaging is rapidly evolving as a new combinational drug/device technology platform for molecularly guided surgery and noninvasive imaging, there remains no performance standards for efficient translation of “first-in-humans” fluorescent imaging agents using these devices. Methods: The authors employed a stable, solid phantom designed to exaggerate the confounding effects of tissue light scattering and to mimic low concentrations (nM–pM) of near-infrared fluorescent dyes expected clinically for molecular imaging in order to evaluate and compare the commonly used charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems employed in preclinical studies and in human investigational studies. Results: The results show that intensified CCD systems offer greater contrast with larger signal-to-noise ratios in comparison to their unintensified CCD systems operated at clinically reasonable, subsecond acquisition times. Conclusions: Camera imaging performance could impact the success of future “first-in-humans” near-infrared fluorescence imaging agent studies. PMID:24506637

  5. Non-invasive diagnostic method using the phase image for the Kent fiber position in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Makino, Katsutoshi; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Futagami, Yasuo; Hamada, Masayuki (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    Gated blood pool scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-RBC was performed in patients with WPW syndrome and healthy controls. The contraction of the normal ventricle and the Kent fiber position in cases of WPW syndrome were observed on the phase image obtained by Fourier-transformation of the time activity curve. This method is considered to be more valuable than the other non-invasive procedures in cases of WPW syndrome, especially in the preoperative examination for transecting Kent fibers.

  6. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of arthritis in a collagen-induced murine model with phosphatidylserine-binding near-infrared (NIR) dye

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Marion M; Gray, Brian D; Pak, Koon Y; Fong, Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Development of non-invasive molecular imaging techniques that are based on cellular changes in inflammation has been of active interest for arthritis diagnosis. This technology will allow real-time detection of tissue damage and facilitate earlier treatment of the disease, thus representing an improvement over X-rays, which detect bone damage at the advanced stage. Tracing apoptosis, an event occurring in inflammation, has been a strategy used. PSVue 794 is a low-molecular-weight...

  7. Noninvasive Imaging of Retinal Morphology and Microvasculature in Obese Mice Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Chao, Jennifer R.; Wietecha, Tomasz; Hudkins, Kelly L.; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate early diabetes-induced changes in retinal thickness and microvasculature in a type 2 diabetic mouse model by using optical coherence tomography (OCT)/optical microangiography (OMAG). Methods. Twenty-two-week-old obese (OB) BTBR mice (n = 10) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n = 10) were imaged. Three-dimensional (3D) data volumes were captured with spectral domain OCT using an ultrahigh-sensitive OMAG scanning protocol for 3D volumetric angiography of the retina and dense A-scan protocol for measurement of the total retinal blood flow (RBF) rate. The thicknesses of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) and that of the NFL to the inner plexiform layer (IPL) were measured and compared between OB and WT mice. The linear capillary densities within intermediate and deep capillary layers were determined by the number of capillaries crossing a 500-μm line. The RBF rate was evaluated using an en face Doppler approach. These quantitative measurements were compared between OB and WT mice. Results. The retinal thickness of the NFL to IPL was significantly reduced in OB mice (P < 0.01) compared to that in WT mice, whereas the NFL thickness between the two was unchanged. 3D depth-resolved OMAG angiography revealed the first in vivo 3D model of mouse retinal microcirculation. Although no obvious differences in capillary vessel densities of the intermediate and deep capillary layers were detected between normal and OB mice, the total RBF rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in OB mice than in WT mice. Conclusions. We conclude that OB BTBR mice have significantly reduced NFL–IPL thicknesses and total RBF rates compared with those of WT mice, as imaged by OCT/OMAG. OMAG provides an unprecedented capability for high-resolution depth-resolved imaging of mouse retinal vessels and blood flow that may play a pivotal role in providing a noninvasive method for detecting early microvascular changes in patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24458155

  8. A preclinical model for noninvasive imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression; comparison with an exogenous marker of tumor hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bixiu; Burgman, Paul; Zanzonico, Pat; O' Donoghue, Joseph; Li, Gloria C.; Ling, C. Clifton [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York (United States); Cai Shangde; Finn, Ron [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Serganova, Inna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States); Blasberg, Ronald; Gelovani, Juri [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Hypoxia is associated with tumor aggressiveness and is an important cause of resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Assays of tumor hypoxia could provide selection tools for hypoxia-modifying treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a rodent tumor model with a reporter gene construct that would be transactivated by the hypoxia-inducible molecular switch, i.e., the upregulation of HIF-1. The reporter gene construct is the herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the regulation of an artificial hypoxia-responsive enhancer/promoter. In this model, tumor hypoxia would up-regulate HIF-1, and through the hypoxia-responsive promoter transactivate the HSV1-tkeGFPfusion gene. The expression of this reporter gene can be assessed with the {sup 124}I-labeled reporter substrate 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ({sup 124}I-FIAU), which is phosphorylated by the HSV1-tk enzyme and trapped in the hypoxic cells. Animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and phosphor plate imaging (PPI) were used in this study to visualize the trapped {sup 124}I-FIAU, providing a distribution of the hypoxia-induced molecular events. The distribution of {sup 124}I-FIAU was also compared with that of an exogenous hypoxic cell marker, {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). Our results showed that {sup 124}I-FIAU microPET imaging of the hypoxia-induced reporter gene expression is feasible, and that the intratumoral distributions of {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO are similar. In tumor sections, detailed radioactivity distributions were obtained with PPI which also showed similarity between {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO. This reporter system is sufficiently sensitive to detect hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation by noninvasive imaging and might provide a valuable tool in studying tumor hypoxia and in validating existing and future

  9. 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Precisely and Noninvasively Reflects Inflammation and Remodeling of the Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Antisynthetase Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sciorati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myopathies comprise heterogeneous disorders. Their etiopathogenesis is poorly understood, because of the paucity of informative experimental models and of approaches for the noninvasive study of inflamed tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides information about the state of the skeletal muscle that reflects various facets of inflammation and remodeling. This technique has been scarcely used in experimental models of inflammatory myopathies. We characterized the performance of MRI in a well-established mouse model of myositis and the antisynthetase syndrome, based on the immunization of wild-type mice with the amino-terminal fragment of histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS. Over an eight-week period following myositis induction, MRI enabled precise identification of pathological events taking place in muscle tissue. Areas of edema and of active inflammation identified by histopathology paralleled muscle modifications detected noninvasively by MRI. Muscles changes were chronologically associated with the establishment of autoimmunity, as reflected by the development of anti-HisRS antibodies in the blood of immunized mice. MR imaging easily appreciated muscle damage and remodeling even if actual disruption of myofiber integrity (as assessed by serum concentrations of creatinine phosphokinase was limited. Thus, MR imaging represents an informative and noninvasive analytical tool for studying in vivo immune-mediated muscle involvement.

  10. 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Precisely and Noninvasively Reflects Inflammation and Remodeling of the Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Antisynthetase Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciorati, Clara; Esposito, Antonio; Campana, Lara; Canu, Tamara; Monno, Antonella; Palmisano, Anna; De Cobelli, Francesco; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Ascheman, Dana P.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise heterogeneous disorders. Their etiopathogenesis is poorly understood, because of the paucity of informative experimental models and of approaches for the noninvasive study of inflamed tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information about the state of the skeletal muscle that reflects various facets of inflammation and remodeling. This technique has been scarcely used in experimental models of inflammatory myopathies. We characterized the performance of MRI in a well-established mouse model of myositis and the antisynthetase syndrome, based on the immunization of wild-type mice with the amino-terminal fragment of histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). Over an eight-week period following myositis induction, MRI enabled precise identification of pathological events taking place in muscle tissue. Areas of edema and of active inflammation identified by histopathology paralleled muscle modifications detected noninvasively by MRI. Muscles changes were chronologically associated with the establishment of autoimmunity, as reflected by the development of anti-HisRS antibodies in the blood of immunized mice. MR imaging easily appreciated muscle damage and remodeling even if actual disruption of myofiber integrity (as assessed by serum concentrations of creatinine phosphokinase) was limited. Thus, MR imaging represents an informative and noninvasive analytical tool for studying in vivo immune-mediated muscle involvement. PMID:24895622

  11. Non-invasive mapping of bilateral motor speech areas using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Mervi; Tamsi, Niko; Säisänen, Laura; Kemppainen, Samuli; Määttä, Sara; Julkunen, Petro; Jutila, Leena; Äikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Niskanen, Eini; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Mervaala, Esa

    2015-06-15

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a modern precise method to activate and study cortical functions noninvasively. We hypothesized that a combination of nTMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could clarify the localization of functional areas involved with motor control and production of speech. Navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS) with short bursts was used to map speech areas on both hemispheres by inducing speech disruption during number recitation tasks in healthy volunteers. Two experienced video reviewers, blinded to the stimulated area, graded each trial offline according to possible speech disruption. The locations of speech disrupting nTMS trials were overlaid with fMRI activations of word generation task. Speech disruptions were produced on both hemispheres by nTMS, though there were more disruptive stimulation sites on the left hemisphere. Grade of the disruptions varied from subjective sensation to mild objectively recognizable disruption up to total speech arrest. The distribution of locations in which speech disruptions could be elicited varied among individuals. On the left hemisphere the locations of disturbing rTMS bursts with reviewers' verification followed the areas of fMRI activation. Similar pattern was not observed on the right hemisphere. The reviewer-verified speech disruptions induced by nTMS provided clinically relevant information, and fMRI might explain further the function of the cortical area. nTMS and fMRI complement each other, and their combination should be advocated when assessing individual localization of speech network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproducibility of non-invasive assessment of skin endothelial function using laser Doppler flowmetry and laser speckle contrast imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Puissant

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine (ACh is a specific test of endothelial function. Reproducibility of laser techniques such as laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF and Laser-speckle-contrast-imaging (LSCI to detect ACh vasodilation is debated and results expressions lack standardization. We aimed to study at a 7-day interval (i the inter-subject reproducibility, (ii the intra-subjects reproducibility, and (iii the effect of the results expressions over variability.Using LDF and LSCI simultaneously, we performed two different ACh-iontophoresis protocols. The maximal ACh vasodilation (peak-ACh was expressed as absolute or normalized flow or conductance values. Inter-subject reproducibility was expressed as coefficient of variation (inter-CV,%. Intra-subject reproducibility was expressed as within subject coefficients of variation (intra-CV,%, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Fifteen healthy subjects were included. The inter-subject reproducibility of peak-ACh depended upon the expression of the results and ranged from 55% to 162% for LDF and from 17% to 83% for LSCI. The intra-subject reproducibility (intra-CV/ICC of peak-ACh was reduced when assessed with LSCI compared to LDF no matter how the results were expressed and whatever the protocol used. The highest intra-subject reproducibility was found using LSCI. It was 18.7%/0.87 for a single current stimulation (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance and 11.4%/0.61 for multiple current stimulations (expressed as absolute value.ACh-iontophoresis coupled with LSCI is a promising test to assess endothelial function because it is reproducible, safe, and non-invasive. N°: NCT01664572.

  13. High-resolution harmonics ultrasound imaging for non-invasive characterization of wound healing in a pre-clinical swine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya C Gnyawali

    Full Text Available This work represents the first study employing non-invasive high-resolution harmonic ultrasound imaging to longitudinally characterize skin wound healing. Burn wounds (day 0-42, on the dorsum of a domestic Yorkshire white pig were studied non-invasively using tandem digital planimetry, laser speckle imaging and dual mode (B and Doppler ultrasound imaging. Wound depth, as measured by B-mode imaging, progressively increased until day 21 and decreased thereafter. Initially, blood flow at the wound edge increased up to day 14 and subsequently regressed to baseline levels by day 21, when the wound was more than 90% closed. Coinciding with regression of blood flow at the wound edge, there was an increase in blood flow in the wound bed. This was observed to regress by day 42. Such changes in wound angiogenesis were corroborated histologically. Gated Doppler imaging quantitated the pulse pressure of the primary feeder artery supplying the wound site. This pulse pressure markedly increased with a bimodal pattern following wounding connecting it to the induction of wound angiogenesis. Finally, ultrasound elastography measured tissue stiffness and visualized growth of new tissue over time. These studies have elegantly captured the physiological sequence of events during the process of wound healing, much of which is anticipated based on certain dynamics in play, to provide the framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms driving these processes. We conclude that the tandem use of non-invasive imaging technologies has the power to provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the healing skin tissue.

  14. Noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, J T; Gay, P C

    1999-08-01

    Noninvasive ventilation refers to the delivery of assisted ventilatory support without the use of an endotracheal tube. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can be delivered by using a volume-controlled ventilator, a pressure-controlled ventilator, a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator, or a continuous positive airway pressure device. During the past decade, there has been a resurgence in the use of noninvasive ventilation, fueled by advances in technology and clinical trials evaluating its use. Several manufacturers produce portable devices that are simple to operate. This review describes the equipment, techniques, and complications associated with NPPV and also the indications for both short-term and long-term applications. NPPV clearly represents an important addition to the techniques available to manage patients with respiratory failure. Future clinical trials evaluating its many clinical applications will help to define populations of patients most apt to benefit from this type of treatment.

  15. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease

  16. Noninvasive Multimodality Imaging of the Tumor Microenvironment: Registered Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography Studies of a Preclinical Tumor Model of Tumor Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungJoon Cho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA and dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-Fmiso PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between 18F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, 18F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995. Magn Reson Med 33, 506– 514 derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early 18F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early 18F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan 18F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between 18F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue.

  17. Noninvasive parametric blood flow imaging of head and neck tumours using [15O]H2O and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Gaber; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu; Seppänen, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple noninvasive method for measuring blood flow using [15O]H2O PET/CT for the head and neck area applicable in daily clinical practice. Fifteen dynamic [15O]H2O PET emission scans with simultaneous online radioactivity measurements of radial arterial blood [Blood-input functions (IFs)] were performed. Two noninvasively obtained population-based input functions were calculated by averaging all Blood-IF curves corrected for patients' body mass and injected dose [standardized uptake value (SUV)-IF] and for body surface area (BSA-IF) and injected dose. Parametric perfusion images were calculated for each set of IFs using a linearized two-compartment model, and values for several tissues were compared using Blood-IF as the gold standard. On comparing all tissues, the correlation between blood flow obtained with the invasive Blood-IF and both SUV-IF and BSA-IF was significant (R2=0.785 with P<0.001 and R2=0.813 with P<0.001, respectively). In individual tissues, the performance of the two noninvasive methods was most reliable in resting muscle and slightly less reliable in tumour and cerebellar regions. In these two tissues, only BSA-IF showed a significant correlation with Blood-IF (R2=0.307 with P=0.032 in tumours and R2=0.398 with P<0.007 in the cerebellum). The BSA-based noninvasive method enables clinically relevant delineation between areas of low and high blood flow in tumours. The blood flow of low-perfusion tissues can be reliably quantified using either of the evaluated noninvasive methods.

  18. Noninvasive imaging of alphaVbeta3 function as a predictor of the antimigratory and antiproliferative effects of dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Rebecca A; Hildebrandt, Isabel; Su, Helen; Haubner, Roland; Reischl, Gerald; Czernin, Johannes G; Mischel, Paul S; Weber, Wolfgang A

    2009-04-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) are commonly deregulated in cancer cells. Among other functions, SFKs are critical for cellular migration and invasion. SFK inhibitors are being studied as targeted cancer drugs, but there are no biomarkers for noninvasive assessment of SFK inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether imaging of alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activity with positron emission tomography (PET) and [(64)Cu]DOTA-cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-dPhe-Lys) {[(64)Cu]DOTA-c(RGDfK)} can be used for monitoring response to the SFK inhibitor dasatinib. Severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing U87MG xenografts were gavaged daily over 72 hours with 72 or 95 mg/kg of dasatinib or vehicle. Tumor uptake of [(64)Cu]DOTA-c(RGDfK) was measured by small-animal PET. In parallel, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scans were performed to assess tumor metabolism in response to dasatinib treatment. Dasatinib significantly (P<0.0001) reduced [(64)Cu]DOTA-c(RGDfK) uptake by up to 59% in U87MG xenografts [2.10+/-0.14% injected dose/gram (ID/g) in the 95 mg/kg group and 3.12+/-0.18% ID/g in the 72 mg/kg group, versus 5.08+/-0.80% ID/g in controls]. In contrast, tumor FDG uptake showed no significant reduction with dasatinib therapy (8.13+/-0.45% ID/g in treated versus 10.39+/-1.04% ID/g in controls; P=0.170). Histologically, tumors were viable at the time of the follow-up PET scan but showed inhibition of focal adhesion kinase. Continued dasatinib treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth (tumor size on day 10 of therapy: 21.13+/-2.60 mm(2) in treated animals versus 122.50+/-17.68 mm(2) in controls; P=0.001). [(64)Cu]DOTA-c(RGDfK) may provide a sensitive means of monitoring tumor response to SFK inhibition in alpha(V)beta(3)-expressing cancers early in the course of therapy.

  19. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  20. Noninvasive determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and efficiency in normal humans by carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porenta, G.; Cherry, S.; Czernin, J.; Brunken, R.; Kuhle, W.; Hashimoto, T.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to measure noninvasively and near simultaneously myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and contractile function and (2) to analyze myocardial energy expenditure and efficiency at rest and during dobutamine stress in normal humans. Dynamic and gated carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in 11 normal subjects. The initial uptake of 11 C-acetate was measured to estimate myocardial blood flow. Oxygen consumption was derived from the monoexponential slope of the 11 C-clearance curve recorded during myocardial washout. ECG-gated systolic and diastolic images were acquired during the peak myocardial 11 C activity to measure left ventricular radius, myocardial wall thickness, and long axis length. Myocardial oxygen consumption and parameters of cardiac geometry were used to determine myocardial energetics and cardiac efficiency by tension-area area analysis. Myocardial blood flow averaged 0.8±0.06 ml min -1 g -1 at rest and 1.48±0.15 ml min -1 g -1 during dobutamine stress. Oxygen delivery and consumption were 151±13 and 88±15 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 at rest and increased to 291±31 and 216±31 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 , respectively, during pharmacological stress (P 11 C acetate imaging provides the unique capability to study noninvasively determinants of myocardial energy delivery, expenditure, and efficiency. (orig.)

  1. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide a platform for the pre-clinical evaluation of anti-cancer properties of a unique CAM (complementary and alternative medicine agent, Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE, in a mouse model with the advantageous non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence molecular imaging technology. In vitro analyses on the proliferation, migration/invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were performed on ACAE-treated non-small cell lung cancer cells, H441GL and control CGL1 cells. In vivo, immune-deficient mice were inoculated subcutaneously with H441GL followed by oral gavages of ACAE. The effect of ACAE on tumor progression was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The proliferation and migration/invasion of H441GL cells were inhibited by ACAE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ACAE induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in H441GL cells as shown by flow cytometric analysis, Annexin-V immunoflourescence and DNA fragmentation. In vivo bioluminescence imaging revealed that tumorigenesis was significantly retarded by oral treatment of ACAE in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on our experimental data, ACAE contains anti-cancer properties and could be considered as a potential CAM agent in future clinical evaluation.

  2. Non-invasive diagnostic method using the phase image for the Kent fiber position in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Makino, Katsutoshi; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Futagami, Yasuo; Hamada, Masayuki

    1983-01-01

    Gated blood pool scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-RBC was performed in patients with WPW syndrome and healthy controls. The contraction of the normal ventricle and the Kent fiber position in cases of WPW syndrome were observed on the phase image obtained by Fourier-transformation of the time activity curve. This method is considered to be more valuable than the other non-invasive procedures in cases of WPW syndrome, especially in the preoperative examination for transecting Kent fibers. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Evaluation and Immunohistochemical Qualification of Carbogen-Induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Improved Tumor Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lauren C.J., E-mail: lauren.baker@icr.ac.uk [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Boult, Jessica K.R.; Jamin, Yann; Gilmour, Lesley D.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Burrell, Jake S. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, Margaret [Division of Medicine, Centre for Cell Signalling and Molecular Genetics, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Howe, Franklyn A. [St. George' s, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Raleigh, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [University of Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Robinson, Simon P. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and histologically qualify carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of improved tumor oxygenation using a double 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker approach. Methods and Materials: Multigradient echo images were acquired from mice bearing GH3 prolactinomas, preadministered with the hypoxia marker CCI-103F, to quantify tumor R{sub 2}* during air breathing. With the mouse remaining positioned within the magnet bore, the gas supply was switched to carbogen (95% O{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}), during which a second hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, was administered via an intraperitoneal line, and an additional set of identical multigradient echo images acquired to quantify any changes in tumor R{sub 2}*. Hypoxic fraction was quantified histologically using immunofluorescence detection of CCI-103F and pimonidazole adduct formation from the same whole tumor section. Carbogen-induced changes in tumor pO{sub 2} were further validated using the Oxylite fiberoptic probe. Results: Carbogen challenge significantly reduced mean tumor R{sub 2}* from 116 ± 13 s{sup −1} to 97 ± 9 s{sup −1} (P<.05). This was associated with a significantly lower pimonidazole adduct area (2.3 ± 1%), compared with CCI-103F (6.3 ± 2%) (P<.05). A significant correlation was observed between ΔR{sub 2}* and Δhypoxic fraction (r=0.55, P<.01). Mean tumor pO{sub 2} during carbogen breathing significantly increased from 6.3 ± 2.2 mm Hg to 36.0 ± 7.5 mm Hg (P<.01). Conclusions: The combined use of intrinsic susceptibility magnetic resonance imaging with a double hypoxia marker approach corroborates carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive imaging biomarker of increased tumor oxygenation.

  4. Non-invasive characterization of normal and pathological tissues through dynamic infrared imaging in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María. S.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Salva, Natalia; Padra, Claudio; Schwint, Amanda; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical infrared thermography, a non-invasive and functional imaging method, provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of tissues in terms of spatial and temporal variations in body infrared radiance. It is especially attractive in cancer research due to the hypervascular and hypermetabolic activity of solid tumors. Moreover, healthy tissues like skin or mucosa exposed to radiation can be examined since inflammation, changes in water content, exudation, desquamation, erosion and necrosis, between others, are factors that modify their thermal properties. In this work we performed Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) to contribute to the understanding and evaluation of normal tissue, tumor and precancerous tissue response and radiotoxicity in an in vivo model, the hamster cheek pouch, exposed to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In this study, we particularly focused on the observation of temperature changes under forced transient conditions associated with mass moisture transfer in the tissue-air interface, in each tissue with or without treatment. We proposed a simple mathematical procedure that considerers the heat transfer from tissue to ambient through convection and evaporation to model the transient (exponential decay o recover) thermal study. The data was fitted to determined the characteristic decay and recovery time constants of the temperature as a function of time. Also this model allowed to explore the mass flux of moisture, as a degree of evaporation occurring on the tissue surface. Tissue thermal responses under provocation tests could be used as a non-invasive method to characterize tissue physiology.

  5. Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, Jesse; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tanis, Wilco [Haga Teaching Hospital, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brink, Renee B.A. van den [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chamuleau, Steven A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis. Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and cross-reference of PubMed/Embase databases. Studies were included if (1) they reported on the non-invasive index tests TTE, TEE, or MDCT; (2) data was provided on PHV endocarditis as the condition of interest; and (3) imaging results were verified against either surgical inspection/autopsy or clinical follow-up reference standards, thereby enabling the extraction of 2-by-2 tables. Twenty articles (including 496 patients) met the inclusion criteria for PHV endocarditis. TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE had a pooled sensitivity/specificity for vegetations of 29/100 %; 82/95 %, and 88/94 %, respectively. The pooled sensitivity/specificity of TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE for periannular complications was 36/93 %, 86/98 %, and 100/94 %, respectively. TEE showed good sensitivity and specificity for establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. Although MDCT data are limited, this review showed that MDCT in addition to TEE may improve sensitivity in detecting life-threatening periannular complications. (orig.)

  6. Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, Jesse; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Tanis, Wilco; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Brink, Renee B.A. van den; Chamuleau, Steven A.J.; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis. Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and cross-reference of PubMed/Embase databases. Studies were included if (1) they reported on the non-invasive index tests TTE, TEE, or MDCT; (2) data was provided on PHV endocarditis as the condition of interest; and (3) imaging results were verified against either surgical inspection/autopsy or clinical follow-up reference standards, thereby enabling the extraction of 2-by-2 tables. Twenty articles (including 496 patients) met the inclusion criteria for PHV endocarditis. TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE had a pooled sensitivity/specificity for vegetations of 29/100 %; 82/95 %, and 88/94 %, respectively. The pooled sensitivity/specificity of TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE for periannular complications was 36/93 %, 86/98 %, and 100/94 %, respectively. TEE showed good sensitivity and specificity for establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. Although MDCT data are limited, this review showed that MDCT in addition to TEE may improve sensitivity in detecting life-threatening periannular complications. (orig.)

  7. A dual function fusion protein of Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and firefly luciferase for noninvasive in vivo imaging of gene therapy in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söling, Ariane; Theiss, Christian; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Rainov, Nikolai G

    2004-08-04

    BACKGROUND: Suicide gene therapy employing the prodrug activating system Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ ganciclovir (GCV) has proven to be effective in killing experimental brain tumors. In contrast, glioma patients treated with HSV-TK/ GCV did not show significant treatment benefit, most likely due to insufficient transgene delivery to tumor cells. Therefore, this study aimed at developing a strategy for real-time noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the activity of a therapeutic gene in brain tumor cells. METHODS: The HSV-TK gene was fused to the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene and the fusion construct HSV-TK-Luc was expressed in U87MG human malignant glioma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous gliomas stably expressing HSV-TK-Luc were subjected to GCV treatment and tumor response to therapy was monitored in vivo by serial bioluminescence imaging. Bioluminescent signals over time were compared with tumor volumes determined by caliper. RESULTS: Transient and stable expression of the HSV-TK-Luc fusion protein in U87MG glioma cells demonstrated close correlation of both enzyme activities. Serial optical imaging of tumor bearing mice detected in all cases GCV induced death of tumor cells expressing the fusion protein and proved that bioluminescence can be reliably used for repetitive and noninvasive quantification of HSV-TK/ GCV mediated cell kill in vivo. CONCLUSION: This approach may represent a valuable tool for the in vivo evaluation of gene therapy strategies for treatment of malignant disease.

  8. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of arthritis in a collagen-induced murine model with phosphatidylserine-binding near-infrared (NIR) dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marion M; Gray, Brian D; Pak, Koon Y; Fong, Dunne

    2015-03-09

    Development of non-invasive molecular imaging techniques that are based on cellular changes in inflammation has been of active interest for arthritis diagnosis. This technology will allow real-time detection of tissue damage and facilitate earlier treatment of the disease, thus representing an improvement over X-rays, which detect bone damage at the advanced stage. Tracing apoptosis, an event occurring in inflammation, has been a strategy used. PSVue 794 is a low-molecular-weight, near-infrared (NIR)-emitting complex of bis(zinc2+-dipicolylamine) (Zn-DPA) that binds to phosphatidylserine (PS), a plasma membrane anionic phospholipid that becomes flipped externally upon cell death by apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of PSVue 794 to act as an in vivo probe for non-invasive molecular imaging assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via metabolic function in murine collagen-induced arthritis, a widely adopted animal model for RA. Male DBA/1 strain mice were treated twice with chicken collagen type II in Freund's adjuvant. Their arthritis development was determined by measuring footpad thickness and confirmed with X-ray analysis and histology. In vivo imaging was performed with the NIR dye and the LI-COR Odyssey Image System. The level of emission was compared among mice with different disease severity, non-arthritic mice and arthritic mice injected with a control dye without the Zn-DPA targeting moiety. Fluorescent emission correlated reliably with the degree of footpad swelling and the manifestation of arthritis. Ex vivo examination showed emission was from the joint. Specificity of binding was confirmed by the lack of emission when arthritic mice were given the control dye. Furthermore, the PS-binding protein annexin V displaced the NIR dye from binding, and the difference in emission was numerically measurable on a scale. This report introduces an economical alternative method for assessing arthritis non-invasively in murine models. Inflammation in

  9. Cardiac memory in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: noninvasive imaging of activation and repolarization before and after catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subham; Rhee, Edward K; Avari, Jennifer N; Woodard, Pamela K; Rudy, Yoram

    2008-08-26

    Cardiac memory refers to a change in ventricular repolarization induced by and persisting for minutes to months after cessation of a period of altered ventricular activation (eg, resulting from pacing or preexcitation in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). ECG imaging (ECGI) is a novel imaging modality for noninvasive electroanatomic mapping of epicardial activation and repolarization. Fourteen pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and no other congenital disease, were imaged with ECGI a day before and 45 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month after successful catheter ablation. ECGI determined that preexcitation sites were consistent with sites of successful ablation in all cases to within a 1-hour arc of each atrioventricular annulus. In the preexcited rhythm, activation-recovery interval (ARI) was the longest (349+/-6 ms) in the area of preexcitation leading to high average base-to-apex ARI dispersion of 95+/-9 ms (normal is approximately 40 ms). The ARI dispersion remained the same 45 minutes after ablation, although the activation sequence was restored to normal. ARI dispersion was still high (79+/-9 ms) 1 week later and returned to normal (45+/-6 ms) 1 month after ablation. The study demonstrates that ECGI can noninvasively localize ventricular insertion sites of accessory pathways to guide ablation and evaluate its outcome in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Wolff-Parkinson-White is associated with high ARI dispersion in the preexcited rhythm that persists after ablation and gradually returns to normal over a period of 1 month, demonstrating the presence of cardiac memory. The 1-month time course is consistent with transcriptional reprogramming and remodeling of ion channels.

  10. A fast analysis method for non-invasive imaging of blood flow in individual cerebral arteries using vessel-encoded arterial spin labelling angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Michael A.; Okell, Thomas W.; Payne, Stephen J.; Jezzard, Peter; Woolrich, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI offers a non-invasive means to create blood-borne contrast in vivo for dynamic angiographic imaging. By spatial modulation of the ASL process it is possible to uniquely label individual arteries over a series of measurements, allowing each to be separately identified in the resulting angiographic images. This separation requires appropriate analysis for which a general Bayesian framework has previously been proposed. Here this framework is adapted for clinical dynamic angiographic imaging. This specifically addresses the issues of computational speed of the algorithm and the robustness required to deal with real patient data. An algorithm is proposed that can incorporate planning information about the arteries being imaged whilst adapting for subsequent patient movement. A fast maximum a posteriori solution is adopted and shown to be only marginally less accurate than Monte Carlo sampling under simulation. The final algorithm is demonstrated on in vivo data with analysis on a time scale of the order of 10 min, from both a healthy control and a patient with a vertebro-basilar occlusion. PMID:22322066

  11. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles function as a long-term, multi-modal imaging label for non-invasive tracking of implanted progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Pacak

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles to function as a long-term tracking label for multi-modal imaging of implanted engineered tissues containing muscle-derived progenitor cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. SPIO-labeled primary myoblasts were embedded in fibrin sealant and imaged to obtain intensity data by MRI or radio-opacity information by μCT. Each imaging modality displayed a detection gradient that matched increasing SPIO concentrations. Labeled cells were then incorporated in fibrin sealant, injected into the atrioventricular groove of rat hearts, and imaged in vivo and ex vivo for up to 1 year. Transplanted cells were identified in intact animals and isolated hearts using both imaging modalities. MRI was better able to detect minuscule amounts of SPIO nanoparticles, while μCT more precisely identified the location of heavily-labeled cells. Histological analyses confirmed that iron oxide particles were confined to viable, skeletal muscle-derived cells in the implant at the expected location based on MRI and μCT. These analyses showed no evidence of phagocytosis of labeled cells by macrophages or release of nanoparticles from transplanted cells. In conclusion, we established that SPIO nanoparticles function as a sensitive and specific long-term label for MRI and μCT, respectively. Our findings will enable investigators interested in regenerative therapies to non-invasively and serially acquire complementary, high-resolution images of transplanted cells for one year using a single label.

  12. Dose modeling of noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy in comparison to electron beam boost and three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Shirin; Rivard, Mark J; Hiatt, Jessica R; Hurley, Amanda A; Lee, Yoojin; Wazer, David E

    2011-06-01

    To perform dose modeling of a noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy (NIIGBB) for comparison to electrons and 3DCRT. The novel technology used in this study is a mammography-based, noninvasive breast brachytherapy system whereby the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct (192)Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. To date, three-dimensional dose modeling of NIIGBB has not been possible because of the limitations of conventional treatment planning systems (TPS) to model variable tissue deformation associated with breast compression. In this study, the TPS was adapted such that the NIIGBB dose distributions were modeled as a virtual point source. This dose calculation technique was applied to CT data from 8 patients imaged with the breast compressed between parallel plates in the cranial-caudal and medial-lateral axes. A dose-volume comparison was performed to simulated electron boost and 3DCRT APBI. The NIIGBB PTV was significantly reduced as compared with both electrons and 3DCRT. Electron boost plans had a lower D(min) than the NIIGBB technique but higher V(100), D(90), and D(50). With regard to PTV coverage for APBI, the only significant differences were minimally higher D(90), D(100), V(80), and V(90), with 3DCRT and D(max) with NIIGBB. The NIIGBB technique, as compared with electrons and 3D-CRT, achieved a lower maximum dose to skin (60% and 10%, respectively) and chest wall/lung (70-90%). NIIGBB achieves a PTV that is smaller than electron beam and 3DCRT techniques. This results in significant normal tissue sparing while maintaining dosimetric benchmarks to the target tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-invasive imaging of transplanted human neural stem cells and ECM scaffold remodeling in the stroke-damaged rat brain by 19F- and diffusion-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Ellen; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Solanky, Bhavana; Balducci, Anthony; Crapo, Peter; Badylak, Stephen F.; Ahrens, Eric T.; Modo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) is emerging as a viable treatment for stroke related brain injury. However, intraparenchymal grafts do not regenerate lost tissue, but rather integrate into the host parenchyma without significantly affecting the lesion cavity. Providing a structural support for the delivered cells appears important for cell based therapeutic approaches. The non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic methods would provide valuable information regarding therapeutic strategies but remains a challenge. Labeling transplanted cells with metal-based 1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents affects the visualization of the lesion cavity. Herein, we demonstrate that a 19F-MRI contrast agent can adequately monitor the distribution of transplanted cells, whilst allowing an evaluation of the lesion cavity and the formation of new tissue on 1H-MRI scans. Twenty percent of cells labeled with the 19F-agent were of host origin, potentially reflecting the re-uptake of label from dead transplanted cells. Both T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI scans indicated that transplantation of hNSCs suspended in a gel form of a xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold resulted in uniformly distributed cells throughout the lesion cavity. However, diffusion MRI indicated that the injected materials did not yet establish diffusion barriers (i.e. cellular network, fiber tracts) normally found within striatal tissue. The ECM bioscaffold therefore provides an important support to hNSCs for the creation of de novo tissue and multi-nuclei MRI represents an adept method for the visualization of some aspects of this process. However, significant developments of both the transplantation paradigm, as well as regenerative imaging, are required to successfully create new tissue in the lesion cavity and to monitor this process non-invasively. PMID:22244696

  14. Non-invasive imaging of transplanted human neural stem cells and ECM scaffold remodeling in the stroke-damaged rat brain by (19)F- and diffusion-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Ellen; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Solanky, Bhavana; Balducci, Anthony; Crapo, Peter M; Badylak, Stephen F; Ahrens, Eric T; Modo, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) is emerging as a viable treatment for stroke related brain injury. However, intraparenchymal grafts do not regenerate lost tissue, but rather integrate into the host parenchyma without significantly affecting the lesion cavity. Providing a structural support for the delivered cells appears important for cell based therapeutic approaches. The non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic methods would provide valuable information regarding therapeutic strategies but remains a challenge. Labeling transplanted cells with metal-based (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents affects the visualization of the lesion cavity. Herein, we demonstrate that a (19)F-MRI contrast agent can adequately monitor the distribution of transplanted cells, whilst allowing an evaluation of the lesion cavity and the formation of new tissue on (1)H-MRI scans. Twenty percent of cells labeled with the (19)F agent were of host origin, potentially reflecting the re-uptake of label from dead transplanted cells. Both T(2)- and diffusion-weighted MRI scans indicated that transplantation of hNSCs suspended in a gel form of a xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold resulted in uniformly distributed cells throughout the lesion cavity. However, diffusion MRI indicated that the injected materials did not yet establish diffusion barriers (i.e. cellular network, fiber tracts) normally found within striatal tissue. The ECM bioscaffold therefore provides an important support to hNSCs for the creation of de novo tissue and multi-nuclei MRI represents an adept method for the visualization of some aspects of this process. However, significant developments of both the transplantation paradigm, as well as regenerative imaging, are required to successfully create new tissue in the lesion cavity and to monitor this process non-invasively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Awake Craniotomy with Noninvasive Brain Mapping by 3-Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Excision of Low-grade Glioma: A Case of a Young Patient from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem Bhatti, Atta Ul; Jakhrani, Nasir Khan; Parekh, Maria Adnan

    2018-01-01

    The past few years have seen increasing support for gross total resection in the management of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), with a greater extent of resection correlated with better overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to malignant transformation. There is consistent evidence in literature supporting extent of safe resection as a good prognostic indicator as well as positively affecting seizure control, symptomatic relief in pressure symptoms, and longer progression-free and total survival. The operative goal in most LGG cases is to maximize the extent of resection for these benefits while avoiding postoperative neurologic deficits. Several advanced invasive and noninvasive surgical techniques such as intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescence-guided surgery, intraoperative functional pathway mapping, and neuronavigation have been developed in an attempt to better achieve maximal safe resection. We present a case of LGG in a young patient with a 5-year history of refractory seizures and gradual onset walking difficulty. Serial MRI brain scans revealed a progressive increase in right frontal tumor size with substantial edema and parafalcine herniation. Noninvasive brain mapping by functional MRI (fMRI) and sleep-awake-sleep type of anesthesia with endotracheal tube insertion was utilized during an awake craniotomy. Histopathology confirmed a Grade II oligodendroglioma, and genetic analysis revealed no codeletion at 1p/19q. Neurological improvement was remarkable in terms of immediate motor improvement, and the patient remained completely seizure free on a single antiepileptic drug. There is no radiologic or clinical evidence of recurrence 6 months postoperatively. This is the first published report of an awake craniotomy for LGG in Pakistan. The contemporary concept of supratotal resection in LGGs advocates generous functional resection even beyond MRI findings rather than mere excision of oncological boundaries. This relatively

  16. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Non-Invasive Assessment of Venofer® Biodistribution in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, Kimberley; Pieters, Ebel H.E.; Hennink, Wim E.; van der Toorn, Annette; Brinks, Vera; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; van Tilborg, Geralda A.F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the potential of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the biodistribution of exogenous iron within 24 h after one single injection of Venofer® (iron sucrose). Methods: Venofer® was evaluated in vitro for its ability to generate contrast in MR images.

  17. NONINVASIVE OPTICAL IMAGING OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION IN VIVO USING AN ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE FRAGMENT BASED NEAR-INFRARED FLUORESCENT PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUICUI LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of bacterial infections remains a major challenge in medicine. Optical imaging of bacterial infection in living animals is usually conducted with genetic reporters such as light-emitting enzymes or fluorescent proteins. However, there are many circumstances where genetic reporters are not applicable, and there is an urgent need for exogenous synthetic probes that can selectively target bacteria. Optical imaging of bacteria in vivo is much less developed than methods such as radioimaging and MRI. Furthermore near-infrared (NIR dyes with emission wavelengths in the region of 650–900 nm can propagate through two or more centimeters of tissue and may enable deeper tissue imaging if sensitive detection techniques are employed. Here we constructed an antimicrobial peptide fragment UBI29-41-based near-infrared fluorescent imaging probe. The probe is composed of UBI29-41 conjugated to a near infrared dye ICG-Der-02. UBI29-41 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that targets the anionic surfaces of bacterial cells. The probe allows detection of Staphylococcus aureus infection (5 × 107 cells in a mouse local infection model using whole animal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the UBI29-41-based imaging probe can selectively accumulate within bacteria. The significantly higher accumulation in bacterial infection suggests that UBI29-41-based imaging probe may be a promising imaging agent to detect bacterial infections.

  18. Comparison of optical and power Doppler ultrasound imaging for non-invasive evaluation of arsenic trioxide as a vascular disrupting agent in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasan, Mustafa K; Liu, Li; Lewis, Matthew A; Magnusson, Jennifer; Mason, Ralph P

    2012-01-01

    Small animal imaging provides diverse methods for evaluating tumor growth and acute response to therapy. This study compared the utility of non-invasive optical and ultrasound imaging to monitor growth of three diverse human tumor xenografts (brain U87-luc-mCherry, mammary MCF7-luc-mCherry, and prostate PC3-luc) growing in nude mice. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence imaging (FLI), and Power Doppler ultrasound (PD US) were then applied to examine acute vascular disruption following administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO).During initial tumor growth, strong correlations were found between manual caliper measured tumor volume and FLI intensity, BLI intensity following luciferin injection, and traditional B-mode US. Administration of ATO to established U87 tumors caused significant vascular shutdown within 2 hrs at all doses in the range 5 to 10 mg/kg in a dose dependant manner, as revealed by depressed bioluminescent light emission. At lower doses substantial recovery was seen within 4 hrs. At 8 mg/kg there was >85% reduction in tumor vascular perfusion, which remained depressed after 6 hrs, but showed some recovery after 24 hrs. Similar response was observed in MCF7 and PC3 tumors. Dynamic BLI and PD US each showed similar duration and percent reductions in tumor blood flow, but FLI showed no significant changes during the first 24 hrs.The results provide further evidence for comparable utility of optical and ultrasound imaging for monitoring tumor growth, More specifically, they confirm the utility of BLI and ultrasound imaging as facile assays of the vascular disruption in solid tumors based on ATO as a model agent.

  19. Quantification of brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine using noninvasive microsphere method. Estimation of arterial input by dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sugihara, Hideki; Taniguchi, Yoshimitsu; Aoki, Etsuo; Furuichi, Kenji; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive method to quantify brain perfusion SPECT with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) using serial dynamic planar imaging of the initial transit phase. The method is based on the microsphere model, but does not require arterial sampling. Serial dynamic planar imaging was performed for 6 min after the bolus injection of IMP (167 MBq in 1.5 ml), followed by additional planar imaging at 20 min and SPECT scan thereafter. The total arterial input to the brain during the initial 5 min after injection was estimated by the injected dose, with the correction of the lung retention, divided by cardiac output (CO). CO was estimated from the initial transit of IMP in the right heart. Cardiac output index (COI), obtained from the integral of the first transit of IMP in the right heart divided by the injected dose, was calibrated by CO measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) obtained by this method in normal subjects was acceptable. However, the results may be influenced by the injection technique, and careful attention should be considered for clinical application of this method. (author)

  20. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Non-Invasive Microwave Head Imaging System for Intracranial Haemorrhage Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A T Mobashsher

    Full Text Available An intracranial haemorrhage is a life threatening medical emergency, yet only a fraction of the patients receive treatment in time, primarily due to the transport delay in accessing diagnostic equipment in hospitals such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Computed Tomography. A mono-static microwave head imaging system that can be carried in an ambulance for the detection and localization of intracranial haemorrhage is presented. The system employs a single ultra-wideband antenna as sensing element to transmit signals in low microwave frequencies towards the head and capture backscattered signals. The compact and low-profile antenna provides stable directional radiation patterns over the operating bandwidth in both near and far-fields. Numerical analysis of the head imaging system with a realistic head model in various situations is performed to realize the scattering mechanism of haemorrhage. A modified delay-and-summation back-projection algorithm, which includes effects of surface waves and a distance-dependent effective permittivity model, is proposed for signal and image post-processing. The efficacy of the automated head imaging system is evaluated using a 3D-printed human head phantom with frequency dispersive dielectric properties including emulated haemorrhages with different sizes located at different depths. Scattered signals are acquired with a compact transceiver in a mono-static circular scanning profile. The reconstructed images demonstrate that the system is capable of detecting haemorrhages as small as 1 cm3. While quantitative analyses reveal that the quality of images gradually degrades with the increase of the haemorrhage's depth due to the reduction of signal penetration inside the head; rigorous statistical analysis suggests that substantial improvement in image quality can be obtained by increasing the data samples collected around the head. The proposed head imaging prototype along with the processing algorithm demonstrates

  1. The role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging as a noninvasive surveillance method of human heart transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, D.; Scibilia, G.; Macchiarelli, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of rejection after heart transplantation in patients receiving cyclosporine immunosuppressive therapy requires the endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive method associated with a finite morbidity. To evaluate the role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) scintigraphy as a noninvasive surveillance method of heart transplant rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies labeled with indium-111 was administered intravenously in 30 scintigraphic studies to 10 consecutive heart transplant recipients. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained 72 hours after each scintigraphic study. Nineteen scintigraphic studies had negative findings; no false negative finding was obtained. Eleven antimyosin scintigraphic studies had positive findings, and in these studies endomyocardial biopsy revealed mild rejection in two cases, moderate acute rejection with myocyte necrosis in two cases, myocyte necrosis as a consequence of ischemic injury in six cases, and possibly cytotoxic damage in one case. Antimyosin scintigraphy may represent a reliable screening method for the surveillance of heart transplant patients. In the presence of a negative finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, it may be possible to avoid endomyocardial biopsy. Conversely, in patients who have a positive finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, the endomyocardial biopsy is mandatory to establish the definitive diagnosis by histologic examination of the myocardium

  2. SU-E-J-96: Multi-Axis Dose Accumulation of Noninvasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Through Biomechanical Modeling of Tissue Deformation Using the Finite Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Ghadyani, HR [SUNY Farmingdale State College, Farmingdale, NY (United States); Bastien, AD; Lutz, NN [Univeristy Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Hepel, JT [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy delivers conformal HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy treatments with the breast compressed, and treated in the cranial-caudal and medial-lateral directions. This technique subjects breast tissue to extreme deformations not observed for other disease sites. Given that, commercially-available software for deformable image registration cannot accurately co-register image sets obtained in these two states, a finite element analysis based on a biomechanical model was developed to deform dose distributions for each compression circumstance for dose summation. Methods: The model assumed the breast was under planar stress with values of 30 kPa for Young’s modulus and 0.3 for Poisson’s ratio. Dose distributions from round and skin-dose optimized applicators in cranial-caudal and medial-lateral compressions were deformed using 0.1 cm planar resolution. Dose distributions, skin doses, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results were examined as a function of breast thickness, applicator size, target size, and offset distance from the center. Results: Over the range of examined thicknesses, target size increased several millimeters as compression thickness decreased. This trend increased with increasing offset distances. Applicator size minimally affected target coverage, until applicator size was less than the compressed target size. In all cases, with an applicator larger or equal to the compressed target size, > 90% of the target covered by > 90% of the prescription dose. In all cases, dose coverage became less uniform as offset distance increased and average dose increased. This effect was more pronounced for smaller target-applicator combinations. Conclusions: The model exhibited skin dose trends that matched MC-generated benchmarking results and clinical measurements within 2% over a similar range of breast thicknesses and target sizes. The model provided quantitative insight on dosimetric treatment variables over

  3. SU-E-J-96: Multi-Axis Dose Accumulation of Noninvasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Through Biomechanical Modeling of Tissue Deformation Using the Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, MJ; Ghadyani, HR; Bastien, AD; Lutz, NN; Hepel, JT

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy delivers conformal HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy treatments with the breast compressed, and treated in the cranial-caudal and medial-lateral directions. This technique subjects breast tissue to extreme deformations not observed for other disease sites. Given that, commercially-available software for deformable image registration cannot accurately co-register image sets obtained in these two states, a finite element analysis based on a biomechanical model was developed to deform dose distributions for each compression circumstance for dose summation. Methods: The model assumed the breast was under planar stress with values of 30 kPa for Young’s modulus and 0.3 for Poisson’s ratio. Dose distributions from round and skin-dose optimized applicators in cranial-caudal and medial-lateral compressions were deformed using 0.1 cm planar resolution. Dose distributions, skin doses, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results were examined as a function of breast thickness, applicator size, target size, and offset distance from the center. Results: Over the range of examined thicknesses, target size increased several millimeters as compression thickness decreased. This trend increased with increasing offset distances. Applicator size minimally affected target coverage, until applicator size was less than the compressed target size. In all cases, with an applicator larger or equal to the compressed target size, > 90% of the target covered by > 90% of the prescription dose. In all cases, dose coverage became less uniform as offset distance increased and average dose increased. This effect was more pronounced for smaller target-applicator combinations. Conclusions: The model exhibited skin dose trends that matched MC-generated benchmarking results and clinical measurements within 2% over a similar range of breast thicknesses and target sizes. The model provided quantitative insight on dosimetric treatment variables over

  4. New concepts in molecular imaging: non-invasive MRI spotting of proteolysis using an Overhauser effect switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mellet

    Full Text Available Proteolysis, involved in many processes in living organisms, is tightly regulated in space and time under physiological conditions. However deregulation can occur with local persistent proteolytic activities, e.g. in inflammation, cystic fibrosis, tumors, or pancreatitis. Furthermore, little is known about the role of many proteases, hence there is a need of new imaging methods to visualize specifically normal or disease-related proteolysis in intact bodies.In this paper, a new concept for non invasive proteolysis imaging is proposed. Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OMRI at 0.2 Tesla was used to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of a nitroxide-labeled protein. In vitro, image intensity switched from 1 to 25 upon proteolysis due to the associated decrease in the motional correlation time of the substrate. The OMRI experimental device used in this study is consistent with protease imaging in mice at 0.2 T without significant heating. Simulations show that this enzymatic-driven OMRI signal switch can be obtained at lower frequencies suitable for larger animals or humans.The method is highly sensitive and makes possible proteolysis imaging in three dimensions with a good spatial resolution. Any protease could be targeted specifically through the use of taylor-made cleavable macromolecules. At short term OMRI of proteolysis may be applied to basic research as well as to evaluate therapeutic treatments in small animal models of experimental diseases.

  5. Acoustic radiation force impulse-imaging and transient elastography for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Romen, Daniela; Vermehren, Johannes; Kriener, Susanne; Sadet, Dilek; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Background: Transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-imaging have shown promising results for the staging of liver fibrosis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare ARFI of the left and right liver lobe with TE using the standard and obese probes for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFL/NASH. In addition, liver steatosis is evaluated using the novel controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Methods: Sixty-one patients with NAFLD/NASH were included in the study. All patients received TE with both probes, ARFI of both liver lobes and CAP. The results were compared with liver histology. Results: 57 patients were included in the final analysis. The diagnostic accuracy for TE measurements with the M-and XL-probe and for ARFI of the right and left liver lobe was 0.73, 0.84, 0.71 and 0.60 for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis, and 0.93, 0.93, 0.74 and 0.90 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis, respectively. No significant difference of results was observed between TE and ARFI in the subgroup of patients with reliable TE-measurement when taking into account the best results of both methods. However, while a significant correlation could be found for TE with histological liver fibrosis, the correlation of ARFI with liver fibrosis was not statistically significant. A significant correlation was found for CAP with histological steatosis (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Conclusions: No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis was found for transient elastography and ARFI. Nevertheless TE significantly correlated with liver fibrosis while ARFI did not. CAP enables the non-invasive assessment of steatosis.

  6. A novel triple-modality reporter gene for whole-body fluorescent, bioluminescent, and nuclear noninvasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, Vladimir; Vider, Jelena; Shavrin, Aleksander; Ageyeva, Ludmila; Tourkova, Vilia; Doubrovin, Michael; Serganova, Inna; Beresten, Tatiana; Ivanova, Anna; Blasberg, Ronald; Balatoni, Julius; Bornmann, William; Gelovani Tjuvajev, Juri

    2004-01-01

    Two genetic reporter systems were developed for multimodality reporter gene imaging of different molecular-genetic processes using fluorescence, bioluminescence (BLI), and nuclear imaging techniques. The eGFP cDNA was fused at the N-terminus with HSV1-tk cDNA bearing a nuclear export signal from MAPKK (NES-HSV1-tk) or with truncation at the N-terminus of the first 45 amino acids (Δ45HSV1-tk) and with firefly luciferase at the C-terminus. A single fusion protein with three functional subunits is formed following transcription and translation from a single open reading frame. The NES-TGL (NES-TGL) or Δ45HSV1-tk/GFP/luciferase (Δ45-TGL) triple-fusion gene cDNAs were cloned into a MoMLV-based retrovirus, which was used for transduction of U87 human glioma cells. The integrity, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and enzymatic activity of the TGL reporter proteins were assessed in vitro. The predicted molecular weight of the fusion proteins (130 kDa) was confirmed by western blot. The U87-NES-TGL and U87-Δ45-TGL cells had cytoplasmic green fluorescence. The in vitro BLI was 7- and 13-fold higher in U87-NES-TGL and U87-Δ45-TGL cells compared to nontransduced control cells. The Ki of 14 C-FIAU was 0.49±0.02, 0.51±0.03, and 0.003±0.001 ml/min/g in U87-NES-TGL, U87-Δ45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells, respectively. Multimodality in vivo imaging studies were performed in nu/nu mice bearing multiple s.c. xenografts established from U87-NES-TGL, U87-Δ45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells. BLI was performed after administration of d-luciferin (150 mg/kg i.v.). Gamma camera or PET imaging was conducted at 2 h after i.v. administration of [ 131 I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal) or [ 124 I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal), respectively. Whole-body fluorescence imaging was performed in parallel with the BLI and radiotracer imaging studies. In vivo BLI and gamma camera imaging showed specific localization of luminescence and radioactivity to the TGL transduced xenografts with background levels of activity

  7. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with {sup 18}F-Al labeled Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Baoming [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University (Wuxi 4th People' s Hospital), Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214062 (China); Xu, Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029 (China); Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University (Wuxi 4th People' s Hospital), Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214062 (China); Wu, Yiwei, E-mail: wuyiwei3988@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029 (China)

    2016-02-26

    Purpose: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. Methods: The targeting of {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. Results: The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. Conclusion: The favorable preclinical data indicated that {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells.

  8. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with (18)F-Al labeled Cys(39)-exendin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Baoming; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin; Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing; Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Min

    2016-02-26

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. The targeting of (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. The favorable preclinical data indicated that (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as non-invasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu; Morris, H. Douglas; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koretsky, Alan P.; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2012-01-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes, and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-BP under hypoxic conditions has been reported in vitro. However, the efficacy of 3-BP was substantially attenuated in hypoxic tumor regions (pO2 < 10 mmHg) in vivo using squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII)-bearing mouse model. Metabolic MRI studies using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled pyruvate showed that monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) is the major transporter for pyruvate and the analog 3-BP in SCCVII tumor. The discrepant results between in vitro and in vivo data were attributed to biphasic oxygen dependent expression of MCT1 in vivo. Expression of MCT1 was enhanced in moderately hypoxic (8–15 mmHg) tumor regions, but down regulated in severely hypoxic (< 5 mmHg) tumor regions. These results emphasize the importance of non-invasive imaging biomarkers to confirm the action of hypoxia-activated drugs. PMID:22692861

  10. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as noninvasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu; Morris, H Douglas; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koretsky, Alan P; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2013-05-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-bromopyruvate under hypoxic conditions has been reported in vitro. However, the efficacy of 3-bromopyruvate was substantially attenuated in hypoxic tumor regions (pO23-bromopyruvate in SCCVII tumor. The discrepant results between in vitro and in vivo data were attributed to biphasic oxygen dependent expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1 in vivo. Expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1 was enhanced in moderately hypoxic (8-15 mmHg) tumor regions but down regulated in severely hypoxic (<5 mmHg) tumor regions. These results emphasize the importance of noninvasive imaging biomarkers to confirm the action of hypoxia-activated drugs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synthesis of magnetic resonance–, X-ray– and ultrasound-visible alginate microcapsules for immunoisolation and noninvasive imaging of cellular therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brad P; Arepally, Aravind; Stuber, Matthias; Arifin, Dian R; Kraitchman, Dara L; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to treat or cure a wide variety of diseases. Non-invasive cell tracking techniques are, however, necessary to translate this approach to the clinical setting. This protocol details methods to create microcapsules that are visible by X-ray, ultrasound (US ) or magnetic resonance (MR) for the encapsulation and immunoisolation of cellular therapeutics. Three steps are generally used to encapsulate cellular therapeutics in an alginate matrix: (i) droplets of cell-containing liquid alginate are extruded, using an electrostatic generator, through a needle tip into a solution containing a dissolved divalent cation salt to form a solid gel; (ii) the resulting gelled spheres are coated with polycations as a cross-linker; and (iii) these complexes are then incubated in a second solution of alginate to form a semipermeable membrane composed of an inner and an outer layer of alginate. The microcapsules can be rendered visible during the first step by adding contrast agents to the primary alginate layer. Such contrast agents include superparamagnetic iron oxide for detection by 1H MR imaging (MRI); the radiopaque agents barium or bismuth sulfate for detection by X-ray modalities; or perfluorocarbon emulsions for multimodal detection by 19F MRI, X-ray and US imaging. The entire synthesis can be completed within 2 h. PMID:21799484

  12. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions from live cells and living subjects using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhijit; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2005-12-01

    This study demonstrates a significant advancement of imaging of a distance-dependent physical process, known as the bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET2) signal in living subjects, by using a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A CCD camera-based spectral imaging strategy enables simultaneous visualization and quantitation of BRET signal from live cells and cells implanted in living mice. We used the BRET2 system, which utilizes Renilla luciferase (hRluc) protein and its substrate DeepBlueC (DBC) as an energy donor and a mutant green fluorescent protein (GFP2) as the acceptor. To accomplish this objective in this proof-of-principle study, the donor and acceptor proteins were fused to FKBP12 and FRB, respectively, which are known to interact only in the presence of the small molecule mediator rapamycin. Mammalian cells expressing these fusion constructs were imaged using a cooled-CCD camera either directly from culture dishes or by implanting them into mice. By comparing the emission photon yields in the presence and absence of rapamycin, the specific BRET signal was determined. The CCD imaging approach of BRET signal is particularly appealing due to its capacity to seamlessly bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies. This work validates BRET as a powerful tool for interrogating and observing protein-protein interactions directly at limited depths in living mice.

  13. Bioluminescence : the potential of a non-invasive bio-optical imaging technique and improvement of animal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, J. W.; van Dam, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Bioluminescence is an optical imaging technique that exploits the emission of photons at specific wavelengths based on energy-dependent reactions catalysed by luciferases. The technique makes it possible to monitor measure, and track biological processes in living animals. A short review is

  14. Noninvasive near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the human retina using adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jung, HaeWon; Liu, Jianfei; Droettboom, Michael; Tam, Johnny

    2017-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contain intrinsic fluorophores that can be visualized using infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). Although IRAF is routinely utilized in the clinic for visualizing retinal health and disease, currently, it is not possible to discern cellular details using IRAF due to limits in resolution. We demonstrate that the combination of adaptive optics (AO) with IRAF (AO-IRAF) enables higher-resolution imaging of the IRAF signal, revealing the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Quantitative analysis of visualized RPE cells in 10 healthy subjects across various eccentricities demonstrates the possibility for in vivo density measurements of RPE cells, which range from 6505 to 5388 cells/mm 2 for the areas measured (peaking at the fovea). We also identified cone photoreceptors in relation to underlying RPE cells, and found that RPE cells support on average up to 18.74 cone photoreceptors in the fovea down to an average of 1.03 cone photoreceptors per RPE cell at an eccentricity of 6 mm. Clinical application of AO-IRAF to a patient with retinitis pigmentosa illustrates the potential for AO-IRAF imaging to become a valuable complementary approach to the current landscape of high resolution imaging modalities.

  15. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  16. Noninvasive coronary artery imaging by multislice spiral computed tomography. A novel approach for a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Inoue Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Although the excellent spatial resolution of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) enables the coronary arteries to be visualized, its limited temporal resolution results in poor image reproducibility because of cardiac motion artifact (CMA) and hence limits its widespread clinical use. A novel retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction method has been developed to minimize CMA. In 88 consecutive patients, the scan data were reconstructed using 2 retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction methods. Method 1: the end of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the peak of the P wave on ECG, which corresponded to the end of the slow filling phase during diastole immediately before atrial contraction. Method 2 (conventional method): relative retrospective gating with 50% referred to the R-R interval was performed so that the beginning of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the halfway point between the R-R intervals of the heart cycle. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated according to the presence or absence of CMA. The assessment was applied to the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD, segments no.6, no.7, and no.8), the left circumflex artery (LCx, segments no.11 and no.13) and the right coronary artery (RCA, segments no.1, no.2 and no.3). The first diagonal artery (no.9-1), the obtuse marginal artery (no.12-1), the posterior descending artery (no.4-PD), the atrioventricular node branch (no.4-AV) and the first right ventricular branch (RV) were also evaluated. Of the 88 patients, 85 were eligible for image evaluation. Method 1 allowed visualization of the major coronary arteries without CMA in the majority of patients. The left coronary artery (LCA) system (segments no.5-7, no.11 and no.13) and the proximal portion of the RCA were visualized in more than 94% of patients. Artifact-free visualization of the distal portion of the LAD (segment no.8) and RCA (no.4

  17. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Schievano, Silvia; Robertson, Nicola J.; Jones, Rodney; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r 2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of intratumoral vascularity using arterial spin labeling: A comparison to susceptibility-weighted imaging for the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphoma and glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Schöpf, V.; Preusser, M.; Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Wöhrer, A.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Wolfsberger, S.; Prayer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional MRI methods, the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphomas (PCNSL) and other primary brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, is difficult due to overlapping imaging characteristics. This study was designed to discriminate tumor entities using normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values (nVITS) obtained from pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), combined with intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Thirty consecutive patients with glioblastoma (n = 22) and PCNSL (n = 8), histologically classified according to the WHO brain tumor classification, were included. MRIs were acquired on a 3 T scanner, and included PASL and SWI sequences. nVITS was defined by the signal intensity ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue, as obtained by PASL images. ITSS was determined as intratumoral low signal intensity structures detected on SWI sequences and were divided into four different grades. Potential differences in the nVITS and ITSS between glioblastomas and PCNSLs were revealed using statistical testing. To determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, as well as an optimum cut-off value for the differentiation of PCNSL and glioblastoma, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used. We found that nVITS (p = 0.011) and ITSS (p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in PCNSL. The optimal cut-off value for nVITS was 1.41 and 1.5 for ITSS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of more than 95%. These findings indicate that nVITS values have a comparable diagnostic accuracy to ITSS values in differentiating glioblastoma and PCNSL, offering a completely non-invasive and fast assessment of tumoral vascularity in a clinical setting

  19. Non-invasive assessment of intratumoral vascularity using arterial spin labeling: A comparison to susceptibility-weighted imaging for the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphoma and glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Preusser, M; Asenbaum, U; Woitek, R; Wöhrer, A; Hainfellner, J A; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-05-01

    Using conventional MRI methods, the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphomas (PCNSL) and other primary brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, is difficult due to overlapping imaging characteristics. This study was designed to discriminate tumor entities using normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values (nVITS) obtained from pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), combined with intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Thirty consecutive patients with glioblastoma (n=22) and PCNSL (n=8), histologically classified according to the WHO brain tumor classification, were included. MRIs were acquired on a 3T scanner, and included PASL and SWI sequences. nVITS was defined by the signal intensity ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue, as obtained by PASL images. ITSS was determined as intratumoral low signal intensity structures detected on SWI sequences and were divided into four different grades. Potential differences in the nVITS and ITSS between glioblastomas and PCNSLs were revealed using statistical testing. To determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, as well as an optimum cut-off value for the differentiation of PCNSL and glioblastoma, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used. We found that nVITS (p=0.011) and ITSS (p=0.001) values were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in PCNSL. The optimal cut-off value for nVITS was 1.41 and 1.5 for ITSS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of more than 95%. These findings indicate that nVITS values have a comparable diagnostic accuracy to ITSS values in differentiating glioblastoma and PCNSL, offering a completely non-invasive and fast assessment of tumoral vascularity in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of intratumoral vascularity using arterial spin labeling: A comparison to susceptibility-weighted imaging for the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphoma and glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J., E-mail: julia.furtner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Schöpf, V., E-mail: veronika.schoepf@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Preusser, M., E-mail: matthias.preusser@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Medicine I, Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Asenbaum, U., E-mail: ulrika.asenbaum@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Woitek, R., E-mail: ramona.woitek@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wöhrer, A., E-mail: adelheid.woehrer@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hainfellner, J.A., E-mail: johannes.hainfellner@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S., E-mail: stefan.wolfsberger@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D., E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    Using conventional MRI methods, the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphomas (PCNSL) and other primary brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, is difficult due to overlapping imaging characteristics. This study was designed to discriminate tumor entities using normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values (nVITS) obtained from pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), combined with intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Thirty consecutive patients with glioblastoma (n = 22) and PCNSL (n = 8), histologically classified according to the WHO brain tumor classification, were included. MRIs were acquired on a 3 T scanner, and included PASL and SWI sequences. nVITS was defined by the signal intensity ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue, as obtained by PASL images. ITSS was determined as intratumoral low signal intensity structures detected on SWI sequences and were divided into four different grades. Potential differences in the nVITS and ITSS between glioblastomas and PCNSLs were revealed using statistical testing. To determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, as well as an optimum cut-off value for the differentiation of PCNSL and glioblastoma, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used. We found that nVITS (p = 0.011) and ITSS (p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in PCNSL. The optimal cut-off value for nVITS was 1.41 and 1.5 for ITSS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of more than 95%. These findings indicate that nVITS values have a comparable diagnostic accuracy to ITSS values in differentiating glioblastoma and PCNSL, offering a completely non-invasive and fast assessment of tumoral vascularity in a clinical setting.

  1. Non-invasive grading of brain tumours using dynamic amino acid PET imaging: does it work for 11C-Methionine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin-Romsee, Gerard; D'Hondt, Eduard; Mortelmans, Luc; Laere, Koen van; Groot, Tjibbe de; Goffin, Jan; Sciot, Raf; Menten, Johan; Bormans, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Static imaging of amino acids does not allow differentiation of low versus high grade brain tumours. It has been shown that dynamic imaging of the amino acid analogue 18 F-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) can achieve this goal. In many centres, 11 C-methionine (MET) is used for tumour imaging, but no clinical studies on the use of dynamic scanning for grading have been performed. Thirty-four patients with primary brain glioma and histopathological confirmation were retrospectively studied using 40 min dynamic MET-PET with 220 MBq 11C-methionine. In relation to histopathological grading, various metabolic indices and temporal parameters as documented by Poepperl et al. (JNM 2006;47:393-403) were analyzed. None of the evaluated static or temporal parameters allowed discrimination between high and low grade tumours. On average, low grade tumours showed washout after the initial uptake maximum, while both increases and decreases were seen for high grade tumours. Only the relative early versus late uptake ratio showed a trend towards significance (-0.16 ± 0.17 for low grade versus 0.01 ± 0.25 for high grade; p = 0.07). Unlike FET-PET, the uptake characteristics of MET-PET do not allow classification of low and high grade tumours on an individual patient basis. Since literature data indicate that both tracers have a similar performance regarding biopsy location, tumour delineation, and detection of recurrence, FET-PET should be advocated over MET-PET as its uptake mechanism also allows noninvasive grading in glioma. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a potential non-invasive marker of tumour aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, N.M. de; Riches, S.F.; Van As, N.J.; Morgan, V.A.; Ashley, S.A.; Fisher, C.; Payne, G.S.; Parker, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a marker for disease aggressiveness by comparing tumour apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between patients with low- versus higher-risk localized prostate cancer. Method: Forty-four consecutive patients classified as low- [n = 26, stageT1/T2a, Gleason score ≤ 6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10 (group 2)] risk, who subsequently were monitored with active surveillance or started neoadjuvant hormone and radiotherapy, respectively, underwent endorectal MRI. T2-weighted (T2W) and DW images (5 b values, 0-800 s/mm 2 ) were acquired and isotropic ADC maps generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) on T2W axial images [around whole prostate, central gland (CG), and tumour] were transferred to ADC maps. Tumour, CG, and peripheral zone (PZ = whole prostate minus CG and tumour) ADCs (fast component from b = 0-100 s/mm 2 , slow component from b = 100-800 s/mm 2 ) were compared. Results: T2W-defined tumour volume medians, and quartiles were 1.2 cm 3 , 0.7 and 3.3 cm 3 (group 1); and 6 cm 3 , 1.3 and 16.5 cm 3 (group 2). There were significant differences in both ADC fast (1778 ± 264 x 10 -6 versus 1583 ± 283 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, p = 0.03) and ADC slow (1379 ± 321 x 10 -6 versus 1196 ± 158 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, p = 0.001) between groups. Tumour volume (p = 0.002) and ADC slow (p = 0.005) were significant differentiators of risk group. Conclusion: Significant differences in tumour ADCs exist between patients with low-risk, and those with higher-risk localized prostate cancer. DW-MRI merits further study with respect to clinical outcomes

  3. Noninvasive imaging of intracellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman microscopy in combination with stable isotopic labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-10-16

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis because their transformation into foam cells is responsible for deposition of lipids in plaques within arterial walls. The appearance of cytosolic lipid droplets is a hallmark of macrophage foam cell formation, and the molecular basics involved in this process are not well understood. Of particular interest is the intracellular fate of different individual lipid species, such as fatty acids or cholesterol. Here, we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and to trace their subsequent storage patterns. The combination of microscopic information with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful molecular imaging method, which allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through associated spectral information. In order to distinguish the molecules of interest from other naturally occurring lipids spectroscopically, deuterium labels were introduced. Intracellular distribution and metabolic changes were observed for serum albumin-complexed palmitic and oleic acid and cholesterol and quantitatively evaluated by monitoring the increase in CD scattering intensities at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 24, 30, and 36 h. This approach may also allow for investigating the cellular trafficking of other molecules, such as nutrients, metabolites, and drugs.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Gastric Emptying by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Reflectance Imaging in Mice: Pharmacological Validation with Tegaserod, Cisapride, and Clonidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Ulrich Gremlich

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI is an in vivo technique to assess physiological and molecular processes in the intact organism. Here we describe a method to assess gastric emptying in mice. TentaGel™ beads with covalently bound cyanine dye (Cy5.5 conjugates as fluorescent probe were administered by oral gavage. The amount of intragastric beads/label was derived from the fluorescence signal intensity measured in a region of interest corresponding to the mouse stomach. The FRI signal intensity decreased as a function of time reflecting gastric emptying. In control mice, the gastric half-emptying time was in agreement with literature data. Pharmacological modulation of gastric motility allowed the evaluation of the sensitivity of the FRI-based method. Gastric emptying was either stimulated or inhibited by treatment with the 5-HT4 receptor agonists tegaserod (Zelnorm® and cisapride or the α2-receptor agonist clonidine, respectively. Tegaserod and cisapride dose-dependently accelerated gastric emptying. In contrast, clonidine dose-dependently delayed gastric emptying. In conclusion, FRI using fluorescently labeled beads allows the reliable determination of gastric emptying as well as the assessment of pharmacological interventions. The technique thus offers the potential to characterize molecular targets and pathways involved in physiological regulation and pharmacological modulation of gastric emptying.

  5. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy; Nichtinvasive Diagnostik zerebraler Ischaemie mit Kernspintomographie und Nahe-Infrarotspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepgras, A. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Gueckel, F. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Laemmler, B. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Weigel, R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Schmiedek, P. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    1994-11-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Abschaetzung der zerebrovaskulaeren Reservekapazitaet unter Verwendung der Nahe-Infrarotspektroskopie und der Kernspintomographie zur nichtinvasiven klinischen Anwendung wird beschrieben. Beide Verfahren werden mit der transkraniellen Dopplersonographie verglichen. Bei Normalpersonen (n=3) zeigte sich eine gute Uebereinstimmung von Aenderungen der zerebralen Sauerstoffsaettigung mit Aenderungen der Blutflussgeschwindigkeit nach Acetazolamidstimulation der Hirndurchblutung. Diese Uebereinstimmung war bei einem Patienten mit kernspintomographisch nachgewiesener eingeschraenkter zerebrovaskulaerer Reservekapazitaet bei unilateralem Verschluss der A.carotis interna nicht gegeben. Dies wird auf eine pathologisch ehoehte Sauerstoffausschoepfung zurueeckgefuehrt. (orig.)

  6. Non-invasive quantification of hepatic fat fraction by fast 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Weigel, Christiane; Albrecht, Lothar; Kirsch, Michael; Lemke, Arne; Lorenz, Gerd; Warzok, Rolf; Hosten, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Even mild hepatic steatosis in a split liver donor may cause general liver failure and death in the donor. So far, CT density measurements or percutaneous biopsy is used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be an elegant method of non-invasive and non-radiation quantification of hepatic fat content. Methods: Fast gradient echo (GRE) technique was used to discriminate between fat and water spins. Echo time (TE) was adjusted for field strength dependent in-phase and out-of-phase states at 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 T. Continuous MR signal transition from 100% water to 100% fat was investigated using a wedge water-oil phantom, which was positioned in such a way, that no spatial resolution occurred, thereby combining water and fat in one slice. Results: Using the phantom, a significant difference for a 5% difference in fat content was demonstrated in the range from 20 to 80% fat content (p 2 = 0.93 for TE 6 ms and r 2 = 0.91 for TE 10 ms). Conclusion: The described method can be used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis of >10% with p < 0.05

  7. Non-invasive in vivo evaluation of in situ forming PLGA implants by benchtop magnetic resonance imaging (BT-MRI) and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Sabine; Metz, Hendrik; Pereira, Priscila G C; Mäder, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we used benchtop magnetic resonance imaging (BT-MRI) for non-invasive and continuous in vivo studies of in situ forming poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) implants without the use of contrast agents. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was used as an alternative solvent to the clinically used NMP. In addition to BT-MRI, we applied electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize implant formation and drug delivery processes in vitro and in vivo. We were able to follow key processes of implant formation by EPR and MRI. Because EPR spectra are sensitive to polarity and mobility, we were able to follow the kinetics of the solvent/non-solvent exchange and the PLGA precipitation. Due to the high water affinity of PEG 400, we observed a transient accumulation of water in the implant neighbourhood. Furthermore, we detected the encapsulation by BT-MRI of the implant as a response of the biological system to the polymer, followed by degradation over a period of two months. We could show that MRI in general has the potential to get new insights in the in vivo fate of in situ forming implants. The study also clearly shows that BT-MRI is a new viable and much less expensive alternative for superconducting MRI machines to monitor drug delivery processes in vivo in small mammals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring therapeutic response of human ovarian cancer to 17-DMAG by noninvasive PET imaging with {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Gang; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Li, Zibo [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, USC Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, has been intensively investigated for cancer therapy and is undergoing clinical trials. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is one of the client proteins of Hsp90 and its expression is decreased upon 17-DMAG treatment. In this study, we aimed to noninvasively monitor the HER-2 response to 17-DMAG treatment in xenografted mice. The sensitivity of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells to 17-DMAG in vitro was measured by MTT assay. HER-2 expression in SKOV-3 cells was determined by flow cytometry. Nude mice bearing SKOV-3 tumors were treated with 17-DMAG and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by tumor size measurement. Both treated and control mice were imaged with microPET using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab and {sup 18}F-FDG. Biodistribution studies and immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the microPET results. SKOV-3 cells are sensitive to 17-DMAG treatment, in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC{sub 50} value of 24.72 nM after 72 h incubation. The tumor growth curve supported the inhibition effect of 17-DMAG on SKOV-3 tumors. Quantitative microPET imaging showed that {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab had prominent tumor accumulation in untreated SKOV-3 tumors, which was significantly reduced in 17-DMAG-treated tumors. There was no uptake difference detected by FDG PET. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the significant reduction in tumor HER-2 level upon 17-DMAG treatment. The early response to anti-Hsp90 therapy was successfully monitored by quantitative PET using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab. This approach may be valuable in monitoring the therapeutic response in HER-2-positive cancer patients under 17-DMAG treatment. (orig.)

  9. An advanced design of non-radioactive image capturing and management system for applications in non-invasive skin disorder diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Carol Y. B.; Luk, David C. K.; Zhou, Kany S. Y.; So, Bryan M. K.; Louie, Derek C. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasing incidences of malignant melanoma, there is a rising demand for assistive technologies for its early diagnosis and improving the survival rate. The commonly used visual screening method is with limited accuracy as the early phase of melanoma shares many clinical features with an atypical nevus, while conventional dermoscopes are not user-friendly in terms of setup time and operations. Therefore, the development of an intelligent and handy system to assist the accurate screening and long-term monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention of melanoma. In this paper, an advanced design of non-invasive and non-radioactive dermoscopy system was reported. Computer-aided simulations were conducted for optimizing the optical design and uniform illumination distribution. Functional prototype and the software system were further developed, which could enable image capturing at 10x amplified and general modes, convenient data transmission, analysis of dermoscopic features (e.g., asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter and dermoscopic structure) for assisting the early detection of melanoma, extract patient information (e.g. code, lesion location) and integrate with dermoscopic images, thus further support long term monitoring of diagnostic analysis results. A clinical trial study was further conducted on 185 Chinese children (0-18 years old). The results showed that for all subjects, skin conditions diagnosed based on the developed system accurately confirmed the diagnoses by conventional clinical procedures. Besides, clinical analysis on dermoscopic features and a potential standard approach by the developed system to support identifying specific melanocytic patterns for dermoscopic examination in Chinese children were also reported.

  10. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc; Schlattmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I"2 statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  11. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Jena University Hospital, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I{sup 2} statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  12. Use of Non-Invasive Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Estimation of Atrial Septal Defect Size and Morphology: A Comparison with Transesophageal Echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaw, Chin Sze; Kiam, Ong Tiong; Rapaee, Annuar; Khoon, Liew Chee; Bang, Liew Houng; Ling, Chan Wei; Samion, Hasri; Hian, Sim Kui

    2006-01-01

    Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a trusted method of sizing atrial septal defect (ASD) prior to percutaneous closure but is invasive, uncomfortable, and may carry a small risk of morbidity and mortality. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be useful non-invasive alternative in such patients who refuse or are unable to tolerate TEE and may provide additional information on the shape of the A0SD. Purpose: To validate the accuracy of ASD sizing by MRI compared with TEE.Method: Twelve patients (mean age 30 years; range 11-60 years) scheduled for ASD closure underwent TEE, cine balanced fast field echo MRI (bFFE-MRI) in four-chamber and sagittal views and phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) with reconstruction using the two orthogonal planes of T2-weighted images as planning. The average of the three longest measurements for all imaging modalities was calculated for each patient. Results: Mean maximum ASD length on TEE was 18.8 ± 4.6 mm, mean length by bFFE-MRI was 20.0 ± 5.0 mm, and mean length by PC-MRI was 18.3 ± 3.6 mm. The TEE measurement was significantly correlated with the bFFE-MRI and PC-MRI measurements (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02 and r = 0.59, p = 0.04, respectively). The mean difference between TEE and bFFE-MRI measurements was -1.2mm (95% CI: -3.7, 1.3) and between TEE and PC-MRI was 0.5 mm (95% CI: -1.9, 2.9). Bland-Altman analysis also determined general agreement between both MRI methods and TEE. The ASDs were egg-shaped in two cases, circular in 1 patient and oval in the remaining patients. Conclusion: ASD sizing by MRI using bFFE and phase-contrast protocols correlated well with TEE estimations. PC-MRI provided additional information on ASD shapes and proximity to adjacent structures

  13. Quantitative parameters to compare image quality of non-invasive coronary angiography with 16-slice, 64-slice and dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgstahler, Christof; Reimann, Anja; Brodoefel, Harald; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Thomas, Christoph; Heuschmid, Martin; Daferner, Ulrike; Drosch, Tanja; Schroeder, Stephen; Herberts, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive modality to visualize coronary arteries with an overall good image quality. Improved spatial and temporal resolution of 64-slice and dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) scanners are supposed to have a positive impact on diagnostic accuracy and image quality. However, quantitative parameters to compare image quality of 16-slice, 64-slice MSCT and DSCT are missing. A total of 256 CT examinations were evaluated (Siemens, Sensation 16: n=90; Siemens Sensation 64: n=91; Siemens Definition: n=75). Mean Hounsfield units (HU) were measured in the cavum of the left ventricle (LV), the ascending aorta (Ao), the left ventricular myocardium (My) and the proximal part of the left main (LM), the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the right coronary artery (RCA) and the circumflex artery (CX). Moreover, the ratio of intraluminal attenuation (HU) to myocardial attenuation was assessed for all coronary arteries. Clinical data [body mass index (BMI), gender, heart rate] were accessible for all patients. Mean attenuation (CA) of the coronary arteries was significantly higher for DSCT in comparison to 64- and 16-slice MSCT within the RCA [347±13 vs. 254±14 (64-MSCT) vs. 233±11 (16-MSCT) HU], LM (362±11/275 ± 12/262±9), LAD (332±17/248±19/219±14) and LCX (310±12/210±13/221±10, all p<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between DSCT and 64-MSCT for the LV, the Ao and My. Heart rate had a significant impact on CA ratio in 16-slice and 64-slice CT only (p<0.05). BMI had no impact on the CA ratio in DSCT only (p<0.001). Improved spatial and temporal resolution of dual-source CT is associated with better opacification of the coronary arteries and a better contrast with the myocardium, which is independent of heart rate. In comparison to MSCT, opacification of the coronary arteries at DSCT is not affected by BMI. The main advantage of DSCT lies with the heart rate independency, which might have a

  14. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  15. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging to monitor the immunological control of a plasmablastic lymphoma-like B cell neoplasia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chopra

    Full Text Available To promote cancer research and to develop innovative therapies, refined pre-clinical mouse tumor models that mimic the actual disease in humans are of dire need. A number of neoplasms along the B cell lineage are commonly initiated by a translocation recombining c-myc with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus. The translocation is modeled in the C.129S1-Igha(tm1(MycJanz/J mouse which has been previously engineered to express c-myc under the control of the endogenous IgH promoter. This transgenic mouse exhibits B cell hyperplasia and develops diverse B cell tumors. We have isolated tumor cells from the spleen of a C.129S1-Igha(tm1(MycJanz/J mouse that spontaneously developed a plasmablastic lymphoma-like disease. These cells were cultured, transduced to express eGFP and firefly luciferase, and gave rise to a highly aggressive, transplantable B cell lymphoma cell line, termed IM380. This model bears several advantages over other models as it is genetically induced and mimics the translocation that is detectable in a number of human B cell lymphomas. The growth of the tumor cells, their dissemination, and response to treatment within immunocompetent hosts can be imaged non-invasively in vivo due to their expression of firefly luciferase. IM380 cells are radioresistant in vivo and mice with established tumors can be allogeneically transplanted to analyze graft-versus-tumor effects of transplanted T cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of tumor-bearing mice results in prolonged survival. These traits make the IM380 model very valuable for the study of B cell lymphoma pathophysiology and for the development of innovative cancer therapies.

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  17. Non-invasive quantification of hepatic fat fraction by fast 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 T MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie and Neuroradiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany)]. E-mail: sebastian.schuchmann@charite.de; Weigel, Christiane [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie and Neuroradiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Albrecht, Lothar [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie and Neuroradiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Kirsch, Michael [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie and Neuroradiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Lemke, Arne [Institut fuer Radiologie, Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Lorenz, Gerd [Institut fuer Pathologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Warzok, Rolf [Institut fuer Pathologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Hosten, Norbert [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie and Neuroradiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Introduction: Even mild hepatic steatosis in a split liver donor may cause general liver failure and death in the donor. So far, CT density measurements or percutaneous biopsy is used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be an elegant method of non-invasive and non-radiation quantification of hepatic fat content. Methods: Fast gradient echo (GRE) technique was used to discriminate between fat and water spins. Echo time (TE) was adjusted for field strength dependent in-phase and out-of-phase states at 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 T. Continuous MR signal transition from 100% water to 100% fat was investigated using a wedge water-oil phantom, which was positioned in such a way, that no spatial resolution occurred, thereby combining water and fat in one slice. Results: Using the phantom, a significant difference for a 5% difference in fat content was demonstrated in the range from 20 to 80% fat content (p < 0.05) for all tested field strengths. In 25 patients MRI data were correlated with the percentage of fat determined by histologic evaluation of a CT-guided liver biopsy. Using the linear correlation calculated from the MRI phantom data at 1.0 T, we determined the liver fat from each patient's MRI measurements. Comparison of these data with the histologic quantified fat fraction of liver tissue showed a strong correlation (r {sup 2} = 0.93 for TE 6 ms and r {sup 2} = 0.91 for TE 10 ms). Conclusion: The described method can be used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis of >10% with p < 0.05.

  18. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive near-infrared live imaging of human adult mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossolasco P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available P Bossolasco1,*, L Cova2,*, G Levandis3, V Diana2, S Cerri3, G Lambertenghi Deliliers1, E Polli1, V Silani2,4, F Blandini3, MT Armentero31Fondazione Matarelli, Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Chemioterapia e Tossicologia Medica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, 2Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroscience-IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Cusano Milanino, 3Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, Interdepartmental Research Centre for Parkinson’s Disease, IRCCS National Institute of Neurology “C Mondino”, Pavia, 4Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroscience, Centro “Dino Ferrari” Università degli Studi di Milano-IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: We have previously shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can reduce toxin-induced neurodegeneration in a well characterized rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. However, the precise mechanisms, optimal cell concentration required for neuroprotection, and detailed cell tracking need to be defined. We exploited a near-infrared imaging platform to perform noninvasive tracing following transplantation of tagged hMSCs in live parkinsonian rats.Methods: hMSCs were labeled both with a membrane intercalating dye, emitting in the near-infrared 815 nm spectrum, and the nuclear counterstain, Hoechst 33258. Effects of near-infrared dye on cell metabolism and proliferation were extensively evaluated in vitro. Tagged hMSCs were then administered to parkinsonian rats bearing a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, via two alternative routes, ie, intrastriatal or intranasal, and the cells were tracked in vivo and ex vivo using near-infrared technology.Results: In vitro, NIR815 staining was stable in long-term hMSC cultures and did not interfere with cell metabolism or proliferation. A significant near-infrared signal was detectable in vivo, confined around the injection

  20. Non-invasive in vivo imaging with radiolabelled FIAU for monitoring cancer gene therapy using herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and ganciclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Win-Ping; Lai, Wen-Fu [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials, Taipei Medical University, Taipei (Taiwan); Yang, Wen K.; Yang, Den-Mei [Institute of Biological Science, Academic Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, Ren-Shyan [Department of Nuclear Medicine and National PET Cyclotron Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Wang, Hsin-Ell [Institute of Radiological Science, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Lih-Nong Street, 112, Pei-tou, Taipei (Taiwan); Fu, Ying-Kai [Institute of Nuclear Energy, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan (Taiwan)

    2004-01-01

    An experimental cancer gene therapy model was employed to develop a non-invasive imaging procedure using radiolabelled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-{beta}-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (FIAU) as an enzyme substrate for monitoring retroviral vector-mediated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV1-tk) transgene expression. Iodine-131 labelled FIAU was prepared by a no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) synthesis process and lyophilised to give ''hot kits''. The labelling yield was over 95%, with a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. The stability of [{sup 131}I]FIAU in the form of lyophilised powder (the hot kit) was much better than that in the normal saline solution. The shelf life of the final [{sup 131}I]FIAU hot kit product is as long as 4 weeks. Cellular uptake of [{sup 131}I]FIAU after different periods of storage was investigated in vitro with HSV1-tk-retroviral vector transduced NG4TL4-STK and parental non-transduced NG4TL4 murine sarcoma cell lines over an 8-h incubation period. The NG4TL4-STK cells accumulated more radioactivity than NG4TL4 cells in all conditions, and accumulation increased with time up to 8 h. The kinetic profile of the cellular uptake of n.c.a. [{sup 131}I]FIAU formulated from the lyophilised hot kit or from the stock solution was qualitatively similar. For animal model cancer gene therapy studies, FVB/N mice were inoculated subcutaneously with the HSV1-tk(+) and tk(-) sarcoma cells into the flank to produce tumours. Biodistribution studies showed that tumour/blood ratios were 2, 3.5, 8.2 and 386.8 at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h post injection, respectively, for the HSV1-tk(+) tumours, and 0.5, 0.5, 0.7 and 5.4, respectively, for the HSV1-tk(-) tumours. Radiotracer clearance from blood was completed in 24 h and was bi-exponential. A significant difference in radioactivity accumulation was revealed among the HSV1-tk(+) tumours, the tk(-) tumours and other tissues. At 24 h p.i., higher activity retention was observed

  1. Contribution of noninvasive imaging methods and angiography to diagnosis of chronic viscero-visceral arterial colateral circulations in stenosis of truncus coeliacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, A.; Kasuba, J.; Mistina, L.; Darmo, V.; Benko, M.; Pokorny, D.

    1989-01-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of truncus coeliacus represent the most frequent causes in the development of collateral blood circulation with caudiocranial flow through extended pancreatic-duodenal arcades. In a group of 32 patients with such mesenteric-coeliacal collateral circulation the arteriographic picture was evaluated. The differences and specific diagnostic contribution were evaluated of individual visualization methods for the demonstration of arteries. The noninvasive visualization methods are of exceptional significance in the examination of the abdominoretroperitoneal region by considerably decreasing the needs of invasive angiographic examination by the catheterization technique. This leads to a decrease in the number of diagnosed chronically developed viscerovisceral arterial collateral circulations of various etiologies. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography well depict morphological changes in the aorta diameter as well as of the unpaired viscelar arteries in the segment of their branching. The viscerovisceral arterial colateral circulations, however, may not be detected or at least not to a sufficient degree. They are represented in detail in the whole course only by selective arteriography. Attention is drawn to the supplementary role of arteriography within the framework of noninvasive visualization methods. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs

  2. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood–brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for ...

  3. Noninvasive Urodynamic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of the world's population is increasing, and among male patients, complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are growing. Testing to diagnose LUTS and to differentiate between the various causes should be quick, easy, cheap, specific, not too bothersome for the patient, and noninvasive or minimally so. Urodynamic evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO but presents some inconveniences such as embarrassment, pain, and dysuria; furthermore, 19% of cases experience urinary retention, macroscopic hematuria, or urinary tract infection. A greater number of resources in the diagnostic armamentarium could increase the opportunity for selecting less invasive tests. A number of groups have risen to this challenge and have formulated and developed ideas and technologies to improve noninvasive methods to diagnosis BOO. These techniques start with flowmetry, an increase in the interest of ultrasound, and finally the performance of urodynamic evaluation without a urethral catheter. Flowmetry is not sufficient for confirming a diagnosis of BOO. Ultrasound of the prostate and the bladder can help to assess BOO noninvasively in all men and can be useful for evaluating the value of BOO at assessment and during treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients in the future. The great advantages of noninvasive urodynamics are as follows: minimal discomfort, minimal risk of urinary tract infection, and low cost. This method can be repeated many times, permitting the evaluation of obstruction during clinical treatment. A urethral connector should be used to diagnose BOO, in evaluation for surgery, and in screening for treatment. In the future, noninvasive urodynamics can be used to identify patients with BOO to initiate early medical treatment and evaluate the results. This approach permits the possibility of performing surgery before detrusor damage occurs.

  4. Improving the Grading Accuracy of Astrocytic Neoplasms Noninvasively by Combining Timing Information with Cerebral Blood Flow: A Multi-TI Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Zhao, B; Wang, G; Xiang, J; Xu, S; Liu, Y; Zhao, P; Pfeuffer, J; Qian, T

    2016-12-01

    Systematic and accurate glioma grading has clinical significance. We present the utility of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and provide the bolus arrival time maps for grading astrocytomas. Forty-three patients with astrocytomas (21 men; mean age, 51 years) were recruited. The classification abilities of conventional MR imaging features, normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging, normalized bolus arrival time, and normalized CBF derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling were compared in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytomas. The normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging was higher in patients with higher grade astrocytoma malignancies compared with patients with lower grade astrocytomas, while the normalized bolus arrival time showed the opposite tendency. The normalized CBF value derived from the multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging showed excellent performance with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.813 (WHO II versus III), 0.964 (WHO II versus IV), 0.872 (WHO III versus IV), and 0.883 (low-grade-versus-high-grade gliomas). The normalized CBF value derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging could statistically differentiate the WHO II and IV groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.826). The normalized bolus arrival time effectively identified the WHO grades II and III with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.836. Combining the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and normalized bolus arrival time improved the diagnostic accuracy from 65.10% to 72.10% compared with the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging being applied independently. The combination of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and conventional MR imaging had the best performance, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81

  5. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Neonatal Bowel: Novel, Bedside, Noninvasive, and Radiation-Free Imaging for Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, Suzanne; Hackam, David J; Goldstein, Seth D; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Darge, Kassa; Hwang, Misun

    2018-05-31

    Despite extensive research and improvements in the field of neonatal care, the morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained unchanged over the past three decades. Early detection of ischemia and necrotic bowel is vital in improving morbidity and mortality associated with NEC; however, strategies for predicting and preventing NEC are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are novel techniques in pediatrics that have been proven as safe modalities. CEUS has benefits over conventional ultrasound (US) by its improved real-time evaluation of the micro- and macrovascularities of normally and abnormally perfused tissue. US has been implemented as a useful adjunct to X-ray for earlier evaluation of NEC. NIRS is another noninvasive technique that has shown promise in improving early detection of NEC. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of changes in bowel perfusion in NEC, discuss the accuracy of abdominal US in detecting NEC, and explain how the use of CEUS and NIRS will enhance the precise and early detection of altered/pathological bowel wall perfusion in the initial development and course of NEC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. : ventilators for noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauroux , Brigitte; Leroux , Karl; Desmarais , Gilbert; Isabey , Daniel; Clément , Annick; Lofaso , Frédéric; Louis , Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators proposed for home noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in children in France. The ventilators (one volume-targeted, 12 pressure-targeted and four dual) were evaluated on a bench which simulated six different paediatric ventilatory patterns. For each ventilator, the quality of the inspiratory and expiratory trigger and the ability to reach and maintain the preset pre...

  7. PSMA-Targeted Nano-Conjugates as Dual-Modality (MRI/PET) Imaging Probes for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Xiankai

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop dual modality imaging probes for the detection of prostate cancer by doping radioisotopes to iron oxide nanoparticles, so that the sensitivity and specificity...

  8. Noninvasive Evaluation of Cellular Proliferative Activity in Brain Neurogenic Regions in Rats under Depression and Treatment by Enhanced [18F]FLT-PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Kayo; Takata, Kumi; Eguchi, Asami; Yamato, Masanori; Kume, Satoshi; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2016-08-03

    Neural stem cells in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, can divide and produce new neurons throughout life. Hippocampal neurogenesis is related to emotions, including depression/anxiety, and the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. The establishment of in vivo imaging for proliferative activity of neural stem cells in the SGZ might be used to diagnose depression and to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-l-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) has been studied to allow visualization of proliferative activity in two neurogenic regions of adult mammals; however, the PET imaging has not been widely used because of lower accumulation of [(18)F]FLT, which does not allow quantitative assessment of the decline in cellular proliferative activity in the SGZ under the condition of depression. We report the establishment of an enhanced PET imaging method with [(18)F]FLT combined with probenecid, an inhibitor of drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier, which can allow the quantitative visualization of neurogenic activity in rats. Enhanced PET imaging allowed us to evaluate reduced cell proliferation in the SGZ of rats with corticosterone-induced depression, and further the recovery of proliferative activity in rats under treatment with antidepressants. This enhanced [(18)F]FLT-PET imaging technique with probenecid can be used to assess the dynamic alteration of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain and may also provide a means for objective diagnosis of depression and monitoring of the therapeutic effect of antidepressant treatment. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in major depression and antidepressant therapy. Establishment of in vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be useful to diagnose depression and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of

  9. Rest delayed images on 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT as a noninvasive screen for the diagnosis of vasospastic angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Soichi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Shin; Kurabe, Atsushi; Heito, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic usefulness of 99m Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) myocardial SPECT at rest was examined in 39 cases of coronary vasospastic angina pectoris who were diagnosed by a positive reaction to ergonovine provocation. SPECT was performed 45 minutes (early image) and 3 hours (delayed image) after the intravenous injection of approximately 600 MBq of MIBI. Decrease in accumulation was ranked by four defect scores (0: normal; 1: slight decrease; 2: moderate decrease; 3: severe decrease) and the total defect score was evaluated semiquantitatively. The washout rate between the normal area and the spasm area was also evaluated quantitatively using bull's eye. As a result, 15 cases (15/39; 38.4%) showed decreased accumulation in the early image and 27 cases (27/39; 69.2%) showed decreased accumulation in the delayed image. All of the cases which showed decreased accumulation in the early image had decreased accumulation in the delayed image as well. In 6 cases (6/34; 17.6%) showed ST wave changes during exercise ECG and 16 cases (16/34: 47%) showed decreased accumulation in the exercise myocardial SPECT. The washout rate of MIBI in the decreased accumulation area was significantly higher than that of the normal area. Of 32 ergonovine induced vasospastic area, 23 areas (72%) exhibited decreased accumulation in the delayed image for the same area. Decreased accumulation in the delayed image in MIBI was due to the enhanced washout, which, in turn, indicated declined retention of MIBI by mitochondrial membrane. In coronary vasospastic angina pectoris, spasm induced ischemia was thought to have an effect on the mitochondria. This study suggested that even with a normal exercise ECG and exercise myocardial SPECT, there's a strong possibility of coronary vasospastic angina pectoris if a decreased accumulation was found in the delayed image in the MIBI myocardial SPECT at rest. Hence, in diagnosing coronary vasospastic angina pectoris, the delayed image in the

  10. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  11. Non-invasive tracking of human haemopoietic CD34{sup +} stem cells in vivo in immunodeficient mice by using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeyer, Markus; Jacobs, Volker R.; Timmer, Sebastian; Kiechle, Marion [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Gynaecology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Oostendorp, Robert A.J.; Hippauf, Sandra; Bekker-Ruz, Viktoria [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Kremer, Markus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Pathology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Baurecht, Hansjoerg [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Statistics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Ludwig, Georg; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Piontek, Guido [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neuropathology, Munich (Germany); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To assess migration of CD34{sup +} human stem cells to the bone marrow of athymic mice by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and Resovist, a contrast agent containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles. All animal and human procedures were approved by our institution's ethics committee, and women had given consent to donate umbilical cord blood (UCB). Balb/c-AnN Foxn1{sup nu}/Crl mice received intravenous injection of 1 x 10{sup 6} (n = 3), 5 x 10{sup 6} (n = 3) or 1 x 10{sup 7} (n = 3) human Resovist-labelled CD34{sup +} cells; control mice received Resovist (n = 3). MR imaging was performed before, 2 and 24 h after transplantation. Signal intensities of liver, muscle and bone marrow were measured and analysed by ANOVA and post hoc Student's t tests. MR imaging data were verified by histological and immunological detection of both human cell surface markers and carboxydextran-coating of the contrast agent. CD34{sup +} cells were efficiently labelled by Resovist without impairment of functionality. Twenty-four hours after administration of labelled cells, MR imaging revealed a significant signal decline in the bone marrow, and histological and immunological analyses confirmed the presence of transplanted human CD34{sup +} cells. Intravenously administered Resovist-labelled CD34{sup +} cells home to bone marrow of mice. Homing can be tracked in vivo by using clinical 1.5-T MR imaging technology. (orig.)

  12. Radio-synthesis and mass spectrometry analysis of 68Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-617 for non-invasive prostate cancer PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Zhu; Qing Xie; Nan Li; Fei Liu; Huifang Tian; Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper in on quality control and decay property analysis of 68 Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-617 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of prostate cancer. 68 Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-617 was synthesized in high radiochemical yield and specific activity (77 GBq/µmol) under optimized conditions. The decayed tracer was characterized by MADLI-TOF to support its decay and coordination characterization. Contrast PET imaging studies were performed using normal nude mice after intravenous injection of 18.5 MBq of 68 Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-617 and 18 F-FDG respectively. These results warrant the further clinical application of 68 Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in prostate cancer PET imaging. (author)

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of Tc-99m-labeled RRL-containing peptide as a non-invasive tumor imaging agent in a mouse fibrosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2015-11-01

    Arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) is considered a tumor endothelial cell-specific binding sequence. RRL-containing peptide targeting tumor vessels is an excellent candidate for tumor imaging. In this study, we developed RRL-containing hexapeptides and evaluated their feasibility as a tumor imaging agent in a HT-1080 fibrosarcoma-bearing murine model. The hexapeptide, glutamic acid-cysteine-glycine (ECG)-RRL was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling efficiency was evaluated using instant thin-layer chromatography. Uptake of Tc-99m ECG-RRL within HT-1080 cells was evaluated in vitro by confocal microscopy and cellular binding affinity was calculated. Gamma images were acquired In HT-1080 fibrosarcoma tumor-bearing mice, and the tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio was calculated. The inflammatory-to-normal muscle uptake ratio was also calculated in an inflammation mouse model. A biodistribution study was performed to calculate %ID/g. A high yield of Tc-99m ECG-RRL complexes was prepared after Tc-99m radiolabeling. Binding of Tc-99m ECG-RRL to tumor cells had was confirmed by in vitro studies. Gamma camera imaging in the murine model showed that Tc-99m ECG-RRL accumulated substantially in the subcutaneously engrafted tumor and that tumoral uptake was blocked by co-injecting excess RRL. Moreover, Tc-99m ECG-RRL accumulated minimally in inflammatory lesions. We successfully developed Tc-99m ECG-RRL as a new tumor imaging candidate. Specific tumoral uptake of Tc-99m ECG-RRL was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and it was determined to be a good tumor imaging candidate. Additionally, Tc-99m ECG-RRL effectively distinguished between cancerous tissue and inflammatory lesions.

  14. Noninvasive Differentiation between Hepatic Steatosis and Steatohepatitis with MR Imaging Enhanced with USPIOs in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Loek P; Coolen, Bram F; Panno, Maria D; Runge, Jurgen H; Nijhof, Wouter H; Verheij, Joanne; Nieuwdorp, Max; Stoker, Jaap; Beuers, Ulrich H; Nederveen, Aart J; Stroes, Erik S

    2016-03-01

    To (a) study the optimal timing and dosing for ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, (b) evaluate whether hepatic USPIO uptake is decreased in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and (c) study the diagnostic accuracy of USPIO-enhanced MR imaging to distinguish between NASH and simple steatosis. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Quantitative R2* MR imaging of the liver was performed at baseline and 72 hours after USPIO administration in patients with biopsy-proven NASH (n = 13), hepatic steatosis without NASH (n = 11), and healthy control subjects (n = 9). The hepatic USPIO uptake in the liver was quantified by the difference in R2* (ΔR2*) between the contrast material-enhanced images and baseline images. Between-group differences in mean ΔR2* were tested with the Student t test, and diagnostic accuracy was tested by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Patients with NASH had a significantly lower ΔR2* 72 hours after USPIO administration when compared with patients who had simple steatosis and healthy control subjects (mean ± standard deviation for patients with NASH, 37.0 sec(-1) ± 16.1; patients with simple steatosis, 61.0 sec(-1) ± 17.3; and healthy control subjects, 72.2 sec(-1) ± 22.0; P = .006 for NASH vs simple steatosis; P steatosis was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 1.00). This proof-of-concept study provides clues that hepatic USPIO uptake in patients with NASH is decreased and that USPIO MR imaging can be used to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis.

  15. Water-mediated green synthesis of PbS quantum dot and its glutathione and biotin conjugates for non-invasive live cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Bharathi, M.; Maiti, Santanu; Sarkar, Bidisha; Ghosh, Kaustab; Paira, Priyankar

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses the cellular uptake of nanomaterials in the field of bio-applications. In the present study, we have synthesized water-soluble lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) with glutathione and 3-MPA (mercaptopropionic acid) as the stabilizing ligand using a green approach. 3-MPA-capped QDs were further modified with streptavidin and then bound to biotin because of its high conjugation efficiency. Labelling and bio-imaging of cells with these bio-conjugated QDs were evaluated. The bright red fluorescence from these types of QDs in HeLa cells makes these materials suitable for deep tissue imaging.

  16. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  18. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VI. Detection of coronary artery disease in human beings with intravenous N-13 ammonia and positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Wisenberg, G.; Phelps, M.E.; Gould, K.L.; Henze, E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Gomes, A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of detecting mild coronary stenoses with positron computed tomography and nitrogen (N-13) ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation was previously demonstrated in chronically instrumented dogs. The feasibility of using this technique in human beings and its sensitivity in determining the degree and extent of coronary artery disease were examined in 13 young normal healthy volunteers and 32 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and its distribution in the left ventricular myocardium recorded at rest and during dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia. In the 13 volunteers, N-13 activity was homogeneous at rest and during hyperemia, whereas 31 of the 32 patients had regional defects on the hyperemic images not present during rest. All six patients with double, all 10 with triple and 15 of 16 patients with single vessel disease (97 percent) were correctly identified with the technique. Two vessel involvement was correctly identified in five of the six patients with double vessel disease and three vessel disease in six of 10 patients. Of all 58 coronary stenoses, 52 (90 percent) were correctly identified. In a subgroup of 11 patients, the technique was compared with exercise thallium-201 planar images, which were abnormal in 10 (91 percent) whereas N-13 images were abnormal in all 11. Of the 19 stenosed coronary arteries in this subgroup, 11 (58 percent) were correctly identified with thallium-201 and 17 (89 percent) with tomography (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that cross-sectional imaging of the myocardial distribution of N-13 ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation is a highly sensitive and accurate means for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses in human beings and for estimating the extent of coronary artery disease

  19. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Cate, F.J. ten; Neumann, H.A.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R)

  20. A quantitative non-invasive assessment of femoroacetabular impingement with CT-based dynamic simulation - Cadaveric validation study Clinical diagnostics and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Röling (Maarten); M.I. Visser (Monique I); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P. Pilot (Peter); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); R.M. Bloem (Rolf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is caused by an anatomic deviation of the acetabular rim or proximal femur, which causes chronic groin pain. Radiological identification of FAI can be challenging. Advances in imaging techniques with the use of computed tomography (CT) scan

  1. Fast and Noninvasive Characterization of Suspicious Lesions Detected at Breast Cancer X-Ray Screening: Capability of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging with MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B; Tesdorff, Jana; Lederer, Wolfgang; Daniel, Heidi; Stieber, Anne; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of a diagnostic abbreviated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol consisting of maximum intensity projections (MIPs) from diffusion-weighted imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) and unenhanced morphologic sequences to help predict the likelihood of malignancy on suspicious screening x-ray mammograms, as compared with an abbreviated contrast material-enhanced MR imaging protocol and a full diagnostic breast MR imaging protocol. This prospective institutional review board-approved study included 50 women (mean age, 57.1 years; range, 50-69 years), who gave informed consent and who had suspicious screening mammograms and an indication for biopsy, from September 2014 to January 2015. Before biopsy, full diagnostic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed that included DWIBS (b = 1500 sec/mm(2)). Two abbreviated protocols (APs) based on MIPs were evaluated regarding the potential to exclude malignancy: DWIBS (AP1) and subtraction images from the first postcontrast and the unenhanced series (AP2). Diagnostic indexes of both methods were examined by using the McNemar test and were compared with those of the full diagnostic protocol and histopathologic findings. Twenty-four of 50 participants had a breast carcinoma. With AP1 (DWIBS), the sensitivity was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73, 0.98), the specificity was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.99), and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.99). The mean reading time was 29.7 seconds (range, 4.9-110.0 seconds) and was less than 3 seconds (range, 1.2-7.6 seconds) in the absence of suspicious findings on the DWIBS MIPs. With the AP2 protocol, the sensitivity was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95), the specificity was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.97), the NPV was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.95), the PPV was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.97), and the mean reading time was 29.6 seconds (range, 6.0-100.0 seconds). Unenhanced diagnostic

  2. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Surugadai Hospital] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses {>=}50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  3. Preclinical evaluation of destruxin B as a novel Wnt signaling target suppressing proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Chi-Tai [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Cancer Research, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Rao, Yerra Koteswara [Institute of Biochemical Sciences and Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ye, Min [Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wu, Wen-Shi [Department of Horticulture and Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Tung-Chen [Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Liang-Shun [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Hsiung [Center of Excellence for Cancer Research, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Alexander T.H., E-mail: chaw1211@tmu.edu.tw [Ph.D. Program for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yew-Min, E-mail: ymtzeng@cyut.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical Sciences and Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    In continuation to our studies toward the identification of direct anti-cancer targets, here we showed that destruxin B (DB) from Metarhizium anisopliae suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in human colorectal cancer (CRC) HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. Additionally, DB induced apoptosis in HT29 cells by decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while increased pro-apoptotic Bax. On the other hand, DB attenuated Wnt-signaling by downregulation of β-catenin, Tcf4 and β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activity, concomitantly with decreased expression of β-catenin target genes cyclin D1, c-myc and survivin. Furthermore, DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through suppressed MMPs-2 and -9 enzymatic activities. We also found that DB targeted the MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt pathway by reduced expression of Akt, IKK-α, JNK, NF-κB, c-Jun and c-Fos while increased that of IκBα. Finally, we demonstrated that DB inhibited tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice using non-invasive bioluminescence technique. Consistently, tumor samples from DB-treated mice demonstrated suppressed expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, survivin, and endothelial marker CD31 while increased caspase-3 expression. Collectively, our data supports DB as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway that may be beneficial in the CRC management. Highlights: ► Destruxin B (DB) inhibited colorectal cancer cells growth and induced apoptosis. ► MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt cascade cooperates in DB induced apoptosis. ► DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through MMP-9. ► DB attenuated Wnt-signaling components β-catenin, Tcf4. ► DB attenuated cyclin D1, c-myc, survivin and tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice.

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful in the accurate non-invasive diagnosis of breast abscess: correlation with necrotic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiyan; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Yang, Wei Tse; Dogan, Basak Erguvan

    2018-03-22

    Clinical differentiation of atypical breast abscesses from necrotic tumour in premenopausal women is challenging and may delay appropriate therapy. In this case report, we present a 36-year-old woman with signs, symptoms and conventional imaging features of malignancy who underwent breast MRI. On diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), profoundly low apparent diffusion coefficient values were a distinguishing sign of breast abscess from necrotic breast cancer, and helped manage the patient conservatively. We present a companion case of necrotic breast tumour highlighting significant differences in DWI. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic method for assessing function. New procedures for the non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood volume and blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueckel, F.; Rempp, K.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Loose, R.; Brix, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the current status of cerebral blood volume and blood flow imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. A new method for the quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of the indicator dilution theory is described and preliminary quantitative results from healthy volunteers are presented. The mean values for the rCBV are 8,27±1,85 ml/100 g for grey matter and 3,78±1,34 ml/100 g for white matter. The mean values for the rCBF are 44,8±11,29 ml/min/100 g for the grey matter and 20,88±8,42 ml/min/100 g for the white matter. These results are in good agreement with PET results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  6. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized (13) C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as noninvasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has...... the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-bromopyruvate under...

  7. Dose escalation to high-risk sub-volumes based on non-invasive imaging of hypoxia and glycolytic activity in canine solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Malene M.; Hansen, Anders Elias; af Rosenschold, Per Munck

    2013-01-01

    : Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans of five spontaneous canine solid tumors were included. FDG-PET/CT was obtained at day 1, 64Cu-ATSM at day 2 and 3 (3 and 24 h pi.). GTV was delineated and CT images were co-registered. Sub-volumes for 3 h and 24 h 64Cu-ATSM (Cu3 and Cu24) were...

  8. Preparation and evaluation of a 68Ga-labeled RGD-containing octapeptide for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis: biodistribution in non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Lindhe, Örjan

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring general disease marker such as angiogenesis may contribute to the development of personalized medicine and improve therapy outcome. Readily availability of positron emitter based imaging agents providing quantification would expand clinical positron emission tomography (PET) applications. Generator produced 68Ga provides PET images of high resolution and the half-life time frame is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of small peptides comprising arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence specific to αvβ3 integrin receptors. The main objective of this study was to develop a method for 68Ga-labeling of RGD containing bicyclic octapeptide ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-RGD) with high specific radioactivity and preclinically assess its imaging potential. DOTA-RGD was labeled using generator eluate preconcentration technique and microwave heating. The binding and organ distribution properties of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-RGD were tested in vitro by autoradiography of frozen tumor sections, and in vivo in mice carrying a Lewis Lung carcinoma graft (LL2), and in non-human primate (NHP). Another peptide with aspartic acid-glycine-phenylalanine sequence was used as a negative control. The full 68Ga radioactivity eluted from two generators was quantitatively incorporated into 3-8 nanomoles of the peptide conjugates. The target binding specificity was confirmed by blocking experiments. The specific uptake in the LL2 mice model was observed in vivo and confirmed in the corresponding ex vivo biodistribution experiments. Increased accumulation of the radioactivity was detected in the wall of the uterus of the female NHP probably indicating neovascularization. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-RGD demonstrated potential for the imaging of angiogenesis. PMID:29531858

  9. Virtual iron concentration imaging based on dual-energy CT for noninvasive quantification and grading of liver iron content: An iron overload rabbit model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian Fu; Yang, Yi; Xie, Xue Qian; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Yan, Fu Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yan, Jing [Siemens Shanghai Medical Equipment Ltd., Shanghai (China); Wang, Li [Fudan University, Center of Analysis and Measurement, Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To assess the accuracy of liver iron content (LIC) quantification and grading ability associated with clinical LIC stratification using virtual iron concentration (VIC) imaging on dual-energy CT (DECT) in an iron overload rabbit model. Fifty-one rabbits were prepared as iron-loaded models by intravenous injection of iron dextran. DECT was performed at 80 and 140 kVp. VIC images were derived from an iron-specific algorithm. Postmortem LIC assessments were conducted on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Correlation between VIC and LIC was analyzed. VIC were stratified according to the corresponding clinical LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg Fe/g. Diagnostic performance of stratification was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. VIC linearly correlated with LIC (r = 0.977, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between VIC-derived LICs and ICP (P > 0.05). For the four clinical LIC thresholds, the corresponding cutoff values of VIC were 19.6, 25.3, 36.9, and 61.5 HU, respectively. The highest sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (100 %) were achieved at the threshold of 15.0 mg Fe/g. Virtual iron concentration imaging on DECT showed potential ability to accurately quantify and stratify hepatic iron accumulation in the iron overload rabbit model. (orig.)

  10. Non-invasive quantification of hepatic steatosis in living, related liver donors using dual-echo Dixon imaging and single-voxel proton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishan, S.; Jain, D.; Bathina, Y.; Kale, A.; Saraf, N.; Saigal, S.; Choudhary, N.; Baijal, S.S.; Soin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic implications of hepatic fat fraction calculated using dual-echo Dixon imaging and "1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to detect hepatic steatosis in potential liver donors using histopathology as the reference standard. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-five potential liver donors were included in the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5 T system using a three-dimensional dual-echo MRI sequence with automated reconstruction of in-phase (IP), out-of-phase (OP), fat-signal-only, and water-signal-only images. Hepatic fat fraction was calculated by drawing 15 regions of interest on the IP, OP, fat-only, and water-only images. Single-voxel MRS was performed at echo times (TEs) of 30 ms in the right and left lobes of liver. Liver fat fraction was calculated from water and fat peaks. One hundred and forty-five biopsies were prospectively evaluated for steatosis by a pathologist using traditional determination of the cell-count fraction. MRI and pathology values of steatosis were correlated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sensitivity and specificity of each of these methods was calculated using histopathology as the reference standard. Reproducibility was assessed in 40 patients who had repeat scanning within 4–40 days. Measurement error was calculated from the coefficient of variation (CoV) with histopathologically proven <5% fat (n=112). Results: The Bland–Altman limits of agreement with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was –2.9 to 5.3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interobserver variability and reproducibility was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91–0.97), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91–0.97). The CoV was 7.6% (95% CI: 3.4–11.85). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for Dixon imaging 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87–0.91), for MRS 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86–0.90). The sensitivity for detecting <5% fat was 84% and specificity was 90%. Conclusion: Combination of

  11. Engraftment and bone mass are enhanced by PTHrP 1-34 in ectopically transplanted vertebrae (vossicle model) and can be non-invasively monitored with bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Williams, Michelle M; Dembek, Katarzyna A; Hernon, Krista M; Rosol, Thomas J; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence exists that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) 1-34 may be more anabolic in bone than parathyroid hormone 1-34. While optical imaging is growing in popularity, scant information exists on the relationships between traditional bone imaging and histology and bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence (FLI) imaging. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PTHrP 1-34 on bone mass and determine if relationships existed between radiographic and histologic findings in bone and BLI and FLI indices. Vertebrae (vossicles) from mice coexpressing luciferase and green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously into allogenic nude mice. Transplant recipients were treated daily with saline or PTHrP 1-34 for 4 weeks. BLI, FLI, radiography, histology, and µCT of the vossicles were performed over time. PTHrP 1-34 increased bioluminescence the most after 2 weeks, fluorescence at all time points, and decreased the time to peak bioluminescence at 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.027), the latter of which suggesting enhanced engraftment. PTHrP 1-34 maximized vertebral body volume at 4 weeks (P bone observed histologically increased in both groups at 2 and 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.002); however, PTHrP 1-34 exceeded time-matched controls (P ≤ 0.044). A positive linear relationship existed between the percentage of trabecular bone and (1) total bioluminescence (r = 0.595; P = 0.019); (2) total fluorescence (r = 0.474; P = 0.074); and (3) max fluorescence (r = 0.587; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PTHrP 1-34 enhances engraftment and bone mass, which can be monitored non-invasively by BLI and FLI.

  12. Imaging Tumor Vasculature Noninvasively with Positron Emission Tomography and RGD Peptides Labeled with Copper 64 Using the Bifunctonal Chelates DOTA, Oxo-DO3A. and PCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T.T. Yapp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel bifunctional chelates, 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15,11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid (PCTA and 1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid (Oxo-DO3A, were found to radiolabel antibodies with copper 64 (64Cu well for positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, the same chelators were used to radiolabel peptides with 64Cu for PET imaging of angiogenesis. PCTA, Oxo-DO3A, and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N‘,N“,N”’-tetraacetic acid (DOTA were conjugated to cyclic-(RGDyK, and their binding affinities were confirmed. Conditions for 64Cu radiolabeling were optimized for maximum yield and specific activity. The in vitro stability of the radiolabeled compounds was challenged with serum incubation. PET studies were carried out in a non-αvβ3-expressing tumor model to evaluate the compounds' specificity for proliferating tumor vasculature and their in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PCTA and Oxo-DO3A bioconjugates were labeled with 64Cu at higher effective specific activity and radiochemical yield than the DOTA bioconjugate. In the imaging studies, all the 64Cu bioconjugates could be used to visualize the tumor and the radiotracer uptake was blocked with cyclic-(RGDyK. Target uptake of each bioconjugate was similar, but differences in other tissues were observed. 64Cu-PCTA-RGD showed the best clearance from nontarget tissue and the highest tumor to nontarget ratios. PCTA was the most promising bifunctional chelate for 64Cu peptide imaging and warrants further investigation.

  13. A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishii, Ken; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Nagai, Shigenori; Funao, Haruki; Ishihama, Hiroko; Shiono, Yuta; Sasaki, Aya; Aizawa, Mamoru; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections, including surgical-site and implant-associated infections, often cause progressive inflammation and destroy areas of the soft tissue. Treating infections, especially those caused by multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a challenge. Although there are a few animal models that enable the quantitative evaluation of infection in soft tissues, these models are not always reproducible or sustainable. Here, we successfully established a real-time, in vivo, quantitative mouse model of soft-tissue infection in the superficial gluteus muscle (SGM) using bioluminescence imaging. A bioluminescent strain of MRSA was inoculated into the SGM of BALB/c adult male mice, followed by sequential measurement of bacterial photon intensity and serological and histological analyses of the mice. The mean photon intensity in the mice peaked immediately after inoculation and remained stable until day 28. The serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 and C-reactive protein at 12 hours after inoculation were significantly higher than those prior to inoculation, and the C-reactive protein remained significantly elevated until day 21. Histological analyses showed marked neutrophil infiltration and abscesses containing necrotic and fibrous tissues in the SGM. With this SGM mouse model, we successfully visualized and quantified stable bacterial growth over an extended period of time with bioluminescence imaging, which allowed us to monitor the process of infection without euthanizing the experimental animals. This model is applicable to in vivo evaluations of the long-term efficacy of novel antibiotics or antibacterial implants.

  14. Optimal delivery route of bone marrow stromal cells for rat infarct brain – A study using non-invasive optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC have the potential to improve neurological function when transplanted into animal model of central nervous system (CNS disorders. However, there still exist several questions to solved prior to clinical application. In this study, therefore, we aimed to clarify the optimal delivery route of BMSC transplantation over a reasonable time window.MATERIALS AND METHODS - The rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The BMSC were labeled with quantum dot (QD 800. The labeled BMSC were transplanted into the infarct brain directly or intravenously at 7 days after the insult. Motor function was serially assessed. The BMSC were also tracked using near infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging technique every week. The fate of the transplanted BMSC was examined at 5 weeks after transplantation, using Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS - Direct, but not intravenous, transplantation of BMSC significantly enhanced functional recovery. NIR fluorescence imaging could visualize their migration towards cerebral infarct in directly, but not intravenously, injected animals. The findings were supported on histological analysis. Thus, the BMSC were widely engrafted in the infarct brain in the directly injected animals, but few BMSC were observed in the intravenously injected ones. CONCLUSION - This study strongly suggests that direct transplantation of BMSC may be more beneficial in treating patients with ischemic stroke than their intravenous transplantation. Therapeutic time window must be called into account when considering the route of BMSC transplantation.

  15. Noninvasive monitoring of radiation-induced treatment response using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a colorectal tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seierstad, Therese; Roe, Kathrine; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can monitor radiation-induced changes in HT29 xenografts in mice. Materials and methods: HT29 xenografts in mice received a dose of 15 Gy. In vivo 1 H MRS and DW-MRI were acquired pretreatment and 1, 3, 6 and 10 days post-irradiation. After imaging, tumors were excised for histological analysis. The amounts of necrosis, fibrosis and viable cells in the cross sections were scored and compared to changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and choline/water ratio. Results: Radiation-induced necrosis in the xenografts was observed as increased tumor ADC. In-growth of fibrosis three days post-irradiation restricting water mobility was accompanied by decreased tumor ADC. Choline/water ratio correlated with metabolic activity and tumor growth. Conclusions: ADC and choline/water ratio assessed by in vivo DW-MRI and 1 H MRS depicts radiation-induced changes in HT29 xenografts following irradiation

  16. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  17. Non-invasive Estimation of Temperature during Physiotherapeutic Ultrasound Application Using the Average Gray-Level Content of B-Mode Images: A Metrological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, André V; Wilkens, Volker; Georg, Olga; Costa-Félix, Rodrigo P B

    2017-09-01

    Healing therapies that make use of ultrasound are based on raising the temperature in biological tissue. However, it is not possible to heal impaired tissue by applying a high dose of ultrasound. The temperature of the tissue is ultimately the physical quantity that has to be assessed to minimize the risk of undesired injury. Invasive temperature measurement techniques are easy to use, despite the fact that they are detrimental to human well being. Another approach to assessing a rise in tissue temperature is to derive the material's general response to temperature variations from ultrasonic parameters. In this article, a method for evaluating temperature variations is described. The method is based on the analytical study of an ultrasonic image, in which gray-level variations are correlated to the temperature variations in a tissue-mimicking material. The physical assumption is that temperature variations induce wave propagation changes modifying the backscattered ultrasound signal, which are expressed in the ultrasonographic images. For a temperature variation of about 15°C, the expanded uncertainty for a coverage probability of 0.95 was found to be 2.5°C in the heating regime and 1.9°C in the cooling regime. It is possible to use the model proposed in this article in a straightforward manner to monitor temperature variation during a physiotherapeutic ultrasound application, provided the tissue-mimicking material approach is transferred to actual biological tissue. The novelty of such approach resides in the metrology-based investigation outlined here, as well as in its ease of reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cell-CT 3D Cell Imaging Technology Platform Enables the Detection of Lung Cancer Using the Non-Invasive LuCED Sputum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G.; Hayenga, Jon; Neumann, Thomas; Katdare, Rahul; Presley, Chris; Steinhauer, David; Bell, Timothy; Lancaster, Christy; Nelson, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    The war against cancer has yielded important advances in the early diagnosis and treatment of certain cancer types, but the poor detection rate and 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains little changed over the past 40 years. Early detection through emerging lung cancer screening programs promises the most reliable means of improving mortality. Sputum cytology has been tried without success because sputum contains few malignant cells that are difficult for cytologists to detect. However, research has shown that sputum contains diagnostic malignant cells and could serve as a means of lung cancer detection if those cells could be detected and correctly characterized. Recently, the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial reported that screening by three consecutive low-dose X-ray CT scans provides a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality compared to chest X-ray. This reduction in mortality, however, comes with an unacceptable false positive rate that increases patient risks and the overall cost of lung cancer screening. This article reviews the LuCED® test for detecting early lung cancer. LuCED is based on patient sputum that is enriched for bronchial epithelial cells. The enriched sample is then processed on the Cell-CT®, which images cells in three dimensions with sub-micron resolution. Algorithms are applied to the 3D cell images to extract morphometric features that drive a classifier to identify cells that have abnormal characteristics. The final status of these candidate abnormal cells is established by the pathologist's manual review. LuCED promotes accurate cell classification which could enable cost effective detection of lung cancer. PMID:26148817

  19. Noninvasive assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma of long bones with diffusion-weighted imaging: an initial in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is useful for monitoring the therapeutic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma of long bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and DWI were obtained from 35 patients with histologically proven osteosarcomas. MR examinations were performed in all patients before and after 4 courses of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC were measured. The degree of tumor necrosis was assessed macroscopically and histologically by two experienced pathologists after operation. Student's t test was performed for testing changes in ADC value. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the correlation between necrosis rate and post- neoadjuvant chemotherapy ADC values. P<0.05 was considered to denote a significant difference. RESULTS: The difference of the whole osteosarcoma between pre- neoadjuvant chemotherapy ADC value (1.24±0.17×10(-3 mm(2/s and post- (1.93±0.39×10(-3 mm(2/s was significant difference (P<0.01. Regarding in patients with good response, the post- neoadjuvant chemotherapy values were significantly higher than the pre- neoadjuvant chemotherapy values (P<0.01. The post- neoadjuvant chemotherapy ADC value in patients with good response was higher than that of poor response (t = 8.995, P<0.01. The differences in post- neoadjuvant chemotherapy ADC between viable (1.03±0.17×10(-3 mm(2/s and necrotic (2.38±0.25×10(-3 mm(2/s tumor was highly significant (t = 23.905, P<0.01. A positive correlation between necrosis rates and the whole tumor ADC values (r = 0.769, P<0.01 was noted, but necrosis rates were not correlated with the ADC values of necrotic (r = -0.191, P = 0.272 and viable tumor areas (r = 0.292, P = 0.089. CONCLUSIONS: DWI can identify residual viable tumor tissues and tumor necrosis induced by neoadjuvant

  20. Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, A M; Bünger, L; Kongsro, J; Baulain, U; Mitchell, A D

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach.

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic workup of patients with suspected stable angina by combined computed tomography coronary angiography and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.W.; Nieman, K.; Springeling, T.

    2011-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate additional adenosine magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) imaging in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected stable angina with computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as first-line diagnostic modality. Two hundred and thirty symptomatic patients (male, 52%; age, 56 year) with suspected stable angina underwent CTCA. In patients with a stenosis of >50% as visually assessed, MRP was performed and the quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) was calculated. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) using invasive coronary flow measurements served as the standard of reference. CTCA showed non-significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in 151/230 (66%) patients and significant CAD in 79/230 patients (34%), of whom 50 subsequently underwent MRP and CFR. MRP showed reduced perfusion in 32 patients (64%), which was confirmed by CFR in 27 (84%). All 18 cases of normal MRP (36%) were confirmed by CFR. The positive likelihood ratio of MRP for the presence of functional significant disease in patients with a lesion on CTCA was 4.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-9.99). The negative likelihood ratio was 0.05 (95% CI 0.01-0.34). CTCA as first-line diagnostic modality excluded coronary artery disease in a high percentage of patients referred for diagnostic workup of suspected stable angina. MRP made a significant contribution to the detection of functional significant lesions in patients with a positive CTCA. (author)

  2. Non-invasive imaging provides spatiotemporal information on disease progression and response to therapy in a murine model of multiple myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S Riedel

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a B-cell malignancy, where malignant plasma cells clonally expand in the bone marrow of older people, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Typical clinical symptoms include increased serum calcium levels, renal insufficiency, anemia, and bone lesions. With standard therapies, MM remains incurable; therefore, the development of new drugs or immune cell-based therapies is desirable. To advance the goal of finding a more effective treatment for MM, we aimed to develop a reliable preclinical MM mouse model applying sensitive and reproducible methods for monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis in response to therapy.A mouse model was created by intravenously injecting bone marrow-homing mouse myeloma cells (MOPC-315.BM that expressed luciferase into BALB/c wild type mice. The luciferase in the myeloma cells allowed in vivo tracking before and after melphalan treatment with bioluminescence imaging (BLI. Homing of MOPC-315.BM luciferase+ myeloma cells to specific tissues was examined by flow cytometry. Idiotype-specific myeloma protein serum levels were measured by ELISA. In vivo measurements were validated with histopathology.Strong bone marrow tropism and subsequent dissemination of MOPC-315.BM luciferase(+ cells in vivo closely mimicked the human disease. In vivo BLI and later histopathological analysis revealed that 12 days of melphalan treatment slowed tumor progression and reduced MM dissemination compared to untreated controls. MOPC-315.BM luciferase(+ cells expressed CXCR4 and high levels of CD44 and α4β1 in vitro which could explain the strong bone marrow tropism. The results showed that MOPC-315.BM cells dynamically regulated homing receptor expression and depended on interactions with surrounding cells.This study described a novel MM mouse model that facilitated convenient, reliable, and sensitive tracking of myeloma cells with whole body BLI in living animals. This model is highly suitable for monitoring

  3. Noninvasive assessment of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer using [18F] 3'deoxy-3-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Scott D.; Bencherif, Badreddine; Edwards, Robert P.; Elishaev, Esther; Krivak, Thomas C.; Mountz, James M.; DeLoia, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of suspected new and recurrent ovarian carcinoma was performed to assess the relationship between [ 18 F] 3'deoxy-3'fluorothymidine ( 18 FLT) uptake and histopathological tissue markers of cellular proliferation (Ki67) and thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) expression. Methods: Six subjects were included in this pilot study. Subjects were injected with 5 mCi of 18 FLT prior to a planned surgery and then scanned on a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner within an hour of injection. Regions of interest in tumor and control tissue were identified on the diagnostic CT scans and marked for later surgical biopsy. Surgery was performed within 2 days after the scan. At the time of surgery, the regions of interest identified on PET/CT were available to guide the surgeon to the tumor biopsy sites. Tissue from normal ovarian tissue control regions was also sampled. 18 FLT uptake in tumor and control tissue regions was calculated by measuring the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ). The excised tumor and normal ovarian tissue control tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 and CD34. TK-1 messenger RNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: 18 FLT uptake (SUV max ) was higher in malignant (mean 4.85/range 1.7-8.8) compared to benign (1.65/range 1.4-1.9) and normal ovarian control tissue (1.12/range 0.6-1.5). Mitotic index, as determined by Ki67 staining, was higher in malignant (18.89/range 11.97-27.19) compared to benign (0.59/range 0.23-0.95) and control tissue (0.45/range 0.06-1.20). TK-1 expression was also higher in malignant (35.52/range 5.21-106.62) compared to benign (8.71/range 4.74-12.67) and control tissue (9.79/range 0.85-39.46). An increasing trend between 18 FLT uptake and Ki67 mitotic index is seen in malignant tissue CD 34 staining between malignant, benign and control tissues was not qualitatively different. Conclusion: An

  4. Noninvasive assessment of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer using [{sup 18}F] 3'deoxy-3-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Scott D. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Bencherif, Badreddine, E-mail: bencherifbb@upmc.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Edwards, Robert P. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Elishaev, Esther [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Krivak, Thomas C.; Mountz, James M. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); DeLoia, Julie A. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of suspected new and recurrent ovarian carcinoma was performed to assess the relationship between [{sup 18}F] 3'deoxy-3'fluorothymidine ({sup 18}FLT) uptake and histopathological tissue markers of cellular proliferation (Ki67) and thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) expression. Methods: Six subjects were included in this pilot study. Subjects were injected with 5 mCi of {sup 18}FLT prior to a planned surgery and then scanned on a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner within an hour of injection. Regions of interest in tumor and control tissue were identified on the diagnostic CT scans and marked for later surgical biopsy. Surgery was performed within 2 days after the scan. At the time of surgery, the regions of interest identified on PET/CT were available to guide the surgeon to the tumor biopsy sites. Tissue from normal ovarian tissue control regions was also sampled. {sup 18}FLT uptake in tumor and control tissue regions was calculated by measuring the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}). The excised tumor and normal ovarian tissue control tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 and CD34. TK-1 messenger RNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: {sup 18}FLT uptake (SUV{sub max}) was higher in malignant (mean 4.85/range 1.7-8.8) compared to benign (1.65/range 1.4-1.9) and normal ovarian control tissue (1.12/range 0.6-1.5). Mitotic index, as determined by Ki67 staining, was higher in malignant (18.89/range 11.97-27.19) compared to benign (0.59/range 0.23-0.95) and control tissue (0.45/range 0.06-1.20). TK-1 expression was also higher in malignant (35.52/range 5.21-106.62) compared to benign (8.71/range 4.74-12.67) and control tissue (9.79/range 0.85-39.46). An increasing trend between {sup 18}FLT uptake and Ki67 mitotic index is seen in malignant tissue CD 34 staining between malignant, benign and control tissues was not

  5. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S.; Maclin, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs

  6. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  8. Non-invasive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Skelton, R.T.; Allen, M.J.; Douglas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Residual core material can be detected inside hollow cast articles such as turbine blades using positron emission tomography (PET). Positron radio-isotope material is inducted into any residual core material present by immersing a cast article in an aqueous solution of radio-isotope emitter, for example gallium. Absorbed gallium subsequently emits positrons which are annihilated in collisions with electrons emitting two 511 KeV gamma rays in diametrically opposite directions. The coincident emissions are detected and tracked by a PET camera and the resulting images correlated with a sectioned image of the article as a check on the location of detected core material. Initially a low-dose-rate solution for the purpose of merely establishing the presence of core material is used but a second optional process step introduces a more active solution allowing a PET camera to collect sufficient data to image absorbed isotope. (author)

  9. Noninvasive optical imaging of nanomedicine biodistribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunjachan, S.; Gremse, F.; Theek, B.; Koczera, P.; Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Storm, G.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 252-262 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanomedicine * drug targeting * biodistribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  10. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood-brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of hemodynamic response. Glucose and hemodynamic responses were quantitatively decoupled by using two-wavelength measurements. We found that glucose uptake and blood perfusion around the somatosensory region of the contralateral hemisphere were both increased by stimulations, indicating elevated neuron activity. While the glucose response area was more homogenous and confined within the somatosensory region, the hemodynamic response area had a clear vascular pattern and spread wider than the somatosensory region. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG-enhanced PACT is a promising tool for noninvasive studies of brain metabolism. PMID:22940116

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. Ultrasonography for Noninvasive Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-07-15

    Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow. In addition, elastography for the liver and spleen covers a wider field beyond the original purpose of fibrosis assessment. These developments enhance the practical use of US in the evaluation of portal hemodynamic abnormalities. This article reviews the recent progress of US in the assessment of portal hypertension.

  13. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  15. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  16. Noninvasive physiologic assessment of coronary stenoses using cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Zhonghua; Fan, Zhanming

    2015-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive "one-stop-shop" diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  17. Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography (CCTA has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT, and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG, CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  18. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and

  19. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  20. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  3. Cathodoluminescence-activated nanoimaging: noninvasive near-field optical microscopy in an electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wang, Zhe; Precht, Jake T; Kaz, David M; Schlom, Darrell G; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a new nanoimaging platform in which optical excitations generated by a low-energy electron beam in an ultrathin scintillator are used as a noninvasive, near-field optical scanning probe of an underlying sample. We obtain optical images of Al nanostructures with 46 nm resolution and validate the noninvasiveness of this approach by imaging a conjugated polymer film otherwise incompatible with electron microscopy due to electron-induced damage. The high resolution, speed, and noninvasiveness of this "cathodoluminescence-activated" platform also show promise for super-resolution bioimaging.

  4. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... using this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are recommended as first-line therapy in refractory cluster patients, but they are invasive and maybe associated with complications. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation with an external...... device has been tried in cluster patients. Results from clinical practice and a single randomized clinical trial have been presented showing a reduction of the number of cluster attacks/week in the patients treated with the device. The rate of adverse events was low and most of them were mild. SUMMARY...

  5. Molecular MR Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, UMAR; JOSEPHSON, LEE

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully applied to many of the applications of molecular imaging. This review discusses by example some of the advances in areas such as multimodality MR-optical agents, receptor imaging, apoptosis imaging, angiogenesis imaging, noninvasive cell tracking, and imaging of MR marker genes.

  6. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  8. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  9. The Role of Noninvasive Techniques in Stroke Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maxwell Bernad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have provided insight into understanding how neural connections are altered in consequence to cerebrovascular injury. The first part of this review will briefly survey some of the methodological issues and limitations related to noninvasive poststroke motor recovery studies. The second section will investigate some of the different neural mechanisms that underlie neurorehabilitation in stroke patients. The third part will explore our current understanding of motor memory processing, describe the neural structures that subserve motor memory consolidation, and discuss the current literature related to memory reconsolidation in healthy adults. Lastly, this paper will suggest the potential therapeutic applications of integrating noninvasive tools with memory consolidation and reconsolidation theories to enhance motor recovery. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate how noninvasive technologies have been utilized in the multidisciplinary field of clinical behavioral neuroscience and to highlight their potential to be employed as clinical tools to promote individualized motor recovery in stroke patients.

  10. Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the currently available noninvasive neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Over the last decade, several noninvasive devices have undergone development and clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. Based on this body of work, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation, and noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation devices have been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are available for clinical use for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Overall, these novel noninvasive devices appear to be safe, well tolerated, and have demonstrated promising results in clinical trials in both migraine and cluster headache. This narrative review will provide a summary and update of the proposed mechanisms of action, evidence, safety, and future directions of various currently available modalities of noninvasive neuromodulation for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) ... uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. Except for traumatic injury, ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouts, Mark. J. R. J.; Wu, O.; Dijkhuizen, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a powerful (neuro)imaging modality for the diagnosis and outcome prediction after (acute) stroke. Since MRI allows noninvasive, longitudinal, and three-dimensional assessment of vessel occlusion (with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)), tissue injury

  14. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  15. Measurement of non-invasive X-ray measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Described are the history, measuring system, characteristics and present state of the instruments in the title (NXMI). NXMI, non-invasive to the inner circuit of X-ray generator, is now essential for the quality control of generator with reference to definitions by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Non-invasive measurement of the generator's tube voltage in 1944 is the first report where the absorption difference of Cu plates with different thickness is used. At present, NXMI, being compact, can measure multiple properties of X-ray generated, such as the tube voltage (TV), current (TC), imaging time, dose/dose rate, total filtration, half value layer, and TV/output waveform. TV is measurable by the penetration difference of X-rays through Cu filters of different thickness, which is a linear function of TV; TC, with the clamp-type ammeter placed at the generator high voltage cable; and the dose, with the semiconductor detector. Characteristics can be evaluable within the upper trigger level of the detector (radiation time, dose measured here), in which measured are the irradiation (imaging) time, delay time, and TV (within the window width). Authors' practical quality control of the generator is conducted through calibration for which data are obtained by invasive (direct) precise measurement of TV, TC, imaging time and dose with reference to JIS. Periodical calibration and consequent quality control of NXMI are essential for the maintenance of precision of the generator. (T.T.)

  16. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  19. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  20. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  1. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin; Avanaki, Mohammadreza R. N.; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    To control the overall action of the body, brain consumes a large amount of energy in proportion to its volume. In humans and many other species, the brain gets most of its energy from oxygen-dependent metabolism of glucose. An abnormal metabolic rate of glucose and/or oxygen usually reflects a diseased status of brain, such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease. We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood-brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of hemodynamic response. Glucose and hemodynamic responses were quantitatively unmixed by using two-wavelength measurements. We found that glucose uptake and blood perfusion around the somatosensory region of the contralateral hemisphere were both increased by stimulations, indicating elevated neuron activity. The glucose response amplitude was about half that of the hemodynamic response. While the glucose response area was more homogenous and confined within the somatosensory region, the hemodynamic response area showed a clear vascular pattern and spread about twice as wide as that of the glucose response. The PACT of mouse brain metabolism was validated by high-resolution open-scalp OR-PAM and fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG-enhanced PACT is a promising tool for noninvasive studies of brain metabolism.

  2. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  3. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is an Effective, Non-invasive Method to Evaluate Changes in the Liver Fat Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Dennis M; Hasenberg, Till; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Kücükoglu, Özlem; Canbay, Ali; Otto, Mirko

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease worldwide and is highly associated with obesity. The prevalences of both conditions have markedly increased in the Western civilization. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its comorbidities such as NAFLD. Measure postoperative liver fat fraction (LFF) in bariatric patients by using in-opposed-phase MRI, a widely available clinical tool validated for the quantification of liver fat METHODS: Retrospective analyses of participants, who underwent laparoscopic Roux-Y-gastric-bypass (17) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (2) were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and anthropometric measurements 1 day before surgery, as well as 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, LFF was calculated from fat-only and water-only MR images. Six months after surgery, a significant decrease of LFF and liver volume has been observed along with weight loss, decreased waist circumference, and parameters obtained by body fat measured by BIA. LFF significantly correlated with liver volume in the postoperative course. MRI including in-opposed-phase imaging of the liver can detect the quantitative decrease of fatty infiltration within the liver after bariatric surgery and thus could be a valuable tool to monitor NAFLD/NASH postoperatively.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Cell Fate and Biology in Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Federico; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  5. Evaluation of image quality on a per-patient, per-vessel, and per-segment basis by noninvasive coronary angiography with 64-section computed tomography. Dual-source versus single-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Okada, Munemasa; Washida, Yasuo; Miura, Toshiro; Fujimura, Tatsuo; Nao, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality (IQ) of dual-source CT (DSCT) versus single-source CT (SSCT). A total of 100 patients underwent 64-section CT coronary angiography (50 DSCT, 50 SSCT). Three observers evaluated the IQ of each coronary segment using a four-point scale (1, excellent; 2, good; 3, fair; 4, no assessment). The IQ of DSCT coronary angiography was compared with SSCT coronary angiography on a per-patient, per-vessel, and per-segment basis using the chi-squared test. The DSCT image quality score (IQS) was significantly lower on a per-patient basis and per-vessel basis for all vessels and on a per-segment basis for some segments (1, 2, 4PD, 4AV, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13) compared with SSCT. The DSCT IQS was significantly lower for certain segments (2, 4PD, 11, 13) with high heart rates (≥70 beats/min). The DSCT IQS was significantly lower for certain segments (1, 2, 3, 4PD, 4AV, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13) with low heart rates (<70 beats/min). DSCT showed a significantly better IQ than SSCT, especially in patients with low heart rates. (author)

  6. Clinical evaluation of non-invasive perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Miyuki

    2000-01-01

    A spin labeling method to measure cerebral blood flow without a contrast medium was developed and applied clinically to obtain a non-invasive perfusion-weighted image. The purpose of this study is to compare the non-invasive perfusion-weighted image using FAIR with the well-established PWI using a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Of 41 lesions which revealed decreased perfusion, 13 were shown to be low signal intensity areas on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hypoperfusion was 32%. Of 8 lesions which revealed increased perfusion, 7 demonstrated high intensity on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hyperperfusion was 88%. Seven lesions were found to have a mean pixel value of zero on PWI. Of these lesions, 5 lesions could be detected as high signal intensity area on FAIR. The rCBV- and rCBF index ratios of hypoperfused lesions detected on FAIR were significantly lower than those of lesions which were not detected on FAIR (p=0.007, p=0.01). As concerns the lesions detected of FAIR, there were positive correlation between rCBV- or rCBF index ratio and FAIR signal ratio (rCBV ratio: ρ=0.873, p=0.0002, rCBF index ratio: ρ=0.858, p=0.0003). FAIR is valuable clinical tool to detect perfusion abnormality semi-quantitatively without contrast medium, although it showed relatively low detection rate for hypoperfused lesions. (author)

  7. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjeev-R; Thomas, E-Louise; Bell, Jimmy-D; Johnston, Desmond-G; Taylor-Robinson, Simon-D

    2008-06-14

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo (1)H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis (e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  8. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong

    2011-06-01

    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  9. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  10. Reflectance confocal microscopy: non-invasive distinction between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Nguyen, K.P.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recognition of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is difficult. Non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopic (RCM) imaging of the skin is a promising diagnostic technique. Although several RCM features for SCC and AK have been described, it is not determined whether RCM has the ability

  11. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouki, J.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using γ-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc

  12. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  13. Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a novel method to noninvasively modulate targeted brain areas through the temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via focused ultrasound, enabling focal delivery of a neuroactive substance. Ultrasound was used to locally disrupt the BBB in rat somatosensory cortex, and intravenous administration of GABA then produced a dose-dependent suppression of somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. No suppression was observed 1-5 days afterwards or in control animals where the BBB was not disrupted. This method has several advantages over existing techniques: it is noninvasive; it is repeatable via additional GABA injections; multiple brain regions can be affected simultaneously; suppression magnitude can be titrated by GABA dose; and the method can be used with freely behaving subjects. We anticipate that the application of neuroactive substances in this way will be a useful tool for noninvasively mapping brain function, and potentially for surgical planning or novel therapies.

  14. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L.W.

    2017-01-01

    scanner. For these reasons, a combined approach was adopted, utilizing CT scanning where possible, but preceded by an ‘exposed-wood’ imaging technique. Both non-invasive techniques have yielded reliable results, and CT scanning has confirmed the reliability of the imaging technique alone. This paper...... presents the analytical methods, along with results from two of the 13 objects under investigation. Results for reliable dates and provenances provide new foundations for historical interpretations....

  15. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coordinated Noninvasive Studies (CNS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Judith

    1988-11-01

    Research activities during this period include: data collection related to the interface between complex-sound production and perception, specifically, studies on speech acoustics including two experiments on voice-onset-time variability in productions by speakers of several languages, and a series on acoustical characteristics of emotional expression; data collection regarding individual differences in the effect of stimulus characteristic on relative ear advantages; continuing data analysis and new collections documenting individual differences in auditory evoked potentials, with details related to auditory-systems asymmetries preliminary tests regarding the match between behavioral measures of relative ear advantages and quantitative-electroencephalographic asymmetries observed during auditory stimulation; pilot testing using a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance's (NMR) anatomical-imaging and chemical-spectral-analysis capabilities to study physiological activation in the human brain.

  17. Noninvasive quantification of left-to-right shunt by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging in secundum atrial septal defect: the effects of breath holding and comparison with invasive oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Sagiyama, Koji; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Hiasa, Ken-Ichi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nagao, Michinobu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2018-01-16

    To investigate the effect of breath-holding on left-to-right shunts in patients with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Thirty-five consecutive patients with secundum ASDs underwent right heart catheterization and invasive oximetry. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. All measurements were obtained during free breathing (FB) (quiet breathing; no breath-hold), expiratory breath-hold (EBH), and inspiratory breath-hold (IBH). Pulmonary circulation flow (Qp) and systemic circulation flow (Qs) were calculated by multiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume. Measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH were compared, and the differences compared to invasive oximetry were evaluated. There were significant differences among the measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH for Qp (FB, 7.70 ± 2.68; EBH, 7.18 ± 2.34; IBH, 6.88 ± 2.51 l/min); however, no significant difference was found for Qs (FB, 3.44 ± 0.74; EBH, 3.40 ± 0.83; IBH, 3.40 ± 0.86 l/min). There were significant differences among the measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH for Qp/Qs (FB, 2.38 ± 1.12; EBH, 2.24 ± 0.95; IBH, 2.14 ± 0.97). Qp/Qs during FB and EBH correlated better with Qp/Qs measured by invasive oximetry than did IBH. The limit of agreement was smaller for EBH than for FB and IBH. In patients with secundum ASDs, Qp/Qs significantly decreased with breath-holding. The accuracy of the Qp/Qs measurement by MRI compared with invasive oximetry during EBH was higher than during FB and IBH.

  18. The investigation of Mitogen-Activated Protein kinase Phosphatase-1 as a potential pharmacological target in non-small cell lung carcinomas, assisted by non-invasive molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Deng, Win-Ping; Wu, Alexander TH; Chiou, Jeng-Feng; Jan, Hsun-Jin; Wei, Hon-Jian; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Lin, Che-Tong; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Wu, Cheng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Invasiveness and metastasis are the most common characteristics of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and causes of tumour-related morbidity and mortality. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways have been shown to play critical roles in tumorigenesis. However, the precise pathological role(s) of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in different cancers has been controversial such that the up-regulation of MKP-1 in different cancers does not always correlate to a better prognosis. In this study, we showed that the induction of MKP-1 lead to a significant retardation of proliferation and metastasis in NSCLC cells. We also established that rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) elevated MKP-1 expression level in NSCLC cells and inhibited tumour metastasis. Both wildtype and dominant negative forms of MKP-1 were constitutively expressed in NSCLC cell line H441GL. The migration and invasion abilities of these cells were examined in vitro. MKP-1 modulating agents such as rosiglitazone and triptolide were used to demonstrate MKP-1's role in tumorigenesis. Bioluminescent imaging was utilized to study tumorigenesis of MKP-1 over-expressing H441GL cells and anti-metastatic effect of rosiglitazone. Over-expression of MKP-1 reduced NSCLC cell proliferation rate as well as cell invasive and migratory abilities, evident by the reduced expression levels of MMP-2 and CXCR4. Mice inoculated with MKP-1 over-expressing H441 cells did not develop NSCLC while their control wildtype H441 inoculated littermates developed NSCLC and bone metastasis. Pharmacologically, rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist appeared to induce MKP-1 expression while reduce MMP-2 and CXCR4 expression. H441GL-inoculated mice receiving daily oral rosiglitazone treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of bone metastasis when compared to mice receiving sham treatment. We found that rosiglitazone treatment impeded the ability

  19. Recent research findings on non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and dynamic monitoring of relevant changes have great implications for the treatment and prognosis improvement of chronic liver diseases. So far, liver biopsy remains the “golden standard” for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. However, due to its inherent limitations, a great effort has been made to develop more accurate non-invasive diagnostic methods, including serum fibrosis markers and mathematical models, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, ultrasonic elastography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine. The advantages and disadvantages of relevant methods are discussed. Furthermore, proper selection of the non-invasive diagnostic methods for clinical application and the means for mutual verification are analyzed. As for the future direction, it is expected to employ the above methods for combined analysis and comprehensive assessment, in order to enhance the clinical value of non-invasive liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  20. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L.; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  1. Noninvasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A noninvasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present noninvasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45-degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (males and females) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the noninvasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, noninvasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A dual inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases, [¹⁸F]FB-ML5, as a molecular probe for non-invasive MMP/ADAM-targeted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Nathalie; Castelli, Riccardo; Tuin, Adriaan W; Overkleeft, Herman S; Wisastra, Rosalina; Dekker, Frank J; Prély, Laurette M; Bischoff, Rainer; Bischoff, Rainer P M; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Elsinga, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical studies have shown a correlation between increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) activity and poor outcome of cancer. Various MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed for therapeutic purposes in oncology. In addition, molecular imaging of MMP/ADAM levels in vivo would allow the diagnosis of tumors. We selected the dual inhibitor of MMPs and ADAMs, ML5, which is a hydroxamate-based inhibitor with affinities for many MMPs and ADAMs. ML5 was radiolabelled with (18)F and the newly obtained radiolabelled inhibitor was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. ML5 was radiolabelled by direct acylation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) for PET (positron emission tomography). The resulting radiotracer [(18)F]FB-ML5 was evaluated in vitro in human bronchial epithelium 16HBE cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The non-radioactive probe FB-ML5 and native ML5 were tested in a fluorogenic inhibition assay against MMP-2, -9, -12 and ADAM-17. The in vivo kinetics of [(18)F]FB-ML5 were examined in a HT1080 tumor-bearing mouse model. Specificity of probe binding was examined by co-injection of 0 or 2.5mg/kg ML5. ML5 and FB-ML5 showed high affinity for MMP-2, -9, -12 and ADAM-17; indeed IC50 values were respectively 7.4 ± 2.0, 19.5 ± 2.8, 2.0 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 2.2 nM and 12.5 ± 3.1, 31.5 ± 13.7, 138.0 ± 10.9 and 24.7 ± 2.8 nM. Radiochemical yield of HPLC-purified [(18)F]FB-ML5 was 13-16% (corrected for decay). Cellular binding of [(18)F]FB-ML5 was reduced by 36.6% and 27.5% in MCF-7 and 16 HBE cells, respectively, after co-incubation with 10 μM of ML5. In microPET scans, HT1080 tumors exhibited a low and homogeneous uptake of the tracer. Tumors of mice injected with [(18)F]FB-ML5 showed a SUVmean of 0.145 ± 0.064 (n=6) which decreased to 0.041 ± 0.027 (n=6) after target blocking (pFB-ML5 demonstrated rather low binding in ADAM-17 overexpressing cell lines. [(18)F]FB-ML5 uptake showed significant

  3. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  4. Comparison of different models for non-invasive FFR estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirramezani, Mehran; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), derived from invasively measuring the pressure drop across a stenosis, is considered the gold standard to diagnose disease severity and need for treatment. Non-invasive estimation of FFR has gained recent attention for its potential to reduce patient risk and procedural cost versus invasive FFR measurement. Non-invasive FFR can be obtained by using image-based computational fluid dynamics to simulate blood flow and pressure in a patient-specific coronary model. However, 3D simulations require extensive effort for model construction and numerical computation, which limits their routine use. In this study we compare (ordered by increasing computational cost/complexity): reduced-order algebraic models of pressure drop across a stenosis; 1D, 2D (multiring) and 3D CFD models; as well as 3D FSI for the computation of FFR in idealized and patient-specific stenosis geometries. We demonstrate the ability of an appropriate reduced order algebraic model to closely predict FFR when compared to FFR from a full 3D simulation. This work was supported by the NIH, Grant No. R01-HL103419.

  5. Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions

  6. Statistical model for OCT image denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi; Idoughi, Ramzi; Choudhury, Biswarup; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique with a large array of applications in clinical imaging and biological tissue visualization. However, the presence of speckle noise affects the analysis of OCT images and their diagnostic

  7. Machine learning based analysis of cardiovascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, JM

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) are the global leading cause of death. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular structures. This thesis presents machine

  8. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  9. Novel axolotl cardiac function analysis method using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, Pedro Gomes; Op 't Veld, Roel C.; de Graaf, Wolter; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Grüll, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The salamander axolotl is capable of complete regeneration of amputated heart tissue. However, non-invasive imaging tools for assessing its cardiac function were so far not employed. In this study, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is introduced as a non-invasive technique to image heart function

  10. Novel axolotl cardiac function analysis method using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, P.G.; Op ‘t Veld, R.C.; de Graaf, W.; Strijkers, G.J.; Grüll, H.

    2017-01-01

    The salamander axolotl is capable of complete regeneration of amputated heart tissue. However, non-invasive imaging tools for assessing its cardiac function were so far not employed. In this study, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is introduced as a noninvasive technique to image heart function of

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. top of page What are some common ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam room. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... others nearby harm. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... used for conventional x-rays and CT scanning. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  19. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  20. NON-INVASIVE INVERSE PROBLEM IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havelka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we focus on recovery of spatial distribution of material parameters utilizing only non-invasive boundary measurements. Such methods has gained its importance as imaging techniques in medicine, geophysics or archaeology. We apply similar principles for non-stationary heat transfer in civil engineering. In oppose to standard technique which rely on external loading devices, we assume the natural fluctuation of temperature throughout day and night can provide sufficient information to recover the underlying material parameters. The inverse problem was solved by a modified regularised Gauss-Newton iterative scheme and the underlying forward problem is solved with a finite element space-time discretisation. We show a successful reconstruction of material parameters on a synthetic example with real measurements. The virtual experiment also reveals the insensitivity to practical precision of sensor measurements.

  1. Noninvasive IDH1 mutation estimation based on a quantitative radiomics approach for grade II glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Lian, Yuxi; Li, Zeju; Liu, Tongtong; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The status of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is highly correlated with the development, treatment and prognosis of glioma. We explored a noninvasive method to reveal IDH1 status by using a quantitative radiomics approach for grade II glioma. A primary cohort consisting of 110 patients pathologically diagnosed with grade II glioma was retrospectively studied. The radiomics method developed in this paper includes image segmentation, high-throughput feature extraction, radiomics sequencing, feature selection and classification. Using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method, the classification result was compared with the real IDH1 situation from Sanger sequencing. Another independent validation cohort containing 30 patients was utilised to further test the method. A total of 671 high-throughput features were extracted and quantized. 110 features were selected by improved genetic algorithm. In LOOCV, the noninvasive IDH1 status estimation based on the proposed approach presented an estimation accuracy of 0.80, sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.74. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.86. Further validation on the independent cohort of 30 patients produced similar results. Radiomics is a potentially useful approach for estimating IDH1 mutation status noninvasively using conventional T2-FLAIR MRI images. The estimation accuracy could potentially be improved by using multiple imaging modalities. • Noninvasive IDH1 status estimation can be obtained with a radiomics approach. • Automatic and quantitative processes were established for noninvasive biomarker estimation. • High-throughput MRI features are highly correlated to IDH1 states. • Area under the ROC curve of the proposed estimation method reached 0.86.

  2. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  3. Noninvasive dentistry: a dream or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B H; Exterkate, R A M

    2015-01-01

    Various caries prevention and repair strategies are reviewed in this article ranging from the use of fluoride to nanohydroxyapatite particles. Several of the strategies which combine fluoride and calcium and phosphate treatments have both in vitro and in vivo data showing them to be efficacious if the surface integrity of the lesion is not breached. Once this has occurred, the rationale for cutting off the nutrient supplies to the pathogenic bacteria without the removal of the infected dentine, a noninvasive restorative technique, is discussed using existing clinical studies as examples. Finally two novel noninvasive restorative techniques using fluorohydroxyapatite crystals are described. The need for clinical data in support of emerging caries-preventive and restorative strategies is emphasized. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  6. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  7. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Otto, B; Bander, NH [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the binding kinetics of human IgG monoclonal antibody J591 which targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a pre-clinical mouse cancer model using quantitative PET compartmental analysis of two radiolabeled variants. Methods: PSMA is expressed in normal human prostate, and becomes highly upregulated in prostate cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Two forms of J591, radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I, were prepared. {sup 89}Zr is a radiometal that becomes trapped in the cell upon internalization by the antigen-antibody complex, while radioiodine leaves the cell. Mice with prostate cancer xenografts underwent non-invasive serial imaging on a Focus 120 microPET up to 144 hours post-injection of J591. A non-linear compartmental model describing the binding and internalization of antibody in tumor xenograft was developed and applied to the PET-derived time-activity curves. The antibody-antigen association rate constant (ka), total amount of antigen per gram tumor (Ag-total), internalization rate of antibody-antigen complex, and efflux rate of radioisotope from tumor were fitted using the model. The surface-bound and the internalized activity were also estimated. Results: Values for ka, Ag-total, and internalization rate were found to be similar regardless of radiolabel payload used. The efflux rate, however, was ∼ 9-fold higher for {sup 124}I-J591 than for {sup 89}Zr-J591. Time-dependent surface-bound and internalized radiotracer activity were similar for both radiolabels at early times post-injection, but clearly differed beyond 24 hours. Conclusion: Binding and internalization of J591 to PSMA-expressing tumor xenografts were similar when radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I payload. The difference in efflux of radioactivity from tumor may be attributable to differential biological fate intracellularly of the radioisotopes. This has great significance for radioimmunotherapy and antibody

  8. Noninvasive in vivo oximetric imaging by radiofrequency FT EPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S; Yamada, K; Irie, A; Murugesan, R; Cook, JA; Devasahayam, N; Van Dam, GM; Mitchell, JB; Krishna, MC

    A novel method, called relaxo-oximetry, for rapid spatially resolved in vivo measurements of oxygen concentration using time-domain radiofrequency (RF) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is described. Time-domain data from triaryl methyl (TAM)-based single-electron contrast agents were processed

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  10. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So CF

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  11. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  12. Optimized intravenous flat detector CT for non-invasive visualization of intracranial stents: first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Ott, Sabine; Doelken, Marc; Saake, Marc; Doerfler, Arnd; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu.; Koehrmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As stents for treating intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis may develop in-stent re-stenosis (ISR) in up to 30%, follow-up imaging is mandatory. Residual stenosis (RS) is not rare. We evaluated an optimised Flat Detector CT protocol with intravenous contrast material application (i.v. FD-CTA) for non-invasive follow-up. In 12 patients with intracranial stents, follow-up imaging was performed using i.v. FD-CTA. MPR, subtracted MIP and VRT reconstructions were used to correlate to intra-arterial angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images in anonymous consensus reading and calculated the ISR or RS. Correlation coefficients and a Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. In 4 patients, no stenosis was detected. In 6 patients RS and in two cases ISR by intima hyperplasia perfectly visible on MPR reconstructions of i.v. FD-CTA were detected. Wilcoxon's test showed no significant differences between the methods (p > 0.05). We found a high correlation with coefficients of the pairs DSA/ FD-CT MIP r = 0.91, DSA/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.82 and FD-CT MIP/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.8. Intravenous FD-CTA could clearly visualise the stent and the lumen, allowing ISR or RS to be recognised. FD-CTA provides a non-invasive depiction of intracranial stents and might replace DSA for non-invasive follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  13. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  14. Imaging Atherosclerosis with Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis could potentially move patient management towards individualized triage, treatment, and followup. The newly introduced combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system could emerge as a key player in this context. Both...

  15. Validation of a non-invasive arterial monitor GATE model for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansiracusa, P.J., E-mail: pgia@student.unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Peake, D.J. [DETECT Australia, Bundoora (Australia); Sobott, B.A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); O' Keefe, G. [The Austin PET Centre, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg (Australia); Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2014-02-11

    The Non-Invasive Arterial Monitor (NIAM3) is an SiPM based detector system designed for calibrating Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) images without invasive blood sampling. By imaging the radial and ulnar arteries in the wrist directly with a custom built PET system the resultant PET images can be calibrated. An integral step in the development of a complex detector system is the creation of a model which accurately reflects the physical reality being studied. This paper describes the development of a simulation for NIAM which shows good agreement between the model and physical detector setup.

  16. Invasive v non-invasive assessment of the carotid arteries prior to trans-sphenoidal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, P.; Teasdale, E.; Hadley, D.M.; Teasdale, G.

    1987-01-01

    Imaging studies in 47 patients who were to undergo trans-sphenoidal surgery were analysed with reference to the vascular structures in the parasellar region. The results of cavernous sinography, dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed good correlation with each other and with the appearances found at operation. CT and MRI, both non-invasive investigations, are therefore reliable preliminary screening methods for identifying the small proportion of patients on whom other imaging techniques need to be performed. (orig.)

  17. Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Temperature Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mahdi

    New emerging technologies in thermal therapy require precise monitoring and control of the delivered thermal dose in a variety of situations. The therapeutic temperature changes in target tissues range from few degrees for releasing chemotherapy drugs encapsulated in the thermosensitive liposomes to boiling temperatures in complete ablation of tumors via cell necrosis. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has emerged as a promising modality for noninvasive surgery due to its ability to create precise mechanical and thermal effects at the target without affecting surrounding tissues. An essential element in all these procedures, however, is accurate estimation of the target tissue temperature during the procedure to ensure its safety and efficacy. The advent of diagnostic imaging tools for guidance of thermal therapy was a key factor in the clinical acceptance of these minimally invasive or noninvasive methods. More recently, ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) thermography techniques have been proposed for guidance, monitoring, and control of noninvasive thermal therapies. MR thermography has shown acceptable sensitivity and accuracy in imaging temperature change and it is currently FDA-approved on clinical HIFU units. However, it suffers from limitations like cost of integration with ultrasound therapy system and slow rate of imaging for real time guidance. Ultrasound, on the other hand, has the advantage of real time imaging and ease of integration with the therapy system. An infinitesimal model for imaging temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound has been demonstrated, including in vivo small-animal imaging. However, this model suffers from limitations that prevent demonstration in more clinically-relevant settings. One limitation stems from the infinitesimal nature of the model, which results in spatial inconsistencies of the estimated temperature field. Another limitation is the sensitivity to tissue motion and deformation during in vivo, which

  18. NONINVASIVE DETERMINATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE DEFORMATION DURING JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Kosanic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to use a combination of image processing, force measurements and finite element modeling to calculate deformation of the knee cartilage during jumping. Professional athletes performed jumps analyzed using a force plate and high-speed video camera system. Image processing was performed on each frame of video using a color recognition algorithm. A simplified mass-spring-damper model was utilized for determination of global force and moment on the knee. Custom software for fitting the coupling characteristics was created. Simulated results were used as input data for the finite element calculation of cartilage deformation in the athlete's knee. Computer simulation data was compared with the average experimental ground reaction forces. The results show the three-dimensional mechanical deformation distribution inside the cartilage volume. A combination of the image recognition technology, force plate measurements and the finite element cartilage deformation in the knee may be used in the future as an effective noninvasive tool for prediction of injury during jumping

  19. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  4. Functional diffusion map: A noninvasive MRI biomarker for early stratification of clinical brain tumor response

    OpenAIRE

    Moffat, Bradford A.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Meyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Dong, Qian; Tsien, Christina; Mukherji, Suresh; Quint, Douglas J.; Gebarski, Stephen S.; Robertson, Patricia L.; Junck, Larry R.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of radiation and chemotherapy efficacy for brain cancer patients is traditionally accomplished by measuring changes in tumor size several months after therapy has been administered. The ability to use noninvasive imaging during the early stages of fractionated therapy to determine whether a particular treatment will be effective would provide an opportunity to optimize individual patient management and avoid unnecessary systemic toxicity, expense, and treatment delays. We investiga...

  5. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  6. Non-invasive coronary angiography with multislice computed tomography. Technology, methods, preliminary experience and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, Egidio; Bertoli, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Giancarlo; Baldi, Maurizia; Tramarin, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    The recent technical developments in multislice computed tomography (MSCT), with ECG retro-gated image reconstruction, have elicited great interest in the possibility of accurate non-invasive imaging of the coronary arteries. The latest generation of MSCT systems with 8-16 rows of detectors permits acquisition of the whole cardiac volume during a single 15-20 s breath-hold with a submillimetric definition of the images and an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio. Thus the race which, between MSCT, electron beam computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, can best provide routine and reliable imaging of the coronary arteries in clinical practice has recommenced. Currently available MSCT systems offer different options for both cardiac image acquisition and reconstruction, including multiplanar and curved multiplanar reconstruction, three-dimensional volume rendering, maximum intensity projection, and virtual angioscopy. In our preliminary experience including 176 patients suffering from known or suspected coronary artery disease, MSCT was feasible in 161 (91.5%) and showed a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 80.3%, with respect to standard coronary angiography, in detecting critical stenosis in coronary arteries and artery or venous bypass grafts. These results correspond to a positive predictive value of 58.6% and a negative predictive value of 92.2%. The true role that MSCT is likely to play in the future in non-invasive coronary imaging is still to be defined. Nevertheless, the huge amount of data obtainable by MSCT along with the rapid technological advances, shorter acquisition times and reconstruction algorithm developments will make the technique stronger, and possible applications are expected not only for non-invasive coronary angiography, but also for cardiac function and myocardial perfusion evaluation, as an all-in-one examination.

  7. Noninvasive IDH1 mutation estimation based on a quantitative radiomics approach for grade II glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jinhua [Fudan University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China); Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Lian, Yuxi; Li, Zeju; Liu, Tongtong; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan [Fudan University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    The status of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is highly correlated with the development, treatment and prognosis of glioma. We explored a noninvasive method to reveal IDH1 status by using a quantitative radiomics approach for grade II glioma. A primary cohort consisting of 110 patients pathologically diagnosed with grade II glioma was retrospectively studied. The radiomics method developed in this paper includes image segmentation, high-throughput feature extraction, radiomics sequencing, feature selection and classification. Using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method, the classification result was compared with the real IDH1 situation from Sanger sequencing. Another independent validation cohort containing 30 patients was utilised to further test the method. A total of 671 high-throughput features were extracted and quantized. 110 features were selected by improved genetic algorithm. In LOOCV, the noninvasive IDH1 status estimation based on the proposed approach presented an estimation accuracy of 0.80, sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.74. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.86. Further validation on the independent cohort of 30 patients produced similar results. Radiomics is a potentially useful approach for estimating IDH1 mutation status noninvasively using conventional T2-FLAIR MRI images. The estimation accuracy could potentially be improved by using multiple imaging modalities. (orig.)

  8. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Edinger

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  9. An Outflow Boundary Condition Model for Noninvasive Prediction of Fractional Flow Reserve in Diseased Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayssal, Iyad A; Moukalled, Fadl; Alam, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a new boundary condition formulation to model the total coronary myocardial flow and resistance characteristics of the myocardial vascular bed for any specific patient when considered for noninvasive diagnosis of ischemia. The developed boundary condition model gives an implicit representation of the downstream truncated coronary bed. Further, it is based on incorporating patient-specific physiological parameters that can be noninvasively extracted to account for blood flow demand to the myocardium at rest and hyperemic conditions. The model is coupled to a steady three-dimensional (3D) collocated pressure-based finite volume flow solver and used to characterize the "functional significance" of a patient diseased coronary artery segment without the need for predicting the hemodynamics of the entire arterial system. Predictions generated with this boundary condition provide a deep understanding of the inherent challenges behind noninvasive image-based diagnostic techniques when applied to human diseased coronary arteries. The overall numerical method and formulated boundary condition model are validated via two computational-based procedures and benchmarked with available measured data. The newly developed boundary condition is used via a designed computational methodology to (a) confirm the need for incorporating patient-specific physiological parameters when modeling the downstream coronary resistance, (b) explain the discrepancies presented in the literature between measured and computed fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and (c) discuss the current limitations and future challenges in shifting to noninvasive assessment of ischemia.

  10. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-01-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  11. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-04-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  12. Targeted molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials

  13. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  14. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  15. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilatory Support Begins During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2017-12-01

    The goal of sleep doctors has been to titrate away apneas and hypopneas using noninvasive ventilation, a term that has become synonymous with continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive airway pressure at the lowest effective bilevel settings. It is now time to appreciate noninvasive ventilatory support as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. This article discusses mechanisms of action, two paradigms, and ancillary techniques for noninvasive ventilatory support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  17. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  18. Precision analysis of a multi-slice ultrasound sensor for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Abdullah; Lambert, Andrew J; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, J M; Smith, P N

    2012-01-01

    Currently the standard clinical practice for measuring the motion of bones in a knee joint with sufficient precision involves implanting tantalum beads into the bones to act as fiducial markers prior to imaging using X-ray equipment. This procedure is invasive in nature and exposure to ionizing radiation imposes a cancer risk and the patient's movements are confined to a narrow field of view. In this paper, an ultrasound based system for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of knee joints is proposed. The results of an initial analysis show that this system can provide the precision required for non-invasive motion analysis while the patient performs normal physical activities.

  19. Noninvasive treatment alternative for intractable startle epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Klinkenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a treatment alternative for intractable, startle-provoked, epileptic seizures in four children aged between 8 and 14. Three of the four children had symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. They all suffered from intractable epilepsy precipitated by sudden sounds. The fact that seizures tended to occur with high frequency – more than one seizure a day – had a clear impact on daily life. Clinical seizure pattern demonstrated asymmetric tonic posturing in all four children. Three children experienced several seizure types including focal seizure onset. All children had focal neurological signs or learning disabilities or a combination of both. Our noninvasive treatment method using psychoeducational counseling and sound generators was applied in four children, resulting in a seizure frequency reduction of ≥50% in two of them.

  20. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  1. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long...

  2. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  3. Noninvasive radiographic assessment of cardiovascular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Matthay, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Noninvasive radiographic techniques have provided a means of studying the natural history and pathogenesis of cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium-201 imaging, and M mode and cross-sectional echocardiography have been employed. Each of these techniques has specific uses, attributes and limitations. For example, measurement of descending pulmonary arterial diameters on the plain chest radiograph allows determination of the presence or absence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right and left ventricular performance can be evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography. The biventricular response to exercise and to therapeutic interventions also can be assessed with this approach. Evaluation of the pulmonary valve echogram and echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions have been shown to reflect right ventricular hemodynamics and size. Each of these noninvasive techniques has been applied to the study of patients with respiratory failure and has provided important physiologic data

  4. Characterisation of a novel transmission Raman spectroscopy platform for non-invasive detection of breast micro-calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Adrian; Matousek, Pavel; Stone, Nick

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on the development of a medical Raman spectroscopy based platform to non-invasively detect and determine in-vivo molecular information deep inside biological tissues by monitoring the chemical composition of breast calcifications. The ultimate goal is to replace a needle biopsy which typically follows the detection of an abnormality in mammographic images. Here we report the non-invasive detection of calcium oxalate monohydrate in tissue through 40 mm of phantom tissues using our recently developed advanced Raman instrument complementing our previous detection of calcium hydroxyapatite through this thickness of tissue. The ability to detect these two key types of calcifications opens avenues for the development of non-invasive in-vivo breast cancer diagnostic tool in the future.

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure from timing information by EIT: experimental evaluation during induced hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Martin; Braun, Fabian; Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Lemay, Mathieu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in pulmonary hypertensive patients is currently limited to invasive solutions. We investigate a novel non-invasive approach for continuous monitoring of PAP, based on electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a safe, low-cost and non-invasive imaging technology. EIT recordings were performed in three healthy subjects undergoing hypoxia-induced PAP variations. The pulmonary pulse arrival time (PAT), a timing parameter physiologically linked to the PAP, was automatically calculated from the EIT signals. Values were compared to systolic PAP values from Doppler echocardiography, and yielded strong correlation scores ([Formula: see text]) for all three subjects. Results suggest the feasibility of non-invasive, unsupervised monitoring of PAP.

  6. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  7. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  8. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  9. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Dynamic pelvic floor MRI provides detailed pictures ... with you. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  11. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  12. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  13. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Darvin, M; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Antoniou, C; Koch, S

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled

  14. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E.

    2007-09-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present.

  15. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present

  16. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  17. NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Since hydrogen is the most abundant element in all living organisms, proton NMR lends itself well as a method of investigation in biology and medicine. NMR imaging has some special advantages as a diagnostic tool: no ionizing radiation is used, it is noninvasive; it provides a safer means of imaging than the use of x-rays, gamma rays, positrons, or heavy ions. In contrast with ultrasound, the radiation penetrates the bony structures without attenuation. In additional to morphological information, NMR imaging provides additional diagnostic insights through relaxation parameters, which are not available from other imaging methods. In the decade since the first primitive NMR images were obtained, the quality of images now obtained approaches those from CT x-ray scanners. Prototype instruments are being constructed for clinical evaluation and the first whole-body scanners are beginning to appear on the market at costs comparable to CT scanners. Primary differences in equipment for conventional NMR and NMR imaging are the much larger aperture magnets that are required for the examination of human subjects and the addition of coils to generate field gradients and facilities for manipulating the gradients. Early results from clinical trials in many parts of the world are encouraging, and in a few years, the usefuleness of this modality of medical imaging to the medical profession in diagnosis and treatment of disease will be defined. 10 figures

  18. Deconstructing autofluorescence: non-invasive detection and monitoring of biochemistry in cells and tissues (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldys, Ewa M.; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Cassano, Juan C.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Pernichery, Sandeep M.; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Sutton-Mcdowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.

    2016-03-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous fluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from imaging of native fluorescence has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Multispectral intrinsic fluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. The versatility of our method is further illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... imaging of the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  2. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias represent one of leading causes for sudden cardiac death, a significant problem in public health. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activities associated with ventricular arrhythmias plays an important role in better our understanding of the mechanisms and optimizing the treatment options. The present study aims to rigorously validate a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping during paced rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous norepinephrine (NE). The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and a relative error of 0.30 averaged over all paced beats and NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to measured site determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ∼5mm. These promising results suggest that 3-DCEI is feasible to non-invasively localize the origins and image activation sequence of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  3. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  4. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Oliveira, Rita; Alves, Paulo C; Schwartz, Michael K; Luikart, Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological advances continue to make noninvasive approaches among the most used and rapidly advancing areas in genetics. Here, we review recent advances in noninvasive genetics and how they allow us to address important research and management questions thanks to improved techniques for DNA extraction, preservation, amplification and data analysis. We show that many advances come from the fields of forensics, human health and domestic animal health science, and suggest that molecular ecologists explore literature from these fields. Finally, we discuss how the combination of advances in each step of a noninvasive genetics study, along with fruitful areas for future research, will continually increase the power and role of noninvasive genetics in molecular ecology and conservation genetics. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery.

  6. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  7. Noninvasive Diagnostic Technique in Stenotic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasilyev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined stress echocardiography (EchoCG using dipyri-damole and dobutamine in diagnosing and defining the extent of stenotic coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD in a group of critically ill patients who are unable to perform a physical exercise.Materials and methods: the study included 57 male patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who underwent stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in high doses in combination with dobutamine, as well as coronary angiography.Results: stress EchoCG could bring up to the diagnostic criteria in all the patients, of whom 9 patients were found at coronary angiography to have no coronary lesion, 34 and 14 patients had one- and many-vessel lesions, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combined stress EchoCG were significantly higher than those of EchoCG used in the diagnosis of CHD.Conclusion: stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in combination with dobutamine is a highly informative safe noninvasive technique for diagnosing CHD, its helps to identify patients with atypical acute coronary syndrome and to form a group of patients to be subject to urgent coronarography and angiosurgical intervention. The pattern of segmental contractile disorders at the height of exercise during combined stress Echo-CG makes it possible to define the site of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis with 97.3% sensitivity and to diagnose many-vessel lesion with 100% sensitivity and 100%specificity.

  8. Postgraduate education in noninvasive laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Leos; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratilova, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Non-invasive lasertherapy became today an appreciated treatment method. To avoid its degradation, it is necessary that every physician, who indicates it, would pass out the basic course in these problems. So the error danger by its application would be reduced. As we have verified, in every country the education process is different; we don't consider this fact as right. In the Czech Republic the Radiobiologic Society of Czech Medical Society J. E. Purkynje in co-operation with the Institute of Further Physician's Education, having wide experiences in postgraduate education, organizes already five years such courses. The basic course has 20 lessons, in which the graduates are acquainted with physical base of laser, hygienic rulings for working with laser and biologic changes induced by low level laser in the tissue in vivo. A considerable attention is dedicated to clinical practice and practical education on clinical departments in the fields of dermatology, physiotherapy, stomatology and gynaecology. This course is completed with a lecture of the recent marketing in health service. Participants document their knowledge's in the closing test. Every physician can perfect his knowledge's in a continuation course. Our experiences proved that the education in phototherapy in Czech Republic is on high level in comparison with number of other countries.

  9. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme. To exploit the effectiveness of the high-resolution remote sensing techniques applied we will use the high-frequency thermal camera to measure the structures oscillations by high-frequency analysis and ground-based microwave radar interferometer to measure the dynamic displacement of several points belonging to a large structure. The paper describes the preliminary research results and discusses on the future applicability and techniques developments for integrating high-frequency time series data of the thermal imagery and ground-based microwave radar interferometer data.

  10. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy

  11. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Sait, Karakurt; Celikel, Turgay [Dept. of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Marmara Univ. Hospital, (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  12. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Karakurt Sait; Celikel, Turgay

    2009-01-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  13. Noninvasive optical diagnosis of low back pain with the aid of Chinese cupping procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a complex disease that can be cause by a variety of reasons. Now LBP has become a very common and severe disease among kinds of occupational groups with showing a younger trend. The traditional diagnosis relies on complicated imaging modalities and other dangerous and invasive methods. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is noninvasive and convenient, and has been successful used in point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we attempt to explore NIRS's application in in low back pain diagnosis and the effect of aid-use of Chinese cupping procedure. 13 LBP patients and 13 healthy subjects participated in NIRS measurements of concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) at the middle of the lumbar spine. It was showed that there was significant differences (p < 0.001) between healthy subjects and LBP patients after cupping procedure, while insignificant before cupping. Moreover, it was found that healthy subjects showed stronger responses to cupping procedure than LBP patients, with prominently higher concentration of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. It indicates the potential of NIRS in noninvasive, measurable and straightforward monitoring/therapeutic effect evaluation of LBP with bedside and point-of-care monitoring capability.

  14. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  15. Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Souto Barros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs of the OI on the human face. METHODS: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. RESULTS: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O. CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion.

  16. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: scientific challenges and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Fisher, Carl; Appelbaum, Paul S; Ploesser, Marcus; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2009-01-01

    Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior relationships due to their ability to directly alter cortical activity. In particular, TMS and tDCS have proven to be useful tools for establishing causal relationships between behavioral and brain imaging measures. As such, there has been interest in whether these tools may represent novel technologies for deception detection by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit. Investigation of deceptive behavior using noninvasive brain stimulation is at an early stage. Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception. Whether such approaches could be usefully applied to the detection of deception by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit remains to be validated. Ethical and legal consequences of the development of such a technology are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A new CFD based non-invasive method for functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinzhou; Zheng, Minwen; Wen, Didi; Li, Yabing; Xie, Songyun

    2018-03-22

    Accurate functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis is vital for decision making in coronary revascularization. With recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be derived non-invasively from coronary computed tomography angiography images (FFR CT ) for functional measurement of stenosis. However, the accuracy of FFR CT is limited due to the approximate modeling approach of maximal hyperemia conditions. To overcome this problem, a new CFD based non-invasive method is proposed. Instead of modeling maximal hyperemia condition, a series of boundary conditions are specified and those simulated results are combined to provide a pressure-flow curve for a stenosis. Then, functional diagnosis of stenosis is assessed based on parameters derived from the obtained pressure-flow curve. The proposed method is applied to both idealized and patient-specific models, and validated with invasive FFR in six patients. Results show that additional hemodynamic information about the flow resistances of a stenosis is provided, which cannot be directly obtained from anatomy information. Parameters derived from the simulated pressure-flow curve show a linear and significant correlations with invasive FFR (r > 0.95, P < 0.05). The proposed method can assess flow resistances by the pressure-flow curve derived parameters without modeling of maximal hyperemia condition, which is a new promising approach for non-invasive functional assessment of coronary stenosis.

  18. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  19. A New Quantitative Method for the Non-Invasive Documentation of Morphological Damage in Paintings Using RTI Surface Normals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Manfredi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time.

  20. A new non-invasive and relocatable immobilization frame for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, K.; Kappas, C.; Tsokas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: A newly developed non-invasive immobilization frame for stereotactic radiotherapy is presented, which is intended to be used for both imaging (computed tomography (CT) and angiography) and radiotherapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: The frame is made of duraluminium so as to be stable and light and it has an elliptical shape. The immobilization is achieved using three stable locations on the patient's head, i.e. the upper dentition, the nose and the back of the neck. The fixation on the three locations ensures complete immobilization in all directions. Results: The immobilization frame can be fitted as many times as is needed to most heads. In order to assess the accuracy of relocation, repeated fittings on two volunteers and on 22 patients undergoing stereotactic treatment were performed (more than 200 mountings in total), which showed maximum anterior-posterior, inferior-superior and lateral reproducibility in positioning of less than 1 mm in all cases. Conclusions and discussion: The in-house-constructed stereotactic frame is simple to use, easily made, non-invasive, relocatable and well tolerated by the patients, providing the possibility of multiple fractions. The major advantage of using such a non-invasive stereotactic frame is the flexibility in timing the different diagnostic procedures (CT and angiography) as well as providing the possibility to extend the use to large brain lesions (treatment without an additional collimator) where a high precision is also required. It also offers significant labour and cost saving over the invasive frames and the majority of the non-invasive frames. To date, 22 patients with ages varying between 12 and 70 years have been treated using this method. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Photoacoustic imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihong

    2009-01-01

    Photoacoustics promises to revolutionize medical imaging and may well make as dramatic a contribution to modern medicine as the discovery of the x-ray itself once did. Combining electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves synergistically, photoacoustics can provide deep speckle-free imaging with high electromagnetic contrast at high ultrasonic resolution and without any health risk. While photoacoustic imaging is probably the fastest growing biomedical imaging technology, this book is the first comprehensive volume in this emerging field covering both the physics and the remarkable noninvasive applic

  2. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  3. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  4. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  5. Noninvasive Ventilation Intolerance: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhua; Duan, Jun; Bai, Linfu; Zhou, Lintong

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) intolerance is one reason for NIV failure. However, the characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of NIV intolerance are unclear. A prospective observational study was performed in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects with acute respiratory failure who used NIV were enrolled. Initially, continuous use of NIV was encouraged. However, if the subject could not tolerate NIV, it was used intermittently. NIV intolerance was defined as termination of NIV due to subject refusal to receive it because of discomfort, even after intermittent use was attempted. A total of 961 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 50 subjects (5.2%) experienced NIV intolerance after a median 2.4 h of NIV support. Age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.963-0.996) and heart rate (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.006-1.030) measured before NIV were 2 independent risk factors of NIV intolerance. After 1-2 h of NIV, independent risk factors of NIV intolerance were heart rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.016-1.044) and breathing frequency (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.027-1.099). Intolerant subjects had no improvement in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or breathing frequency after the NIV intervention. Moreover, intolerant subjects had a higher intubation rate (44.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008) and higher mortality (34.0% vs 22.4%, P = .08). The three most common complaints were that NIV worsened subjects' distress (46%), that NIV resulted in dyspnea (26%), and that the flow or pressure of NIV was too strong to bear (16%). NIV intolerance worsened subjects' outcomes. Younger subjects with a high heart rate and breathing frequency may be more likely to experience NIV intolerance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. New trend in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Carrera, P; Lampasona, V; Galbiati, S

    2015-12-07

    The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma represents a source of genetic material which can be obtained non-invasively. To date, the translation of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis from research into clinical practice has been rather fragmented, and despite the advances in improving the analytical sensitivity of methods, distinguishing between fetal and maternal sequences remains very challenging. Thus, the field of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases has yet to attain a routine application in clinical diagnostics. On the contrary, fetal sex determination in pregnancies at high risk of sex-linked disorders, tests for fetal RHD genotyping and non-invasive assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies are now available worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  9. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one

  10. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value o...

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  12. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  13. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  14. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  15. A study on new method of noninvasive esophageal venous pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenghuan; Huang, Feizhou; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shaihong; Nie, Wanpin; Liu, Xunyang; Liu, Yinglong; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Using optics combined with automatic control and computer real-time image detection technology, a novel noninvasive method of noncontact pressure manometry was developed based on the airflow and laser detection technology in this study. The new esophageal venous pressure measurement system was tested in-vitro experiments. A stable and adjustable pulse stream was produced from a self-developed pump and a laser emitting apparatus could generate optical signals which can be captured by image acquisition and analysis system program. A synchronization system simultaneous measured the changes of air pressure and the deformation of the vein wall to capture the vascular deformation while simultaneously record the current pressure value. The results of this study indicated that the pressure values tested by the new method have good correlation with the actual pressure value in animal experiments. The new method of noninvasive pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology is accurate, feasible, repeatable and has a good application prospects.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Rejuvenecimiento periorbitario no invasivo Non-invasive periorbital rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Muñóz del Olmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cirujanos plásticos y médicos estéticos se esfuerzan por lograr resultados satisfactorios y estéticos que mejoren o suavicen el paso del tiempo a nivel facial, con un especial interés o énfasis en el área periorbitaria. Un gran número de pacientes consultan para mejorar esta zona, pero por diferentes motivos desean que los procedimientos que se les realicen sean poco invasivos y con resultados rápidos, permitiéndoles así incorporarse lo antes posible a sus actividades cotidianas. Es fundamental el conocimiento de las proporciones faciales y periorbitarias para lograr resultados naturales. El objetivo de la técnica que proponemos es lograr una bioestimulación local de la piel, restaurar los volúmenes y reducir las arrugas de expresión o dinámicas, consiguiendo así una apariencia relajada y juvenil en el paciente.Plastic surgeons and aesthetic doctors are making an effort to reach positive aesthetic results. Their aim is to soften the effects of age on facial features stressing in the periorbital area. Many patients come to improve their facial image on this area, but they are asking for non-invasive and fast procedures to keep on their daily life. It is indispensable the knowledge of facial and periorbital proportions to achieve a more natural effect. The aim of the technique exposed is to achieve a local bioestimulation on skin, to restore volumes and to reduce expression and dynamical wrinkles. The expected result is a relaxing, youthful appearance.

  18. Cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has grown exponentially over the past decade. The introduction of the gamma camera, the development of new radionuclides, and the implementation of computers have transformed the field of nuclear cardiology from largely research in the 1970s to routine clinical applications in the 1980s. At first, noninvasive nuclear imaging techniques were used predominantly to aid disease detection. In the ensuing years, emphasis has shifted to the functional assessment of patients with known disease. Widely available noninvasive techniques now allow the quantitative assessment of left and right ventricular function, one of the most important predictors of survival in patients with cardiac disease. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography provides valuable information on the myocardial reserve in patients with normal resting function. The serial measurement of the ventricular ejection fraction assists in the timing of valvular replacement therapy. In patients receiving doxorubicin, serial ejection fraction follow-up helps prevent the development of irreversible, drug-induced cardiomyopathy. It is now generally acknowledged that the detection of latent coronary disease is improved by the addition of 201 T1 imaging to the standard exercise electrocardiogram. Thallium imaging and infarct avid imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate have proven useful in quantifying myocardial infarction size, and in assessing the value of therapy aimed at limiting infarction extent. In the evaluation of coronary artery disease, scintigraphy provides physiologic data that complements angiography, which is more anatomic. An angiographic lesion, read as a 70 percent narrowing, may not necessarily be flow-limiting, whereas one read as 40 percent, may, in fact, have physiologic consequences, if it is of sufficient length or eccentricity, or is in series with another insignificant stenosis

  19. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  20. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  1. Noninvasive technique for measurement of heartbeat regularity in zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Shuk

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (Danio rerio, due to its optical accessibility and similarity to human, has emerged as model organism for cardiac research. Although various methods have been developed to assess cardiac functions in zebrafish embryos, there lacks a method to assess heartbeat regularity in blood vessels. Heartbeat regularity is an important parameter for cardiac function and is associated with cardiotoxicity in human being. Using stereomicroscope and digital video camera, we have developed a simple, noninvasive method to measure the heart rate and heartbeat regularity in peripheral blood vessels. Anesthetized embryos were mounted laterally in agarose on a slide and the caudal blood circulation of zebrafish embryo was video-recorded under stereomicroscope and the data was analyzed by custom-made software. The heart rate was determined by digital motion analysis and power spectral analysis through extraction of frequency characteristics of the cardiac rhythm. The heartbeat regularity, defined as the rhythmicity index, was determined by short-time Fourier Transform analysis. Results The heart rate measured by this noninvasive method in zebrafish embryos at 52 hour post-fertilization was similar to that determined by direct visual counting of ventricle beating (p > 0.05. In addition, the method was validated by a known cardiotoxic drug, terfenadine, which affects heartbeat regularity in humans and induces bradycardia and atrioventricular blockage in zebrafish. A significant decrease in heart rate was found by our method in treated embryos (p p Conclusion The data support and validate this rapid, simple, noninvasive method, which includes video image analysis and frequency analysis. This method is capable of measuring the heart rate and heartbeat regularity simultaneously via the analysis of caudal blood flow in zebrafish embryos. With the advantages of rapid sample preparation procedures, automatic image analysis and data analysis, this

  2. Real time elastography - a non-invasive diagnostic method of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Liana; Iacob, Speranta; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, Gabriel; Herlea, Vlad; Gheorghe, Cristian; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel

    2009-12-01

    Small nodules (under 3 cm) detected on ultrasound (US) in cirrhotics represent the most challenging category for noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate real-time sonoelastography as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of small HCC nodules in cirrhotic patients. 42 cirrhotic patients with 58 nodules (1-3 cm) were evaluated with real-time elastography (Hitachi EUB-6500); the mean intensity of colors red, blue, green were measured using a semi-quantitative method. Analysis of histograms for each color of the sonoelastography images was performed for quantifying the elasticity of nodule tissue in comparison with the cirrhotic liver tissue. AUROC curves were constructed to define the best cut-off points to distinguish malignant features of the nodules. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 595 sonoelastography images from 42 patients (25 men; 17 women) were analyzed. The mean age was 56.4 +/- 0.7 years and 69% patients were in Child-Pugh class A, 19% class B, 11% class C. For the mean intensity of green color AUROC=0.81, a cut-off value under 108.7 being diagnostic for HCC with a Sp=91.1%, Se=50%, PPV=92.1%, NPV=47.1%. Mean intensity of blue color proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool for HCC (AUROC=0.94); for a cut-off value greater than 128.9, Sp=92.2%, Se=78.9%, PPV=95.4%, NPV=68%. Independent predictive factors of HCC for a small nodule in cirrhotic patients were: blue color over 128.9 at sonoelastography and hypervascular appearance at Doppler US. US elastography is a promising method for the non-invasive diagnosis of early HCC. Blue color at elastography and hypervascular aspects are independent predictors of HCC.

  3. Noninvasive evaluation of sympathetic nervous system in human heart by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Kalff, V.; Rosenspire, K.; Haka, M.S.; Molina, E.; Hutchins, G.D.; Deeb, M.; Wolfe, E. Jr.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The noninvasive functional characterization of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system by imaging techniques may provide important pathophysiological information in various cardiac disease states. Hydroxyephedrine labeled with carbon 11 has been developed as a new catecholamine analogue to be used in the in vivo evaluation of presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals by positron emissio